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Sample records for c13nj microglia cell

  1. Microglia and microglia-like cell differentiated from DC inhibit CD4 T cell proliferation.

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    Bo Bai

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS is generally regarded as a site of immune privilege, whether the antigen presenting cells (APCs are involved in the immune homeostasis of the CNS is largely unknown. Microglia and DCs are major APCs in physiological and pathological conditions, respectively. In this work, primary microglia and microglia-like cells obtained by co-culturing mature dendritic cells with CNS endothelial cells in vitro were functional evaluated. We found that microglia not only cannot prime CD4 T cells but also inhibit mature DCs (maDCs initiated CD4 T cells proliferation. More importantly, endothelia from the CNS can differentiate maDCs into microglia-like cells (MLCs, which possess similar phenotype and immune inhibitory function as microglia. Soluble factors including NO lie behind the suppression of CD4 T cell proliferation induced by both microglia and MLCs. All the data indicate that under physiological conditions, microglia play important roles in maintaining immune homeostasis of the CNS, whereas in a pathological situation, the infiltrated DCs can be educated by the local microenvironment and differentiate into MLCs with inhibitory function.

  2. Interactions of human microglia cells with Japanese encephalitis virus.

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    Lannes, Nils; Neuhaus, Viviane; Scolari, Brigitte; Kharoubi-Hess, Solange; Walch, Michael; Summerfield, Artur; Filgueira, Luis

    2017-01-14

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain. Nevertheless, the interactions between human microglia and JEV are poorly documented. Using human primary microglia and a new model of human blood monocyte-derived microglia, the present study explores the interaction between human microglia and JEV as well as the role of these cells in viral transmission to susceptible cells. To achieve this work, vaccine-containing inactivated JEV and two live JEV strains were applied on human microglia. Live JEV was non-cytopathogenic to human microglia but increased levels of CCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in such cultures. Furthermore, human microglia up-regulated the expression of the fraktalkine receptor CX3CR1 upon exposure to both JEV vaccine and live JEV. Although JEV vaccine enhanced MHC class II on all microglia, live JEV enhanced MHC class II mainly on CX3CR1+ microglia cells. Importantly, human microglia supported JEV replication, but infectivity was only transmitted to neighbouring cells in a contact-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that human microglia may be a source of neuronal infection and sustain JEV brain pathogenesis.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells

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    Ping Gan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases.

  4. Development of a culture system to induce microglia-like cells from haematopoietic cells.

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    Noto, Daisuke; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saika, Reiko; Saga, Ryoko; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamura, Takashi; Miyake, Sachiko

    2014-10-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, originating from haematopoietic-derived myeloid cells. A microglial cell is a double-edged sword, which has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Although understanding the role of microglia in pathological conditions has become increasingly important, histopathology has been the only way to investigate microglia in human diseases. To enable the study of microglial cells in vitro, we here establish a culture system to induce microglia-like cells from haematopoietic cells by coculture with astrocytes. The characteristics of microglia-like cells were analysed by flow cytometry and functional assay. We show that triggering receptor expressing on myeloid cells-2-expressing microglia-like cells could be induced from lineage negative cells or monocytes by coculture with astrocytes. Microglia-like cells exhibited lower expression of CD45 and MHC class II than macrophages, a characteristic similar to brain microglia. When introduced into brain slice cultures, these microglia-like cells changed their morphology to a ramified shape on the first day of the culture. Moreover, we demonstrated that microglia-like cells could be induced from human monocytes by coculture with astrocytes. Finally, we showed that interleukin 34 was an important factor in the induction of microglia-like cells from haematopoietic cells in addition to cell-cell contact with astrocytes. Purified microglia-like cells were suitable for further culture and functional analyses. Development of in vitro induction system for microglia will further promote the study of human microglial cells under pathological conditions as well as aid in the screening of drugs to target microglial cells. © 2013 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Neuropathological Society.

  5. Directed Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Microglia.

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    Douvaras, Panagiotis; Sun, Bruce; Wang, Minghui; Kruglikov, Ilya; Lallos, Gregory; Zimmer, Matthew; Terrenoire, Cecile; Zhang, Bin; Gandy, Sam; Schadt, Eric; Freytes, Donald O; Noggle, Scott; Fossati, Valentina

    2017-06-06

    Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are crucial to proper development and maintenance of the CNS, and their involvement in numerous neurological disorders is increasingly being recognized. To improve our understanding of human microglial biology, we devised a chemically defined protocol to generate human microglia from pluripotent stem cells. Myeloid progenitors expressing CD14/CX3CR1 were generated within 30 days of differentiation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Further differentiation of the progenitors resulted in ramified microglia with highly motile processes, expressing typical microglial markers. Analyses of gene expression and cytokine release showed close similarities between iPSC-derived (iPSC-MG) and human primary microglia as well as clear distinctions from macrophages. iPSC-MG were able to phagocytose and responded to ADP by producing intracellular Ca2+ transients, whereas macrophages lacked such response. The differentiation protocol was highly reproducible across several pluripotent stem cell lines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Directed Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Microglia

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    Panagiotis Douvaras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are crucial to proper development and maintenance of the CNS, and their involvement in numerous neurological disorders is increasingly being recognized. To improve our understanding of human microglial biology, we devised a chemically defined protocol to generate human microglia from pluripotent stem cells. Myeloid progenitors expressing CD14/CX3CR1 were generated within 30 days of differentiation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Further differentiation of the progenitors resulted in ramified microglia with highly motile processes, expressing typical microglial markers. Analyses of gene expression and cytokine release showed close similarities between iPSC-derived (iPSC-MG and human primary microglia as well as clear distinctions from macrophages. iPSC-MG were able to phagocytose and responded to ADP by producing intracellular Ca2+ transients, whereas macrophages lacked such response. The differentiation protocol was highly reproducible across several pluripotent stem cell lines.

  7. Differentiation of mouse bone marrow derived stem cells toward microglia-like cells

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    Stolzing Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the macrophages of the brain, have been implicated in the causes of neurodegenerative diseases and display a loss of function during aging. Throughout life, microglia are replenished by limited proliferation of resident microglial cells. Replenishment by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is still under debate. In this context, we investigated the differentiation of mouse microglia from bone marrow (BM stem cells. Furthermore, we looked at the effects of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L, astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM and GM-CSF on the differentiation to microglia-like cells. Methods We assessed in vitro-derived microglia differentiation by marker expression (CD11b/CD45, F4/80, but also for the first time for functional performance (phagocytosis, oxidative burst and in situ migration into living brain tissue. Integration, survival and migration were assessed in organotypic brain slices. Results The cells differentiated from mouse BM show function, markers and morphology of primary microglia and migrate into living brain tissue. Flt3L displays a negative effect on differentiation while GM-CSF enhances differentiation. Conclusion We conclude that in vitro-derived microglia are the phenotypic and functional equivalents to primary microglia and could be used in cell therapy.

  8. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

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    Monica R P Elmore

    Full Text Available Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg or phosphate buffered saline (PBS was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function

  9. Characterizing newly repopulated microglia in the adult mouse: impacts on animal behavior, cell morphology, and neuroinflammation.

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    Elmore, Monica R P; Lee, Rafael J; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  10. Embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells fuse with microglia and mature neurons.

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    Cusulin, Carlo; Monni, Emanuela; Ahlenius, Henrik; Wood, James; Brune, Jan Claas; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-12-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a novel strategy to restore function in the diseased brain, acting through multiple mechanisms, for example, neuronal replacement, neuroprotection, and modulation of inflammation. Whether transplanted NSCs can operate by fusing with microglial cells or mature neurons is largely unknown. Here, we have studied the interaction of a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem (NS) cell line with rat and mouse microglia and neurons in vitro and in vivo. We show that NS cells spontaneously fuse with cocultured cortical neurons, and that this process requires the presence of microglia. Our in vitro data indicate that the NS cells can first fuse with microglia and then with neurons. The fused NS/microglial cells express markers and retain genetic and functional characteristics of both parental cell types, being able to respond to microglia-specific stimuli (LPS and IL-4/IL-13) and to differentiate to neurons and astrocytes. The NS cells fuse with microglia, at least partly, through interaction between phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of NS cells and CD36 receptor on microglia. Transplantation of NS cells into rodent cortex results in fusion with mature pyramidal neurons, which often carry two nuclei, a process probably mediated by microglia. The fusogenic role of microglia could be even more important after NSC transplantation into brains affected by neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. It remains to be elucidated how the occurrence of the fused cells will influence the functional outcome after NSC transplantation in the diseased brain. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  11. The Isolated and Combined Effects of Folic Acid and Synthetic Bioactive Compounds against Aβ(25-35-Induced Toxicity in Human Microglial Cells

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    Ming-Chi Tang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid plays an important role in neuronal development. A series of newly synthesized bioactive compounds (NSCs was reported to exhibit immunoactive and neuroprotective functions. The isolated and combined effects of folic acid and NSCs against β-amyloid (Aβ-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. These effects were tested using human microglia cells (C13NJ subjected to Aβ(25-35 challenge. According to an MTT assay, treatment of C13NJ cells with Aβ(25-35 at 10~100 μM for 48 h induced 18%~43% cellular death in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05. Aβ(25-35 treatment at 25 μM induced nitrite oxide (NO release, elevated superoxide production, and reduced the distribution of cells in the S phase. Preincubation of C13NJ with 100 μM folic acid protected against Aβ(25-35-induced cell death, which coincided with a reduction in NO release by folic acid supplements. NSC47 at a level of 50 μM protected against Aβ(25-35-induced cell death and reduced Aβ-promoted superoxide production (p < 0.05. Folic acid in combination with NSC47 at their cytoprotective doses did not synergistically ameliorate Aβ(25-35-associated NO release, superoxide production, or cell cycle arrest. Taken together, folic acid or NSC treatment alone, but not the combined regimen, protected against Aβ(25-35-induced cell death, which may partially, if not completely, be mediated by free radical-scavenging effects.

  12. Temporal Tracking of Microglia Activation in Neurodegeneration at Single-Cell Resolution

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    Hansruedi Mathys

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages in the brain, are damage sensors that react to nearly any perturbation, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we determined the transcriptome of more than 1,600 individual microglia cells isolated from the hippocampus of a mouse model of severe neurodegeneration with AD-like phenotypes and of control mice at multiple time points during progression of neurodegeneration. In this neurodegeneration model, we discovered two molecularly distinct reactive microglia phenotypes that are typified by modules of co-regulated type I and type II interferon response genes, respectively. Furthermore, our work identified previously unobserved heterogeneity in the response of microglia to neurodegeneration, discovered disease stage-specific microglia cell states, revealed the trajectory of cellular reprogramming of microglia in response to neurodegeneration, and uncovered the underlying transcriptional programs.

  13. Cellular and Molecular Characterization of Microglia : A Unique Immune Cell Population

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    Sousa, Carole; Biber, Knut; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Microglia arise from erythro-myeloid precursors in the yolk sac and populate the brain rudiment early during development. Unlike monocytes that are constantly renewed from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells throughout

  14. Activated brain mast cells contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction by evoking microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis.

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    Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Hongquan; Li, Nana; Zhang, Susu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2016-05-31

    Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, has been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuroinflammation. Although brain mast cells (MCs) are the "first responder" in the brain injury rather than microglia, little is known about the functional aspects of MCs-microglia interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intracerebroventricular with MC stabilizer Cromolyn (100 μg/μl), MC stimulator C48/80 (1 μg/μl), or sterile saline 30 min before open tibial fracture surgery, and the levels of neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction were tested 1 and 3 days after surgery. In addition, the effect of activated MCs on microglia and neurons was determined in vitro. Tibial fracture surgery induced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, and inflammatory factors production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response and neuronal death and exhibited cognitive deficit. Site-directed preinjection of the "MCs stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (Cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, neuronal death, and improved cognitive function 24 h after the surgery. In vitro study, we found that the conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mast cells line (P815) could induce primary microglia activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In addition, the activated P815 could directly induce neuronal apoptosis and synapse injury with microglia independently. Cromolyn could inhibit P815 activation following improved microglia activation and neuronal loss. These results implicate that activated MCs could trigger microglia activation and neuronal damage, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, and

  15. Microglia specific fluorescent probes for live cell imaging.

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    Leong, Cheryl; Lee, Sung Chan; Ock, Jiyeon; Li, Xin; See, Peter; Park, Sung Jin; Ginhoux, Florent; Yun, Seong-Wook; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-02-04

    Small molecule fluorescent probes offer significant advantages over conventional antibody and fluorescent protein labeling techniques. Here we present and , dyes that label live microglia specifically. They may be applied to the isolation and imaging of live microglia when investigating their role in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  16. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway.

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    Kimberleve Rolón-Reyes

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683. siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells.

  17. Comparison of microglia and infiltrating CD11c+ cells as antigen presenting cells for T cell proliferation and cytokine response

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    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Løbner, Morten; Cédile, Oriane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-resident antigen-presenting cells (APC) exert a major influence on the local immune environment. Microglia are resident myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS), deriving from early post-embryonic precursors, distinct from adult hematopoietic lineages. Dendritic cells...... (DC) and macrophages infiltrate the CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Microglia are not considered to be as effective APC as DC or macrophages. METHODS: In this work we compared the antigen presenting capacity of CD11c+ and CD11c- microglia subsets with infiltrating CD11c......+ APC, which include DC. The microglial subpopulations (CD11c- CD45dim CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD45dim CD11b+) as well as infiltrating CD11c+ CD45high cells were sorted from CNS of C57BL/6 mice with EAE. Sorted cells were characterised by flow cytometry for surface phenotype and by quantitative real-time PCR...

  18. MP Resulting in Autophagic Cell Death of Microglia through Zinc Changes against Spinal Cord Injury

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    Dingding Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT, as a public recognized therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI, is doubted recently, and the exact mechanism of MP on SCI is unclear. This study sought to investigate the exact effect of MP on SCI. We examined the effect of MP in a model of SCI in vivo and an LPS induced model in vitro. We found that administration of MP produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores and motor neurons counts of injured rats. Besides the number of activated microglia was apparently reduced by MP in vivo, and Beclin-1 dependent autophagic cell death of microglia was induced by MP in LPS induced model. At the same time, MP increases cellular zinc concentration and level of ZIP8, and TPEN could revert effect of MP on autophagic cell death of microglia. Finally, we have found that MP could inhibit NF-κβ in LPS induced model. These results show that the MP could result in autophagic cell death of microglia, which mainly depends on increasing cellular labile zinc, and may be associated with inhibition of NF-κβ, and that MP can produce neuroprotective effect in SCI.

  19. A Role of Fluoride on Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in BV-2 Microglia Cells

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    Xi Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of ROS and lipid peroxidation has been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic fluoride toxicity. In the present study, we observed that fluoride activated BV-2 microglia cell line by observing OX-42 expression in immunocytochemistry. Intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide anions (O2∙-, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, nitrotyrosine (NT and nitric oxide (NO, NOS in cell medium were determined for oxidative stress assessment. Our study found that NaF of concentration from 5 to 20 mg/L can stimuli BV-2 cells to change into activated microglia displaying upregulated OX-42 expression. SOD activities significantly decreased in fluoride-treated BV-2 cells as compared with control, and MDA concentrations and contents of ROS and O2∙- increased in NaF-treated cells. Activities of NOS in cells and medium significantly increased with fluoride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. NT concentrations also increased significantly in 10 and 50 mg/L NaF-treated cells compared with the control cells. Our present study demonstrated that toxic effects of fluoride on the central nervous system possibly partly ascribed to activiting of microglia, which enhanced oxidative stress induced by ROS and reactive nitrogen species.

  20. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

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    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  1. The chemokine fractalkine inhibits Fas-mediated cell death of brain microglia.

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    Boehme, S A; Lio, F M; Maciejewski-Lenoir, D; Bacon, K B; Conlon, P J

    2000-07-01

    Fractalkine is a CX3C-family chemokine, highly and constitutively expressed on the neuronal cell surface, for which a clear CNS physiological function has yet to be determined. Its cognate receptor, CX3CR-1, is constitutively expressed on microglia, the brain-resident macrophages; however, these cells do not express fractalkine. We now show that treatment of microglia with fractalkine maintains cell survival and inhibits Fas ligand-induced cell death in vitro. Biochemical characterization indicates that this occurs via mechanisms that may include 1) activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway, resulting in phosphorylation and blockade of the proapoptotic functions of BAD; 2) up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL; and 3) inhibition of the cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID). The observation that fractalkine serves as a survival factor for primary microglia in part by modulating the protein levels and the phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 family proteins reveals a novel physiological role for chemokines. These results, therefore, suggest that the interaction between fractalkine and CX3CR-1 may play an important role in promoting and preserving microglial cell survival in the CNS.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Radiation-Induced Brain Injury by Inhibiting Microglia Pyroptosis

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    Huan Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced brain injury (RI commonly occurs in patients who received head and neck radiotherapy. However, the mechanism of RI remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether pyroptosis was involved in RI and the impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on it. BALB/c male mice (6–8 weeks were cranially irradiated (15 Gy, and MSCs were transplanted into the bilateral cortex 2 days later; then mice were sacrificed 1 month later. Meanwhile, irradiated BV-2 microglia cells (10 Gy were cocultured with MSCs for 24 hours. We observed that irradiated mice brains presented NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation. RT-PCR then indicated that it mainly occurred in microglia cells but not in neurons. Further, irradiated BV-2 cells showed pyroptosis and increased production of IL-18 and IL-1β. RT-PCR also demonstrated an increased expression of several inflammasome genes in irradiated BV-2 cells, including NLRP3 and AIM2. Particularly, NLRP3 was activated. Knockdown of NLRP3 resulted in decreased LDH release. Noteworthily, in vivo, MSCs transplantation alleviated radiation-induced NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation. Moreover, in vitro, MSCs could decrease caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and ROS production induced by radiation. Thus, our findings proved that microglia pyroptosis occurred in RI. MSCs may act as a potent therapeutic tool in attenuating pyroptosis.

  3. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

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    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  4. JNK and NADPH Oxidase Involved in Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in BV-2 Microglia Cells

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    Ling Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fluoride may cause central nervous system (CNS dysfunction, and oxidative stress is a recognized mode of action of fluoride toxicity. In CNS, activated microglial cells can release more reactive oxygen species (ROS, and NADPH oxidase (NOX is the major enzyme for the production of extracellular superoxide in microglia. ROS have been characterized as an important secondary messenger and modulator for various mammalian intracellular signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathways. In this study we examined ROS production and TNF-α, IL-1β inflammatory cytokines releasing, and the expression of MAPKs in BV-2 microglia cells treated with fluoride. We found that fluoride increased JNK phosphorylation level of BV-2 cells and pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 markedly reduced the levels of intracellular and NO. NOX inhibitor apocynin and iNOS inhibitor SMT dramatically decreased NaF-induced ROS and NO generations, respectively. Antioxidant melatonin (MEL resulted in a reduction in JNK phosphorylation in fluoride-stimulated BV-2 microglia. The results confirmed that NOX and iNOS played an important role in fluoride inducing oxidative stress and NO production and JNK took part in the oxidative stress induced by fluoride and meanwhile also could be activated by ROS in fluoride-treated BV-2 cells.

  5. Cell Enumeration Assays: Application of the MTT and Sulforhodamine B Assays to Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neonatal Rodent Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facci, Laura; Skaper, Stephen D

    2018-01-01

    Glial cell activation, in particular microglia, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders as well as in chronic and neuropathic pain. This chapter compares two established cell enumeration assays, namely, the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the protein-binding sulforhodamine B assay for microglia as a function of culture condition and activation state. The pros and cons of each are then described.

  6. Maintenance of Stemlike Glioma Cells and Microglia in an Organotypic Glioma Slice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, E N Sanjaya; Kuechler, Jan; Behling, Susanne; Sridhar, Susmita; Hirseland, Eileen; Tronnier, Volker; Zechel, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic resistance of gliomas is, at least in part, due to stemlike glioma cells (SLGCs), which self-renew, generate the bulk of tumor cells, and sustain tumor growth. SLGCs from glioblastomas (GB) have been studied in cell cultures or mouse models, whereas little is known about SLGCs from lower grade gliomas. To compare cell and organotypic slice cultures from GBs and lower grade gliomas and study the maintenance of SLGCs. Cells and tissue slices from astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas, and GBs were cultivated in (1) serum-free medium supplemented with the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), (2) medium containing 10% serum plus EGF and bFGF (F+GF medium), or (3) medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (F medium). Maintenance of cells and cytoarchitecture was addressed, using several candidate SLGC markers (Nestin, Sox2, CD133, CD44, CD49f/integrin α6, and Notch) as well as CD31 (endothelial cells), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (microglia), and vimentin. Cell vitality was determined. SLGCs were present in tissue slices from lower and higher grade gliomas. Preservation of the cytoarchitecture in slices was possible for >3 weeks. Maintenance of SLGCs required the presence of EGF/bFGF in cell and slice cultures, in which F+GF appeared superior to N medium. Constraints were observed regarding the preservation of the microglia but not of the endothelial cells. Maintenance of the microglia was improved by addition of the cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Medium supplemented with serum and growth factors EGF, bFGF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor permits the preservation of SLGCs and non-SLGCs in the original glioma microenvironment.

  7. Human amnion epithelial cells rescue cell death via immunomodulation of microglia in a mouse model of perinatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaw, Bryan; Zhu, Dandan; Tan, Jean; Muljadi, Ruth; Saad, Mohamed I; Mockler, Joanne C; Wallace, Euan M; Lim, Rebecca; Tolcos, Mary

    2017-02-28

    Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) are clonogenic and have been proposed to reduce inflammatory-induced tissue injury. Perturbation of the immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury; modulating this response could thus be a novel therapy for treating or preventing such injury. The immunomodulatory properties of hAECs have been shown in other animal models, but a detailed investigation of the effects on brain immune cells following injury has not been undertaken. Here, we investigate the effects of hAECs on microglia, the first immune responders to injury within the brain. We generated a mouse model combining neonatal inflammation and perinatal hyperoxia, both of which are risk factors associated with perinatal brain injury. On embryonic day 16 we administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or saline (control), intra-amniotically to C57Bl/6 J mouse pups. On postnatal day (P)0, LPS pups were placed in hyperoxia (65% oxygen) and control pups in normoxia for 14 days. Pups were given either hAECs or saline intravenously on P4. At P14, relative to controls, LPS and hyperoxia pups had reduced body weight, increased density of apoptotic cells (TUNEL) in the cortex, striatum and white matter, astrocytes (GFAP) in the white matter and activated microglia (CD68) in the cortex and striatum, but no change in total microglia density (Iba1). hAEC administration rescued the decreased body weight and reduced apoptosis and astrocyte areal coverage in the white matter, but increased the density of total and activated microglia. We then stimulated primary microglia (CD45lowCD11b+) with LPS for 24 h, followed by co-culture with hAEC conditioned medium for 48 h. hAEC conditioned medium increased microglial phagocytic activity, decreased microglia apoptosis and decreased M1 activation markers (CD86). Stimulating hAECs for 24 h with LPS did not alter release of cytokines known to modulate microglia activity. These data demonstrate that hAECs can

  8. Adverse early life environment increases hippocampal microglia abundance in conjunction with decreased neural stem cells in juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Susan; Ke, Xingrao; Liu, Qiuli; Fu, Qi; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP. These increases in microglia cell count and TLR-9 expression would be associated with decrease neural stem cell count and neuronal cell count. We developed a mouse model of AELE combining Western diet and a stress environment. Stress environment consisted of random change from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 as well as static change in maternal environment from E13 to postnatal day 21(P21). At P21, we measured hippocampal cell numbers of microglia, neural stem cell and neuron, as well as hippocampal TLR-9 expression. AELE significantly increased total microglia number and TLR-9 expression in the hippocampus. Concurrently, AELE significantly decreased neural stem cell and neuronal numbers. AELE increased the neuro-inflammatory cellular response in the juvenile HP. We speculate that increased neuro-inflammatory responses may contribute to impaired neurogenesis seen in this model. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluoxetine prevents oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y; Kang, So R; Yune, Tae Y

    2015-05-01

    Oligodendrocyte cell death and axon demyelination after spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to be important secondary injuries contributing to permanent neurological disability. Thus, blocking oligodendrocyte cell death should be considered for therapeutic intervention after SCI. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug, alleviates oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after SCI. After injury at the T9 level with a Precision Systems and Instrumentation (Lexington, KY) device, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered once a day for the indicated time points. Immunostaining with CD11b (OX-42) antibody and quantification analysis showed that microglia activation was significantly inhibited by fluoxetine at 5 days after injury. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and expression of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF), which is known to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death through the p75 neurotrophin receptor after SCI. In addition, fluoxetine attenuated activation of Ras homolog gene family member A and decreased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun and, ultimately, alleviated caspase-3 activation and significantly reduced cell death of oligodendrocytes at 5 days after SCI. Further, the decrease of myelin basic protein, myelin loss, and axon loss in white matter was also significantly blocked by fluoxetine, as compared to vehicle control. These results suggest that fluoxetine inhibits oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation and p38-MAPK activation, followed by pro-NGF production after SCI, and provide a potential usage of fluoxetine for a therapeutic agent after acute SCI in humans.

  10. Leptomeningeal Cells Transduce Peripheral Macrophages Inflammatory Signal to Microglia in Reponse to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here that the leptomeningeal cells transduce inflammatory signals from peripheral macrophages to brain-resident microglia in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g. LPS. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase was mainly detected in the gingival macrophages of chronic periodontitis patients. In in vitro studies, P.g. LPS induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from THP-1 human monocyte-like cell line and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Surprisingly, the mean mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in leptomeningeal cells after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were significantly higher than those after treatment with P.g. LPS alone. Furthermore, the mean mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in microglia after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated leptomeningeal cells were significantly higher than those after P.g. LPS alone. These observations suggest that leptomeninges serve as an important route for transducing inflammatory signals from macrophages to microglia by secretion of proinflammatory mediators during chronic periodontitis. Moreover, propolis significantly reduced the P.g. LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1 β production by leptomeningeal cells through inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Together with the inhibitory effect on microglial activation, propolis may be beneficial in preventing neuroinflammation during chronic periodontitis.

  11. Simvastatin affects cell motility and actin cytoskeleton distribution of microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, HF; Rappert, Angelika A.C.; Mommaas, AM; Van Haastert, ES; Van der Valk, P; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, KPH; Van den Elsen, PJ

    2006-01-01

    Statin treatment is proposed to be a new potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The effects of statin treatment on brain cells, however, are hardly understood. We therefore evaluated the effects of simvastatin treatment on

  12. Mitochondrial impairment in microglia amplifies NLRP3 inflammasome proinflammatory signaling in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Souvarish; Malovic, Emir; Harishchandra, Dilshan S; Ghaisas, Shivani; Panicker, Nikhil; Charli, Adhithiya; Palanisamy, Bharathi N; Rokad, Dharmin; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway is a major contributor to the neuroinflammatory process in the central nervous system. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological processes of many chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the inter-relationship between mitochondrial defects and neuroinflammation is not well understood. In the present study, we show that impaired mitochondrial function can augment the NLRP3 inflammasome-driven proinflammatory cascade in microglia. Primary mouse microglia treated with the common inflammogen LPS increased NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β expression. Interestingly, exposure of LPS-primed microglial cells to the mitochondrial complex-I inhibitory pesticides rotenone and tebufenpyrad specifically potentiated the NLRP3 induction, ASC speck formation and pro-IL-1β processing to IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that mitochondrial impairment heightened the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory response in microglia. The neurotoxic pesticide-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was accompanied by bioenergetic defects and lysosomal dysfunction in microglia. Furthermore, the pesticides enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation in primary microglia, while amelioration of mitochondria-derived ROS by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-apocynin completely abolished IL-1β release, indicating mitochondrial ROS drives potentiation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia. Exposure to conditioned media obtained from mitochondrial inhibitor-treated, LPS-primed microglial cells, but not unprimed cells, induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cultured primary mesencephalic and human dopaminergic neuronal cells (LUHMES). Notably, our in vivo results with chronic rotenone rodent models of PD further support the activation of proinflammatory NLRP3 inflammasome signaling due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Collectively, our results demonstrate that mitochondrial

  13. What is microglia neurotoxicity (Not)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biber, Knut; Owens, Trevor; Boddeke, Erik

    2014-01-01

    and vulnerable organ like the brain should host numerous potential killers, we here review the concept of microglia neurotoxicity. On one hand it is discussed that most of our understanding about how microglia kill neurons is based on in vitro experiments or correlative staining studies that suffer from...... the difficulty to discriminate microglia and peripheral myeloid cells in the diseased brain. On the other hand it is described that a more functional approach by mutating, inactivating or deleting microglia is seldom associated with a beneficial outcome in an acute injury situation, suggesting that microglia...... are normally important protective elements in the brain. This might change in chronic disease or the aged brain, where; however, it remains to be established whether microglia simply lose their protective capacities or whether microglia become truly neurotoxic cells. GLIA 2014....

  14. Persistent Borna Disease Virus (BDV infection activates microglia prior to a detectable loss of granule cells in the hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Michael W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV infection in rats leads to a neuronal loss in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Since BDV is a non-lytic infection in vitro, it has been suggested that activated microglia could contribute to neuronal damage. It is also conceivable that BDV-induced cell death triggers activation of microglia to remove cell debris. Although an overall temporal association between neuronal loss and microgliosis has been demonstrated in BDV-infected rats, it remains unclear if microgliosis precedes or results from neuronal damage. We investigated the timing of microglia activation and neuronal elimination in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. We found a significant increase in the number of ED1+ microglia cells as early as 10 days post infection (dpi while a detectable loss of granule cells of the DG was not seen until 30 dpi. The data demonstrate for the first time that a non-lytic persistent virus infection of neurons activates microglia long before any measurable neuronal loss.

  15. Inflammation stimulates thrombopoietin (Tpo) expression in rat brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells, but suppresses Tpo in astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Freyer, Dorette; Rung, Olga; Im, Ae-Rie; Hoffmann, Olaf; Dame, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Thrombopoietin (Tpo) and its receptor (c-Mpl; TpoR), which primary regulate megakaryopoiesis and platelet production, are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Increased Tpo concentrations are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some patients with bacterial or viral meningitis. Since previous data implicated a proapoptotic role of Tpo on newly generated neuronal cells, we herein elucidated the regulation of Tpo in primary rat neurons (e17), astrocytes, and microglia (p0-p3), as well as in brain-derived vascular endothelial cells of 3-week-old rats after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS inhibited Tpo gene expression in astrocytes and microglia, but not in neurons, most likely due to absence of Toll-like receptor 4 in neurons. While Tpo mRNA expression recovered in astrocytes after 24 h, it remained suppressed in microglia. Furthermore, we detected Tpo mRNA expression in primary brain-derived vascular endothelial cells, which also express the TpoR. In these cells, LPS significantly up-regulated Tpo mRNA expression. TpoR mRNA and protein expression remained constitutive in all cell types. Thus, our data provide evidence for a cell-type-specific modulation of Tpo mRNA expression by inflammation in brain-derived cells. Transient down-regulation of Tpo expression in astrocytes and microglia may limit Tpo-induced neuronal cell death in inflammatory brain disorders.

  16. Microglia are mediators of Borrelia burgdorferi-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereance A Myers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has long been implicated as a contributor to pathogenesis in many CNS illnesses, including Lyme neuroborreliosis. Borrelia burgdorferi is the spirochete that causes Lyme disease and it is known to potently induce the production of inflammatory mediators in a variety of cells. In experiments where B. burgdorferi was co-cultured in vitro with primary microglia, we observed robust expression and release of IL-6 and IL-8, CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL3 (MIP-1alpha, CCL4 (MIP-1beta and CCL5 (RANTES, but we detected no induction of microglial apoptosis. In contrast, SH-SY5Y (SY neuroblastoma cells co-cultured with B. burgdorferi expressed negligible amounts of inflammatory mediators and also remained resistant to apoptosis. When SY cells were co-cultured with microglia and B. burgdorferi, significant neuronal apoptosis consistently occurred. Confocal microscopy imaging of these cell cultures stained for apoptosis and with cell type-specific markers confirmed that it was predominantly the SY cells that were dying. Microarray analysis demonstrated an intense microglia-mediated inflammatory response to B. burgdorferi including up-regulation in gene transcripts for TLR-2 and NFkappabeta. Surprisingly, a pathway that exhibited profound changes in regard to inflammatory signaling was triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM1. Significant transcript alterations in essential p53 pathway genes also occurred in SY cells cultured in the presence of microglia and B. burgdorferi, which indicated a shift from cell survival to preparation for apoptosis when compared to SY cells cultured in the presence of B. burgdorferi alone. Taken together, these findings indicate that B. burgdorferi is not directly toxic to SY cells; rather, these cells become distressed and die in the inflammatory surroundings generated by microglia through a bystander effect. If, as we hypothesized, neuronal apoptosis is the key pathogenic event in Lyme neuroborreliosis, then

  17. Direct angiotensin AT2-receptor stimulation attenuates T-cell and microglia activation and prevents demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero-Esquitino, Verónica; Lucht, Kristin; Namsolleck, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    , accelerated re-myelination and reduced the number of microglia. Cytokine synthesis and NO production by microglia in vitro were significantly reduced after C21 treatment. These results suggest that AT2R-stimulation protects the myelin sheaths in autoimmune CNS inflammation by inhibiting the T-cell response...... immunised with myelin-oligodendrocyte-peptide (MOG) and treated for 4 weeks with C21 (0.3mg/kg/day i.p.). Potential effects on myelination, microglia and T-cell composition were estimated by immunostaining and FACS analyses of lumbar spinal cords. The in vivo study was complemented by experiments...... in aggregating brain cell cultures and microglia in vitro. In the EAE model, treatment with C21 ameliorated microglia activation and decreased the number of total T-cells and CD4+ T-cells in the spinal cord. Fluorescent myelin staining of spinal cords further revealed a significant reduction of EAE...

  18. Constitutive Retinal CD200 Expression Regulates Resident Microglia and Activation State of Inflammatory Cells during Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Cathryn; Hoek, Robert M.; Forrester, John V.; Liversidge, Janet; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Dick, Andrew D

    2002-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the notion that tissue OX2 (CD200) constitutively provides down-regulatory signals to myeloid-lineage cells via CD200-receptor (CD200R). Thus, mice lacking CD200 (CD200−/−) show increased susceptibility to and accelerated onset of tissue-specific autoimmunity. In the retina there is extensive expression of CD200 on neurons and retinal vascular endothelium. We show here that retinal microglia in CD200−/− mice display normal morphology, but unlike microglia from wild-ty...

  19. Neuron-microglia signaling : Chemokines as versatile messengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, K.; Vinet, J.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of microglia biology has significantly changed in the last Couple of years. Instead of being predominantly detrimental cells showing a stereotypic activation pattern, microglia today are considered highly adaptive elements with many distinct phenotypes. Microglia activity is aimed

  20. What is microglia neurotoxicity (Not)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, Knut; Owens, Trevor; Boddeke, Hendrikus

    Microglia most likely appeared early in evolution as they are not only present in vertebrates, but are also found in nervous systems of various nonvertebrate organisms. Mammalian microglia are derived from a specific embryonic, self-renewable myeloid cell population that is throughout lifetime not

  1. Microglia in Physiology and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Susanne A; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Kettenmann, Helmut

    As the immune-competent cells of the brain, microglia play an increasingly important role in maintaining normal brain function. They invade the brain early in development, transform into a highly ramified phenotype, and constantly screen their environment. Microglia are activated by any type of

  2. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

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    Sandra Bien-Möller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed.

  3. A combinational effect of acetaminophen and oriental herbs on the regulation of inflammatory mediators in microglia cell line, BV2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Seyeon; Kwon, Kil-Young; Hwang, Young-Il; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of Western medicine that is commonly used for pain relief is well-known. However, very little is known for oriental herbs, and even less is known for mixture of the two. We investigated the combinational effect of 3 kinds of oriental herbs, usually used for the control of headache, and acetaminophen to relieve headache in microglia cell line, BV2. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced to produce nitrite and increased the expression of inflammation-related factors like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine microglia cell line, BV2. Oriental herbs such as Angelica tenuissima, Angelica dahurica, and Scutellaria baicalensis reduced the production of nitric oxide and the expression of COX-2. Moreover, a treatment of acetaminophen combined with oriental herbs was more decreased the COX-2 expression, and its product, prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 cells. Therefore, a combined treatment of oriental herbs such as A. tenuissima, A. dahurica, and S. baicalensis and Western medicine like acetaminophen has a synergistic effect on the decrease of LPS-induced inflammation in microglia.

  4. Leukotrienes inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived microglia-like cells

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    Bertin Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory molecules produced in infected individuals that contribute to neuroinflammation. We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs in HIV-1 infection of microglial cells. Methods To evaluate the role of LTs on HIV-1 infection in the CNS, monocyte-derived microglial-like cells (MDMis were utilized in this study. Leukotriene-treated MDMis were infected with either fully replicative brain-derived HIV-1 isolates (YU2 or R5-tropic luciferase-encoding particles in order to assess viral production and expression. The efficacy of various steps of the replication cycle was evaluated by means of p24 quantification by ELISA, luciferase activity determination and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results We report in this study that virus replication is reduced upon treatment of MDMis with LTB4 and LTC4. Additional experiments indicate that these proinflammatory molecules alter the pH-independent entry and early post-fusion events of the viral life cycle. Indeed, LT treatment induced a diminution in integrated proviral DNA while reverse-transcribed viral products remained unaffected. Furthermore, decreased C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 surface expression was observed in LT-treated MDMis. Finally, the effect of LTs on HIV-1 infection in MDMis appears to be mediated partly via a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase C. Conclusions These data show for the first time that LTs influence microglial cell infection by HIV-1, and may be a factor in the control of viral load in the CNS.

  5. Histamine modulates microglia function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this molecule and its receptors in microglia-induced inflammation by evaluating cell migration and inflammatory mediator release. Methods Firstly, we detected the expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R), using a murine microglial cell line and primary microglia cell cultures from rat cortex, by real-time PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Then, we evaluated the role of histamine in microglial cell motility by performing scratch wound assays. Results were further confirmed using murine cortex explants. Finally, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by ELISA measurements to determine the role of histamine on the release of these inflammatory mediators. Results After 12 h of treatment, 100 μM histamine and 10 μg/ml histamine-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles significantly stimulated microglia motility via H4R activation. In addition, migration involves α5β1 integrins, and p38 and Akt signaling pathways. Migration of microglial cells was also enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml), used as a positive control. Importantly, histamine inhibited LPS-stimulated migration via H4R activation. Histamine or H4R agonist also inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β release in both N9 microglia cell line and hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to show a dual role of histamine in the modulation of microglial inflammatory responses. Altogether, our data suggest that histamine per se triggers microglia motility, whereas histamine impedes LPS-induced microglia migration and IL-1β release. This last datum assigns a new putative anti-inflammatory role for

  6. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and microglia prevent migration and integration of grafted Müller stem cells into degenerating retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shweta; Lawrence, Jean M; Bhatia, Bhairavi; Ellis, James S; Kwan, Anthony S; Macneil, Angus; Luthert, Philip J; Fawcett, James W; Perez, Maria-Thereza; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, G Astrid

    2008-04-01

    At present, there are severe limitations to the successful migration and integration of stem cells transplanted into the degenerated retina to restore visual function. This study investigated the potential role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and microglia in the migration of human Müller glia with neural stem cell characteristics following subretinal injection into the Lister hooded (LH) and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat retinae. Neonate LH rat retina showed minimal baseline microglial accumulation (CD68-positive cells) that increased significantly 2 weeks after transplantation (p migration. However, injection of cells with chondroitinase ABC combined with enhanced immune suppression caused a dramatic increase in the migration of Müller stem cells into all the retinal cell layers. These observations suggest that both microglia and CSPGs constitute a barrier for stem cell migration following transplantation into experimental models of retinal degeneration and that control of matrix deposition and the innate microglial response to neural retina degeneration may need to be addressed when translating cell-based therapies to treat human retinal disease.

  7. Proliferating resident microglia express the stem cell antigen CD34 in response to acute neural injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Rune; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dalmau, Ishar

    2005-01-01

    Reactive microgliosis is a highly characteristic response to neural injury and disease, which may influence neurodegenerative processes and neural plasticity. We have investigated the origin and characteristics of reactive microglia in the acute phase of their activation in the dentate gyrus...

  8. Phenotypic transition of microglia into astrocyte-like cells associated with disease onset in a model of inherited ALS

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    Emiliano eTrias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and reactive astrocytes accumulate in the spinal cord of rats expressing the ALS-linked SOD1G93A mutation. We previously reported that the rapid progression of paralysis in ALS rats is associated with the appearance of proliferative astrocyte-like cells thatsurroundmotor neurons. These cells, designated as Aberrant Astrocytes (AbA cells because of their atypical astrocytic phenotype, exhibit high toxicity to motor neurons. However, the cellular origin of AbA cells remains unknown. Because AbA cells are labeled with the proliferation marker Ki67, we analyzed the phenotypic makers of proliferating glial cells that surround motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. The number of Ki67+AbA cells sharply increased in symptomatic rats, displaying large cell bodies with processes embracing motor neurons. Most were co-labeled with astrocytic marker GFAP concurrently with the microglial markers Iba1 and CD163. Cultures of spinal cord prepared from symptomatic SOD1G93A rats yielded large numbers of microglia expressing Iba1, CD11b and CD68. Cells sortedfor CD11b expression by flow cytometry transformed into AbA cells within two weeks. During these two weeks, the expression of microglial markers largely disappeared, while GFAP and S100β expression increased. The phenotypic transition to AbA cells was stimulated by forskolin. These findings provide evidence for a subpopulation of proliferating microglial cells in SOD1G93A rats that undergo a phenotypic transition into AbA cells after onset of paralysis that may promote the fulminant disease progression. These cells could be a therapeutic target for slowing paralysis progression in ALS.

  9. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The suitability of BV2 cells as alternative model system for primary microglia cultures or for animal experiments examining brain inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Anja; Lund, Søren; Hedtjärn, Maj; Schrattenholz, Andreé; Pörzgen, Peter; Leist, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The role of microglia in neurodegeneration, toxicology and immunity is an expanding area of biomedical research requiring large numbers of animals. Use of a microglia-like cell line would accelerate many research programmes and reduce the necessity of continuous cell preparations and animal experimentation, provided that the cell line reproduces the in vivo situation or primary microglia (PM) with high fidelity. The immortalised murine microglial cell line BV-2 has been used frequently as a substitute for PM, but recently doubts were raised as to their suitability. Here, we re-evaluated strengths and potential short-comings of BV-2 cells. Their response to lipopolysaccharide was compared with the response of microglia in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptome (480 genes) and proteome analyses after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide indicated a reaction pattern of BV-2 with many similarities to that of PM, although the average upregulation of genes was less pronounced. The cells showed a normal regulation of NO production and a functional response to IFN-gamma, important parameters for appropriate interaction with T cells and neurons. BV-2 were also able to stimulate other glial cells. They triggered the translocation of NF-kappaB, and a subsequent production of IL-6 in astrocytes. Thus, BV-2 cells appear to be a valid substitute for PM in many experimental settings, incuding complex cell-cell interaction studies.

  11. Inhibition of highly productive HIV-1 infection in T cells, primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes by Sargassum fusiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veille Jean-Claude

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and increasing resistance to currently available antiretroviral (ART therapies highlight the need for new antiviral agents. Products derived from natural sources have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication during various stages of the virus life cycle, and therefore represent a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. To expand our arsenal of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection, we investigated aqueous extract from Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme for ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in the periphery, in T cells and human macrophages, and for ability to inhibit in the central nervous system (CNS, in microglia and astrocytes. Results S. fusiforme extract blocked HIV-1 infection and replication by over 90% in T cells, human macrophages and microglia, and it also inhibited pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3 infection in human astrocytes by over 70%. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4 and CCR5 (R5-tropic HIV-1, was dose dependant and long lasting, did not inhibit cell growth or viability, was not toxic to cells, and was comparable to inhibition by the nucleoside analogue 2', 3'-didoxycytidine (ddC. S. fusiforme treatment blocked direct cell-to-cell infection spread. To investigate at which point of the virus life cycle this inhibition occurs, we infected T cells and CD4-negative primary human astrocytes with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, which bypasses the HIV receptor requirements. Infection by pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3 was also inhibited in a dose dependant manner, although up to 57% less, as compared to inhibition of native NL4-3, indicating post-entry interferences. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating S. fusiforme to be a potent inhibitor of highly productive HIV-1 infection and replication in T cells, in primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes. Results with VSV/NL4-3 infection, suggest inhibition

  12. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N

    2017-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovery of a novel, monocationic, small-molecule inhibitor of scrapie prion accumulation in cultured sheep microglia and Rov cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, James B; Schneider, David A; Dinkel, Kelcey D; Balmer, Bethany F; Baszler, Timothy V; Mathison, Bruce A; Boykin, David W; Kumar, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases, including sheep scrapie, are neurodegenerative diseases with the fundamental pathogenesis involving conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Chemical inhibition of prion accumulation is widely investigated, often using rodent-adapted prion cell culture models. Using a PrP(Sc)-specific ELISA we discovered a monocationic phenyl-furan-benzimidazole (DB772), which has previously demonstrated anti-pestiviral activity and represents a chemical category previously untested for anti-prion activity, that inhibited PrP(Sc) accumulation and prion infectivity in primary sheep microglial cell cultures (PRNP 136VV/154RR/171QQ) and Rov9 cultures (VRQ-ovinized RK13 cells). We investigated potential mechanisms of this anti-prion activity by evaluating PrP(C) expression with quantitative RT-PCR and PrP ELISA, comparing the concentration-dependent anti-prion and anti-pestiviral effects of DB772, and determining the selectivity index. Results demonstrate at least an approximate two-log inhibition of PrP(Sc) accumulation in the two cell systems and confirmed that the inhibition of PrP(Sc) accumulation correlates with inhibition of prion infectivity. PRNP transcripts and total PrP protein concentrations within cell lysates were not decreased; thus, decreased PrP(C) expression is not the mechanism of PrP(Sc) inhibition. PrP(Sc) accumulation was multiple logs more resistant than pestivirus to DB772, suggesting that the anti-PrP(Sc) activity was independent of anti-pestivirus activity. The anti-PrP(Sc) selectivity index in cell culture was approximately 4.6 in microglia and 5.5 in Rov9 cells. The results describe a new chemical category that inhibits ovine PrP(Sc) accumulation in primary sheep microglia and Rov9 cells, and can be used for future studies into the treatment and mechanism of prion diseases.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Qian, Christopher; Li, Juan; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2017-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) are associated with its ability to reduce iron in cells and tissues, which is partly due to its inhibiting effect on iron uptake from transferrin and its promoting effect on iron deposition into ferritin. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of ALA on the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin in BV-2 microglia cells. We demonstrated that ALA significantly inhibited DMT1 expression, lowered ferritin-light-chain (Ft-L) and ferritin-heavy-chain (Ft-H) content, and had no effect on TfR1 and Fpn1 in BV-2 microglia cells. This indicated that the inhibiting effect of ALA on DMT1 might be one of the causes of the ALA-induced reduction in cellular transferrin-bound-iron uptake. We also demonstrated that ALA enhanced DMT1 and TfR1 expression in ferric ammonium citrate (FAC)-treated cells. FAC treatment led to a significant increase in Ft-L, Ft-H and Fpn1, and pre-treatment with ALA resulted in a further increase in the contents of Ft-L and Ft-H but not Fpn1 in cells. ALA could up-regulate TfR1, DMT1 and ferritin expression when iron is increased outside of the cell, promoting iron deposition into ferritin by increasing cell iron uptake, and then reducing free iron both inside and outside of the cell. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Microglia in the degenerating brain are capable of phagocytosis of beads and of apoptotic cells, but do not efficiently remove PrPSc, even upon LPS stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Martina M; Field, Robert H; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol L; Cunningham, Colm

    2010-12-01

    Despite the phagocytic machinery available to microglia the aberrant amyloid proteins produced during Alzheimer's and prion disease, amyloid-β and PrP(Sc), are inefficiently cleared. We have shown that microglia in the ME7 model of prion disease show morphological evidence of activation, synthesize low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are primed to produce exaggerated responses to subsequent inflammatory challenges. Whether these microglia engage in significant phagocytic activity in the disease per se, or upon subsequent inflammatory challenge is not clear. In the present study we show transcriptional activation of a large number of scavenger receptors (SRs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), oxidative enzymes, and cathepsins in ME7 animals. Hippocampally-injected inert latex beads (6 μm) are efficiently phagocytosed by microglia of ME7 prion-diseased animals, but not by microglia in normal animals. Stimulation of ME7 animals with systemic bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) induced further increases in SR-A2, MMP3, and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) but decreased, or did not alter, transcription of most phagocytosis-related genes examined and did not enhance clearance of deposited PrP(Sc). Furthermore, intracerebral injection with LPS (0.5 μg) induced marked microglial production of IL-1β, robust cellular infiltration and marked apoptosis but also did not induce further clearance of PrP(Sc). These data indicate that microglia in the prion-diseased brain are capable of phagocytosis per se, but show limited efficacy in removing PrP(Sc) even upon marked escalation of CNS inflammation. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages remain IL-1β-negative during phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. The data demonstrate that phagocytic activity and pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype do not necessarily correlate.

  16. Endotoxin-activated microglia injure brain derived endothelial cells via NF-κB, JAK-STAT and JNK stress kinase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenari Midori A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously showed that microglia damage blood brain barrier (BBB components following ischemic brain insults, but the underlying mechanism(s is/are not well known. Recent work has established the contribution of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation to several brain pathologies including ischemia, neurodegeneration and sepsis. The present study established the requirement of microglia for lipopolysaccharide (LPS mediated endothelial cell death, and explored pathways involved in this toxicity. LPS is a classic TLR4 agonist, and is used here to model aspects of brain conditions where TLR4 stimulation occurs. Methods/Results In monocultures, LPS induced death in microglia, but not brain derived endothelial cells (EC. However, LPS increased EC death when cocultured with microglia. LPS led to nitric oxide (NO and inducible NO synthase (iNOS induction in microglia, but not in EC. Inhibiting microglial activation by blocking iNOS and other generators of NO or blocking reactive oxygen species (ROS also prevented injury in these cocultures. To assess the signaling pathway(s involved, inhibitors of several downstream TLR-4 activated pathways were studied. Inhibitors of NF-κB, JAK-STAT and JNK/SAPK decreased microglial activation and prevented cell death, although the effect of blocking JNK/SAPK was rather modest. Inhibitors of PI3K, ERK, and p38 MAPK had no effect. Conclusions We show that LPS-activated microglia promote BBB disruption through injury to endothelial cells, and the specific blockade of JAK-STAT, NF-κB may prove to be especially useful anti-inflammatory strategies to confer cerebrovascular protection.

  17. Endotoxin-activated microglia injure brain derived endothelial cells via NF-κB, JAK-STAT and JNK stress kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimi, Rachid; Giffard, Rona G; Yenari, Midori A

    2011-03-07

    We previously showed that microglia damage blood brain barrier (BBB) components following ischemic brain insults, but the underlying mechanism(s) is/are not well known. Recent work has established the contribution of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation to several brain pathologies including ischemia, neurodegeneration and sepsis. The present study established the requirement of microglia for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated endothelial cell death, and explored pathways involved in this toxicity. LPS is a classic TLR4 agonist, and is used here to model aspects of brain conditions where TLR4 stimulation occurs. In monocultures, LPS induced death in microglia, but not brain derived endothelial cells (EC). However, LPS increased EC death when cocultured with microglia. LPS led to nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induction in microglia, but not in EC. Inhibiting microglial activation by blocking iNOS and other generators of NO or blocking reactive oxygen species (ROS) also prevented injury in these cocultures. To assess the signaling pathway(s) involved, inhibitors of several downstream TLR-4 activated pathways were studied. Inhibitors of NF-κB, JAK-STAT and JNK/SAPK decreased microglial activation and prevented cell death, although the effect of blocking JNK/SAPK was rather modest. Inhibitors of PI3K, ERK, and p38 MAPK had no effect. We show that LPS-activated microglia promote BBB disruption through injury to endothelial cells, and the specific blockade of JAK-STAT, NF-κB may prove to be especially useful anti-inflammatory strategies to confer cerebrovascular protection.

  18. Study of the transformation of amoeboid microglial cells into microglia labelled with the isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia in postnatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Ling, E A

    1991-01-01

    The transformation of amoeboid microglial cells into ramified microglial cells in the brain of postnatal rats has been studied by labeling the cells with the isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA1-B4). The latter served as a specific membrane marker of the cell type. Thus, at the light-microscopic level, the amoeboid microglial cells in 1- to 5-day-old rats were intensely stained with GSA1-B4. All the stained cells appeared round. In 10-day-old rats, while most of the stained cells were round, some had assumed an oval appearance. In older rats, i.e. 15-22 days, all the stained cells became flattened or fusiform with long cytoplasmic processes. The present electron-microscopic study confirmed the above features but also added the fact that the reaction for GSA1-B4 was localized at the plasma membrane in the amoeboid microglial cells in all the age groups studied. The reaction for the isolectin was also detected in some vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the round cells. It was concluded from this study that the round amoeboid microglial cells differentiate to become the ramified microglia with age. In the course of this transformation, they retained specific membrane receptors for the isolectin which distinguished them from other glial cell types.

  19. CD4 depletion in SIV-infected macaques results in macrophage and microglia infection with rapid turnover of infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Micci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In rhesus macaques (RMs, experimental depletion of CD4+ T-cells prior to SIV infection results in higher viremia and emergence of CD4-independent SIV-envelopes. In this study we used the rhesus recombinant anti-CD4 antibody CD4R1 to deplete RM CD4+ T-cells prior to SIVmac251 infection and investigate the sources of the increased viral burden and the lifespan of productively infected cells. CD4-depleted animals showed (i set-point viral load two-logs higher than controls; (ii macrophages constituting 80% of all SIV vRNA+ cells in lymph node and mucosal tissues; (iii substantial expansion of pro-inflammatory monocytes; (iv aberrant activation and infection of microglial cells; and (v lifespan of productively infected cells significantly longer in comparison to controls, but markedly shorter than previously estimated for macrophages. The net effect of CD4+ T-cell depletion is an inability to control SIV replication and a shift in the tropism of infected cells to macrophages, microglia, and, potentially, other CD4-low cells which all appear to have a shortened in vivo lifespan. We believe these findings have important implications for HIV eradication studies.

  20. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocheol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1 increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2 scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3 reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  1. Discovery of a novel, monocationic, small-molecule inhibitor of scrapie prion accumulation in cultured sheep microglia and Rov cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stanton

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, including sheep scrapie, are neurodegenerative diseases with the fundamental pathogenesis involving conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C to disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc. Chemical inhibition of prion accumulation is widely investigated, often using rodent-adapted prion cell culture models. Using a PrP(Sc-specific ELISA we discovered a monocationic phenyl-furan-benzimidazole (DB772, which has previously demonstrated anti-pestiviral activity and represents a chemical category previously untested for anti-prion activity, that inhibited PrP(Sc accumulation and prion infectivity in primary sheep microglial cell cultures (PRNP 136VV/154RR/171QQ and Rov9 cultures (VRQ-ovinized RK13 cells. We investigated potential mechanisms of this anti-prion activity by evaluating PrP(C expression with quantitative RT-PCR and PrP ELISA, comparing the concentration-dependent anti-prion and anti-pestiviral effects of DB772, and determining the selectivity index. Results demonstrate at least an approximate two-log inhibition of PrP(Sc accumulation in the two cell systems and confirmed that the inhibition of PrP(Sc accumulation correlates with inhibition of prion infectivity. PRNP transcripts and total PrP protein concentrations within cell lysates were not decreased; thus, decreased PrP(C expression is not the mechanism of PrP(Sc inhibition. PrP(Sc accumulation was multiple logs more resistant than pestivirus to DB772, suggesting that the anti-PrP(Sc activity was independent of anti-pestivirus activity. The anti-PrP(Sc selectivity index in cell culture was approximately 4.6 in microglia and 5.5 in Rov9 cells. The results describe a new chemical category that inhibits ovine PrP(Sc accumulation in primary sheep microglia and Rov9 cells, and can be used for future studies into the treatment and mechanism of prion diseases.

  2. Microglia: Architects of the Developing Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeffrey L; Schafer, Dorothy P

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), representing 5-10% of total CNS cells. Recent findings reveal that microglia enter the embryonic brain, take up residence before the differentiation of other CNS cell types, and become critical regulators of CNS development. Here, we discuss exciting new work implicating microglia in a range of developmental processes, including regulation of cell number and spatial patterning of CNS cells, myelination, and formation and refinement of neural circuits. Furthermore, we review studies suggesting that these cellular functions result in the modulation of behavior, which has important implications for a variety of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroprotective function for ramified microglia in hippocampal excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the known functions of microglia, including neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties, are attributed to morphologically-activated microglia. Resting, ramified microglia are suggested to primarily monitor their environment including synapses. Here, we show an active protective role of ramified microglia in excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration. Methods Mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA to induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. This procedure was performed in slices containing resting microglia or slices that were chemically or genetically depleted of their endogenous microglia. Results Treatment of mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with 10-50 μM N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA induced region-specific excitotoxic neuronal cell death with CA1 neurons being most vulnerable, whereas CA3 and DG neurons were affected less. Ablation of ramified microglia severely enhanced NMDA-induced neuronal cell death in the CA3 and DG region rendering them almost as sensitive as CA1 neurons. Replenishment of microglia-free slices with microglia restored the original resistance of CA3 and DG neurons towards NMDA. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that ramified microglia not only screen their microenvironment but additionally protect hippocampal neurons under pathological conditions. Morphological activation of ramified microglia is thus not required to influence neuronal survival.

  4. Huperzine A protects neural stem cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells and microglia co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Lin, Jizong; Wang, Kewan; Wei, Meidan; Chen, Qingzhuang; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether Huperzine A (HupA) could protect neural stem cells against amyloid beta-peptide Aβ induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglia co-culture system. Rat NSCs and microglial cells were isolated, cultured and identified with immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). Co-culture systems of NSCs and microglial cells were employed using Transwell Permeable Supports. The effects of Aβ1-42 on NSCs were studied in 4 groups using co-culture systems: NSCs, Aβ+NSCs, co-culture and Aβ+co-culture groups. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the differences of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NSCs between the groups. LQ test was performed to assess the amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α secreted, and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to assess apoptosis of NSCs and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in each group. IFA results showed that isolated rat NSCs were nestin-positive and microglial cells were CD11b/c-positive. Among all the groups, the Aβ+co-culture group has the lowest BrdU expression level, the lowest MAP2-positive, ChAT-positive cell counts and the highest NSC apoptosis rate. Smaller amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α were being secreted by microglial cells in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group compared with those in the Aβ+ co-culture group. Also the Bcl-2: Bax ratio was much higher in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group than in the Aβ+co-culture group. HupA inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia's inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42.

  5. Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Daniel; Hrabě de Angelis, Anna Lena; Jaitin, Diego; Wieghofer, Peter; Staszewski, Ori; David, Eyal; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Mahlakoiv, Tanel; Jakobshagen, Kristin; Buch, Thorsten; Schwierzeck, Vera; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Chun, Eunyoung; Garrett, Wendy S; McCoy, Kathy D; Diefenbach, Andreas; Staeheli, Peter; Stecher, Bärbel; Amit, Ido; Prinz, Marco

    2015-07-01

    As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with altered cell proportions and an immature phenotype, leading to impaired innate immune responses. Temporal eradication of host microbiota severely changed microglia properties. Limited microbiota complexity also resulted in defective microglia. In contrast, recolonization with a complex microbiota partially restored microglia features. We determined that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulated microglia homeostasis. Accordingly, mice deficient for the SCFA receptor FFAR2 mirrored microglia defects found under GF conditions. These findings suggest that host bacteria vitally regulate microglia maturation and function, whereas microglia impairment can be rectified to some extent by complex microbiota.

  6. Microglia in neuronal plasticity: Influence of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Nadjar, Agnes; Joffre, Corinne; Wohleb, Eric S; Layé, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has previously been regarded as an immune-privileged site with the absence of immune cell responses but this dogma was not entirely true. Microglia are the brain innate immune cells and recent findings indicate that they participate both in CNS disease and infection as well as facilitate normal CNS function. Microglia are highly plastic and play integral roles in sculpting the structure of the CNS, refining neuronal circuitry and connectivity, and contribute actively to neuronal plasticity in the healthy brain. Interestingly, psychological stress can perturb the function of microglia in association with an impaired neuronal plasticity and the development of emotional behavior alterations. As a result it seemed important to describe in this review some findings indicating that the stress-induced microglia dysfunction may underlie neuroplasticity deficits associated to many mood disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microglia-Derived Nerve Growth Factor Causes Cell Death in the Developing Retina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frade, José María; Barde, Yves-Alain

    1998-01-01

    ... antibodies reduces normally occurring cell death in the avian retina ( Frade et al. 1996 ). Already during the fourth day of development in the chick, dying cells can be observed, particularly in the central retina, and it has been suggested that this may serve the purpose of creating space to accommodate the incoming axons of the retinal gangl...

  8. Microglia in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David V; Hanson, Jesse E; Sheng, Morgan

    2017-12-01

    Proliferation and activation of microglia in the brain, concentrated around amyloid plaques, is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human genetics data point to a key role for microglia in the pathogenesis of AD. The majority of risk genes for AD are highly expressed (and many are selectively expressed) by microglia in the brain. There is mounting evidence that microglia protect against the incidence of AD, as impaired microglial activities and altered microglial responses to β-amyloid are associated with increased AD risk. On the other hand, there is also abundant evidence that activated microglia can be harmful to neurons. Microglia can mediate synapse loss by engulfment of synapses, likely via a complement-dependent mechanism; they can also exacerbate tau pathology and secrete inflammatory factors that can injure neurons directly or via activation of neurotoxic astrocytes. Gene expression profiles indicate multiple states of microglial activation in neurodegenerative disease settings, which might explain the disparate roles of microglia in the development and progression of AD pathology. © 2018 Hansen et al.

  9. Quantitative Analysis and Biological Efficacies regarding the Neuroprotective and Antineuroinflammatory Actions of the Herbal Formula Jodeungsan in HT22 Hippocampal Cells and BV-2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jodeungsan (JDS is a traditional herbal formula that comprises seven medicinal herbs and is broadly utilized to treat hypertension, dementia, and headache. However, the effects of JDS and its herbal components on neurodegenerative diseases have not been reported. We examined the inhibitory effects of JDS and its seven components on neuronal cell death and inflammation using HT22 hippocampal cells and BV-2 microglia, respectively. Among its seven herbal components, Uncaria sinensis (US, Chrysanthemum morifolium (CM, Zingiber officinale (ZO, Pinellia ternata (PT, Citrus unshiu (CU, and Poria cocos (PC exhibited significant neuroprotective effects in HT22 cells. In BV-2 cells, JDS significantly suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, indicating the antineuroinflammatory activity of JDS. In addition, the herbal extracts from ZO, Panax ginseng (PG, PT, CU, and PC exhibited inhibitory effects on the inflammatory response in microglia. These data imply that the JDS effect on neurodegeneration occurs via coordination among its seven components. To establish a quality control for JDS, a simultaneous analysis using five standard compounds identified hesperidin (37.892±1.228 mg/g as the most abundant phytochemical of JDS. Further investigation of the combinatorial activities of two or more standard compounds will be necessary to verify their antineurodegenerative regulatory mechanisms.

  10. Activated microglia induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to produce glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingke Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were analyzed in this model. OGD-activated MG promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.01. TNFα, but not IL6 or IL1β, promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.001. GDNF or CM pre-treated BMSCs elevated neuronal viability and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01; these effects were inhibited by the RET antibody. GDNF activated MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling but not JNK/c-JUN. Furthermore, GDNF upregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60 levels, suppressed LDH leakage, and promoted MMP. Thus, activated MG produce TNFα to stimulate GDNF production by BMSCs, which prevents and repairs OGD-induced neuronal injury, possibly via regulating MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings will facilitate the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury by cerebral ischemia.

  11. Impaired recruitment of neuroprotective microglia and T cells during acute neuronal injury coincides with increased neuronal vulnerability in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mami Fukunaga; Yamasaki, Ryo; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Nagara, Yuko; Matsushita, Takuya; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    Non-cell-autonomous motor neuronal death is suggested in a mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1)-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model, in which microglia and T cells play significant roles in disease progression. However, it remains unknown whether these cells are toxic or protective. The present study aimed to clarify the developmental age-related alterations of neuronal, glial and T cell responses to acute neuron injury in non-transgenic (N-Tg) mice, and the in vivo effects of mSOD1 on these changes by studying N-Tg and mSOD1-Tg mice subjected to unilateral hypoglossal nerve axotomy at young (8 weeks) and adult (17 weeks) ages. Adult N-Tg mice showed increased neuronal viability on day 21 after axotomy and trends toward increased numbers of recruited microglia on day 3 and T cells on day 7, in the hypoglossal nucleus, compared with young N-Tg mice. Quantitative comparisons between mSOD1-Tg and N-Tg mice at the same ages, on day 3 after axotomy, showed that microglial recruitment was significantly lower in mSOD1-Tg mice than in 17-week-old N-Tg mice (the disease progression stage), but the same difference was not seen in 8-week-old mice (the presymptomatic stage), despite good preservation of hypoglossal neurons. Infiltration of CD3-positive T cells, mostly CD4-positive, on day 7 and the viability rate of hypoglossal neurons on the operated side compared with the contralateral side on day 21 were significantly decreased in mSOD1-Tg mice compared with N-Tg mice aged 17 weeks, but the same difference was not seen in mice aged 8 weeks. On day 3 after axotomy, expression levels of IGF-1 mRNA in the operated hypoglossal nucleus were significantly lower in mSOD1-Tg mice than N-Tg mice at 17 weeks of age. The observation that depressed microglial and T cell responses and expression of neurotrophic factors coincided with reduced neuronal viability in adult mSOD1-Tg mice suggests that diminished neuroprotective functions of mSOD1 microglia and T cells

  12. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA-induced a phenotype of activated microglia in BV-2 cells requires epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and proHB-EGF shedding

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    Martín Rubén

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of microglia, the primary component of the innate immune response in the brain, is a hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other pathological conditions such as stroke or CNS infection. In response to a variety of insults, microglial cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines that are often involved in neuronal injury, and play an important role in the recognition, engulfment, and clearance of apoptotic cells and/or invading microbes. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA, an enzyme that interacts with cells involved in the systemic immune/inflammatory response, has been found up-regulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of AD patients. However, despite several approaches, its functions in mediating CNS inflammation remain unknown. In the present study, the role of sPLA2-IIA was examined by investigating its direct effects on microglial cells. Methods Primary and immortalized microglial cells were stimulated by sPLA2-IIA in order to characterize the cytokine-like actions of the phospholipase. The hallmarks of activated microglia analyzed include: mitogenic response, phagocytic capabilities and induction of inflammatory mediators. In addition, we studied several of the potential molecular mechanisms involved in those events. Results The direct exposure of microglial cells to sPLA2-IIA stimulated, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, their phagocytic and proliferative capabilities. sPLA2-IIA also triggered the synthesis of the inflammatory proteins COX-2 and TNFα. In addition, EGFR phosphorylation and shedding of the membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (pro-HB-EGF ectodomain, as well as a rapid activation/phosphorylation of the classical survival proteins ERK, P70S6K and rS6 were induced upon sPLA2-IIA treatment. We further demonstrated that the presence of an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478, a matrix metalloproteinase

  13. NADPH oxidases in Microglia oxidant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund-Vinding, J; McBean, G; Jaquet, V

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute a self-sustaining population of CNS-adapted tissue macrophages. As mononuclear phagocytic cells, they express high levels of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX). The sole function of members of the NOX...

  14. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Ryusuke, E-mail: rkoshida-myz@umin.ac.jp; Oishi, Hisashi, E-mail: hoishi@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-17

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia. - Highlights: • GM-CSF alters the phenotype of microglia in vitro more potently than M-CSF. • Transcription factor MafB antagonizes the effect of GM-CSF on microglia in vitro. • MafB deficiency leads to RhoA activation in microglia in response to GM-CSF. • We show for the first time the function of MafB in microglia.

  15. Brain Microglia Express Steroid-Converting Enzymes in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried-Blackmore, Andres; Sierra, Amanda; Jellinck, Peter H.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Bulloch, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In the CNS, steroid hormones play a major role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis and it’s response to injury. Since activated microglia are the pivotal immune cell involved in neurodegeneration, we investigated the possibility that microglia provide a discrete source for the metabolism of active steroid hormones. Using RT-PCR, our results showed that mouse microglia expressed mRNA for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 and steroid 5α-reductase type-1, which are involved in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens. Microglia also expressed the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and steroid acute regulatory protein; however, the enzymes required for de novo formation of progesterone and DHEA from cholesterol were not expressed. To test the function of these enzymes, primary microglia cultures were incubated with steroid precursors, DHEA and AD. Microglia preferentially produced delta-5 androgens (Adiol) from DHEA and 5α-reduced androgens from AD. Adiol behaved as an effective estrogen receptor agonist in neuronal cells. Activation of microglia with pro-inflammatory factors, LPS and INFγ did not affect the enzymatic properties of these proteins. However, PBR ligands reduced TNFα production signifying an immunomodulatory role for PBR. Collectively, our results suggest that microglia utilize steroid-converting enzymes and related proteins to influence inflammation and neurodegeneration within microenvironments of the brain. PMID:18329265

  16. Positive feedback loop of autocrine BDNF from microglia causes prolonged microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Lulu; Yu, Tingting; Xu, Yongming; Pu, Shaofeng; Du, Dongping; Jiang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, which represent the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have long been a subject of study in CNS disease research. Substantial evidence indicates that microglial activation functions as a strong neuro-inflammatory response in neuropathic pain, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, activated microglia release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which acts as a powerful cytokine. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to examine whether a positive autocrine feedback loop existed between microglia-derived BDNF and subsequent microglial activation as well as the mechanisms underlying this positive feedback loop. Because ATP is a classic inducer of microglial activation, firstly, we examined ATP-activated microglia in the present study. Secondly, we used TrkB/Fc, the BDNF sequester, to eliminate the effects of endogenous BDNF. ATP-stimulated microglia without BDNF was examined. Finally, we used exogenous BDNF to further determine whether BDNF could directly activate BV2 microglia. In all experiments, to quantify BV2 microglia activation, the protein levels of CD11b, a microglial activation marker, were measured by western blot. A Transwell migration assay was used to examine microglial migration. To assess the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, western blot was used to measure BDNF synthesis, and ELISA was used to quantify TNF-α release. In our present research, we have observed that ATP dramatically activates microglia, enhancing microglial migration, increasing the synthesis of BDNF and up-regulating the release of TNF-α. Microglial activation is inhibited following the sequestration of endogenous BDNF, resulting in impaired microglial migration and decreased TNF-α release. Furthermore, exogenous BDNF can also activate microglia to subsequently enhance migration and increase TNF-α release. Therefore, we suggest that microglial

  17. The ischemic environment drives microglia and macrophage function

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    Stefano eFumagalli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells of myeloid origin such as microglia and macrophages act at the crossroads of several inflammatory mechanisms during pathophysiology. Besides pro-inflammatory activity (M1 polarization, myeloid cells acquire protective functions (M2 and participate in the neuroprotective innate mechanisms after brain injury. Experimental research is making considerable efforts to understand the rules that regulate the balance between toxic and protective brain innate immunity. Environmental changes affects microglia/macrophage functions. Hypoxia can affect myeloid cell distribution, activity and phenotype. With their intrinsic differences, microglia and macrophages respond differently to hypoxia, the former depending on ATP to activate, the latter switching to anaerobic metabolism and adapting to hypoxia. Myeloid cell functions include homeostasis control, damage-sensing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis, all distinctive features of these cells. Specific markers and morphologies enable to recognize each functional state. To ensure homeostasis and activate when needed, microglia/macrophage physiology is finely tuned. Microglia are controlled by several neuron-derived components, including contact-dependent inhibitory signals and soluble molecules. Changes in this control can cause chronic activation or priming with specific functional consequences. Strategies such as stem cell treatment may enhance microglia protective polarization. This review presents data from the literature that has greatly advanced our understanding of myeloid cell action in brain injury. We discuss the selective responses of microglia and macrophages to hypoxia after stroke and review relevant markers with the aim of defining the different subpopulations of myeloid cells that are recruited to the injured site. We also cover the functional consequences of chronically active microglia and review pivotal works on microglia regulation that offer new therapeutic possibilities for acute

  18. A novel in vitro human microglia model: characterization of human monocyte-derived microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Samar; Zamin, Rasheeda Mohd; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Filgueira, Luis

    2012-07-30

    Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They help maintaining physiological homeostasis and contribute significantly to inflammatory responses in the course of infection, injury and degenerative processes. To date, there is no standardized simple model available to investigate the biology of human microglia. The aim of this study was to establish a new human microglia model. For that purpose, human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured in serum free medium in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF, NGF and CCL2 to generate monocyte-derived microglia (M-MG). M-MG were clearly different in morphology, phenotype and function from freshly isolated monocytes, cultured monocytes in the absence of the cytokines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (M-DC) cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. M-MG acquired a ramified morphology with primary and secondary processes. M-MG displayed a comparable phenotype to the human microglia cell line HMC3, expressing very low levels of CD45, CD14 and HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c; and undetectable levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83, and a distinct pattern of chemokine receptors (positive for CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR1, CXCR3, CX3CR1; negative for CCR6 and CCR7). In comparison with M-DC, M-MG displayed lower T-lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, as well as lower phagocytosis activity. The described protocol for the generation of human monocyte-derived microglia is feasible, well standardized and reliable, as it uses well defined culture medium and recombinant cytokines, but no serum or conditioned medium. This protocol will certainly be very helpful for future studies investigating the biology and pathology of human microglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution, markers and functions of retinal microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Yang, P.Z.; Kijlstra, A.

    2002-01-01

    Retinal microglia originate from hemopoietic cells and invade the retina from the retinal margin and the optic disc, most likely via the blood vessels of the ciliary body and iris, and the retinal vasculature, respectively. The microglial precursors that appear in the retina prior to vascularization

  20. Distribution, markers, and functions of retinal microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ling; Yang, Peizeng; Kijlstra, Aize

    2002-01-01

    Retinal microglia originate from hemopoietic cells and invade the retina from the retinal margin and the optic disc, most likely via the blood vessels of the ciliary body and iris, and the retinal vasculature, respectively. The microglial precursors that appear in the retina prior to vascularization

  1. Neuron-microglia interactions in mental health disorders: 'For better, and for worse'

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    Eric S Wohleb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cognitive and behavioral symptoms that characterize many mental health disorders arise from impaired neuroplasticity in several key corticolimbic brain regions. Recent evidence suggest that reciprocal neuron-microglia interactions shape neuroplasticity during physiological conditions, implicating microglia in the neurobiology of mental health disorders. Neuron-microglia interactions are modulated by several molecular and cellular pathways and dysregulation of these pathways often have neurobiological consequences, including aberrant neuronal responses and microglia activation. The interactions between neurons and microglia have implications for mental health disorders as rodent stress models cause concomitant neuronal dystrophy and alterations in microglia morphology and function. In this context, functional changes in microglia may be indicative of an immune state termed parainflammation in which tissue-resident macrophages (i.e., microglia respond to malfunctioning cells by initiating modest inflammation in an attempt to restore homeostasis. Thus, aberrant neuronal activity and release of damage-associated signals during repeated stress exposure may contribute to functional changes in microglia and resultant parainflammation. Furthermore, accumulating evidence shows that uncoupling neuron-microglia interactions may contribute to altered neuroplasticity and associated anxiety- or depressive-like behaviors. Additional work shows that microglia have varied phenotypes in specific brain regions, which may underlie divergent neuroplasticity observed in corticolimbic structures following stress exposure. These findings indicate that neuron-microglia interactions are critical mediators of the interface between adaptive, homeostatic neuronal function and the neurobiology of mental health disorders.

  2. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesov, Mikhail V; Ayhan, Yavuz; Wolbert, Candie; Moldovan, Krisztina; Sauder, Christian; Pletnikov, Mikhail V

    2008-11-11

    Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  3. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection

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    Sauder Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  4. Sortilin in microglia reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Anne Louise Søby; Jager, Sara Buskbjerg; Richner, Mette

    Neuropathic pain is a serious neurological disease affecting patients with peripheral nerve injuries and neuropathies. Unfortunately, the existing treatments are insufficient in giving patients pain relieve and preventing the development of neuropathic pain. Neuroinflammation is a major...... contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. It has been well accepted that activation of microglia is essential in the spinal neuroinflammatory process underlying development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Unpublished data from sortilin knockout mice shows that the lack...... of the neuronal receptor, Sortilin, decreases development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Because Sortilin influences the inflammatory response in macrophages, it may also affect the response in microglia and the spinal neuroinflammation. Therefore, the aim of this project is to understand how...

  5. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

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    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  6. Microglia activation in sepsis: a case-control study

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    Rozemuller Annemiek JM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background infection induces an acute phase response that is accompanied by non-specific symptoms collectively named sickness behavior. Recent observations suggest that microglial cells play a role in mediating behavioral changes in systemic infections. In animal models for sepsis it has been shown that after inducing lipopolysaccharide, LPS, microglia in the brain were activated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether activation of microglia can be detected in patients who died of sepsis. Methods in a case-control study brain tissue of 13 patients who died with sepsis was compared with that of 17 controls. Activated microglia were identified by expression of MHC-class II antigens and CD68. Microglia activation was analyzed by a semiquantitative score combining both the number of the immunoreactive cells and their morphology. Results in patients who died with sepsis there was a significant increase in activated microglia in the grey matter when stained with CD68 compared to controls. This effect was independent of the effect of age. Conclusion this study shows for the first time in human brain tissue an association between a systemic infection and activation of microglia in the brain. Activated microglia during sepsis could play a role in behavioral changes associated with systemic infection.

  7. A Highly Efficient Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Microglia Model Displays a Neuronal-Co-culture-Specific Expression Profile and Inflammatory Response

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    Walther Haenseler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are increasingly implicated in brain pathology, particularly neurodegenerative disease, with many genes implicated in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and motor neuron disease expressed in microglia. There is, therefore, a need for authentic, efficient in vitro models to study human microglial pathological mechanisms. Microglia originate from the yolk sac as MYB-independent macrophages, migrating into the developing brain to complete differentiation. Here, we recapitulate microglial ontogeny by highly efficient differentiation of embryonic MYB-independent iPSC-derived macrophages then co-culture them with iPSC-derived cortical neurons. Co-cultures retain neuronal maturity and functionality for many weeks. Co-culture microglia express key microglia-specific markers and neurodegenerative disease-relevant genes, develop highly dynamic ramifications, and are phagocytic. Upon activation they become more ameboid, releasing multiple microglia-relevant cytokines. Importantly, co-culture microglia downregulate pathogen-response pathways, upregulate homeostatic function pathways, and promote a more anti-inflammatory and pro-remodeling cytokine response than corresponding monocultures, demonstrating that co-cultures are preferable for modeling authentic microglial physiology.

  8. Microglia from neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions display differential proliferative potential and neuroblast support

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    Gregory Paul Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia isolated from the neurogenic subependymal zone (SEZ and hippocampus (HC are capable of massive in vitro population expansion that is not possible with microglia isolated from non-neurogenic regions. We asked if this regional heterogeneity in microglial proliferative capacity is cell intrinsic, or is conferred by interaction with respective neurogenic or non-neurogenic niches. By combining SEZ and cerebral cortex (CTX primary tissue dissociates to generate heterospatial cultures, we find that exposure to the SEZ environment does not enhance CTX microglia expansion; however, the CTX environment exerts a suppressive effect on SEZ microglia expansion. Furthermore, addition of purified donor SEZ microglia to either CTX- or SEZ-derived cultures suppresses the expansion of host microglia, while the addition of donor CTX microglia enhances the over-all microglia yield. These data suggest that SEZ and CTX microglia possess intrinsic, spatially restricted characteristics that are independent of their in vitro environment, and that they represent unique and functionally distinct populations. Finally, we determined that the repeated supplementation of neurogenic SEZ cultures with expanded SEZ microglia allows for sustained levels of inducible neurogenesis, provided that the ratio of microglia to total cells remains within a fairly narrow range.

  9. Exosomes from NSC-34 Cells Transfected with hSOD1-G93A Are Enriched in miR-124 and Drive Alterations in Microglia Phenotype

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    Sara Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons (MNs. Evidences indicate that ALS is a non-cell autonomous disease in which glial cells participate in both disease onset and progression. Exosomal transfer of mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1 from cell-to-cell was suggested to contribute to disease dissemination. Data from our group and others showed that exosomes from activated cells contain inflammatory-related microRNAs (inflamma-miRNAs that recapitulate the donor cell. While glia-derived exosomes and their effects in neurons have been addressed by several studies, only a few investigated the influence of motor neuron (MN-derived exosomes in other cell function, the aim of the present study. We assessed a set of inflamma-miRs in NSC-34 MN-like cells transfected with mutant SOD1(G93A and extended the study into their derived exosomes (mSOD1 exosomes. Then, the effects produced by mSOD1 exosomes in the activation and polarization of the recipient N9 microglial cells were investigated. Exosomes in coculture with N9 microglia and NSC-34 cells [either transfected with either wild-type (wt human SOD1 or mutant SOD1(G93A] showed to be transferred into N9 cells. Increased miR-124 expression was found in mSOD1 NSC-34 cells and in their derived exosomes. Incubation of mSOD1 exosomes with N9 cells determined a sustained 50% reduction in the cell phagocytic ability. It also caused a persistent NF-kB activation and an acute generation of NO, MMP-2, and MMP-9 activation, as well as upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, MHC-II, and iNOS gene expression, suggestive of induced M1 polarization. Marked elevation of IL-10, Arginase 1, TREM2, RAGE, and TLR4 mRNA levels, together with increased miR-124, miR-146a, and miR-155, at 24 h incubation, suggest the switch to mixed M1 and M2 subpopulations in the exosome-treated N9 microglial cells. Exosomes from mSOD1 NSC-34 MNs also enhanced the number

  10. Developmental stage of oligodendrocytes determines their response to activated microglia in vitro

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    Bresnahan Jacqueline C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes are both lost in central nervous system injury and disease. Activated microglia may play a role in OPC and oligodendrocyte loss or replacement, but it is not clear how the responses of OPCs and oligodendrocytes to activated microglia differ. Methods OPCs and microglia were isolated from rat cortex. OPCs were induced to differentiate into oligodendrocytes with thyroid hormone in defined medium. For selected experiments, microglia were added to OPC or oligodendrocyte cultures. Lipopolysaccharide was used to activate microglia and microglial activation was confirmed by TNFα ELISA. Cell survival was assessed with immunocytochemistry and cell counts. OPC proliferation and oligodendrocyte apoptosis were also assessed. Results OPCs and oligodendrocytes displayed phenotypes representative of immature and mature oligodendrocytes, respectively. Activated microglia reduced OPC survival, but increased survival and reduced apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes. Activated microglia also underwent cell death themselves. Conclusion Activated microglia may have divergent effects on OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes, reducing OPC survival and increasing mature oligodendrocyte survival. This may be of importance because activated microglia are present in several disease states where both OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes are also reacting to injury. Activated microglia may simultaneously have deleterious and helpful effects on different cells after central nervous system injury.

  11. Developmental Apoptosis Mediates Entry and Positioning of Microglia in the Zebrafish Brain

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    Alessandra Maria Casano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, neurons that fail to assemble into functional circuits are eliminated. Their clearance depends on microglia, immune cells that colonize the CNS during embryogenesis. Despite the importance of these cells in development and disease, the mechanisms that target and position microglia within the brain are unclear. Here we show that, in zebrafish, attraction of microglia into the brain exploits differences in developmental neuronal apoptosis and that these provide a mechanism for microglial distribution. Reducing neuronal cell death results in fewer microglia, whereas increased apoptosis enhances brain colonization, resulting in more microglia at later stages. Interestingly, attraction into the brain depends on nucleotide signaling, the same signaling system used to guide microglia toward brain injuries. Finally, this work uncovers a cell-non-autonomous role for developmental apoptosis. Classically considered a wasteful process, programmed cell death is exploited here to configure the immune-neuronal interface of the brain.

  12. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Attenuates Neuroinflammation through the Inhibition of Microglia Activation

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    Feng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the microglia activation. Upon activation, microglia are capable of producing various proinflammatory factors and the accumulation of these factors contribute to the neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might hold potential therapy for neurological disorders. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, an active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, is reported to be beneficial for human health with a great number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical-scavenging, anti-inflammation, antilipemia, and cardioprotective effects. Recently, TSG-mediated neuroprotective effects have been well demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective actions of TSG on microglia-induced neuroinflammation are not known. In the present study, microglia BV2 cell lines were applied to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of TSG. Results showed that TSG reduced LPS-induced microglia-derived release of proinflammatory factors such as TNFα, IL-1β, and NO. Moreover, TSG attenuated LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Further studies indicated that TSG inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Together, TSG exerted neuroprotection against microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, suggesting that TSG might present a promising benefit for neurological disorders treatment.

  13. Liposomal TriCurin, A Synergistic Combination of Curcumin, Epicatechin Gallate and Resveratrol, Repolarizes Tumor-Associated Microglia/Macrophages, and Eliminates Glioblastoma (GBM and GBM Stem Cells

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    Sumit Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is a deadly brain tumor with a current mean survival of 12–15 months. Despite being a potent anti-cancer agent, the turmeric ingredient curcumin (C has limited anti-tumor efficacy in vivo due to its low bioavailability. We have reported earlier a strategy involving the use two other polyphenols, epicatechin gallate (E from green tea and resveratrol (R from red grapes at a unique, synergistic molar ratio with C (C:E:R: 4:1:12.5, termed TriCurin to achieve superior potency against HPV+ tumors than C alone at C:E:R (μM: 32:8:100 (termed 32 μM+ TriCurin. We have now prepared liposomal TriCurin (TrLp and demonstrated that TrLp boosts activated p53 in cultured GL261 mouse GBM cells to trigger apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells in vitro. TrLp administration into mice yielded a stable plasma concentration of 210 nM C for 60 min, which, though sub-lethal for cultured GL261 cells, was able to cause repolarization of M2-like tumor (GBM-associated microglia/macrophages to the tumoricidal M1-like phenotype and intra-GBM recruitment of activated natural killer cells. The intratumor presence of such tumoricidal immune cells was associated with concomitant suppression of tumor-load, and apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells. Thus, TrLp is a potential onco-immunotherapeutic agent against GBM tumors.

  14. Differentiation of primary adult microglia alters their response to TLR8-mediated activation but not their capacity as APC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk-Sick, E.A.; Putten, C. van der; Bsibsi, M.; Deuzing, I.P.; Boer, W. de; Persoon-Deen, C.; Kondova, I.; Boven, L.A.; Noort, J.M. van; Hart, B.A. 't; Amor, S.; Bajramovic, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Activated microglia are found in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders where they have attributed roles as effector as well as antigen-presenting cells (APC). Critical determinants for the multifaceted role of microglia are the differentiation potential of microglia and their mode of activation.

  15. Microglia Responses in Acute and Chronic Neurological Diseases: What Microglia-Specific Transcriptomic Studies Taught (and did Not Teach Us

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    Hélène E. Hirbec

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, microglia have been acknowledged to be key players in central nervous system (CNS under both physiological and pathological conditions. They constantly survey the CNS environment and as immune cells, in pathological contexts, they provide the first host defense and orchestrate the immune response. It is well recognized that under pathological conditions microglia have both sequential and simultaneous, beneficial and detrimental effects. Cell-specific transcriptomics recently became popular in Neuroscience field allowing concurrent monitoring of the expression of numerous genes in a given cell population. Moreover, by comparing two or more conditions, these approaches permit to unbiasedly identify deregulated genes and pathways. A growing number of studies have thus investigated microglial transcriptome remodeling over the course of neuropathological conditions and highlighted the molecular diversity of microglial response to different diseases. In the present work, we restrict our review to microglia obtained directly from in vivo samples and not cell culture, and to studies using whole-genome strategies. We first critically review the different methods developed to decipher microglia transcriptome. In particular, we compare advantages and drawbacks of flow cytometry and laser microdissection to isolate pure microglia population as well as identification of deregulated microglial genes obtained via RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq vs. microarrays approaches. Second, we summarize insights obtained from microglia transcriptomes in traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, pain and more chronic neurological conditions including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Alzheimer disease (AD and Multiple sclerosis (MS. Transcriptomic responses of microglia in other non-neurodegenerative CNS disorders such as gliomas and sepsis are also addressed. Third, we present a comparison of the most activated pathways in each neuropathological condition

  16. The Biphasic Role of Microglia in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Tetsuya Mizuno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Microglia, macrophage-like resident immune cells in the brain, play critical roles in the inflammatory aspects of AD. Microglia may be activated by oligomeric and fibrillar species of amyloid β (Aβ that are constituents of senile plaques and by molecules derived from degenerated neurons, such as purines and chemokines, which enhance their migration and phagocytosis. The main neurotoxic molecules produced by activated microglia may be reactive oxygen species, glutamate, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor-necrosis-factor-α and interleukin- (IL- 1β These molecules differentially induce neurotoxicity. Aβ itself directly damages neurons. In terms of neuroprotective properties, microglia treated with fractalkine or IL-34 attenuate Aβ neurotoxicity by Aβ clearance and the production of antioxidants. Therefore, regulation of the microglial role in neuroprotection may be a useful therapeutic strategy for AD.

  17. Pristimerin Inhibits LPS-Triggered Neurotoxicity in BV-2 Microglia Cells Through Modulating IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1-Mediated NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Bin; Zhang, Liping; Zhou, Qinhua; Hui, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Microglia plays a prominent role in the brain's inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations and secreting inflammatory molecules. However, hyperactivated microglial is neurotoxic and plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, possesses antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect and the molecular mechanism of pristimerin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in microglia remain to be revealed. In the present study, using BV-2 microglial cultures, we investigated whether pristimerin modifies neurotoxicity after LPS stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the effect of pristimerin. Here we show that pristimerin markedly suppressed the release of Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). Pristimerin also significantly inhibited migration of BV-2 microglia and alleviated the death of neuron-like PC12 cell induced by the conditioned medium from LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells. Moreover, pristimerin reduced the expression and interaction of TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) and Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases (IRAK1), limiting TGF-beta activating kinase 1 (TAK1) activation, and resulting in an inhibition of IKKα/β/NF-κB and MKK7/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Taken together, the anti-neurotoxicity action of pristimerin is mediated through the inhibition of TRAF6/IRAK1/TAK1 interaction as well as the related pathways: IKKα/β/NF-κB and MKK7/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. These findings may suggest that pristimerin might serve as a new therapeutic agent for treating hyperactivated microglial induced neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Sortilin in microglia reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Anne Louise Søby; Jager, Sara Buskbjerg; Richner, Mette

    Neuropathic pain is a serious neurological disease estimated to affect around 8% of the Western population. It can be caused by either direct injuries to the peripheral nervous system (e.g. surgery) or indirect injuries (e.g. diabetes or cancer). Unfortunately, patients very often do not respond to...... is essential in the spinal neuroinflammatory process underlying development of neuropathic pain after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Unpublished data from Sortilin deficient mice shows that lack of the neuronal receptor Sortilin decreases development of neuropathic pain after PNI. As Sortilin is reported...... focuses on investigating primary microglia cultures from wild type and Sortilin deficient mice by comparing profiles of released cytokines following an injury mimicking stimulation, 2) The in vivo part compares cytokine expressions in spinal cord lysates after PNI. We hope that this study will improve...

  19. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells and MSC conditioned medium in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS--in vitro evidence from primary motor neuron cultures, NSC-34 cells, astrocytes and microglia.

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    Hui Sun

    Full Text Available Administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC improves functional outcome in the SOD1G93A mouse model of the degenerative motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS as well as in models of other neurological disorders. We have now investigated the effect of the interaction between MSC and motor neurons (derived from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A transgenic mice, NSC-34 cells and glial cells (astrocytes, microglia (derived again from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice in vitro. In primary motor neurons, NSC-34 cells and astrocytes, MSC conditioned medium (MSC CM attenuated staurosporine (STS - induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Studying MSC CM-induced expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes and NSC-34 cells, we found that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF gene expression in astrocytes were significantly enhanced by MSC CM, with differential responses of non-transgenic and mutant astrocytes. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF in NSC-34 cells was significantly upregulated upon MSC CM-treatment. MSC CM significantly reduced the expression of the cytokines TNFα and IL-6 and iNOS both in transgenic and non-transgenic astrocytes. Gene expression of the neuroprotective chemokine Fractalkine (CX3CL1 was also upregulated in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic astrocytes by MSC CM treatment. Correspondingly, MSC CM increased the respective receptor, CX3CR1, in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic microglia. Our data demonstrate that MSC modulate motor neuronal and glial response to apoptosis and inflammation. MSC therefore represent an interesting candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation in ALS.

  20. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells and MSC conditioned medium in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)--in vitro evidence from primary motor neuron cultures, NSC-34 cells, astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Bénardais, Karelle; Stanslowsky, Nancy; Thau-Habermann, Nadine; Hensel, Niko; Huang, Dongya; Claus, Peter; Dengler, Reinhard; Stangel, Martin; Petri, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) improves functional outcome in the SOD1G93A mouse model of the degenerative motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as in models of other neurological disorders. We have now investigated the effect of the interaction between MSC and motor neurons (derived from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A transgenic mice), NSC-34 cells and glial cells (astrocytes, microglia) (derived again from both non-transgenic and mutant SOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice) in vitro. In primary motor neurons, NSC-34 cells and astrocytes, MSC conditioned medium (MSC CM) attenuated staurosporine (STS) - induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Studying MSC CM-induced expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes and NSC-34 cells, we found that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene expression in astrocytes were significantly enhanced by MSC CM, with differential responses of non-transgenic and mutant astrocytes. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in NSC-34 cells was significantly upregulated upon MSC CM-treatment. MSC CM significantly reduced the expression of the cytokines TNFα and IL-6 and iNOS both in transgenic and non-transgenic astrocytes. Gene expression of the neuroprotective chemokine Fractalkine (CX3CL1) was also upregulated in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic astrocytes by MSC CM treatment. Correspondingly, MSC CM increased the respective receptor, CX3CR1, in mutant SOD1G93A transgenic microglia. Our data demonstrate that MSC modulate motor neuronal and glial response to apoptosis and inflammation. MSC therefore represent an interesting candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation in ALS.

  1. Siglec-H is a microglia-specific marker that discriminates microglia from CNS-associated macrophages and CNS-infiltrating monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kunisawa, Taikan; Imai, Kenta; Sayo, Akira; Malissen, Bernard; Crocker, Paul R; Sato, Katsuaki; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Several types of myeloid cell are resident in the CNS. In the steady state, microglia are present in the CNS parenchyma, whereas macrophages reside in boundary regions of the CNS, such as perivascular spaces, the meninges and choroid plexus. In addition, monocytes infiltrate into the CNS parenchyma from circulation upon blood-brain barrier breakdown after CNS injury and inflammation. Although several markers, such as CD11b and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), are frequently used as microglial markers, they are also expressed by other types of myeloid cell and microglia-specific markers were not defined until recently. Previous transcriptome analyses of isolated microglia identified a transmembrane lectin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin H (Siglec-H), as a molecular signature for microglia; however, this was not confirmed by histological studies in the nervous system and the reliability of Siglec-H as a microglial marker remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Siglec-H is an authentic marker for microglia in mice by immunohistochemistry using a Siglec-H-specific antibody. Siglec-H was expressed by parenchymal microglia from developmental stages to adulthood, and the expression was maintained in activated microglia under injury or inflammatory condition. However, Siglec-H expression was absent from CNS-associated macrophages and CNS-infiltrating monocytes, except for a minor subset of cells. We also show that the Siglech gene locus is a feasible site for specific targeting of microglia in the nervous system. In conclusion, Siglec-H is a reliable marker for microglia that will allow histological identification of microglia and microglia-specific gene manipulation in the nervous system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Ryusuke; Oishi, Hisashi; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol - studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Kaushansky, Nathali; Mechoulam, Raphael; Vogel, Zvi

    2016-05-01

    Dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol (DMH-CBD), a non-psychoactive, synthetic derivative of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to be anti-inflammatory in RAW macrophages. Here, we evaluated the effects of DMH-CBD at the transcriptional level in BV-2 microglial cells as well as on the proliferation of encephalitogenic T cells. BV-2 cells were pretreated with DMH-CBD, followed by stimulation with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression levels of selected genes involved in stress regulation and inflammation were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, MOG35-55-reactive T cells (TMOG) were cultured with antigen-presenting cells in the presence of DMH-CBD and MOG35-55 peptide, and cell proliferation was determined by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation. DMH-CBD treatment downregulated in a dose-dependent manner the mRNA expression of LPS-upregulated pro-inflammatory genes (Il1b, Il6, and Tnf) in BV-2 microglial cells. The expression of these genes was also downregulated by DMH-CBD in unstimulated cells. In parallel, DMH-CBD upregulated the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and glutathione homeostasis such as Trb3, Slc7a11/xCT, Hmox1, Atf4, Chop, and p8 in both stimulated and unstimulated microglial cells. In addition, DMH-CBD dose-dependently inhibited MOG35-55-induced TMOG proliferation. The results show that DMH-CBD has similar anti-inflammatory properties to those of CBD. DMH-CBD downregulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and protects the microglial cells by inducing an adaptive cellular response against inflammatory stimuli and oxidative injury. In addition, DMH-CBD decreases the proliferation of pathogenic activated TMOG cells.

  4. ATP Modifies the Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Microglia and Influences Their Action on Astrocytes

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    Francesco Drago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP is among molecules promoting microglia activation and inducing the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are potent mediators of intercellular communication between microglia and the microenvironment. We previously showed that EVs produced under ATP stimulation (ATP-EVs propagate a robust inflammatory reaction among astrocytes and microglia in vitro and in mice with subclinical neuroinflammation (Verderio et al., 2012. However, the proteome of EVs released upon ATP stimulation has not yet been elucidated. In this study we applied a label free proteomic approach to characterize the proteome of EVs released constitutively and during microglia activation with ATP. We show that ATP drives sorting in EVs of a set of proteins implicated in cell adhesion/extracellular matrix organization, autophagy-lysosomal pathway and cellular metabolism, that may influence the response of recipient astrocytes to EVs. These data provide new clues to molecular mechanisms involved in microglia response to ATP and in microglia signaling to the environment via EVs.

  5. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration

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    Ngan Pan Bennett Au

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we

  6. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ngan Pan Bennett; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT). These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we discuss the

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Microglia Turnover in the Mouse Retina After Ionizing Radiation and Dexamethasone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, C.; Runnels, J. M.; Mortensen, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    to the microglia loss, resulting in a transient depletion of the total immune cell number in the retina. With dexamethasone treatment, both the loss of the resident microglia and the infiltration of BMDCs were suppressed by at least 50%. CONCLUSIONS. Anti-inflammatory treatment with the corticosteroidal agent...... and bone marrow transplantation from universal DsRed donor mice. Mice were treated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone; a control group received no dexamethasone treatment. The populations of resident microglia (GFP+) and BMDCs (DsRed+) were quantified by serial in vivo imaging for 10 weeks after...... dexamethasone preserves resident microglia and minimizes recruitment of BMDCs after ionizing radiation exposure and BMT....

  8. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells

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    Yasuhiro Yoshioka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (−-(6aR,12bR-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208–243 and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ, accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells.

  9. Microglia change from a reactive to an age-like phenotype with the time in culture

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    Claudia eCaldeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with chronic neuroinflammation and microglia activation. However, cumulative evidence supports that inflammation only occurs at an early stage once microglia change the endogenous characteristics with ageing and switch to irresponsive/senescent and dystrophic phenotypes with disease progression. Thus, it will be important to have the means to assess the role of reactive and aged microglia when studying advanced brain neurodegeneration processes and age-associated related disorders. Yet, most studies are done with microglia from neonates since there are no adequate means to isolate degenerating microglia for experimentation. Indeed, only a few studies report microglia isolation from aged animals, using either short-term cultures or high concentrations of mitogens in the medium, which trigger microglia reactivity. The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental process to naturally age microglia after isolation from neonatal mice and to characterize the cultured cells at 2 days in vitro (DIV, 10 DIV and 16 DIV. We found that 2 DIV (young microglia had predominant amoeboid morphology and markers of stressed/reactive phenotype. In contrast, 16 DIV (aged microglia evidenced ramified morphology and increased metalloproteinase (MMP-2 activation, as well as reduced MMP-9, glutamate release and nuclear factor kappa-B activation, in parallel with decreased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR-2 and TLR-4, capacity to migrate and phagocytose. These findings together with the reduced expression of microRNA (miR-124, and miR-155, decreased autophagy, enhanced senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and elevated miR-146a expression, are suggestive that 16 DIV cells mainly correspond to irresponsive/senescent microglia. Data indicate that the model represent an opportunity to understand and control microglial aging, as well as to explore strategies to recover microglia surveillance

  10. Key Aging-Associated Alterations in Primary Microglia Response to Beta-Amyloid Stimulation

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    Cláudia Caldeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we wondered if isolated microglia cultured for 16 days in vitro (DIV would react differentially from the 2 DIV cells upon treatment with 1000 nM Aβ1–42 for 24 h. No changes in cell viability were observed and morphometric alterations associated to microglia activation, such as volume increase and process shortening, were obvious in 2 DIV microglia, but less evident in 16 DIV cells. These cells showed lower phagocytic, migration and autophagic properties after Aβ treatment than the 2 DIV cultured microglia. Reduced phagocytosis may derive from increased CD33 expression, reduced triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2 and milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8 levels, which were mainly observed in 16 DIV cells. Activation of inflammatory mediators, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increased expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4 and fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1 cell surface receptors were prominent in 2 DIV microglia, while elevation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 was marked in 16 DIV cells. Increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal and upregulated miR-146a expression that were observed in 16 DIV cells showed to increase by Aβ in 2 DIV microglia. Additionally, Aβ downregulated miR-155 and miR-124, and reduced the CD11b+ subpopulation in 2 DIV microglia, while

  11. Key Aging-Associated Alterations in Primary Microglia Response to Beta-Amyloid Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Cláudia; Cunha, Carolina; Vaz, Ana R; Falcão, Ana S; Barateiro, Andreia; Seixas, Elsa; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we wondered if isolated microglia cultured for 16 days in vitro (DIV) would react differentially from the 2 DIV cells upon treatment with 1000 nM Aβ1-42 for 24 h. No changes in cell viability were observed and morphometric alterations associated to microglia activation, such as volume increase and process shortening, were obvious in 2 DIV microglia, but less evident in 16 DIV cells. These cells showed lower phagocytic, migration and autophagic properties after Aβ treatment than the 2 DIV cultured microglia. Reduced phagocytosis may derive from increased CD33 expression, reduced triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8) levels, which were mainly observed in 16 DIV cells. Activation of inflammatory mediators, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increased expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) cell surface receptors were prominent in 2 DIV microglia, while elevation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was marked in 16 DIV cells. Increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and upregulated miR-146a expression that were observed in 16 DIV cells showed to increase by Aβ in 2 DIV microglia. Additionally, Aβ downregulated miR-155 and miR-124, and reduced the CD11b+ subpopulation in 2 DIV microglia, while increased the

  12. Profiling of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2production using the H2O2-sensitive protein HyPer in LPS-induced microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2017-07-27

    Dysregulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia exacerbates the pathologic process of neurodegenerative disease. ROS actively affect microglia activation by regulating transcription factors that control the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. However, accurate information regarding the function of ROS in different subcellular organelles has not yet been established. Here, we analyzed the pattern of cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 formation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia using the H 2 O 2- sensitive protein HyPer targeted to specific subcellular compartments. Our results show that from an early time, cytosolic H 2 O 2 started increasing constantly, whereas mitochondrial H 2 O 2 rapidly increased later. In addition, we found that MAPK affected cytosolic H 2 O 2 , but not mitochondrial H 2 O 2 . Consequently, our study provides the basic information about subcellular H 2 O 2 generation in activated microglia, and a useful tool for investigating molecular targets that can modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  14. Bidirectional microglia-neuron communication in the healthy brain.

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    Eyo, Ukpong B; Wu, Long-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i) neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii) classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii) chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i) direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii) microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  15. A starring role for microglia in brain sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Kathryn M; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-06-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the brain, have long been understood to be crucial to maintenance in the nervous system, by clearing debris, monitoring for infiltration of infectious agents, and mediating the brain's inflammatory and repair response to traumatic injury, stroke, or neurodegeneration. A wave of new research has shown that microglia are also active players in many basic processes in the healthy brain, including cell proliferation, synaptic connectivity, and physiology. Microglia, both in their capacity as phagocytic cells and via secretion of many neuroactive molecules, including cytokines and growth factors, play a central role in early brain development, including sexual differentiation of the brain. In this review, we present the vast roles microglia play in normal brain development and how perturbations in the normal neuroimmune environment during development may contribute to the etiology of brain-based disorders. There are notable differences between microglia and neuroimmune signaling in the male and female brain throughout the life span, and these differences may contribute to the vast differences in the incidence of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders between males and females. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Bidirectional Microglia-Neuron Communication in the Healthy Brain

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    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  17. ROS/TXNIP pathway contributes to thrombin induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell apoptosis in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinchun; Zuo, Dandan; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Liang; Tang, Jiao; Cui, Chengcheng; Bao, Lei; Zan, Kun; Zhang, Zuohui; Yang, Xinxin; Chen, Hao; Tang, Hai; Zu, Jie; Shi, Hongjuan; Cui, Guiyun

    2017-04-01

    There is no effective therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) because of poor understanding of the mechanisms of brain injury after hemorrhage. The NLRP3 inflammasome, as a vital component of innate immune system, which is associated with a wide range of human CNS disorders, including ICH. But its detailed mechanisms in ICH remain mainly unclear. In this study, BV2 cells with thrombin exposure were used to investigate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in thrombin-induced brain injury. We used western blot to detect NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the expression of thioredoxin binding protein (TXNIP), DCFH-DA to investigate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), flow cytometry to analyze apoptosis. Our results showed that ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) suppressed the upregulation of intracellular ROS and TXNIP expression. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis and expression of apoptotic protein were significantly attenuated after treatment of thrombin with NAC or NLRP3 antagonist (MCC950). Thrombin activates ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling in BV2 cells, which may indicate a mechanism that pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic contributes to the development of ICH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunits in amoeboid microglia mediates production of nitric oxide via NF-κB signaling pathway and oligodendrocyte cell death in hypoxic postnatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Madhuvika; Sivakumar, Viswanathan; Lu, Jia; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit

    2011-04-01

    The present study was focused on identifying the expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits on activated microglia and to determine their role in the pathogenesis of periventricular white matter damage (PWMD) in neonatal rats following hypoxia. One day old wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia (5% O(2) ; 95% N(2) ) and the mRNA and protein expression of NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A) in the periventricular white matter (PWM) was determined at different time points (3,24 h, 3, 7, and 14 days) following hypoxic exposure. Immunoexpression of NR1 and NR2A-D was localized in amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) suggesting the presence of functional NMDARs in them. The expression of NMDAR in primary microglial cultures was ascertained by RT-PCR analysis and double immunofluorescence studies. The functionality of the microglial NMDAR in cultured microglial cells was examined by monitoring calcium movements in cells with fura-2. In primary microglial cultures, hypoxia induced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB which was suppressed by administration of MK801, an NMDAR antagonist. MK801 also down regulated the hypoxia-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) production by microglia which may be mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. NO produced by microglia is known to cause death of oligodendrocytes in the developing PWM. In this connection, pharmacological agents such as MK801, BAY (NF-κB inhibitor), and 1400w (iNOS inhibitor) proved to be beneficial since they reduced the hypoxia-induced iNOS expression, NO production, and a corresponding reduction in the death of oligodendrocytes following hypoxia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Jose-Andres C; Lopez Corcino, Yalitza; Miao, Yanling; Tang, Jie; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S; Dubyak, George R; Subauste, Carlos S

    2017-02-01

    Müller cells and macrophages/microglia are likely important for the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the interplay between these cells in this disease is not well understood. An inflammatory process is linked to the onset of experimental diabetic retinopathy. CD40 deficiency impairs this process and prevents diabetic retinopathy. Using mice with CD40 expression restricted to Müller cells, we identified a mechanism by which Müller cells trigger proinflammatory cytokine expression in myeloid cells. During diabetes, mice with CD40 expressed in Müller cells upregulated retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), developed leukostasis and capillary degeneration. However, CD40 did not cause TNF-α or IL-1β secretion in Müller cells. TNF-α was not detected in Müller cells from diabetic mice with CD40+ Müller cells. Rather, TNF-α was upregulated in macrophages/microglia. CD40 ligation in Müller cells triggered phospholipase C-dependent ATP release that caused P2X7-dependent production of TNF-α and IL-1β by macrophages. P2X7-/- mice and mice treated with a P2X7 inhibitor were protected from diabetes-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, and NOS2 upregulation. Our studies indicate that CD40 in Müller cells is sufficient to upregulate retinal inflammatory markers and appears to promote experimental diabetic retinopathy and that Müller cells orchestrate inflammatory responses in myeloid cells through a CD40-ATP-P2X7 pathway. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. A case of mistaken identity: CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in the normal mouse brain parenchyma and neural retina display the phenotype of microglia, not dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Naranjo Golborne, Cecilia; Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    Under steady-state conditions the central nervous system (CNS) is traditionally thought to be devoid of antigen presenting cells; however, putative dendritic cells (DCs) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) are present in the retina and brain parenchyma of CD11c-eYFP mice. We previously showed that these mice carry the Crb1(rd8) mutation, which causes retinal dystrophic lesions; therefore we hypothesized that the presence of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the CNS may be due to pathology associated with the Crb1(rd8) mutation. We generated CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) mice and compared the distribution and immunophenotype of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in CD11c-eYFP mice with and without the Crb1(rd8) mutation. The number and distribution of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in the CNS was similar between CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) and CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice. CD11c-eYFP(+) cells were distributed throughout the inner retina, and clustered in brain regions that receive input from the external environment or lack a blood-brain barrier. CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the retina and cerebral cortex of CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) mice expressed CD11b, F4/80, CD115 and Iba-1, but not DC or antigen presentation markers, whereas CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the choroid plexus and pia mater expressed CD11c, I-A/I-E, CD80, CD86, CD103, DEC205, CD8α and CD135. The immunophenotype of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells and microglia within the CNS was similar between CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) and CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice; however, CD11c and I-A/I-E expression was significantly increased in CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice. This study demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of CNS CD11c-eYFP(+) cells do not display the phenotype of DCs or their precursors and are most likely a subpopulation of microglia. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1331-1349. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A neurodegeneration-specific gene-expression signature of acutely isolated microglia from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Isaac M; Morimoto, Emiko T A; Goodarzi, Hani; Liao, Jennifer T; O'Keeffe, Sean; Phatnani, Hemali P; Muratet, Michael; Carroll, Michael C; Levy, Shawn; Tavazoie, Saeed; Myers, Richard M; Maniatis, Tom

    2013-07-25

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS that are activated by infection, neuronal injury, and inflammation. Here, we utilize flow cytometry and deep RNA sequencing of acutely isolated spinal cord microglia to define their activation in vivo. Analysis of resting microglia identified 29 genes that distinguish microglia from other CNS cells and peripheral macrophages/monocytes. We then analyzed molecular changes in microglia during neurodegenerative disease activation using the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We found that SOD1(G93A) microglia are not derived from infiltrating monocytes, and that both potentially neuroprotective and toxic factors, including Alzheimer's disease genes, are concurrently upregulated. Mutant microglia differed from SOD1(WT), lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia, and M1/M2 macrophages, defining an ALS-specific phenotype. Concurrent messenger RNA/fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed posttranscriptional regulation of microglia surface receptors and T cell-associated changes in the transcriptome. These results provide insights into microglia biology and establish a resource for future studies of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Neurodegeneration-Specific Gene-Expression Signature of Acutely Isolated Microglia from an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac M. Chiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS that are activated by infection, neuronal injury, and inflammation. Here, we utilize flow cytometry and deep RNA sequencing of acutely isolated spinal cord microglia to define their activation in vivo. Analysis of resting microglia identified 29 genes that distinguish microglia from other CNS cells and peripheral macrophages/monocytes. We then analyzed molecular changes in microglia during neurodegenerative disease activation using the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We found that SOD1G93A microglia are not derived from infiltrating monocytes, and that both potentially neuroprotective and toxic factors, including Alzheimer’s disease genes, are concurrently upregulated. Mutant microglia differed from SOD1WT, lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia, and M1/M2 macrophages, defining an ALS-specific phenotype. Concurrent messenger RNA/fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed posttranscriptional regulation of microglia surface receptors and T cell-associated changes in the transcriptome. These results provide insights into microglia biology and establish a resource for future studies of neuroinflammation.

  3. Rod-shaped microglia morphology is associated with aging in 2 human autopsy series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Ighodaro, Eseosa T; Hassoun, Yasmin; Aldeiri, Danah; Neltner, Janna H; Patel, Ela; Abner, Erin L; Nelson, Peter T

    2017-04-01

    A subtype of microglia is defined by the morphological appearance of the cells as rod shaped. Little is known about this intriguing cell type, as there are only a few case reports describing rod-shaped microglia in the neuropathological literature. Rod-shaped microglia were shown recently to account for a substantial proportion of the microglia cells in the hippocampus of both demented and cognitively intact aged individuals. We hypothesized that aging could be a defining feature in the occurrence of rod-shaped microglia. To test this hypothesis, 2 independent series of autopsy cases (total n = 168 cases), which covered the adult lifespan from 20 to 100+ years old, were included in the study. The presence or absence of rod-shaped microglia was scored on IBA1 immunohistochemically stained slides for the hippocampus and cortex. We found that age was one of the strongest determinants for the presence of rod-shaped microglia in the hippocampus and the cortex. We found no association with the presence of rod-shaped microglia and a self-reported history of a TBI. Alzheimer's disease-related pathology was found to influence the presence of rod-shaped microglia, but only in the parietal cortex and not in the hippocampus or temporal cortex. Future studies are warranted to determine the functional relevance of rod-shaped microglia in supporting the health of neurons in the aged brain, and the signaling processes that regulate the formation of rod-shaped microglia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Requirement for Microglia for the Maintenance of Synaptic Function and Integrity in the Mature Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhao, Lian; Zhang, Jun; Fariss, Robert N; Ma, Wenxin; Kretschmer, Friedrich; Wang, Minhua; Qian, Hao Hua; Badea, Tudor C; Diamond, Jeffrey S; Gan, Wen-Biao; Roger, Jerome E; Wong, Wai T

    2016-03-02

    Microglia, the principal resident immune cell of the CNS, exert significant influence on neurons during development and in pathological situations. However, if and how microglia contribute to normal neuronal function in the mature uninjured CNS is not well understood. We used the model of the adult mouse retina, a part of the CNS amenable to structural and functional analysis, to investigate the constitutive role of microglia by depleting microglia from the retina in a sustained manner using genetic methods. We discovered that microglia are not acutely required for the maintenance of adult retinal architecture, the survival of retinal neurons, or the laminar organization of their dendritic and axonal compartments. However, sustained microglial depletion results in the degeneration of photoreceptor synapses in the outer plexiform layer, leading to a progressive functional deterioration in retinal light responses. Our results demonstrate that microglia are constitutively required for the maintenance of synaptic structure in the adult retina and for synaptic transmission underlying normal visual function. Our findings on constitutive microglial function are relevant in understanding microglial contributions to pathology and in the consideration of therapeutic interventions that reduce or perturb constitutive microglial function. Microglia, the principal resident immune cell population in the CNS, has been implicated in diseases in the brain and retina. However, how they contribute to the everyday function of the CNS is unclear. Using the model of the adult mouse retina, we examined the constitutive role of microglia by depleting microglia from the retina. We found that in the absence of microglia, retinal neurons did not undergo overt cell death or become structurally disorganized in their processes. However, connections between neurons called synapses begin to break down, leading to a decreased ability of the retina to transmit light responses. Our results indicate

  5. Cell-specific deletion of C1qa identifies microglia as the dominant source of C1q in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria I; Chu, Shu-Hui; Hernandez, Michael X; Fang, Melody J; Modarresi, Lila; Selvan, Pooja; MacGregor, Grant R; Tenner, Andrea J

    2017-03-06

    The complement cascade not only provides protection from infection but can also mediate destructive inflammation. Complement is also involved in elimination of neuronal synapses which is essential for proper development, but can be detrimental during aging and disease. C1q, required for several of these complement-mediated activities, is present in the neuropil, microglia, and a subset of interneurons in the brain. To identify the source(s) of C1q in the brain, the C1qa gene was selectively inactivated in the microglia or Thy-1+ neurons in both wild type mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and C1q synthesis assessed by immunohistochemistry, QPCR, and western blot analysis. While C1q expression in the brain was unaffected after inactivation of C1qa in Thy-1+ neurons, the brains of C1qa FL/FL :Cx3cr1 CreERT2 mice in which C1qa was ablated in microglia were devoid of C1q with the exception of limited C1q in subsets of interneurons. Surprisingly, this loss of C1q occurred even in the absence of tamoxifen by 1 month of age, demonstrating that Cre activity is tamoxifen-independent in microglia in Cx3cr1 CreERT2/WganJ mice. C1q expression in C1qa FL/FL : Cx3cr1 CreERT2/WganJ mice continued to decline and remained almost completely absent through aging and in AD model mice. No difference in C1q was detected in the liver or kidney from C1qa FL/FL : Cx3cr1 CreERT2/WganJ mice relative to controls, and C1qa FL/FL : Cx3cr1 CreERT2/WganJ mice had minimal, if any, reduction in plasma C1q. Thus, microglia, but not neurons or peripheral sources, are the dominant source of C1q in the brain. While demonstrating that the Cx3cr1 CreERT2/WganJ deleter cannot be used for adult-induced deletion of genes in microglia, the model described here enables further investigation of physiological roles of C1q in the brain and identification of therapeutic targets for the selective control of complement-mediated activities contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Microglia-inhibiting activity of Parkinson's disease drug amantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Ho-Won; Hwang, Jaegyu; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Min-Jeong; Han, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2012-09-01

    Amantadine is currently used as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian drug. Although the drug is known to bind a viral proton channel protein, the mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains to be determined. This study investigated whether the drug has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation, which have been implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. Using cultured microglial cells, it was demonstrated that the drug inhibited inflammatory activation of microglia and a signaling pathway that governs the microglial activation. The drug reduced the expression and production of proinflammatory mediators in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells. The microglia-inhibiting activity of amantadine was also demonstrated in a microglia/neuron coculture and animal models of neuroinflammation and Parkinson's disease. Collectively, our results suggest that amantadine may act on microglia in the central nervous system to inhibit their inflammatory activation, thereby attenuating neuroinflammation. These results provide a molecular basis of the glia-targeted mechanism of action for amantadine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging.

  8. A neurodegeneration-specific gene expression signature and immune profile of acutely isolated microglia from an ALS mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Isaac M.; Morimoto, Emiko T.A.; Goodarzi, Hani; Liao, Jennifer T.; O’Keeffe, Sean; Phatnani, Hemali P.; Muratet, Michael; Carroll, Michael C.; Levy, Shawn; Tavazoie, Saeed; Myers, Richard M.; Maniatis, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS that are activated by infection, neuronal injury and inflammation. Here we utilize flow cytometry and deep RNA sequencing of acutely isolated spinal cord microglia to define their activation in vivo. Analysis of resting microglia identified 29 genes that distinguish microglia from other CNS cells and peripheral macrophages/monocytes. We then analyzed molecular changes in microglia during neurodegenerative disease activation using the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. We find that SOD1G93A microglia are not derived from infiltrating monocytes, and that both potentially neuroprotective and toxic factors are concurrently up-regulated, including Alzheimer’s disease genes. Mutant microglia differed from SOD1WT, LPS activated microglia, and M1/M2 macrophages, that define an ALS-specific phenotype. Concurrent mRNA/FACS analysis revealed post-transcriptional regulation of microglia surface receptors, and T cell-associated changes in the transcriptome. These results provide insights into microglia biology and establish a resource for future studies of neuroinflammation. PMID:23850290

  9. Loss of 'homeostatic' microglia and patterns of their activation in active multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrzavy, Tobias; Hametner, Simon; Wimmer, Isabella; Butovsky, Oleg; Weiner, Howard L; Lassmann, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Microglia and macrophages accumulate at the sites of active demyelination and neurodegeneration in the multiple sclerosis brain and are thought to play a central role in the disease process. We used recently described markers to characterize the origin and functional states of microglia/macrophages in acute, relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis. We found microglia activation in normal white matter of controls and that the degree of activation increased with age. This microglia activation was more pronounced in the normal-appearing white matter of patients in comparison to controls and increased with disease duration. In contrast to controls, the normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis showed a significant reduction of P2RY12, a marker expressed in homeostatic microglia in rodents, which was completely lost in active and slowly expanding lesions. Early stages of demyelination and neurodegeneration in active lesions contained microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which expressed molecules involved in phagocytosis, oxidative injury, antigen presentation and T cell co-stimulation. In later stages, the microglia and macrophages in active lesions changed to a phenotype that was intermediate between pro- and anti-inflammatory activation. In inactive lesions, the density of microglia/macrophages was significantly reduced and microglia in part converted to a P2RY12+ phenotype. Analysis of TMEM119, which is expressed on microglia but not on recruited macrophages, demonstrated that on average 45% of the macrophage-like cells in active lesions were derived from the resident microglia pool. Our study demonstrates the loss of the homeostatic microglial signature in active multiple sclerosis with restoration associated with disease inactivity. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  10. DJ-1 deficiency impairs autophagy and reduces alpha-synuclein phagocytosis by microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Yuval; Schmukler, Eran; Trudler, Dorit; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit; Frenkel, Dan

    2017-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, of which 1% of the hereditary cases are linked to mutations in DJ-1, an oxidative stress sensor. The pathological hallmark of PD is intercellular inclusions termed Lewy Bodies, composed mainly of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. Recent findings have shown that α-Syn can be transmitted from cell to cell, suggesting an important role of microglia, as the main scavenger cells of the brain, in clearing α-Syn. We previously reported that the knock down (KD) of DJ-1 in microglia increased cells' neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neurons. Here, we discovered that α-Syn significantly induced elevated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β and a significant dose-dependent elevation in the production of nitric oxide in DJ-1 KD microglia, compared to control microglia. We further investigated the ability of DJ-1 KD microglia to uptake and degrade soluble α-Syn, and discovered that DJ-1 KD reduces cell-surface lipid raft expression in microglia and impairs their ability to uptake soluble α-Syn. Autophagy is an important mechanism for degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles. We discovered that DJ-1 KD microglia exhibit an impaired autophagy-dependent degradation of p62 and LC3 proteins, and that manipulation of autophagy had less effect on α-Syn uptake and clearance in DJ-1 KD microglia, compared to control microglia. Further studies of the link between DJ-1, α-Syn uptake and autophagy may provide useful insights into the role of microglia in the etiology of the PD. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. A quantitative spatiotemporal analysis of microglia morphology during ischemic stroke and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Helena W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia cells continuously survey the healthy brain in a ramified morphology and, in response to injury, undergo progressive morphological and functional changes that encompass microglia activation. Although ideally positioned for immediate response to ischemic stroke (IS and reperfusion, their progressive morphological transformation into activated cells has not been quantified. In addition, it is not well understood if diverse microglia morphologies correlate to diverse microglia functions. As such, the dichotomous nature of these cells continues to confound our understanding of microglia-mediated injury after IS and reperfusion. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of microglia morphology during the evolution of cerebral injury after IS and reperfusion. Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia and periods of reperfusion (0, 8 and 24 h. The microglia process length/cell and number of endpoints/cell was quantified from immunofluorescent confocal images of brain regions using a skeleton analysis method developed for this study. Live cell morphology and process activity were measured from movies acquired in acute brain slices from GFP-CX3CR1 transgenic mice after IS and 24-h reperfusion. Regional CD11b and iNOS expressions were measured from confocal images and Western blot, respectively, to assess microglia proinflammatory function. Results Quantitative analysis reveals a significant spatiotemporal relationship between microglia morphology and evolving cerebral injury in the ipsilateral hemisphere after IS and reperfusion. Microglia were both hyper- and de-ramified in striatal and cortical brain regions (respectively after 60 min of focal cerebral ischemia. However, a de-ramified morphology was prominent when ischemia was coupled to reperfusion. Live microglia were de-ramified, and, in addition, process activity was severely blunted proximal to

  12. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Ochotny, Noelle [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Manolson, Morris F. [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Holliday, L. Shannon, E-mail: sholliday@dental.ufl.edu [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  13. The Indispensable Roles of Microglia and Astrocytes during Brain Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemst, Kitty; Noctor, Stephen C; Lucassen, Paul J; Hol, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same

  14. The indispensable roles of microglia and astrocytes during brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemst, Kitty; Noctor, Stephen C.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Hol, Elly M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/F-1891-2013

    2016-01-01

    Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same

  15. Formation and maintenance of Alzheimer’s disease β-amyloid plaques in the absence of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathwohl, Stefan A; Kälin, Roland E; Bolmont, Tristan; Prokop, Stefan; Winkelmann, Georg; Kaeser, Stephan A; Odenthal, Jörg; Radde, Rebecca; Eldh, Therese; Gandy, Sam; Aguzzi, Adriano; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Mathews, Paul M; Wolburg, Hartwig; Heppner, Frank L; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease, microglia cluster around β-amyloid deposits, suggesting that these cells are important for amyloid plaque formation, maintenance and/or clearance. We crossed two distinct APP transgenic mouse strains with CD11b-HSVTK mice, in which nearly complete ablation of microglia was achieved for up to 4 weeks after ganciclovir application. Neither amyloid plaque formation and maintenance nor amyloid-associated neuritic dystrophy depended on the presence of microglia. PMID:19838177

  16. Microglia Gone Rogue: Impacts on Psychiatric Disorders across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Béchade, Catherine; D’Andrea, Ivana; St-Pierre, Marie-Kim; Henry, Mathilde S.; Roumier, Anne; Tremblay, Marie-Eve

    2018-01-01

    Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance), and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)) or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders). Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). Taking into account the recent identification of microglia

  17. P2Y12 receptor is expressed on human microglia under physiological conditions throughout development and is sensitive to neuroinflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, Alexander; Huang, Hao; Radke, Josefine; Stenzel, Werner; Priller, Josef

    2017-02-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y12 in human brain tissue. Compared to classical markers used to identify microglia such as Iba1, CD68 or MHCII, we found that P2Y12 is expressed on parenchymal microglia but is absent from perivascular or meningeal macrophages. We further demonstrate that P2Y12 expression is stable throughout human brain development, including fetal phases, and quantification of P2 Y12+ microglia revealed that the density of human microglia is constant throughout lifetime. In contrast, CD68 expression increases during aging in cerebellar but not in cortical microglia, indicating regional heterogeneity. CNS pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis-but not schizophrenia-result in decreased P2Y12 immunoreactivity in plaque- or lesion-associated myeloid cells, whereas Iba1 expression remains detectable. Our results suggest that P2Y12 is a useful marker for the identification of human microglia throughout the lifespan. Moreover, P2Y12 expression might help to discriminate activated microglia and infiltrating myeloid cells from quiescent microglia in the human CNS. GLIA 2017;65:375-387. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Differential roles of astrocyte and microglia in supporting oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

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    Pang, Yi; Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Dai, Xuemei; Zheng, Baoying; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Rick C S; Bhatt, Abhay

    2013-09-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) development relies on many extracellular cues, most of which are secreted cytokines from neighboring neural cells. Although it is generally accepted that both astrocytes and microglia are beneficial for OL development, there is a lack of understanding regarding whether astrocytes and microglia play similar or distinct roles. The current study examined the effects of astrocytes and microglia on OL developmental phenotypes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and myelination in vitro. Our data reveal that, although both astrocytes- and microglia-conditioned medium (ACDM and MCDM, respectively) protect OL progenitor cells (OPCs) against growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis, ACDM is significantly more effective than MCDM in supporting long-term OL survival. In contrast, MCDM preferentially promotes OL differentiation and myelination. These differential effects of ACDM and MCDM on OL development are highlighted by distinct pattern of cytokine/growth factors in the conditioned medium, which correlates with differentially activated intracellular signaling pathways in OPCs upon exposure to the conditioned medium.

  19. Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

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    Luo, Qian; Yan, Xiaoli; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Ji, Mei; Yuan, Huiqing; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2017-04-01

    Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed, has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of grossamide before being stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time PCR. The translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and contribution of TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation on inflammatory effects were evaluated by immunostaining and Western blot analysis. This study demonstrated that grossamide significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and decreased the level of LPS-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. In addition, it significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB subunit p65 in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus. Furthermore, grossamide markedly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Culture and characterization of microglia from the adult murine retina.

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    Devarajan, Gayathri; Chen, Mei; Muckersie, Elizabeth; Xu, Heping

    2014-01-01

    To develop a protocol for isolating and culturing murine adult retinal microglia and to characterize the phenotype and function of the cultured cells. Retinal single-cell suspensions were prepared from adult MF1 mice. Culture conditions including culture medium, growth factors, seeding cell density, and purification of microglia from the mixed cultures were optimised. Cultured retinal microglial cells were phenotyped using the surface markers CD45, CD11b, and F4/80. Their ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was examined using cytometric bead array (CBA) assay. Higher yield was obtained when retinal single-cell suspension was cultured at the density of 0.75 × 10(6) cells per cm(2) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM)/F12 + Glutamax supplement with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 20% L929 supernatant. We identified day 10 to be the optimum day of microglial isolation. Over 98% of the cells isolated were positive for CD45, CD11b, and F4/80. After stimulating with LPS they were able to secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF- α and express CD86, CD40, and MHC-II. We have developed a simple method for isolating and culturing retinal microglia from adult mice.

  1. Culture and Characterization of Microglia from the Adult Murine Retina

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    Gayathri Devarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a protocol for isolating and culturing murine adult retinal microglia and to characterize the phenotype and function of the cultured cells. Method. Retinal single-cell suspensions were prepared from adult MF1 mice. Culture conditions including culture medium, growth factors, seeding cell density, and purification of microglia from the mixed cultures were optimised. Cultured retinal microglial cells were phenotyped using the surface markers CD45, CD11b, and F4/80. Their ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation was examined using cytometric bead array (CBA assay. Results. Higher yield was obtained when retinal single-cell suspension was cultured at the density of 0.75×106 cells per cm2 in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM/F12 + Glutamax supplement with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS and 20% L929 supernatant. We identified day 10 to be the optimum day of microglial isolation. Over 98% of the cells isolated were positive for CD45, CD11b, and F4/80. After stimulating with LPS they were able to secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α and express CD86, CD40, and MHC-II. Conclusion. We have developed a simple method for isolating and culturing retinal microglia from adult mice.

  2. Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates activated microglia-induced neuronal damage.

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    Ke, Lining; Guo, Wei; Xu, Jianwen; Zhang, Guodong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    The microglia-mediated inflammatory reaction promotes neuronal damage under cerebral ischemia/hypoxia conditions. We therefore speculated that inhibition of hypoxia-induced microglial activation may alleviate neuronal damage. To test this hypothesis, we co-cultured ginsenoside Rb1, an active component of ginseng, and cortical neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 protected neuronal morphology and structure in a single hypoxic culture system and in a hypoxic co-culture system with microglia, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 production. The protective effect was observable prior to placing in co-culture. Additionally, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in a co-culture system containing activated N9 microglial cells. Ginsenoside Rb1 also significantly decreased nitric oxide and superoxide production induced by N9 microglia. Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates damage to cerebral cortex neurons by downregulation of nitric oxide, superoxide, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in hypoxia-activated microglia.

  3. Minocycline attenuates Aβ oligomers-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype in primary microglia while enhancing Aβ fibrils phagocytosis.

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    El-Shimy, Ismail Amr; Heikal, Ola Ahmed; Hamdi, Nabila

    2015-11-16

    Microglia, the brain innate immune cells, are activated in response to amyloid beta (Aβ) resulting in neuroinflammation in AD brains. Recently, two phenotypes have been described for microglia: the pro-inflammatory classical and the anti-inflammatory alternative. Changes in microglia phenotype that control their phagocytic function are yet to be determined. The highly neurotoxic Aβ oligomers (oAβ) formed at an early disease stage induce pro-inflammatory microglia activation releasing neurotoxic mediators and contributing to neurodegeneration. A novel strategy for AD treatment is to attenuate microglia-induced inflammation while maintaining efficient Aβ clearance. Minocycline effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier and has widely reported neuroprotective effects. Yet, its exact mechanism of neuroprotection and its effects on microglia are still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of minocycline on the phagocytic uptake of fAβ by primary microglia in relation to their activation state in an inflammatory milieu generated by oAβ or LPS. The study shows that minocycline is able to attenuate oAβ-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia by inhibiting their pro-inflammatory phenotype activation. In addition, a significant enhancement of fAβ phagocytosis by minocycline- treated microglia is reported for the first time, providing novel insight into its neuroprotective role in AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Morphologic Plasticity of Microglia/Macrophages Following Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

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    Shu-Sheng Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As current efforts have limited effects on the clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, the mechanisms including microglia/macrophages that involved inflammation need further investigation. Here, 0.4 units of collagenase VII were injected into the left caudate putamen (CPu to duplicate ICH rat models. In the brains of ICH rats, microglia/macrophages, the nearest cells to the hemorrhagic center, were observed as ameboid and Prussian-blue positive. Furthermore, the ameboid microglia/macrophages were differentiation (CD 68 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β positive, and neither CD206 nor chitinase3-like 3 (Ym1 positive, suggesting their strong abilities of phagocytosis and secretion of IL-1β. According to the distance to the hemorrhagic center, we selected four areas—I, II, III, and IV—to analyze the morphology of microglia/macrophages. The processes decreased successively from region I to region IV. Microglia/macrophages in region IV had no processes. The processes in region I were radially distributed, however, they showed obvious directivity towards the hemorrhagic center in regions II and III. Region III had the largest density of compactly arrayed microglia/macrophages. All these in vivo results present the high morphologic plasticity of microglia/macrophages and their functions in the pathogenesis of ICHs.

  5. Interleukin-19 acts as a negative autocrine regulator of activated microglia.

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    Hiroshi Horiuchi

    Full Text Available Activated microglia can exert either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects, and they play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis and progression of various neurological diseases. In this study, we used cDNA microarrays to show that interleukin-19 (IL-19, an IL-10 family cytokine, is markedly upregulated in activated microglia. Furthermore, we found that microglia are the only cells in the nervous system that express the IL-19 receptor, a heterodimer of the IL-20Rα and IL-20Rβ subunits. IL-19 deficiency increased the production of such pro-inflammatory cytokines as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in activated microglia, and IL-19 treatment suppressed this effect. Moreover, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, we observed upregulation of IL-19 in affected areas in association with disease progression. Our findings demonstrate that IL-19 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, produced by activated microglia, that acts negatively on microglia in an autocrine manner. Thus, microglia may self-limit their inflammatory response by producing the negative regulator IL-19.

  6. Microglia Morphological Categorization in a Rat Model of Neuroinflammation by Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analysis.

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    Fernández-Arjona, María Del Mar; Grondona, Jesús M; Granados-Durán, Pablo; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; López-Ávalos, María D

    2017-01-01

    It is known that microglia morphology and function are closely related, but only few studies have objectively described different morphological subtypes. To address this issue, morphological parameters of microglial cells were analyzed in a rat model of aseptic neuroinflammation. After the injection of a single dose of the enzyme neuraminidase (NA) within the lateral ventricle (LV) an acute inflammatory process occurs. Sections from NA-injected animals and sham controls were immunolabeled with the microglial marker IBA1, which highlights ramifications and features of the cell shape. Using images obtained by section scanning, individual microglial cells were sampled from various regions (septofimbrial nucleus, hippocampus and hypothalamus) at different times post-injection (2, 4 and 12 h). Each cell yielded a set of 15 morphological parameters by means of image analysis software. Five initial parameters (including fractal measures) were statistically different in cells from NA-injected rats (most of them IL-1β positive, i.e., M1-state) compared to those from control animals (none of them IL-1β positive, i.e., surveillant state). However, additional multimodal parameters were revealed more suitable for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). This method pointed out the classification of microglia population in four clusters. Furthermore, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) suggested three specific parameters to objectively classify any microglia by a decision tree. In addition, a principal components analysis (PCA) revealed two extra valuable variables that allowed to further classifying microglia in a total of eight sub-clusters or types. The spatio-temporal distribution of these different morphotypes in our rat inflammation model allowed to relate specific morphotypes with microglial activation status and brain location. An objective method for microglia classification based on morphological parameters is proposed. Main points Microglia undergo a quantifiable

  7. A new fate mapping system reveals context-dependent random or clonal expansion of microglia.

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    Tay, Tuan Leng; Mai, Dominic; Dautzenberg, Jana; Fernández-Klett, Francisco; Lin, Gen; Sagar; Datta, Moumita; Drougard, Anne; Stempfl, Thomas; Ardura-Fabregat, Alberto; Staszewski, Ori; Margineanu, Anca; Sporbert, Anje; Steinmetz, Lars M; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Jung, Steffen; Priller, Josef; Grün, Dominic; Ronneberger, Olaf; Prinz, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease. Our findings suggest that microglia establish a dense network with regional differences, and the high regional turnover rates found challenge the universal concept of microglial longevity. Microglial self-renewal under steady state conditions constitutes a stochastic process. During pathology this randomness shifts to selected clonal microglial expansion. In the resolution phase, excess disease-associated microglia are removed by a dual mechanism of cell egress and apoptosis to re-establish the stable microglial network. This study unravels the dynamic yet discrete self-organization of mature microglia in the healthy and diseased CNS.

  8. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

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    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  9. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators regulate reactive microglia after penetrating brain injury

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    George E. Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following brain injury, microglia assume a reactive-like state and secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that can potentiate damage. A therapeutic strategy that may limit microgliosis is of potential interest. In this context, selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, are known to reduce microglia activation induced by neuroinflammatory stimuli in young animals. In the present study, we have assessed whether raloxifene and tamoxifen are able to affect microglia activation after brain injury in young and aged animals in time points relevant to clinics, which is hours after brain trauma. Volume fraction of MHC-II+ microglia was estimated according to the point-counting method of Weibel within a distance of 350 μm from the lateral border of the wound, and cellular morphology was measured by fractal analysis. Two groups of animals were studied: 1 young rats, ovariectomized at 2 months of age; and 2 aged rats, ovariectomized at 18 months of age. Fifteen days after ovariectomy animals received a stab wound brain injury and the treatment with estrogenic compounds. Our findings indicate that raloxifene and tamoxifen reduced microglia activation in both young and aged animals. Although the volume fraction of reactive microglia was found lower in aged animals, this was accompanied by important changes in cell morphology, where aged microglia assume a bushier and hyperplasic aspect when compared to young microglia. These data suggest that early regulation of microglia activation provides a mechanism by which SERMs may exert a neuroprotective effect in the setting of a brain trauma.

  10. Exploring the role of microglia in cortical spreading depression in neurological disease

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    Shibata, Mamoru; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    Microglia play a pivotal role in innate immunity in the brain. During development, they mature from myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the yolk sac and colonize the brain to establish a resident population of tissue macrophages. In the postnatal brain, they exert phagocytosis and induce inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Microglia also act as guardians of brain homeostasis by surveying the microenvironment using motile processes. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly ...

  11. Isolation and culture of adult human microglia within mixed glial cultures for functional experimentation and high-content analysis.

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    Smith, Amy M; Gibbons, Hannah M; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are thought to be involved in diseases of the adult human brain as well as normal aging processes. While neonatal and rodent microglia are often used in studies investigating microglial function, there are important differences between rodent microglia and their adult human counterparts. Human brain tissue provides a unique and valuable tool for microglial cell and molecular biology. Routine protocols can now enable use of this culture method in many laboratories. Detailed protocols and advice for culture of human brain microglia are provided here. We demonstrate the protocol for culturing human adult microglia within a mixed glial culture and use a phagocytosis assay as an example of the functional studies possible with these cells as well as a high-content analysis method of quantification.

  12. Microglia in the embryonic neocortex - the effect of maternal inflammation

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    Swinnen, Nina; Rigato, C.; Brone, Bert; Legendre, P.; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Infection during pregnancy can lead to maternal inflammation. Several studies have suggested that maternal inflammation increases the risk on neuropsychiatric disorders, like autism, in the offspring. The cause of autism remains unknown, it is thought to be a complex interaction of different factors. A study of Vargas et al demonstrated the presence of an active neuroinflammatory process in the brains of autistic patients, with marked microglial cell activation. Microglia colonize the central...

  13. CSF from Parkinson disease Patients Differentially Affects Cultured Microglia and Astrocytes

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    Dinh Kha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive and abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein is a factor contributing to pathogenic cell death in Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study, based on earlier observations of Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid (PD-CSF initiated cell death, was to determine the effects of CSF from PD patients on the functionally different microglia and astrocyte glial cell lines. Microglia cells from human glioblastoma and astrocytes from fetal brain tissue were cultured, grown to confluence, treated with fixed concentrations of PD-CSF, non-PD disease control CSF, or control no-CSF medium, then photographed and fluorescently probed for α-synuclein content by deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. Outcome measures included manually counted cell growth patterns from day 1-8; α-synuclein density and distribution by antibody tagged 3D model stacked deconvoluted fluorescent imaging. Results After PD-CSF treatment, microglia growth was reduced extensively, and a non-confluent pattern with morphological changes developed, that was not evident in disease control CSF and no-CSF treated cultures. Astrocyte growth rates were similarly reduced by exposure to PD-CSF, but morphological changes were not consistently noted. PD-CSF treated microglia showed a significant increase in α-synuclein content by day 4 compared to other treatments (p ≤ 0.02. In microglia only, α-synuclein aggregated and redistributed to peri-nuclear locations. Conclusions Cultured microglia and astrocytes are differentially affected by PD-CSF exposure compared to non-PD-CSF controls. PD-CSF dramatically impacts microglia cell growth, morphology, and α-synuclein deposition compared to astrocytes, supporting the hypothesis of cell specific susceptibility to PD-CSF toxicity.

  14. Nimodipine inhibits IL-1β release stimulated by amyloid β from microglia.

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    Sanz, J M; Chiozzi, P; Colaianna, M; Zotti, M; Ferrari, D; Trabace, L; Zuliani, G; Di Virgilio, F

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of neural damage caused by deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Nimodipine has received attention as a drug that might improve learning and reduce cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanism of action is poorly known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nimodipine inhibited Aβ-stimulated IL-1β release from microglia. Cultures of N13 microglia cells or primary mouse microglia were treated with nimodipine, and intracellular accumulation and release of IL-1β in response to Aβ or to the P2 receptor agonists ATP and benzoyl ATP (BzATP) were measured. Accumulation of IL-1β was measured in vivo after intrahippocampal inoculation of Aβ in the absence or presence of nimodipine. The effect of nimodipine on Aβ-triggered cytotoxicity was also investigated. We show here that nimodipine dose-dependently inhibited Aβ-stimulated IL-1β synthesis and release from primary microglia and microglia cell lines. Furthermore, nimodipine also inhibited Aβ-induced IL-1βin vivo accumulation at concentrations known to be reached in the CNS. Finally, nimodipine protected microglia from Aβ-dependent cytotoxicity. These data suggest that alleviation of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease following nimodipine administration might be due to an anti-inflammatory effect and point to a novel role for nimodipine as a centrally acting anti-inflammatory drug. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Expressed and Functional in Mouse Brain Microglia but Not in Astrocytes.

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    Audrey Gustin

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is the local reaction of the brain to infection, trauma, toxic molecules or protein aggregates. The brain resident macrophages, microglia, are able to trigger an appropriate response involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the activation of astrocytes and recruitment of peripheral immune cells. IL-1β plays an important role in this response; yet its production and mode of action in the brain are not fully understood and its precise implication in neurodegenerative diseases needs further characterization. Our results indicate that the capacity to form a functional NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β is limited to the microglial compartment in the mouse brain. We were not able to observe IL-1β secretion from astrocytes, nor do they express all NLRP3 inflammasome components. Microglia were able to produce IL-1β in response to different classical inflammasome activators, such as ATP, Nigericin or Alum. Similarly, microglia secreted IL-18 and IL-1α, two other inflammasome-linked pro-inflammatory factors. Cell stimulation with α-synuclein, a neurodegenerative disease-related peptide, did not result in the release of active IL-1β by microglia, despite a weak pro-inflammatory effect. Amyloid-β peptides were able to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia and IL-1β secretion occurred in a P2X7 receptor-independent manner. Thus microglia-dependent inflammasome activation can play an important role in the brain and especially in neuroinflammatory conditions.

  16. The Dual Role of Microglia in ALS: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches

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    Maria Concetta Geloso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a non-cell autonomous motor neuron loss. While it is generally believed that the disease onset takes place inside motor neurons, different cell types mediating neuroinflammatory processes are considered deeply involved in the progression of the disease. On these grounds, many treatments have been tested on ALS animals with the aim of inhibiting or reducing the pro-inflammatory action of microglia and astrocytes and counteract the progression of the disease. Unfortunately, these anti-inflammatory therapies have been only modestly successful. The non-univocal role played by microglia during stress and injuries might explain this failure. Indeed, it is now well recognized that, during ALS, microglia displays different phenotypes, from surveillant in early stages, to activated states, M1 and M2, characterized by the expression of respectively harmful and protective genes in later phases of the disease. Consistently, the inhibition of microglial function seems to be a valid strategy only if the different stages of microglia polarization are taken into account, interfering with the reactivity of microglia specifically targeting only the harmful pathways and/or potentiating the trophic ones. In this review article, we will analyze the features and timing of microglia activation in the light of M1/M2 phenotypes in the main mice models of ALS. Moreover, we will also revise the results obtained by different anti-inflammatory therapies aimed to unbalance the M1/M2 ratio, shifting it towards a protective outcome.

  17. Isolation of primary microglia from the human post-mortem brain: effects of ante- and post-mortem variables.

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    Mizee, Mark R; Miedema, Suzanne S M; van der Poel, Marlijn; Adelia; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Strien, Miriam E; Melief, Jeroen; Smolders, Joost; Hendrickx, Debbie A; Heutinck, Kirstin M; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-02-17

    Microglia are key players in the central nervous system in health and disease. Much pioneering research on microglia function has been carried out in vivo with the use of genetic animal models. However, to fully understand the role of microglia in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is crucial to study primary human microglia from brain donors. We have developed a rapid procedure for the isolation of pure human microglia from autopsy tissue using density gradient centrifugation followed by CD11b-specific cell selection. The protocol can be completed in 4 h, with an average yield of 450,000 and 145,000 viable cells per gram of white and grey matter tissue respectively. This method allows for the immediate phenotyping of microglia in relation to brain donor clinical variables, and shows the microglia population to be distinguishable from autologous choroid plexus macrophages. This protocol has been applied to samples from over 100 brain donors from the Netherlands Brain Bank, providing a robust dataset to analyze the effects of age, post-mortem delay, brain acidity, and neurological diagnosis on microglia yield and phenotype. Our data show that cerebrospinal fluid pH is positively correlated to microglial cell yield, but donor age and post-mortem delay do not negatively affect viable microglia yield. Analysis of CD45 and CD11b expression showed that changes in microglia phenotype can be attributed to a neurological diagnosis, and are not influenced by variation in ante- and post-mortem parameters. Cryogenic storage of primary microglia was shown to be possible, albeit with variable levels of recovery and effects on phenotype and RNA quality. Microglial gene expression substantially changed due to culture, including the loss of the microglia-specific markers, showing the importance of immediate microglia phenotyping. We conclude that primary microglia can be isolated effectively and rapidly from human post-mortem brain tissue, allowing for the study of the

  18. Disease-related microglia heterogeneity in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and hippocampal sclerosis of aging.

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    Bachstetter, Adam D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Schmitt, Frederick A; Neltner, Janna H; Ighodaro, Eseosa T; Webster, Scott J; Patel, Ela; Abner, Erin L; Kryscio, Richard J; Nelson, Peter T

    2015-05-23

    Neuropathological, genetic, and biochemical studies have provided support for the hypothesis that microglia participate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Despite the extensive characterization of AD microglia, there are still many unanswered questions, and little is known about microglial morphology in other common forms of age-related dementia: particularly, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging). In addition, no prior studies have attempted to compare and contrast the microglia morphology in the hippocampus of various neurodegenerative conditions. Here we studied cases with pathologically-confirmed AD (n = 7), HS-Aging (n = 7), AD + HS-aging (n = 4), DLB (n = 12), and normal (cognitively intact) controls (NC) (n = 9) from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center autopsy cohort. We defined five microglia morphological phenotypes in the autopsy samples: ramified, hypertrophic, dystrophic, rod-shaped, and amoeboid. The Aperio ScanScope digital neuropathological tool was used along with two well-known microglial markers: IBA1 (a marker for both resting and activated microglia) and CD68 (a lysosomal marker in macrophages/microglia associated with phagocytic cells). Hippocampal staining analyses included studies of subregions within the hippocampal formation and nearby white matter. Using these tools and methods, we describe variation in microglial characteristics that show some degree of disease specificity, including, (1) increased microglia density and number in HS-aging and AD + HS-aging; (2) low microglia density in DLB; (3) increased number of dystrophic microglia in HS-aging; and (4) increased proportion of dystrophic to all microglia in DLB. We conclude that variations in morphologies among microglial cells, and cells of macrophage lineage, can help guide future work connecting neuroinflammatory mechanisms with specific neurodegenerative disease subtypes.

  19. Differential inflammatory response to acrylonitrile in rat primary astrocytes and microglia.

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    Caito, Samuel W; Yu, Yingchun; Aschner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is extensively used in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles and other commercial products. Chronic low dose exposures to ACN cause glial cell tumors in rats, primarily microglial in origin. Recently it has been determined that astrocytes and microglia respond to ACN-induced oxidative stress differently, which may influence cell-specific activation of inflammatory and carcinogenic pathways. This study was conducted to compare the inflammatory responses of astrocytes and microglia following ACN treatment in vitro to further characterize differential sensitivities and adaptive responses in these cell types. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and p53 levels were measured along with levels of 12 different cytokines and chemokines in primary rat microglia and astrocytes. Additionally levels of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were measured to evaluate the cells' ability to metabolize ACN. Results indicate that while both cells upregulate p53 and NF-κB, the cytokines and chemokines produced differ between the cell types. Astrocytes, but not microglia, upregulated CYP2E1 in response to ACN, which may be due to the astrocytes accumulating more ACN than the microglia. Altogether our data implicate the inflammatory response as an important event in ACN-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

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    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid

  1. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and chronic neuroinflammation are significant neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells in aged brains have potential to produce cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 family members (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra) and to phagocytose Aβ in Alzheimer's disease...... of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production...... of these latter cytokines was generally increased in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Microglia that phagocytosed endogenously-produced Aβ were only observed in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Differences in phagocytic index and total Aβ load were observed in microglia with specific cytokine profiles. Both phagocytic index and total Aβ load...

  2. Hypothalamic lipid-laden astrocytes induce microglia migration and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Chu-Sook; Tu, Thai Hien; Kim, Min-Seon; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Byung Ju; Choi, Hye-Seon; Park, Taesun; Choi, Myung-Sook; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo; Ha, Tae Youl; Yu, Rina

    2017-06-01

    Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is closely associated with various metabolic complications and neurodegenerative disorders. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system, play a crucial role in pathological hypothalamic inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic astrocytes accumulate lipid droplets under saturated fatty acid-rich conditions, such as obese environment, and that the lipid-laden astrocytes increase astrogliosis markers and inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1) at the transcript and/or protein level. Medium conditioned by the lipid-laden astrocytes stimulate microglial chemotactic activity and upregulate transcripts of the microglia activation marker Iba-1 and inflammatory cytokines. These findings indicate that the lipid-laden astrocytes formed in free fatty acid-rich obese condition may participate in obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation through promoting microglia migration and activation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. [Astrocytes and microglia: active players in synaptic plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzano, Rémi

    2017-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity consists in a change in structure and composition of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. For a long time, synaptic plasticity had been thought as a neuronal mechanism only under the control of neural network activity. However, recently, with the growing knowledge about glial physiology, plasticity has been reviewed as a mechanism influenced by the synaptic environment. Thus, it appears that astrocytes and microglia modulate these mechanisms modifying neural environment by clearance of neurotransmitters, releasing essential factors and modulating inflammation. Moreover, glia can change its own activity and the expression pattern of many factors that modulate synaptic plasticity according to the environment. Hence, these populations of "non-neuronal" cells in the central nervous system seem to be active players in synaptic plasticity. This review discusses how glia modulates synaptic plasticity focusing on long-term potentiation and depression, and questions the role of the signaling processes between astrocytes and microglia in these mechanisms. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  4. Interferon regulatory factor 8/interferon consensus sequence binding protein is a critical transcription factor for the physiological phenotype of microglia

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    Horiuchi Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent fate-mapping studies establish that microglia, the resident mononuclear phagocytes of the CNS, are distinct in origin from the bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8, also known as interferon consensus sequence binding protein plays essential roles in development and function of the bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage. However, little is known about its roles in microglia. Methods The CNS tissues of IRF8-deficient mice were immunohistochemically analyzed. Pure microglia isolated from wild-type and IRF8-deficient mice were studied in vitro by proliferation, immunocytochemical and phagocytosis assays. Microglial response in vivo was compared between wild-type and IRF8-deficient mice in the cuprizon-induced demyelination model. Results Our analysis of IRF8-deficient mice revealed that, in contrast to compromised development of IRF8-deficient bone marrow myeloid lineage cells, development and colonization of microglia are not obviously affected by loss of IRF8. However, IRF8-deficient microglia demonstrate several defective phenotypes. In vivo, IRF8-deficient microglia have fewer elaborated processes with reduced expression of IBA1/AIF1 compared with wild-type microglia, suggesting a defective phenotype. IRF8-deficient microglia are significantly less proliferative in mixed glial cultures than wild-type microglia. Unlike IRF8-deficient bone marrow myeloid progenitors, exogenous macrophage colony stimulating factor (colony stimulating factor 1 (M-CSF (CSF1 restores their proliferation in mixed glial cultures. In addition, IRF8-deficient microglia exhibit an exaggerated growth response to exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (colony stimulating factor 2 (GM-CSF (CSF2 in the presence of other glial cells. IRF8-deficient microglia also demonstrate altered cytokine expressions in response to interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Moreover, the maximum

  5. Priming of microglia in a DNA-repair deficient model of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Divya D A; Jaarsma, Dick; Holtman, Inge R; Olah, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa M; Schaafsma, Wandert; Brouwer, Nieske; Meijer, Michel M; de Waard, Monique C; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kreft, Karim L; Laman, Jon D; de Haan, Gerald; Biber, Knut P H; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Eggen, Bart J L; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of microglia is enhanced sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli, referred to as priming. It is unclear if priming is due to intrinsic microglia ageing or induced by the ageing neural environment. We have studied this in Ercc1 mutant mice, a DNA repair-deficient mouse model that displays features of accelerated aging in multiple tissues including the CNS. In Ercc1 mutant mice, microglia showed hallmark features of priming such as an exaggerated response to peripheral lipopolysaccharide exposure in terms of cytokine expression and phagocytosis. Specific targeting of the Ercc1 deletion to forebrain neurons resulted in a progressive priming response in microglia exemplified by phenotypic alterations. Summarizing, these data show that neuronal genotoxic stress is sufficient to switch microglia from a resting to a primed state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: mark.petrash@ucdenver.edu

    2016-04-29

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1{sup GFP} mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR{sup WT} background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. - Highlights: • AR inhibition prevents retinal microglial activation. • Endotoxin-induced ocular cytokine production is reduced in AR null mice. • Overexpression of AR spontaneously induces retinal microglial activation.

  7. Rod microglia: elongation, alignment, and coupling to form trains across the somatosensory cortex after experimental diffuse brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebell Jenna M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since their discovery, the morphology of microglia has been interpreted to mirror their function, with ramified microglia constantly surveying the micro-environment and rapidly activating when changes occur. In 1899, Franz Nissl discovered what we now recognize as a distinct microglial activation state, microglial rod cells (Stäbchenzellen, which he observed adjacent to neurons. These rod-shaped microglia are typically found in human autopsy cases of paralysis of the insane, a disease of the pre-penicillin era, and best known today from HIV-1-infected brains. Microglial rod cells have been implicated in cortical ‘synaptic stripping’ but their exact role has remained unclear. This is due at least in part to a scarcity of experimental models. Now we have noted these rod microglia after experimental diffuse brain injury in brain regions that have an associated sensory sensitivity. Here, we describe the time course, location, and surrounding architecture associated with rod microglia following experimental diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods Rats were subjected to a moderate midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI, which resulted in transient suppression of their righting reflex (6 to 10 min. Multiple immunohistochemistry protocols targeting microglia with Iba1 and other known microglia markers were undertaken to identify the morphological activation of microglia. Additionally, labeling with Iba1 and cell markers for neurons and astrocytes identified the architecture that surrounds these rod cells. Results We identified an abundance of Iba1-positive microglia with rod morphology in the primary sensory barrel fields (S1BF. Although present for at least 4 weeks post mFPI, they developed over the first week, peaking at 7 days post-injury. In the absence of contusion, Iba1-positive microglia appear to elongate with their processes extending from the apical and basal ends. These cells then abut one another and lay adjacent

  8. Pharmacological Modulation of Functional Phenotypes of Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Gyun Jee Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system that mediate brain homeostasis maintenance. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a hallmark shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Numerous studies have shown microglial activation phenotypes to be heterogeneous; however, these microglial phenotypes can largely be categorized as being either M1 or M2 type. Although the specific classification of M1 and M2 functionally polarized microglia remains a topic for debate, the use of functional modulators of microglial phenotypes as potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases has garnered considerable attention. This review discusses M1 and M2 microglial phenotypes and their relevance in neurodegenerative disease models, as described in recent literature. The modulation of microglial polarization toward the M2 phenotype may lead to development of future therapeutic and preventive strategies for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we focus on recent studies of microglial polarization modulators, with a particular emphasis on the small-molecule compounds and their intracellular target proteins.

  9. IFN regulatory factor 8 is a key constitutive determinant of the morphological and molecular properties of microglia in the CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Minten

    Full Text Available IFN regulatory factor (IRF 8 is a transcription factor that has a key role in the cellular response to IFN-γ and is pivotal in myeloid cell differentiation. Whether IRF8 plays a role in the development and function of microglia, the tissue-resident myeloid cells of the brain, is unknown. Here, we show IRF8 is a constitutively produced nuclear factor in microglia, which suggested that IRF8 might also be a key homeostatic transcriptional determinant of the microglial cell phenotype. In support of this, in mice with a targeted disruption of the IRF8 gene, microglia were increased in number and showed gross alterations in morphology and surface area. In situ analysis of some key myeloid markers revealed that IRF8-deficient microglia had significantly reduced levels of Iba1, but increased levels of CD206 (mannose receptor and F4/80 as well as increased tomato lectin binding. Analysis of microglia ex vivo revealed IRF8-deficient microglia had significantly increased levels of CD45, CD11b and F4/80, but significantly decreased levels of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1. The known involvement of some of these molecular markers in membrane dynamics and phagocytosis led us to examine the phagocytic capacity of cultured IRF8-deficient microglia, however, this was found to be similar to wild type microglia. We conclude IRF8 is a constitutively produced nuclear factor in resident microglia of the CNS being a crucial transcriptional determinant of the phenotype of these cells in the healthy brain.

  10. Inhibition of Neuroinflammation in LPS-Activated Microglia by Cryptolepine

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    Olumayokun A. Olajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid in Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, has anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of cryptolepine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS- induced neuroinflammation in rat microglia and its potential mechanisms. Microglial activation was induced by stimulation with LPS, and the effects of cryptolepine pretreatment on microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, PGE2/COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. We further elucidated the role of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB and the mitogen-activated protein kinases in the antiinflammatory actions of cryptolepine in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our results showed that cryptolepine significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, nitric oxide, and PGE2. Protein and mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by cryptolepine. Further experiments on intracellular signalling mechanisms show that IκB-independent inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation contributes to the anti-neuroinflammatory actions of cryptolepine. Results also show that cryptolepine inhibited LPS-induced p38 and MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation in the microglia. Cell viability experiments revealed that cryptolepine (2.5 and 5 μM did not produce cytotoxicity in microglia. Taken together, our results suggest that cryptolepine inhibits LPS-induced microglial inflammation by partial targeting of NF-κB signalling and attenuation of p38/MAPKAPK2.

  11. Anti-neuroinflammatory Activity of Elephantopus scaber L. via Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling and Inhibition of p38 MAPK Pathway in LPS-Induced Microglia BV-2 Cells

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    Chim-Kei Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber L. (family: Asteraceae has been traditionally utilized as a folkloric medicine and scientifically shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in various in vivo inflammatory models. Given the lack of study on the effect of E. scaber in neuroinflammation, this study aimed to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory effect and the underlying mechanisms of ethyl acetate fraction from the leaves of E. scaber (ESEAF on the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced microglia cells (BV-2. Present findings showed that ESEAF markedly attenuated the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus concomitantly with the significant mitigation on the LPS-induced production of NO, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These inflammatory responses were reduced via the inhibition of p38. Besides, ESEAF was shown to possess antioxidant activities evident by the DPPH and SOD scavenging activities. The intracellular catalase enzyme activity was enhanced by ESEAF in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, the formation of ROS induced by LPS in BV-2 cells was reduced upon the exposure to ESEAF. Intriguingly, the reduction of ROS was found in concerted with the activation of Nrf2 and HO-1. It is conceivable that the activation promotes the scavenging power of antioxidant enzymes as well as to ameliorate the inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Finally, the safety profile analysis through oral administration of ESEAF at 2000 mg/kg did not result in any mortalities, adverse effects nor histopathologic abnormalities of organs in mice. Taken altogether, the cumulative findings suggested that ESEAF holds the potential to develop as nutraceutical for the intervention of neuroinflammatory disorders.

  12. Early activation of microglia triggers long-lasting impairment of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Françoise; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; Torquet, Nicolas; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2012-03-14

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, engulf and eliminate cellular debris during brain injury and disease. Recent observations have extended their roles to the healthy brain, but the functional impact of activated microglia on neural plasticity has so far been elusive. To explore this issue, we investigated the role of microglia in the function of the adult olfactory bulb network in which both sensory afferents and local microcircuits are continuously molded by the arrival of adult-born neurons. We show here that the adult olfactory bulb hosts a large population of resident microglial cells. Deafferentation of the olfactory bulb resulted in a transient activation of microglia and a concomitant reduction of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis. One day after sensory deafferentation, microglial cells proliferate in the olfactory bulb, and their numbers peaked at day 3, and reversed at day 7 after lesion. Similar lesions performed on immunodeficient mice demonstrate that the both innate and adaptive lymphocyte responses are dispensable for the lesion-induced microglial proliferation and activation. In contrast, when mice were treated with an antiinflammatory drug to prevent microglial activation, olfactory deafferentation did not reduce adult neurogenesis, showing that activated microglial cells per se, and not the lack of sensory experience, relates to the survival of adult-born neurons. We conclude that the status of the resident microglia in the olfactory bulb is an important factor directly regulating the survival of immature adult-born neurons.

  13. Luteolin inhibits microglia and alters hippocampal-dependent spatial working memory in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2010-10-01

    A dysregulated overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia may facilitate cognitive aging and neurodegeneration. Considerable evidence suggests the flavonoid luteolin has antiinflammatory effects, but its ability to inhibit microglia, reduce inflammatory mediators, and improve hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory mediators after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Supernatants from LPS-stimulated microglia caused discernible death in Neuro.2a cells. However, treating microglia with luteolin prior to LPS reduced neuronal cell death caused by conditioned supernatants, indicating luteolin was neuroprotective. In subsequent studies, adult (3-6 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) mice were fed control or luteolin (20 mg/d)-supplemented diet for 4 wk and spatial working memory was assessed as were several inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. Aged mice fed control diet exhibited deficits in spatial working memory and expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus indicative of increased microglial cell activity. Luteolin consumption improved spatial working memory and restored expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus compared with that of young adults. Luteolin did not affect either spatial working memory or inflammatory markers in young adults. Taken together, the current findings suggest dietary luteolin enhanced spatial working memory by mitigating microglial-associated inflammation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin consumption may be beneficial in preventing or treating conditions involving increased microglial cell activity and inflammation.

  14. Extracellular acidosis impairs P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling and migration of microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Antonia; Okonji, Emeka; Deca, Diana; Wei, Wei-Chun; Glitsch, Maike D

    2015-04-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophage and immune cell of the brain and are critically involved in combating disease and assaults on the brain. Virtually all brain pathologies are accompanied by acidosis of the interstitial fluid, meaning that microglia are exposed to an acidic environment. However, little is known about how extracellular acidosis impacts on microglial function. The activity of microglia is tightly controlled by 'on' and 'off' signals, the presence or absence of which results in generation of distinct phenotypes in microglia. Activation of G protein coupled purinergic (P2Y) receptors triggers a number of distinct behaviours in microglia, including activation, migration, and phagocytosis. Using pharmacological tools and fluorescence imaging of the murine cerebellar microglia cell line C8B4, we show that extracellular acidosis interferes with P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling in these cells. Distinct P2Y receptors give rise to signature intracellular Ca(2+) signals, and Ca(2+) release from stores and Ca(2+) influx are differentially affected by acidotic conditions: Ca(2+) release is virtually unaffected, whereas Ca(2+) influx, mediated at least in part by store-operated Ca(2+) channels, is profoundly inhibited. Furthermore, P2Y1 and P2Y6-mediated stimulation of migration is inhibited under conditions of extracellular acidosis, whereas basal migration independent of P2Y receptor activation is not. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an acidic microenvironment impacts on P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling, thereby influencing microglial responses and responsiveness to extracellular signals. This may result in altered behaviour of microglia under pathological conditions compared with microglial responses in healthy tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective microglia and its regulation in Parkinson's disease

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    Weidong Le

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microglia mediated neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD. It has been reported that microglia in the brain of PD have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects, depending on the microglial activation states. In this review, we will focus on the recent research findings of the neuroprotective role of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in PD. Accumulating new evidences have indicated that the protective mechanisms of microglia may result from its regulation of transrepression pathways via nuclear receptors, anti-inflammatory responses, neuron-microglia crosstalk, histone modification and microRNA regulation. All of these protective mechanisms of microglia orchestrate with each other to repress the production of neurotoxic inflammatory components. Since the detrimental effects of inflammation overwhelm the protective effects of microglia during the disease progression of PD, exploring an in-depth understanding of the protective mechanisms of microglia and promoting the transformation of beneficial microglia are urgently important for the treatment of PD.

  16. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P; Noctor, Stephen C; Muñoz, Estela M

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  17. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P Ibañez Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  18. Long-lasting pro-inflammatory suppression of microglia by LPS-preconditioning is mediated by RelB-dependent epigenetic silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, W.; Zhang, X.; van Zomeren, K. C.; Jacobs, S.; Georgieva, P. B.; Wolf, S. A.; Kettenmann, H.; Janova, H.; Saiepour, N.; Hanisch, U. -K.; Meerlo, P.; van den Elsen, P. J.; Brouwer, N.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), react to endotoxins like bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with a pronounced inflammatory response. To avoid excess damage to the CNS, the microglia inflammatory response needs to be tightly regulated. Here we report that a

  19. Long-lasting pro-inflammatory suppression of microglia by LPS-preconditioning is mediated by RelB-dependent epigenetic silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, W.; Zhang, X.; van Zomeren, K.C.; Jacobs, S.; Georgieva, P.B.; Wolf, S.A.; Kettenmann, H.; Janova, H.; Saiepour, N.; Hanisch, U.K.; Meerlo, P.; van den Elsen, P.J.; Brouwer, N.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.; Eggen, B.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), react to endotoxins like bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with a pronounced inflammatory response. To avoid excess damage to the CNS, the microglia inflammatory response needs to be tightly regulated. Here we report that a

  20. Microglia-induced activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling aggravates neurodegeneration in demyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Smits, Ron; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-22

    Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by both myelin loss and neuronal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in demyelinating disorders are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demyelinating mouse model of MS, inflammatory microglia produce cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since microglia and non-canonical Wnt signaling components in neurons, such as the co-receptor Ror2, were observed in the spinal cord of EAE mice, we postulated that the interplay between activated microglia and spinal neurons under EAE conditions is mediated through non-canonical Wnt signaling. EAE treatment up-regulated in vivo expression of non-canonical Wnt signaling components in spinal neurons through microglial activation. In accordance with the neuronal degeneration detected in the EAE spinal cord in vivo, co-culture of spinal neurons with microglia or the application of recombinant IL-1β up-regulated non-canonical Wnt signaling, and induced neuronal cell death, which was suppressed by the inhibition of the Wnt-Ror2 pathway. Ectopic non-canonical Wnt signaling aggravated the demyelinating pathology in another MS mouse model due to Wnt5a-induced neurodegeneration. The linkage between activated microglia and neuronal Wnt-Ror2 signaling may provide a possible candidate target for therapeutic approaches to demyelinating disorders. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The participation of sialic acids in microglia-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgat, Przemyslaw; Braszko, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Since it is known that sialic acid participates in neuronal plasticity, it is resonable to investigate its role in microglia-neuron interactions. In this study, we tested the effects of enzymatic removal of sialic acid on neurite and cell body density in microglia-neuron co-cultures. Additionaly, we analyzed the expression of Siglec-F protein, putative receptor for sialic acids, in microglial cells as well as its affinity to neurons. The results showed that removal of sialic acids affects neuronal integrity and changes microglial morphology. In presence of microglial cells, endoneuraminidase and α-neuraminidase significantly reduced neurite density (p0.05) decreased the number of neuronal cell bodies in comparison to control co-cultures. Neuraminidases-treated neurons showed reduced binding of Siglec-F protein, which we found in microglial cells. Our results suggest that interactions between sialic acids and Siglec receptors may protect neuronal integrity during neurodegenerative processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awilda M Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1–9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68 could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter–driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  3. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Awilda M; Cruz, Pedro E; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Strickland, Michael R; Siemienski, Zoe; Pardo, Meghan; Schob, Keri-Lyn; Li, Andrew; Aslanidi, George V; Srivastava, Arun; Golde, Todd E; Chakrabarty, Paramita

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1-9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68) could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter-driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  4. TMEM119 marks a subset of microglia in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kino, Yoshihiro; Asahina, Naohiro; Takitani, Mika; Miyoshi, Junko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), activated in the brains of various neurological diseases. Microglia are ontogenetically and functionally distinct from monocyte-derived macrophages that infiltrate the CNS under pathological conditions. However, a lack of specific markers that distinguish resident microglia from circulating blood-derived macrophages in human brain tissues hampers accurate evaluation of microglial contributions to the human brain pathology. By comparative analysis of five comprehensive microglial transcriptome datasets, we identified an evolutionarily conserved protein TMEM119 as the most promising candidate for human microglial markers. TMEM119 was expressed on immortalized human microglia, in which the expression levels were not elevated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-13 or TGFβ1. Notably, TMEM119 immunoreactivity was expressed exclusively on a subset of Iba1(+) CD68(+) microglia with ramified and amoeboid morphologies in the brains of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas Iba1(+) CD68(+) infiltrating macrophages do not express TMEM119 in demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis and necrotic lesions of cerebral infarction. TMEM119 mRNA levels were elevated in AD brains, although the protein levels were not significantly different between AD and non-AD cases by western blot and morphometric analyses. TMEM119-positive microglia did not consistently express polarized markers for M1 (CD80) or M2 (CD163, CD209) in AD brains. These results suggest that TMEM119 serves as a reliable microglial marker that discriminates resident microglia from blood-derived macrophages in the human brain. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  5. PLD$ is involved in phagocytosis of microglia: expression and localization changes of PLD4 are correlated with activation state of microglia.

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    Yoshinori Otani

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D4 (PLD4 is a recently identified protein that is mainly expressed in the ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1-positive microglia in the early postnatal mouse cerebellar white matter. Unlike PLD1 and PLD2, PLD4 exhibits no enzymatic activity for conversion of phosphatidylcholine into choline and phosphatidic acid, and its function is completely unknown. In the present study, we examined the distribution of PLD4 in mouse cerebellar white matter during development and under pathological conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PLD4 expression was associated with microglial activation under such two different circumstances. A primary cultured microglia and microglial cell line (MG6 showed that PLD4 was mainly present in the nucleus, except the nucleolus, and expression of PLD4 was upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. In the analysis of phagocytosis of LPS-stimulated microglia, PLD4 was co-localized with phagosomes that contained BioParticles. Inhibition of PLD4 expression using PLD4 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA in MG6 cells significantly reduced the ratio of phagocytotic cell numbers. These results suggest that the increased PLD4 in the activation process is involved in phagocytosis of activated microglia in the developmental stages and pathological conditions of white matter.

  6. Transcriptional control of microglia phenotypes in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Inge R.; Skola, Dylan; Glass, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the main resident macrophage population of the CNS and perform numerous functions required for CNS development, homeostasis, immunity, and repair. Many lines of evidence also indicate that dysregulation of microglia contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and behavioral

  7. An environment-dependent transcriptional network specifies human microglia identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselin, David; Skola, Dylan; Coufal, Nicole G.; Holtman, Inge R.; Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.; Sajti, Eniko; Jaeger, Baptiste N.; O'Connor, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Pasillas, Martina P.; Pena, Monique; Adair, Amy; Gonda, David D.; Levy, Michael L.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Gage, Fred H.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human

  8. Microglia-derived purines modulate mossy fibre synaptic transmission and plasticity through P2X4 and A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jimmy; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Mulle, Christophe; Amédée, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Recent data have provided evidence that microglia, the brain-resident macrophage-like cells, modulate neuronal activity in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and microglia are therefore now recognized as synaptic partners. Among different neuromodulators, purines, which are produced and released by microglia, have emerged as promising candidates to mediate interactions between microglia and synapses. The cellular effects of purines are mediated through a large family of receptors for adenosine and for ATP (P2 receptors). These receptors are present at brain synapses, but it is unknown whether they can respond to microglia-derived purines to modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we used a simple model of adding immune-challenged microglia to mouse hippocampal slices to investigate their impact on synaptic transmission and plasticity at hippocampal mossy fibre (MF) synapses onto CA3 pyramidal neurons. MF-CA3 synapses show prominent forms of presynaptic plasticity that are involved in the encoding and retrieval of memory. We demonstrate that microglia-derived ATP differentially modulates synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses by acting, respectively, on presynaptic P2X4 receptors and on adenosine A1 receptors after conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine. We also report that P2X4 receptors are densely located in the mossy fibre tract in the dentate gyrus-CA3 circuitry. In conclusion, this study reveals an interplay between microglia-derived purines and MF-CA3 synapses, and highlights microglia as potent modulators of presynaptic plasticity. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  10. Zika Virus Infects Human Fetal Brain Microglia and Induces Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Fok-Moon; Low, Donovan K S; Fan, Yiping; Tan, Jeslin J L; Lee, Bernett; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rénia, Laurent; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-04-01

    The unprecedented reemergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) has startled the world with reports of increased microcephaly in Brazil. ZIKV can infect human neural progenitors and impair brain growth. However, direct evidence of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissues remains elusive. Investigations were performed with brain cell preparations obtained from 9 donors. Virus infectivity was assessed by detection of virus antigen by flow cytometry together with various hematopoietic cell surface markers. Virus replication was determined by viral RNA quantification. Cytokine levels in supernatant obtained from virus-infected fetal brain cells were measured simultaneously in microbead-based immunoassays. We also show that ZIKV infection was particularly evident in hematopoietic cells with microglia, the brain-resident macrophage population being one of the main targets. Infection induces high levels of proinflammatory immune mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Our results highlight an important role for microglia and neuroinflammation during congenital ZIKV pathogenesis.

  11. Microglia priming in the aging brain : Implications for neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin Arulseeli, Divya; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the thesis “Microglia priming in the aging brain: Implications for neurodegeneration” was to understand microglia phenotypes associated with brain aging and the potential mechanisms for this age-associated change. Microglia in the aging brain assume a hypersensitive

  12. The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Marrec-Croq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS. During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  13. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microglia-Induced Activation of Noncanonical Wnt Signaling Aggravates Neurodegeneration in Demyelinating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ron; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by both myelin loss and neuronal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in demyelinating disorders are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demyelinating-mouse model of MS, inflammatory microglia produce cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since microglia and noncanonical Wnt signaling components in neurons, such as the coreceptor Ror2, were observed in the spinal cords of mice with EAE (EAE mice), we postulated that the interplay between activated microglia and spinal neurons under EAE conditions is mediated through noncanonical Wnt signaling. EAE treatment upregulated in vivo expression of noncanonical Wnt signaling components in spinal neurons through microglial activation. In accordance with the neuronal degeneration detected in the EAE spinal cord in vivo, coculture of spinal neurons with microglia or the application of recombinant IL-1β upregulated noncanonical Wnt signaling and induced neuron death, which was suppressed by the inhibition of the Wnt-Ror2 pathway. Ectopic noncanonical Wnt signaling aggravated the demyelinating pathology in another MS mouse model due to Wnt5a-induced neurodegeneration. The linkage between activated microglia and neuronal Wnt-Ror2 signaling may provide a candidate target for therapeutic approaches to demyelinating disorders. PMID:27550808

  15. Are microglia minding us? Digging up the unconscious mind-brain relationship from a neuropsychoanalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    The unconscious mind-brain relationship remains unresolved. From the perspective of neuroscience, neuronal networks including synapses have been dominantly believed to play crucial roles in human mental activities, while glial contribution to mental activities has long been ignored. Recently, it has been suggested that microglia, glial cells with immunological/inflammatory functions, play important roles in psychiatric disorders. Newly revealed microglial roles, such as constant direct contact with synapses even in the normal brain, have defied the common traditional belief that microglia do not contribute to neuronal networks. Recent human neuroeconomic investigations with healthy volunteers using minocycline, an antibiotic with inhibitory effects on microglial activation, suggest that microglia may unconsciously modulate human social behaviors as “noise.” We herein propose a novel unconscious mind structural system in the brain centering on microglia from a neuropsychoanalytic approach. At least to some extent, microglial activation in the brain may activate unconscious drives as “psychological immune memory/reaction” in the mind, and result in various emotions, traumatic reactions, psychiatric symptoms including suicidal behaviors, and (psychoanalytic) transference during interpersonal relationships. Microglia have the potential to bridge the huge gap between neuroscience, biological psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis as a key player to connect the conscious and the unconscious world. PMID:23443737

  16. Are microglia minding us? Digging up the unconscious mind-brain relationship from a neuropsychoanalytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro A. Kato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The unconscious mind-brain relationship remains unresolved. From the perspective of neuroscience, neuronal networks including synapses have been dominantly believed to play crucial roles in human mental activities, while glial contribution to mental activities has long been ignored. Recently, it has been suggested that microglia, glial cells with immunological/inflammatory functions, play important roles in psychiatric disorders. Newly revealed microglial roles, such as constant direct contact with synapses even in normal brain, have defied the common traditional belief that microglia do not contribution to neuronal networks. Recent human neuroeconomic investigations with healthy volunteers using minocycline, an antibiotic with inhibitory effects on microglial activation, suggest that microglia may unconsciously modulate human social behaviors as noise.We herein propose a novel unconscious mind structural system in the brain centering on microglia from a neuropsychoanalytic approach. At least to some extent, microglial activation in the brain may activate unconscious drives as psychological immune memory/reaction in the mind, and result in various emotions, traumatic reactions, psychiatric symptoms including suicidal behaviors, and (psychoanalytic transference during interpersonal relationships. Microglia have the potential to bridge the huge gap between neuroscience, biological psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis as a key player to connect the conscious and the unconscious world.

  17. Janus-faced microglia: beneficial and detrimental consequences of microglial phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eSierra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident brain macrophages and they have been traditionally studied as orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response during infections and disease. In addition, microglia has a more benign, less explored role as the brain professional phagocytes. Phagocytosis is a term coined from the Greek to describe the receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of dead cells and microbes. In addition, microglia phagocytoses brain-specific cargo, such as axonal and myelin debris in spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, amyloid-beta deposits in Alzheimer’s disease, and supernumerary synapses in postnatal development. Common mechanisms of recognition, engulfment and degradation of the different types of cargo are assumed, but very little is known about the shared and specific molecules involved in the phagocytosis of each target by microglia. More importantly, the functional consequences of microglial phagocytosis remain largely unexplored. Overall, phagocytosis is considered a beneficial phenomenon, since it eliminates dead cells and induces an anti-inflammatory response. However, phagocytosis can also activate the respiratory burst, which produces toxic reactive oxygen species. Phagocytosis has been traditionally studied in pathological conditions, leading to the assumption that microglia have to be activated in order to become efficient phagocytes. Recent data, however, has shown that unchallenged microglia phagocytose apoptotic cells during development and in adult neurogenic niches, suggesting an overlooked role in brain remodeling throughout the normal lifespan. The present review will summarize the current state of the literature regarding the role of microglial phagocytosis in maintaining tissue homeostasis in health as in disease.

  18. Features of Microglia and Neuroinflammation Relevant to Environmental Exposure and Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jean Harry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese

  19. From the Cajal alumni Achúcarro and Río-Hortega to the rediscovery of never-resting microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Lecours, Cynthia; Samson, Louis; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Sierra, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of Ramón y Cajal, a plethora of students flourished and began to apply his silver impregnation methods to study brain cells other than neurons: the neuroglia. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Nicolás Achúcarro was one of the first researchers to visualize the brain cells with phagocytic capacity that we know today as microglia. Later, his pupil Pío del Río-Hortega developed modifications of Achúcarro's methods and was able to specifically observe the fine morphological intricacies of microglia. These findings contradicted Cajal's own views on cells that he thought belonged to the same class as oligodendroglia (the so called “third element” of the nervous system), leading to a long-standing discussion. It was only in 1924 that Río-Hortega's observations prevailed worldwide, thus recognizing microglia as a unique cell type. This late landing in the Neuroscience arena still has repercussions in the twenty first century, as microglia remain one of the least understood cell populations of the healthy brain. For decades, microglia in normal, physiological conditions in the adult brain were considered to be merely “resting,” and their contribution as “activated” cells to the neuroinflammatory response in pathological conditions mostly detrimental. It was not until microglia were imaged in real time in the intact brain using two-photon in vivo imaging that the extreme motility of their fine processes was revealed. These findings led to a conceptual revolution in the field: “resting” microglia are constantly surveying the brain parenchyma in normal physiological conditions. Today, following Cajal's school of thought, structural and functional investigations of microglial morphology, dynamics, and relationships with neurons and other glial cells are experiencing a renaissance and we stand at the brink of discovering new roles for these unique immune cells in the healthy brain, an essential step to understand their

  20. Tiazofurin modulates lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia in vitro

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    Savić Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiazofurin is a purine nucleoside analogue, with a broad spectrum of antitumoral and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of tiazofurin on microglial inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide in vitro. The cytotoxic effect of the drug was examined by sulforhodamine B assay. The Griess method was used to quantify nitrite production. Microglial morphology was assessed by measuring cell body size. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin- 10, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our data showed that tiazofurin decreased the number of activated microglia, lowered nitric oxide production and reduced the average cell surface of these cells. Tiazofurin reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and increased interleukin-10 secretion. Conversely, this drug promoted the release of interleukin-1β. Results obtained in this study indicate that TR displayed both anti- and pro-inflammatory modulation of activated microglia that could be relevant for its antitumor action within the central nervous system. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41014

  1. Coupled Proliferation and Apoptosis Maintain the Rapid Turnover of Microglia in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Askew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis. Our results reveal that the microglial population is constantly and rapidly remodeled, expanding our understanding of its role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis.

  2. Microglia and Macrophages in Malignant Gliomas: Recent Discoveries and Implications for Promising Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Their deadliest manifestation, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, accounts for 15% of all primary brain tumors and is associated with a median survival of only 15 months even after multimodal therapy. There is substantial presence of microglia and macrophages within and surrounding brain tumors. These immune cells acquire an alternatively activated phenotype with potent tumor-tropic functions that contribute to glioma growth and invasion. In this review, we briefly summarize recent data that has been reported on the interaction of microglia/macrophages with brain tumors and discuss potential application of these findings to the development of future antiglioma therapies.

  3. Microglia in the Cerebral Cortex in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Jiang, Sue; Williams, Brian A.; Allman, Elizabeth; Wold, Barbara J.; Allman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    We immunocytochemically identified microglia in fronto-insular (FI) and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically quantified the microglial densities. Densities were determined blind to phenotype using an optical fractionator probe. In FI, individuals with autism had…

  4. Microglia antioxidant systems and redox signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhardt, F; Haslund-Vinding, J; Jaquet, V

    2017-01-01

    't stand alone however, and are not always pernicious. We discuss in general terms, and where available in microglia, GSH synthesis and relation to cystine import and glutamate export, and the thioredoxin system as the most important antioxidative defense mechanism, and further, we discuss in the context...

  5. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  7. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...

  8. Priming of microglia in a DNA-repair deficient model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raj, Divya D. A.; Jaarsma, Dick; Holtman, Inge R.; Olah, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa M.; Schaafsma, Wandert; Brouwer, Nieske; Meijer, Michel M.; de Waard, Monique C.; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kreft, Karim L.; Laman, Jon D.; de Haan, Gerald; Biber, Knut P. H.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.

    Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of

  9. The subpopulation of microglia sensitive to neurotransmitters/neurohormones is modulated by stimulation with LPS, interferon-γ, and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Maria; Szulzewsky, Frank; Matyash, Vitali; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Recently, neurotransmitters/neurohormones have been identified as factors controlling the function of microglia, the immune competent cells of the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the responsiveness of microglia to neurotransmitters/neurohormones. We freshly isolated microglia from healthy adult C57Bl/6 mice and found that only a small fraction (1-20%) responded to the application of endothelin, histamine, substance P, serotonin, galanin, somatostatin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, neurotensin, dopamine, or nicotine. In cultured microglia from neonatal and adult mice, a similarly small population of cells responded to these neurotransmitters/neurohormones. To induce a proinflammatory phenotype, we applied lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) to the cultures for 24 h. Several of the responding populations increased; however, there was no uniform pattern when comparing adult with neonatal microglia or LPS with IFN-γ treatment. IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory substance increased the histamine-, substance P-, and somatostatin-sensitive populations only in microglia from adult, but not in neonatal cells. We also found that the expression of different receptors was not strongly correlated, indicating that there are many different populations of microglia with a distinct set of receptors. Our results demonstrate that microglial cells are a heterogeneous population with respect to their sensitivity to neurotransmitters/neurohormones and that they are more responsive in defined activation states. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. P2X7 Receptor Activation Modulates Autophagy in SOD1-G93A Mouse Microglia

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    Paola Fabbrizio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy and inflammation play determinant roles in the pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by deterioration and final loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MN priming microglia to sustain neuroinflammation and a vicious cycle of neurodegeneration. Given that extracellular ATP through P2X7 receptor constitutes a neuron-to-microglia alarm signal implicated in ALS, and that P2X7 affects autophagy in immune cells, we have investigated if autophagy can be directly triggered by P2X7 activation in primary microglia from superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-G93A mice. We report that P2X7 enhances the expression of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II, via mTOR pathway and concomitantly with modulation of anti-inflammatory M2 microglia markers. We also demonstrate that the autophagic target SQSTM1/p62 is decreased in SOD1-G93A microglia after a short stimulation of P2X7, but increased after a sustained challenge. These effects are prevented by the P2X7 antagonist A-804598, and the autophagy/phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (WM. Finally, a chronic in vivo treatment with A-804598 in SOD1-G93A mice decreases the expression of SQSTM1/p62 in lumbar spinal cord at end stage of disease. These data identify the modulation of the autophagic flux as a novel mechanism by which P2X7 activates ALS-microglia, to be considered for further investigations in ALS.

  11. Microglia across the lifespan: from origin to function in brain development, plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Savage, Julie C; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2017-03-15

    Microglia are the only immune cells that permanently reside in the central nervous system (CNS) alongside neurons and other types of glial cells. The past decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of their roles during normal physiological conditions. Cutting-edge techniques revealed that these resident immune cells are critical for proper brain development, actively maintain health in the mature brain, and rapidly adapt their function to physiological or pathophysiological needs. In this review, we highlight recent studies on microglial origin (from the embryonic yolk sac) and the factors regulating their differentiation and homeostasis upon brain invasion. Elegant experiments tracking microglia in the CNS allowed studies of their unique roles compared with other types of resident macrophages. Here we review the emerging roles of microglia in brain development, plasticity and cognition, and discuss the implications of the depletion or dysfunction of microglia for our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Immune activation, inflammation and various other conditions resulting in undesirable microglial activity at different stages of life could severely impair learning, memory and other essential cognitive functions. The diversity of microglial phenotypes across the lifespan, between compartments of the CNS, and sexes, as well as their crosstalk with the body and external environment, is also emphasised. Understanding what defines particular microglial phenotypes is of major importance for future development of innovative therapies controlling their effector functions, with consequences for cognition across chronic stress, ageing, neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  12. Immune-mediated brain pathology: from autoantibodies to microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Jacquelyn; Gata-Garcia, Adriana; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Kowal, Czeslawa; Diamond, Betty

    2016-10-01

    Cells and molecules of the immune system contribute to brain pathology as well as to brain homeostasis. We suggest that there are numerous anti-brain antibodies that can cause acute neuronal dysfunction if they penetrate brain parenchyma. Many of these acute immune-mediated insults may alter the homeostatic mechanisms in the brain and initiate pathologic events that no longer depend on the presence of the inciting antibody, but rather on microglial cell activation. This paradigm, if correct, suggests that there may be two potential moments of therapeutic intervention. The first moment is when antibody contacts cells of the central nervous system and the second is when microglia become activated and impair normal neuronal functions. In this review, we discuss data that support this model for immune-mediated pathology in both the adult brain and the developing fetal brain.

  13. Accumulating microglia phagocytose injured neurons in hippocampal slice cultures: involvement of p38 MAP kinase.

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    Takahiro Katayama

    Full Text Available In this study, microglial migration and phagocytosis were examined in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, which were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA to selectively injure neuronal cells. Microglial cells were visualized by the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Daily observation revealed microglial accumulation in the pyramidal cell layer, which peaked 5 to 6 days after NMDA treatment. Time-lapse imaging showed that microglia migrated to the pyramidal cell layer from adjacent and/or remote areas. There was no difference in the number of proliferating microglia between control and NMDA-treated slices in both the pyramidal cell layer and stratum radiatum, suggesting that microglial accumulation in the injured areas is mainly due to microglial migration, not to proliferation. Time-lapse imaging also showed that the injured neurons, which were visualized by propidium iodide (PI, disappeared just after being surrounded by microglia. Daily observation revealed that the intensity of PI fluorescence gradually attenuated, and this attenuation was suppressed by pretreatment with clodronate, a microglia toxin. These findings suggest that accumulating microglia phagocytosed injured neurons, and that PI fluorescence could be a useful indicator for microglial phagocytosis. Using this advantage to examine microglial phagocytosis in living slice cultures, we investigated the involvements of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in microglial accumulation and phagocytosis. p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the attenuation of PI fluorescence. On the other hand, microglial accumulation in the injured areas was not inhibited by any of these inhibitors. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in microglial phagocytosis of injured neurons.

  14. Minocycline and Risperidone Prevent Microglia Activation and Rescue Behavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Intrahippocampal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-qiang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xianghui; Wu, Renrong; Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Methods Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7), and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg), minocycline (40 mg/kg) or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. Results The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone. PMID:24705495

  15. A Combination of Ex vivo Diffusion MRI and Multiphoton to Study Microglia/Monocytes Alterations after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun N. Noristani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI. We carried out ex vivo MRI of the spinal cord at different time-points after spinal cord transection followed by tetrahydrofuran based clearing and examined the density and morphology of microglia/monocytes using two-photon microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed an early marked increase in microglial/monocytes density that is associated with an increase in the extension of the lesion measured using diffusion MRI. Morphological examination of microglia/monocytes somata at the lesion site revealed a significant increase in their surface area and volume as early as 72 hours post-injury. Time-course analysis showed differential microglial/monocytes response rostral and caudal to the lesion site. Microglia/monocytes showed a decrease in reactivity over time caudal to the lesion site, but an increase was observed rostrally. Direct comparison of microglia/monocytes morphology, obtained through multiphoton, and the longitudinal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, measured with diffusion MRI, highlighted that axonal integrity does not correlate with the density of microglia/monocytes or their somata morphology. We emphasize that differential microglial/monocytes reactivity rostral and caudal to the lesion site may thus coincide, at least partially, with reported temporal differences in debris clearance. Our study demonstrates that the combination of ex vivo diffusion MRI and two

  16. Microglia: An Interface between the Loss of Neuroplasticity and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singhal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems in response to different immunological, physiological, and psychological stressors. Studies have suggested that during stress and pathologies, microglia play a significant role in the disruption of neuroplasticity and have detrimental effects on neuroprotection causing neuroinflammation and exacerbation of depression. After a systematic search of literature databases, relevant articles on the microglial regulation of bidirectional neuroimmune pathways affecting neuroplasticity and leading to depression were reviewed. Although, several hypotheses have been proposed for the microglial role in the onset of depression, it is clear that all molecular pathways to depression are linked through microglia-associated neuroinflammation and hippocampal degeneration. Molecular factors such as an excess of glucocorticoids and changes in gene expression of neurotrophic factors, as well as neuro active substances secreted by gut microbiota have also been shown to affect microglial morphology and phenotype resulting in depression. This review aims to critically analyze the various molecular pathways associated with the microglial role in depression.

  17. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Iba?ez Rodriguez, Mar?a P.; Noctor, Stephen C.; Mu?oz, Estela M.

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the...

  18. Minocycline counter-regulates pro-inflammatory microglia responses in the retina and protects from degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Rebecca; Sobotka, Markus; Caramoy, Albert; Stempfl, Thomas; Moehle, Christoph; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-11-17

    retina and down-regulated the expression of the microglial activation marker translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), CD68, and activated microglia/macrophage whey acidic protein (AMWAP) already 1 day after light exposure. Furthermore, RNA-seq analyses revealed the potential of minocycline to globally counter-regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription in the light-damaged retina. The severe thinning of the outer retina and the strong induction of photoreceptor apoptosis induced by light challenge were nearly completely prevented by minocycline treatment as indicated by a preserved retinal structure and a low number of apoptotic cells. Minocycline potently counter-regulates microgliosis and light-induced retinal damage, indicating a promising concept for the treatment of retinal pathologies.

  19. Infiltrative microgliosis: activation and long-distance migration of subependymal microglia following periventricular insults

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    Horwitz Alan F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subventricular microglia (SVMs are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. Methods We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis. Results We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein. Conclusions Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues.

  20. The Role of Microglia in Diabetic Retinopathy: Inflammation, Microvasculature Defects and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which appears in one third of all diabetic patients and is a prominent cause of vision loss. First discovered as a microvascular disease, intensive research in the field identified inflammation and neurodegeneration to be part of diabetic retinopathy. Microglia, the resident monocytes of the retina, are activated due to a complex interplay between the different cell types of the retina and diverse pathological pathways. The trigger for developing diabetic retinopathy is diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, accompanied by leukostasis and vascular leakages. Transcriptional changes in activated microglia, mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways, results in release of various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, caspases and glutamate. Activated microglia additionally increased proliferation and migration. Among other consequences, these changes in microglia severely affected retinal neurons, causing increased apoptosis and subsequent thinning of the nerve fiber layer, resulting in visual loss. New potential therapeutics need to interfere with these diabetic complications even before changes in the retina are diagnosed, to prevent neuronal apoptosis and blindness in patients. PMID:29301251

  1. In vitro evaluation of physiologically relevant concentrations of teriflunomide on activation and proliferation of primary rodent microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostradowski, Tanja; Prajeeth, Chittappen Kandiyil; Gudi, Viktoria; Kronenberg, Jessica; Witte, Sina; Brieskorn, Marina; Stangel, Martin

    2016-09-22

    Teriflunomide, an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, is thought to ameliorate multiple sclerosis by reducing activation-induced proliferation of lymphocytes, which is highly dependent on de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Nevertheless, its immunomodulatory effects on resident glial cells in the central nervous system are only poorly understood. In this study, we employed physiologically relevant concentrations of teriflunomide and investigated its effects on survival, proliferation, activation, and function of primary rat microglia in vitro. We demonstrate that teriflunomide had no cytotoxic effect on microglia and had only a minor impact on microglial activation. In a concentration- and time-dependent manner, teriflunomide significantly downregulated surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. Furthermore, in the highest concentration applied (5 μM), it slightly increased the expression of interleukin-10 in microglia in response to lipopolysaccharide. Treatment with low concentrations of teriflunomide (0.25-1 μM) did not have any impact on the activation or proliferation of microglia. At 5 μM concentration of teriflunomide, we observed a reduction of approximately 30 % in proliferation of microglia in mixed glial cell cultures. Taken together, our in vitro findings suggest that at higher concentrations, teriflunomide potentially exerts its effects by reducing microglial proliferation and not by modulating the M1-/M2-like cell differentiation of primary rat microglia. Thus, teriflunomide has no major impact on the plasticity of microglia; however, the anti-proliferative and minimal anti-inflammatory effects might be clinically relevant for immune modulation in the treatment of neuroinflammatory CNS diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  2. Microglia is a key player in the reduction of stroke damage promoted by the new antithrombotic agent ticagrelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelosa, Paolo; Lecca, Davide; Fumagalli, Marta; Wypych, Dorota; Pignieri, Alice; Cimino, Mauro; Verderio, Claudia; Enerbäck, Malin; Nikookhesal, Elham; Tremoli, Elena; Abbracchio, Maria P; Sironi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The ADP-responsive P2Y12 receptor is expressed on both platelets and microglia. Clinical data show that ticagrelor, a direct-acting, reversibly binding P2Y12-receptor antagonist, reduces total cardiovascular events, including stroke. In our present study, we investigated the expression of P2Y12 receptors and the effects of ticagrelor on brain injury in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Rats were treated per os with ticagrelor 3 mg/kg or vehicle at 10 minutes, 22, and 36 hours after MCAo and killed after 48 hours. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an ischemia-related modulation of the P2Y12 receptor, which is constitutively expressed in Iba1+ resting microglia. After MCAo, activated microglia was mainly concentrated around the lesion, with fewer cells present inside the ischemic core. Ticagrelor significantly attenuated the evolution of ischemic damage—evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 24, and 48 hours after MCAo—, the number of infiltrating cells expressing the microglia/monocyte marker ED-1, the cerebral expression of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin 1 (IL-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) and the associated neurologic impairment. In transgenic fluorescent reporter CX3CR1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, 72 hours after MCAo, ticagrelor markedly reduced GFP+ microglia and both early and late infiltrating blood-borne cells. Finally, in primary cultured microglia, ticagrelor fully inhibited ADP-induced chemotaxis (Pticagrelor is protective against ischemia-induced cerebral injury and this effect is mediated, at least partly, by inhibition of P2Y12-mediated microglia activation and chemotaxis. PMID:24643079

  3. A comparison of in vitro properties of resting SOD1 transgenic microglia reveals evidence of reduced neuroprotective function

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    Monk Peter N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of mutant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 in rodents has provided useful models for studying the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Microglia have been shown to contribute to ALS disease progression in these models, although the mechanism of this contribution remains to be elucidated. Here, we present the first evidence of the effects of overexpression of mutant (TG G93A and wild type (TG WT human SOD1 transgenes on a set of functional properties of microglia relevant to ALS progression, including expression of integrin β-1, spreading and migration, phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cell debris, and intracellular calcium changes in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Results TG SOD1 G93A but not TG SOD1 WT microglia had lower expression levels of the cell adhesion molecule subunit integrin β-1 than their NTG control cells [NTG (G93A and NTG (WT, respectively, 92.8 ± 2.8% on TG G93A, 92.0 ± 6.6% on TG WT, 100.0 ± 1.6% on NTG (G93A, and 100.0 ± 2.7% on NTG (WT cells], resulting in decreased spreading ability, with no effect on ability to migrate. Both TG G93A and TG WT microglia had reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic neuronal cell debris (13.0 ± 1.3% for TG G93A, 16.5 ± 1.9% for TG WT, 28.6 ± 1.8% for NTG (G93A, and 26.9 ± 2.8% for NTG (WT cells. Extracellular stimulation of microglia with ATP resulted in smaller increase in intracellular free calcium in TG G93A and TG WT microglia relative to NTG controls (0.28 ± 0.02 μM for TG G93A, 0.24 ± 0.03 μM for TG WT, 0.39 ± 0.03 μM for NTG (G93A, and 0.37 ± 0.05 μM for NTG (WT microglia. Conclusions These findings indicate that, under resting conditions, microglia from mutant SOD1 transgenic mice have a reduced capacity to elicit physiological responses following tissue disturbances and that higher levels of stimulatory signals, and/or prolonged stimulation may be necessary to initiate these responses. Overall, resting

  4. An environment-dependent transcriptional network specifies human microglia identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, David; Skola, Dylan; Coufal, Nicole G; Holtman, Inge R; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Sajti, Eniko; Jaeger, Baptiste N; O'Connor, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Pasillas, Martina P; Pena, Monique; Adair, Amy; Gonda, David D; Levy, Michael L; Ransohoff, Richard M; Gage, Fred H; Glass, Christopher K

    2017-06-23

    Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and after transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment resulted in rapid and extensive down-regulation of microglia-specific genes that were induced in primitive mouse macrophages after migration into the fetal brain. Substantial subsets of these genes exhibited altered expression in neurodegenerative and behavioral diseases and were associated with noncoding risk variants. These findings reveal an environment-dependent transcriptional network specifying microglia-specific programs of gene expression and facilitate efforts to understand the roles of microglia in human brain diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plus soluble CNTF receptor ? increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-?-induced CD40 in murine microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Levison, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. As CNTF is structurally related ...

  6. VEGF receptor blockade markedly reduces retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into laser-induced CNV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    Full Text Available Although blocking VEGF has a positive effect in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the effect of blocking its receptors remains unclear. This was an investigation of the effect of VEGF receptor (VEGFR 1 and/or 2 blockade on retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV, a model of wet AMD. CNV lesions were isolated by laser capture microdissection at 3, 7, and 14 days after laser and analyzed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining for mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies for VEGFR1 or R2 and the microglia inhibitor minocycline were injected intraperitoneally (IP. Anti-CD11b, CD45 and Iba1 antibodies were used to confirm the cell identity of retinal microglia/macrophage, in the RPE/choroidal flat mounts or retinal cross sections. CD11b(+, CD45(+ or Iba1(+ cells were counted. mRNA of VEGFR1 and its three ligands, PlGF, VEGF-A (VEGF and VEGF-B, were expressed at all stages, but VEGFR2 were detected only in the late stage. PlGF and VEGF proteins were expressed at 3 and 7 days after laser. Anti-VEGFR1 (MF1 delivered IP 3 days after laser inhibited infiltration of leukocyte populations, largely retinal microglia/macrophage to CNV, while anti-VEGFR2 (DC101 had no effect. At 14 days after laser, both MF1 and DC101 antibodies markedly inhibited retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into CNV. Therefore, VEGFR1 and R2 play differential roles in the pathogenesis of CNV: VEGFR1 plays a dominant role at 3 days after laser; but both receptors play pivotal roles at 14 days after laser. In vivo imaging demonstrated accumulation of GFP-expressing microglia into CNV in both CX3CR1(gfp/gfp and CX3CR1(gfp/+ mice. Minocycline treatment caused a significant increase in lectin(+ cells in the sub-retinal space anterior to CNV and a decrease in dextran-perfused neovessels compared to controls. Targeting the chemoattractant molecules that regulate trafficking of retinal microglia

  7. Proliferation in the Alzheimer Hippocampus Is due to Microglia, Not Astroglia, and Occurs at Sites of Amyloid Deposition

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    Michael W. Marlatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD etiology and may mediate early neuroinflammatory responses. Despite their possible role in disease progression and despite the fact that they can respond to amyloid deposition in model systems, little is known about whether astro- or microglia can undergo proliferation in AD and whether this is related to the clinical symptoms or to local neuropathological changes. Previously, proliferation was found to be increased in glia-rich regions of the presenile hippocampus. Since their phenotype was unknown, we here used two novel triple-immunohistochemical protocols to study proliferation in astro- or microglia in relation to amyloid pathology. We selected different age-matched cohorts to study whether proliferative changes relate to clinical severity or to neuropathological changes. Proliferating cells were found across the hippocampus but never in mature neurons or astrocytes. Almost all proliferating cells were colabeled with Iba1+, indicating that particularly microglia contribute to proliferation in AD. Proliferating Iba1+ cells was specifically seen within the borders of amyloid plaques, indicative of an active involvement in, or response to, plaque accumulation. Thus, consistent with animal studies, proliferation in the AD hippocampus is due to microglia, occurs in close proximity of plaque pathology, and may contribute to the neuroinflammation common in AD.

  8. MICROGLIA ACTIVATION AS A BIOMARKER FOR TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

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    Diana G Hernadez-Ontiveros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has become the signature wound of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Injury may result from a mechanical force, a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement, or a blast wave. A cascade of secondary cell death events ensues after the initial injury. In particular, multiple inflammatory responses accompany TBI. A series of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines spreads to normal brain areas juxtaposed to the core impacted tissue. Among the repertoire of immune cells involved, microglia is a key player in propagating inflammation to tissues neighboring the core site of injury. Neuroprotective drug trials in TBI have failed, likely due to their sole focus on abrogating neuronal cell death and ignoring the microglia response despite these inflammatory cells’ detrimental effects on the brain. Another relevant point to consider is the veracity of results of animal experiments due to deficiencies in experimental design, such as incomplete or inadequate method description, data misinterpretation and reporting may introduce bias and give false-positive results. Thus, scientific publications should follow strict guidelines that include randomization, blinding, sample-size estimation and accurate handling of all data (Landis et al., 2012. A prolonged state of inflammation after brain injury may linger for years and predispose patients to develop other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. TBI patients display progressive and long-lasting impairments in their physical, cognitive, behavioral, and social performance. Here, we discuss inflammatory mechanisms that accompany TBI in an effort to increase our understanding of the dynamic pathological condition as the disease evolves over time and begin to translate these findings for defining new and existing inflammation-based biomarkers and treatments for TBI.

  9. Acid-sensing ion channels promote the inflammation and migration of cultured rat microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Ming; Fang, Peng; Zhang, Pei-Wei; Shu, Qing; Fan, Hua; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Ni, Lan; Zhu, Ling-Qiang; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    Microglia, the major immune cells in central nervous system, act as the surveillance and scavenger of immune defense and inflammatory response. Previous studies suggest that there might be close relationship between acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and inflammation, however, the exact role of ASICs in microglia during inflammation remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the existence of ASICs in the primary cultured rat microglia and explored their functions. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blotting, and immunofluorescence experiments, we demonstrated that ASIC1, ASIC2a, and ASIC3 were existed in cultured and in situ rat microglia. After lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, the expressions of microglial ASIC1 and ASIC2a were upregulated. Meanwhile, ASIC-like currents and acid-induced elevation of intracellular calcium were increased, which could be inhibited by the nonspecific ASICs antagonist amiloride and specific homomeric ASIC1a blocker PcTx1. In addition, both inhibitors reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, we also observed significant increase in the expression of ASIC1 and ASIC2a in scrape-stimulated microglial migration. Amiloride and PcTx1 prevented the migration by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that ASICs participate in neuroinflammatory response, which will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for controlling the inflammation-relevant neuronal diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regulation of Physical Microglia-Neuron Interactions by Fractalkine Signaling after Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Ukpong B; Peng, Jiyun; Murugan, Madhuvika; Mo, Mingshu; Lalani, Almin; Xie, Ping; Xu, Pingyi; Margolis, David J; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice. Interestingly, a deficiency of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) decreased MPCs, whereas fractalkine (CX3CL1) treatment increased MPCs, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is a critical regulator of these microglia-neuron interactions. Furthermore, we found that interleukin-1β was necessary and sufficient to trigger CX3CR1-dependent MPCs. Finally, we show that a deficiency in fractalkine signaling corresponds with increased seizure phenotypes. Together, our results identify the neuroglial CX3CL1-CX3CR1 communication axis as a modulator of potentially neuroprotective microglia-neuron physical interactions during conditions of neuronal hyperactivity.

  11. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice. Second, CD45(+) microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Population control of resident and immigrant microglia by mitosis and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Babcock, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Microglial population expansion occurs in response to neural damage via processes that involve mitosis and immigration of bone marrow-derived cells. However, little is known of the mechanisms that regulate clearance of reactive microglia, when microgliosis diminishes days to weeks later. We have...... in bone marrow chimeric mice. These results broaden our understanding of the microglial response to neural damage by demonstrating that simultaneously occurring mitosis and apoptosis regulate expansion and reduction of both resident and immigrant microglial cell populations....

  13. Neuroimmunological Processes in Parkinson's Disease and their Relation to α-Synuclein: Microglia as the Referee between Neuronal Processes and Peripheral Immunity

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    Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of neuroinflammation and the adaptive immune system in PD (Parkinson's disease has been the subject of intense investigation in recent years, both in animal models of parkinsonism and in post-mortem PD brains. However, how these processes relate to and modulate α-syn (α-synuclein pathology and microglia activation is still poorly understood. Specifically, how the peripheral immune system interacts, regulates and/or is induced by neuroinflammatory processes taking place during PD is still undetermined. We present herein a comprehensive review of the features and impact that neuroinflamation has on neurodegeneration in different animal models of nigral cell death, how this neuroinflammation relates to microglia activation and the way microglia respond to α-syn in vivo. We also discuss a possible role for the peripheral immune system in animal models of parkinsonism, how these findings relate to the state of microglia activation observed in these animal models and how these findings compare with what has been observed in humans with PD. Together, the available data points to the need for development of dual therapeutic strategies that modulate microglia activation to change not only the way microglia interact with the peripheral immune system, but also to modulate the manner in which microglia respond to encounters with α-syn. Lastly, we discuss the immune-modulatory strategies currently under investigation in animal models of parkinsonism and the degree to which one might expect their outcomes to translate faithfully to a clinical setting.

  14. Microglia Transcriptome Changes in a Model of Depressive Behavior after Immune Challenge.

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    Dianelys Gonzalez-Pena

    Full Text Available Depression symptoms following immune response to a challenge have been reported after the recovery from sickness. A RNA-Seq study of the dysregulation of the microglia transcriptome in a model of inflammation-associated depressive behavior was undertaken. The transcriptome of microglia from mice at day 7 after Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG challenge was compared to that from unchallenged Control mice and to the transcriptome from peripheral macrophages from the same mice. Among the 562 and 3,851 genes differentially expressed between BCG-challenged and Control mice in microglia and macrophages respectively, 353 genes overlapped between these cells types. Among the most differentially expressed genes in the microglia, serum amyloid A3 (Saa3 and cell adhesion molecule 3 (Cadm3 were over-expressed and coiled-coil domain containing 162 (Ccdc162 and titin-cap (Tcap were under-expressed in BCG-challenged relative to Control. Many of the differentially expressed genes between BCG-challenged and Control mice were associated with neurological disorders encompassing depression symptoms. Across cell types, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9, interleukin 1 beta (Il1b and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo were differentially expressed between challenged and control mice. Immune response, chemotaxis, and chemokine activity were among the functional categories enriched by the differentially expressed genes. Functional categories enriched among the 9,117 genes differentially expressed between cell types included leukocyte regulation and activation, chemokine and cytokine activities, MAP kinase activity, and apoptosis. More than 200 genes exhibited alternative splicing events between cell types including WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (Wnk1 and microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1(Macf1. Network visualization revealed the capability of microglia to exhibit transcriptome dysregulation in response to immune challenge still after resolution of sickness

  15. Chronic caffeine ingestion causes microglia activation, but not proliferation in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Rob; Kamal, Arifa; Lutchman, Sara; Intrabartolo, Liliana; Sohail, Rabia; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2014-07-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world which contributes to behavioral and metabolic changes when ingested. Within the central nervous system (CNS), caffeine has a high affinity for A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Serving as an antagonist, caffeine affects the ability of adenosine to bind to these receptors. Caffeine has been shown to alter neuronal functioning through increasing spontaneous firing. However, the effects of caffeine on non-neuronal cells in the CNS have not been studied extensively. Microglia are one phenotype of non-neuronal glia within the CNS. Acting as phagocytes, they contribute to the immune defense system of the brain and express A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Caffeine, therefore, may affect microglia. In order to test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice were randomly placed into one of three groups: control, low caffeine (0.3 g/L water) and high caffeine (1.0 g/L water) and were allowed to drink freely for 30 days. Following 30 days, brain sections were stained to reveal microglia. Morphological reconstructions and density measurements were examined in cortical and subcortical areas including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and striatum. Results indicate that microglial density throughout the brain is decreased in the caffeine groups as compared to the control. Caffeine also impacted microglia morphology shortening process length and decreasing branching. These results suggest that chronic caffeine ingestion has a systemic impact on microglia density and their activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurodegeneration severity can be predicted from early microglia alterations monitored in vivo in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma

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    Alejandra Bosco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia serve key homeostatic roles, and respond to neuronal perturbation and decline with a high spatiotemporal resolution. The course of all chronic CNS pathologies is thus paralleled by local microgliosis and microglia activation, which begin at early stages of the disease. However, the possibility of using live monitoring of microglia during early disease progression to predict the severity of neurodegeneration has not been explored. Because the retina allows live tracking of fluorescent microglia in their intact niche, here we investigated their early changes in relation to later optic nerve neurodegeneration. To achieve this, we used the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma, which develops progressive retinal ganglion cell degeneration of variable severity during aging, and represents a useful model to study pathogenic mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell decline that are similar to those in human glaucoma. We imaged CX3CR1+/GFP microglial cells in vivo at ages ranging from 1 to 5 months by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO and quantified cell density and morphological activation. We detected early microgliosis at the optic nerve head (ONH, where axonopathy first manifests, and could track attenuation of this microgliosis induced by minocycline. We also observed heterogeneous and dynamic patterns of early microglia activation in the retina. When the same animals were aged and analyzed for the severity of optic nerve pathology at 10 months of age, we found a strong correlation with the levels of ONH microgliosis at 3 to 4 months. Our findings indicate that live imaging and monitoring the time course and levels of early retinal microgliosis and microglia activation in glaucoma could serve as indicators of future neurodegeneration severity.

  17. Microglia M2A Polarization as Potential Link between Food Allergy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Hans O. Kalkman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopic diseases are frequently co-morbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Allergic responses are associated with an activation of mast cells, innate lymphoid cells, and Th2 cells. These cells produce type-2 cytokines (IL4 and IL13, which stimulate microglia and macrophages to adopt a phenotype referred to as ‘alternative activation’ or ‘M2A’. M2A-polarized macrophages and microglia play a physiological role in tissue repair by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1. In ASD there is evidence for increased type-2 cytokines, microglia activation, M2A polarization, and increased levels of growth factors. In neurons, these growth factors drive a signal transduction pathway that leads to activation of the enzyme mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR, and thereby to the inhibition of autophagy. Activation of mTOR is an effect that is also common to several of the genetic forms of autism. In the central nervous system, redundant synapses are removed via an autophagic process. Activation of mTOR would diminish the pruning of redundant synapses, which in the context of ASD is likely to be undesired. Based on this line of reasoning, atopic diseases like food allergy, eczema or asthma would represent risk factors for autism spectrum disorders.

  18. Neuroinflammation and depression: microglia activation, extracellular microvesicles and microRNA dysregulation

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    Dora eBrites

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic inflammation are often associated with the emergence of depression symptoms, while diagnosed depressed patients show increased levels of circulating cytokines. Further studies revealed the activation of the brain immune cell microglia in depressed patients with a greater magnitude in individuals that committed suicide, indicating a crucial role for neuroinflammation in depression brain pathogenesis. Rapid advances in the understanding of microglial and astrocytic neurobiology were obtained in the past fifteen to twenty years. Indeed, recent data reveal that microglia play an important role in managing neuronal cell death, neurogenesis, and synaptic interactions, besides their involvement in immune-response generating cytokines. The communication between microglia and neurons is essential to synchronize these diverse functions with brain activity. Evidence is accumulating that secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs, comprising ectosomes and exosomes with a size ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm, are key players in intercellular signaling. These EVs may carry specific proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs. Transfer of exosomes to neurons was shown to be mediated by oligodendrocytes, microglia and astrocytes that may either be supportive to neurons, or instead disseminate the disease. Interestingly, several recent reports have identified changes in miRNAs in depressed patients, which target not only crucial pathways associated with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory but also the production of neurotrophic factors and immune cell modulation. In this article, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation in the emergence of depression, namely dynamic alterations in the status of microglia response to stimulation, and how their activation phenotypes may have an etiological role in neurodegeneneration, in particular in depressive-like behavior. We will overview the involvement of miRNAs, exosomes, ectosomes and microglia in regulating

  19. Neuroinflammation and Depression: Microglia Activation, Extracellular Microvesicles and microRNA Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Brites, Dora; Fernandes, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammation are often associated with the emergence of depression symptoms, while diagnosed depressed patients show increased levels of circulating cytokines. Further studies revealed the activation of the brain immune cell microglia in depressed patients with a greater magnitude in individuals that committed suicide, indicating a crucial role for neuroinflammation in depression brain pathogenesis. Rapid advances in the understanding of microglial and astrocytic neurobi...

  20. Neuroinflammation and depression: microglia activation, extracellular microvesicles and microRNA dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dora eBrites; Adelaide eFernandes

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammation are often associated with the emergence of depression symptoms, while diagnosed depressed patients show increased levels of circulating cytokines. Further studies revealed the activation of the brain immune cell microglia in depressed patients with a greater magnitude in individuals that committed suicide, indicating a crucial role for neuroinflammation in depression brain pathogenesis. Rapid advances in the understanding of microglial and astrocytic neurobi...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of amoeboid and ramified microglia isolated from the corpus callosum of rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakalan Rangarajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, have two distinct phenotypes in the developing brain: amoeboid form, known to be amoeboid microglial cells (AMC and ramified form, known to be ramified microglial cells (RMC. The AMC are characterized by being proliferative, phagocytic and migratory whereas the RMC are quiescent and exhibit a slow turnover rate. The AMC transform into RMC with advancing age, and this transformation is indicative of the gradual shift in the microglial functions. Both AMC and RMC respond to CNS inflammation, and they become hypertrophic when activated by trauma, infection or neurodegenerative stimuli. The molecular mechanisms and functional significance of morphological transformation of microglia during normal development and in disease conditions is not clear. It is hypothesized that AMC and RMC are functionally regulated by a specific set of genes encoding various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Results To address this, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis using lectin-labeled AMC and RMC isolated from frozen tissue sections of the corpus callosum of 5-day and 4-week old rat brain respectively, by laser capture microdissection. The global gene expression profiles of both microglial phenotypes were compared and the differentially expressed genes in AMC and RMC were clustered based on their functional annotations. This genome wide comparative analysis identified genes that are specific to AMC and RMC. Conclusions The novel and specific molecules identified from the trancriptome explains the quiescent state functioning of microglia in its two distinct morphological states.

  2. Absence of colony stimulation factor-1 receptor results in loss of microglia, disrupted brain development and olfactory deficits.

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    Bryna Erblich

    Full Text Available The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R. Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only in microglia and not neurons, astrocytes or glial cells. To study CSF-1R function we used mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Csflr gene. In these mice microglia are >99% depleted at embryonic day 16 and day 1 post-partum brain. At three weeks of age this microglial depletion continues in most regions of the brain although some contain clusters of rounded microglia. Despite the loss of microglia, embryonic brain development appears normal but during the post-natal period the brain architecture becomes perturbed with enlarged ventricles and regionally compressed parenchyma, phenotypes most prominent in the olfactory bulb and cortex. In the cortex there is increased neuronal density, elevated numbers of astrocytes but reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes. Csf1r nulls rarely survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 (Csf1(op gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands. Food-finding experiments indicate that olfactory capacity is significantly impaired in the absence of CSF-1. CSF-1R is therefore required for the development of microglia, for a fully functional olfactory system and the maintenance of normal brain structure.

  3. Absence of Colony Stimulation Factor-1 Receptor Results in Loss of Microglia, Disrupted Brain Development and Olfactory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgen, Anne M.; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only in microglia and not neurons, astrocytes or glial cells. To study CSF-1R function we used mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Csflr gene. In these mice microglia are >99% depleted at embryonic day 16 and day 1 post-partum brain. At three weeks of age this microglial depletion continues in most regions of the brain although some contain clusters of rounded microglia. Despite the loss of microglia, embryonic brain development appears normal but during the post-natal period the brain architecture becomes perturbed with enlarged ventricles and regionally compressed parenchyma, phenotypes most prominent in the olfactory bulb and cortex. In the cortex there is increased neuronal density, elevated numbers of astrocytes but reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes. Csf1r nulls rarely survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 (Csf1op) gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands. Food-finding experiments indicate that olfactory capacity is significantly impaired in the absence of CSF-1. CSF-1R is therefore required for the development of microglia, for a fully functional olfactory system and the maintenance of normal brain structure. PMID:22046273

  4. Paroxetine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation via differential regulation of MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Pei; Zou, Ming; Wang, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Lai, Jun-Mei; Zhou, Li-Li; Chen, Song-Fang; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2014-03-12

    Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for counteracting depression, has been recently suggested as having a role in prevention of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of this type of neurological disorders often involves the activation of microglia and associated inflammatory processes. Thus in this study we aimed to understand the role of paroxetine in microglia activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s). BV2 and primary microglial cells were pretreated with paroxetine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were assessed for the responses of pro-inflammatory mediator and cytokines, and the related signaling pathways were evaluated and analyzed in BV2 cells. Paroxetine significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. Further analysis showed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were attenuated by paroxetine pretreatment. Analyses in signaling pathways demonstrated that paroxetine led to suppression of LPS-induced JNK1/2 activation and baseline ERK1/2 activity, but had little effect on the activation of p38 and p65/NF-κB. Interference with specific inhibitors revealed that paroxetine-mediated suppression of NO production was via JNK1/2 pathway while the cytokine suppression was via both JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, conditioned media culture showed that paroxetine suppressed the microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Paroxetine inhibits LPS-stimulated microglia activation through collective regulation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling. Our results indicate a potential role of paroxetine in neuroprotection via its anti-neuroinflammatory effect besides targeting for depression.

  5. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtys, E.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Verkuyl, J. M.; Broersen, L. M.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; de Vries, E. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been

  6. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

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    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  7. Aging Changes in Retinal Microglia and their Relevance to Age-related Retinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxin; Wong, Wai T

    2016-01-01

    Age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, contain features of chronic retinal inflammation that may promote disease progression. However, the relationship between aging and neuroinflammation is unclear. Microglia are long-lived, resident immune cells of the retina, and mediate local neuroinflammatory reactions. We hypothesize that aging changes in microglia may be causally linked to neuroinflammatory changes underlying age-dependent retinal diseases. Here, we review the evidence for (1) how the retinal microglial phenotype changes with aging, (2) the factors that drive microglial aging in the retina, and (3) aging-related changes in microglial gene expression. We examine how these aspects of microglial aging changes may relate to pathogenic mechanisms of immune dysregulation driving the progression of age-related retinal disease. These relationships can highlight microglial aging as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia

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    Yao Linli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia induces microglial activation which causes damage to the developing brain. Microglia derived inflammatory mediators may contribute to this process. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 has been reported to induce microglial activation and cytokines production in brain injuries; however, its role in hypoxic injury remains uncertain. We investigate here TLR4 expression and its roles in neuroinflammation in neonatal rats following hypoxic injury. Methods One day old Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia for 2 h. Primary cultured microglia and BV-2 cells were subjected to hypoxia for different durations. TLR4 expression in microglia was determined by RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection and antibody neutralization were employed to downregulate TLR4 in BV-2 and primary culture. mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO and NF-κB levels were determined by flow cytometry, colorimetric and ELISA assays respectively. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression was quantified and where necessary, the protein expression was depleted by antibody neutralization. In vivo inhibition of TLR4 with CLI-095 injection was carried out followed by investigation of inflammatory mediators expression via double immunofluorescence staining. Results TLR4 immunofluorescence and protein expression in the corpus callosum and cerebellum in neonatal microglia were markedly enhanced post-hypoxia. In vitro, TLR4 protein expression was significantly increased in both primary microglia and BV-2 cells post-hypoxia. TLR4 neutralization in primary cultured microglia attenuated the hypoxia-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 reduced hypoxia-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, ROS and

  9. Receptor-heteromer mediated regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in activated microglia. Role of CB1 and CB2 receptors and relevance for Alzheimer's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Angelats, Edgar; Etayo, Íñigo; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Pulido-Salgado, Marta; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana I; Canela, Enric I; Saura, Josep; Lanciego, José Luis; Labandeira-García, José Luis; Saura, Carlos A; Fuxe, Kjell; Franco, Rafael

    2017-08-24

    Endocannabinoids are important regulators of neurotransmission and, acting on activated microglia, they are postulated as neuroprotective agents. Endocannabinoid action is mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptors, which may form heteromeric complexes (CB1-CB2Hets) with unknown function in microglia. We aimed at establishing the expression and signaling properties of cannabinoid receptors in resting and LPS/IFN-γ-activated microglia. In activated microglia mRNA transcripts increased (2 fold for CB1 and circa 20 fold for CB2), whereas receptor levels were similar for CB1 and markedly upregulated for CB2; CB1-CB2Hets were also upregulated. Unlike in resting cells, CB2 receptors became robustly coupled to Gi in activated cells, in which CB1-CB2Hets mediated a potentiation effect. Hence, resting cells were refractory while activated cells were highly responsive to cannabinoids. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in cultures treated with ß-amyloid (Aß1-42). Microglial activation markers were detected in the striatum of a Parkinson's disease (PD) model and, remarkably, in primary microglia cultures from the hippocampus of mutant β-amyloid precursor protein (APPSw,Ind) mice, a transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) model. Also of note was the similar cannabinoid receptor signaling found in primary cultures of microglia from APPSw,Ind and in cells from control animals activated using LPS plus IFN-γ. Expression of CB1-CB2Hets was increased in the striatum from rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic levodopa treatment. In summary, our results showed sensitivity of activated microglial cells to cannabinoids, increased CB1-CB2Het expression in activated microglia and in microglia from the hippocampus of an AD model, and a correlation between levodopa-induced dyskinesia and striatal microglial activation in a PD model. Cannabinoid receptors and the CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complex in activated microglia have potential as targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

  10. Tenuigenin protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation via suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheng; Liang, Zhigang; Yang, Hui; Pan, Yuting; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-12-20

    Emerging evidence indicates that nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-induced inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation may offer a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of PD. Tenuigenin, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, has been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD was established to explore the effect of tenuigenin on dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. We next activated NLRP3 inflammasome in both BV2 microglia cells and adult mice to investigate the mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of tenuigenin. We demonstrated that treatment with tenuigenin increased striatal dopaminergic levels and improved motor impairment induced by MPTP. Also, tenuigenin significantly ameliorated the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in substantia nigra of MPTP mouse model. We further found that tenuigenin reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, subsequent caspase-1 cleavage, and interleukin-1β secretion in BV2 microglia cells. These data indicate that tenuigenin inhibits the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via downregulating ROS. Correspondingly, in vivo data showed that tenuigenin attenuates microglia activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in substantia nigra via suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome. Our findings reveal that tenuigenin protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation partly through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia, and suggest the promising clinical use of tenuigenin for PD therapy.

  11. Minocycline modulates human social decision-making: possible impact of microglia on personality-oriented social behaviors.

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    Takahiro A Kato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia, one of the glial cells, play important roles in various brain pathologies including psychiatric disorders. In addition, microglia have recently been proved to monitor synaptic reactions via direct-touching even in normal brain. Human microglia may modulate various social/mental functions, while microglial social/mental roles remain unresolved especially in healthy humans. There is no known drug with the specific effect of modulating microglia. Therefore, using minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic and the most famous microglial inhibitor, is one of the best alternative approaches to clarify microglial functions on human social/mental activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a double-blind randomized trial of trust game, a monetary decision-making experiment, with ninety-nine human adult males who decided how much to trust an anonymous partner after a four-day administration of minocycline. Our previous pilot trial indicated a positive effect of minocycline, while the underlying mechanisms were not clarified. Therefore, in this trial with larger samples, we additionally measured the effects of anxiety and personality. The monetary score in trust game was significantly lower in the minocycline group. Interestingly, participants' ways of decision-making were significantly shifted; cooperativeness, one component of personality, proved to be the main modulating factor of decision-making in the placebo group, on the other hand, the minocycline group was mainly modulated by state anxiety and trustworthiness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that minocycline led to more situation-oriented decision-making, possibly by suppressing the effects of personality traits, and furthermore that personality and social behaviors might be modulated by microglia. Early-life events may activate human microglia, establish a certain neuro-synaptic connection, and this formation may determine each human's personality

  12. Minocycline modulates human social decision-making: possible impact of microglia on personality-oriented social behaviors.

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    Kato, Takahiro A; Watabe, Motoki; Tsuboi, Sho; Ishikawa, Katsuhiko; Hashiya, Kazuhide; Monji, Akira; Utsumi, Hideo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2012-01-01

    Microglia, one of the glial cells, play important roles in various brain pathologies including psychiatric disorders. In addition, microglia have recently been proved to monitor synaptic reactions via direct-touching even in normal brain. Human microglia may modulate various social/mental functions, while microglial social/mental roles remain unresolved especially in healthy humans. There is no known drug with the specific effect of modulating microglia. Therefore, using minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic and the most famous microglial inhibitor, is one of the best alternative approaches to clarify microglial functions on human social/mental activities. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial of trust game, a monetary decision-making experiment, with ninety-nine human adult males who decided how much to trust an anonymous partner after a four-day administration of minocycline. Our previous pilot trial indicated a positive effect of minocycline, while the underlying mechanisms were not clarified. Therefore, in this trial with larger samples, we additionally measured the effects of anxiety and personality. The monetary score in trust game was significantly lower in the minocycline group. Interestingly, participants' ways of decision-making were significantly shifted; cooperativeness, one component of personality, proved to be the main modulating factor of decision-making in the placebo group, on the other hand, the minocycline group was mainly modulated by state anxiety and trustworthiness. Our results suggest that minocycline led to more situation-oriented decision-making, possibly by suppressing the effects of personality traits, and furthermore that personality and social behaviors might be modulated by microglia. Early-life events may activate human microglia, establish a certain neuro-synaptic connection, and this formation may determine each human's personality and personality- oriented social behaviors in later life. To explore these mechanisms

  13. Intermittent hypoxia from obstructive sleep apnea may cause neuronal impairment and dysfunction in central nervous system: the potential roles played by microglia

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    Yang Q

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qingchan Yang,1,* Yan Wang,2,* Jing Feng,2 Jie Cao,2 Baoyuan Chen2 1Graduate School of Tianjin Medical University, 2Respiratory Department, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnea or partial (hypopnea obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Intermittent hypoxia (IH resulting from OSA may cause structural neuron damage and dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS. Clinically, it manifests as neurocognitive and behavioral deficits with oxidative stress and inflammatory impairment as its pathophysiological basis, which are mediated by microglia at the cellular level. Microglia are dominant proinflammatory cells in the CNS. They induce CNS oxidative stress and inflammation, mainly through mitochondria, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the release of excitatory toxic neurotransmitters. The balance between neurotoxic versus protective and anti- versus proinflammatory microglial factors might determine the final roles of microglia after IH exposure from OSA. Microglia inflammatory impairments will continue and cascade persistently upon activation, ultimately resulting in clinically significant neuron damage and dysfunction in the CNS. In this review article, we summarize the mechanisms of structural neuron damage in the CNS and its concomitant dysfunction due to IH from OSA, and the potential roles played by microglia in this process. Keywords: intermittent hypoxia, obstructive sleep apnea, microglia, inflammation, apoptosis

  14. Microglia activation induced by serum of SLE patients.

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    Wang, Jianing; Yang, Chunshu; Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Ziwei; Li, Yujia; Yang, Pingting

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the potential involvement of microglia in the neuropathology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we examined whether SLE patient sera could activate BV2 microglia in vitro. Exposure to SLE patient sera resulted in morphological changes in the microglia, an increase in MHC II and CD86 protein expression, and an obvious release of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. However, the SLE sera did not induce a specific change in the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Inactivating complements or neutralizing proinflammatory cytokines in the SLE sera did not suppress microglial activation. Our results highlight the potential role of microglia in neuroinflammation in SLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plus soluble CNTF receptor alpha increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-gamma-induced CD40 in murine microglia.

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    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Levison, Steven W

    2009-03-06

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. As CNTF is structurally related to IL-6, which can stimulate immune functions of microglia, we hypothesized that CNTF might exert similar effects. We performed 2-D and 1-D proteomic experiments with western blotting and flow cytometry to examine effects of CNTF on primary microglia derived from neonatal mouse brains. We show that murine microglia express CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFRalpha), which can be induced by interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Whereas IL-6 activated STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation, CNTF did not activate these pathways, nor did CNTF increase p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Using 2-D western blot analysis, we demonstrate that CNTF induced the dephosphorylation of a set of proteins and phosphorylation of a different set. Two proteins that were phosphorylated upon CNTF treatment were the LYN substrate-1 and beta-tubulin 5. CNTF weakly stimulated microglia, whereas a stronger response was obtained by adding exogenous soluble CNTFRalpha (sCNTFRalpha) as has been observed for IL-6. When used in combination, CNTF and sCNTFRalpha collaborated with IFNgamma to increase microglial surface expression of CD40 and this effect was quite pronounced when the microglia were differentiated towards dendritic-like cells. CNTF/sCNTFRalpha complex, however, failed to increase MHC class II expression beyond that induced by IFNgamma. The combination of CNTF and sCNTFRalpha, but not CNTF alone, enhanced microglial Cox-2 protein expression and PGE2 secretion (although CNTF was 30 times less potent than LPS). Surprisingly, Cox-2 production was

  16. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF plus soluble CNTF receptor α increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 release and interferon-γ-induced CD40 in murine microglia

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    Li Hong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. As CNTF is structurally related to IL-6, which can stimulate immune functions of microglia, we hypothesized that CNTF might exert similar effects. Methods We performed 2-D and 1-D proteomic experiments with western blotting and flow cytometry to examine effects of CNTF on primary microglia derived from neonatal mouse brains. Results We show that murine microglia express CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα, which can be induced by interferon-γ (IFNγ. Whereas IL-6 activated STAT-3 and ERK phosphorylation, CNTF did not activate these pathways, nor did CNTF increase p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Using 2-D western blot analysis, we demonstrate that CNTF induced the dephosphorylation of a set of proteins and phosphorylation of a different set. Two proteins that were phosphorylated upon CNTF treatment were the LYN substrate-1 and β-tubulin 5. CNTF weakly stimulated microglia, whereas a stronger response was obtained by adding exogenous soluble CNTFRα (sCNTFRα as has been observed for IL-6. When used in combination, CNTF and sCNTFRα collaborated with IFNγ to increase microglial surface expression of CD40 and this effect was quite pronounced when the microglia were differentiated towards dendritic-like cells. CNTF/sCNTFRα complex, however, failed to increase MHC class II expression beyond that induced by IFNγ. The combination of CNTF and sCNTFRα, but not CNTF alone, enhanced microglial Cox-2 protein expression and PGE2 secretion (although CNTF was 30 times less potent than LPS. Surprisingly, Cox-2

  17. Microglia under psychosocial stressors along the aging trajectory: Consequences on neuronal circuits, behavior, and brain diseases.

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    Tian, Li; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tan, Yunlong; Sharma, Kaushik; Chen, Song; Zhang, Xiangyang; Tremblay, Marie-Eve

    2017-10-03

    Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown. We aim to summarize recent progress regarding the effects of psychosocial stress and oxidative stress on microglial phenotypes, leading to neuroinflammation and impaired microglia-synapse interactions, notably through our own studies of inbred mouse strains, and most importantly, to discuss about promising therapeutic strategies that take advantage of microglial functions to tackle such brain disorders in the context of adult psychosocial stress or aging-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy.

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    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Pilat, Dominika; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  19. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

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    Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t. was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1 factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  20. Microglia acquire distinct activation profiles depending on the degree of alpha-synuclein neuropathology in a rAAV based model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

    Full Text Available Post-mortem analysis of brains from Parkinson's disease (PD patients strongly supports microglia activation and adaptive immunity as factors contributing to disease progression. Such responses may be triggered by alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn, which is known to be the main constituent of the aggregated proteins found in Lewy bodies in the brains of PD patients. To investigate this we used a recombinant viral vector to express human alpha-syn in rat midbrain at levels that induced neuronal pathology either in the absence or the presence of dopaminergic cell death, thereby mimicking early or late stages of the disease. Microglia activation was assessed by stereological quantification of Mac1+ cells, as well as the expression patterns of CD68 and MCH II. In our study, when alpha-syn induced neuronal pathology but not cell death, a fast transient increase in microglia cell numbers resulted in the long-term induction of MHC II+ microglia, denoting antigen-presenting ability. On the other hand, when alpha-syn induced both neuronal pathology and cell death, there was a delayed increase in microglia cell numbers, which correlated with long-lasting CD68 expression and a morphology reminiscent of peripheral macrophages. In addition T-lymphocyte infiltration, as judged by the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, showed distinct kinetics depending on the degree of neurodegeneration, and was significantly higher when cell death occurred. We have thus for the first time shown that the microglial response differs depending on whether alpha-syn expression results on cell death or not, suggesting that microglia may play different roles during disease progression. Furthermore, our data suggest that the microglial response is modulated by early events related to alpha-syn expression in substantia nigra and persists at the long term.

  1. Studies on Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor-1 and Ligands Colony Stimulating Factor-1 and Interleukin-34 in Alzheimer's Disease Brains and Human Microglia.

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    Walker, Douglas G; Tang, Tiffany M; Lue, Lih-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are dependent on signaling through the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R/CD115) for growth and survival. Activation of CSF-1R can lead to cell division, while blocking CSF-1R can lead to rapid microglia cell death. CSF-1R has two ligands, the growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and the more recently identified interleukin-34 (IL-34). Studies of IL-34 activation of rodent microglia and human macrophages have suggested it has different properties to CSF-1, resulting in an anti-inflammatory reparative phenotype. The goal of this study was to identify if the responses of human postmortem brain microglia to IL-34 differed from their responses to CSF-1 with the aim of identifying different phenotypes of microglia as a result of their responses. To approach this question, we also sought to identify differences between IL-34, CSF-1, and CSF-1R expression in human brain samples to establish whether there was an imbalance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using human brain samples [inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG)] from distinct cohorts of AD, control and high pathology, or mild cognitive impairment cases, we showed that there was increased expression of CSF-1R and CSF-1 mRNAs in both series of AD cases, and reduced expression of IL-34 mRNA in AD ITG samples. There was no change in expression of these genes in RNA from cerebellum of AD, Parkinson's disease (PD), or control cases. The results suggested an imbalance in CSF-1R signaling in AD. Using RNA sequencing to compare gene expression responses of CSF-1 and IL-34 stimulated human microglia, a profile of responses to CSF-1 and IL-34 was identified. Contrary to earlier work with rodent microglia, IL-34 induced primarily a classical activation response similar to that of CSF-1. It was not possible to identify any genes expressed significantly different by IL-34-stimulated microglia compared to CSF-1-stimulated microglia, but both cytokines did induce certain

  2. Studies on Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor-1 and Ligands Colony Stimulating Factor-1 and Interleukin-34 in Alzheimer's Disease Brains and Human Microglia

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    Douglas G. Walker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are dependent on signaling through the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R/CD115 for growth and survival. Activation of CSF-1R can lead to cell division, while blocking CSF-1R can lead to rapid microglia cell death. CSF-1R has two ligands, the growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 and the more recently identified interleukin-34 (IL-34. Studies of IL-34 activation of rodent microglia and human macrophages have suggested it has different properties to CSF-1, resulting in an anti-inflammatory reparative phenotype. The goal of this study was to identify if the responses of human postmortem brain microglia to IL-34 differed from their responses to CSF-1 with the aim of identifying different phenotypes of microglia as a result of their responses. To approach this question, we also sought to identify differences between IL-34, CSF-1, and CSF-1R expression in human brain samples to establish whether there was an imbalance in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Using human brain samples [inferior temporal gyrus (ITG and middle temporal gyrus (MTG] from distinct cohorts of AD, control and high pathology, or mild cognitive impairment cases, we showed that there was increased expression of CSF-1R and CSF-1 mRNAs in both series of AD cases, and reduced expression of IL-34 mRNA in AD ITG samples. There was no change in expression of these genes in RNA from cerebellum of AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, or control cases. The results suggested an imbalance in CSF-1R signaling in AD. Using RNA sequencing to compare gene expression responses of CSF-1 and IL-34 stimulated human microglia, a profile of responses to CSF-1 and IL-34 was identified. Contrary to earlier work with rodent microglia, IL-34 induced primarily a classical activation response similar to that of CSF-1. It was not possible to identify any genes expressed significantly different by IL-34-stimulated microglia compared to CSF-1-stimulated microglia, but both cytokines did induce

  3. Distinct inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in Alzheimer's disease models: effects of aging and amyloid pathology.

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    Martin, Elodie; Boucher, Céline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Delarasse, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, activated microglia, and neuronal cell death leading to progressive dementia. Recent data indicate that microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) are key players in the initiation and progression of AD, yet their respective roles remain to be clarified. As AD occurs mostly in the elderly and aging impairs myeloid functions, we addressed the inflammatory profile of microglia and MDM during aging in TgAPP/PS1 and TgAPP/PS1dE9, two transgenic AD mouse models, compared to WT littermates. We only found MDM infiltration in very aged mice. We determined that MDM highly expressed activation markers at basal state. In contrast, microglia exhibited an activated phenotype only with normal aging and Aβ pathology. Our study showed that CD14 and CD36, two receptors involved in phagocytosis, were upregulated during Aβ pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed, at the protein levels in AD models, higher production of pro-inflammatory mediators: IL-1β, p40, iNOS, CCL-3, CCL-4, and CXCL-1. Taken together, our data indicate that microglia and MDM display distinct phenotypes in AD models and highlight the specific effects of normal aging vs Aβ peptides on inflammatory processes that occur during the disease progression. These precise phenotypes of different subpopulations of myeloid cells in normal and pathologic conditions may allow the design of pertinent therapeutic strategy for AD. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Status Epilepticus Triggers Time-Dependent Alterations in Microglia Abundance and Morphological Phenotypes in the Hippocampus

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    Season K. Wyatt-Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is defined by the occurrence of prolonged “non-stop” seizures that last for at least 5 min. SE provokes inflammatory responses including the activation of microglial cells, the brain’s resident immune cells, which are thought to contribute to the neuropathology and pathophysiology of epilepsy. Microglia are professional phagocytes that resemble peripheral macrophages. Upon sensing immune disturbances, including SE, microglia become reactive, produce inflammatory cytokines, and alter their actin cytoskeleton to transform from ramified to amoeboid shapes. It is widely known that SE triggers time-dependent microglial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that include TNFα and IL-1β. However, less is known in regards to the spatiotemporal progression of the morphological changes, which may help define the extent of microglia reactivity after SE and potential function (surveillance, inflammatory, phagocytic. Therefore, in this study, we used the microglia/macrophage IBA1 marker to identify and count these cells in hippocampi from control rats and at 4 h, 3 days, and 2 weeks after a single episode of pilocarpine-induced SE. We identified, categorized, and counted the IBA1-positive cells with the different morphologies observed after SE in the hippocampal areas CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus. These included ramified, hypertrophic, bushy, amoeboid, and rod. We found that the ramified phenotype was the most abundant in control hippocampi. In contrast, SE provoked time-dependent changes in the microglial morphology that was characterized by significant increases in the abundance of bushy-shaped cells at 4 h and amoeboid-shaped cells at 3 days and 2 weeks. Interestingly, a significant increase in the number of rod-shaped cells was only evident in the CA1 region at 2 weeks after SE. Taken together, these data suggest that SE triggers time-dependent alterations in the morphology of microglial cells. This

  5. Pro-inflammatory activation of primary microglia and macrophages increases 18 kDa translocator protein expression in rodents but not humans.

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    Owen, David R; Narayan, Nehal; Wells, Lisa; Healy, Luke; Smyth, Erica; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Galloway, Dylan; Williams, John B; Lehr, Joshua; Mandhair, Harpreet; Peferoen, Laura An; Taylor, Peter C; Amor, Sandra; Antel, Jack P; Matthews, Paul M; Moore, Craig S

    2017-08-01

    The 18kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) is the most commonly used tissue-specific marker of inflammation in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. It is expressed in myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages, and in rodent myeloid cells expression increases with cellular activation. We assessed the effect of myeloid cell activation on TSPO gene expression in both primary human and rodent microglia and macrophages in vitro, and also measured TSPO radioligand binding with (3)H-PBR28 in primary human macrophages. As observed previously, we found that TSPO expression increases (∼9-fold) in rodent-derived macrophages and microglia upon pro-inflammatory stimulation. However, TSPO expression does not increase with classical pro-inflammatory activation in primary human microglia (fold change 0.85 [95% CI 0.58-1.12], p = 0.47). In contrast, pro-inflammatory activation of human monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with a reduction of both TSPO gene expression (fold change 0.60 [95% CI 0.45-0.74], p = 0.02) and TSPO binding site abundance (fold change 0.61 [95% CI 0.49-0.73], p macrophages and microglia in humans. They are also clinically relevant for the interpretation of PET studies using TSPO targeting radioligands, as they suggest changes in TSPO expression may reflect microglial and macrophage density rather than activation phenotype.

  6. The Neuron-Astrocyte-Microglia Triad in Normal Brain Ageing and in a Model of Neuroinflammation in the Rat Hippocampus

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    Cerbai, Francesca; Lana, Daniele; Nosi, Daniele; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Zecchi, Sandra; Brothers, Holly M.; Wenk, Gary L.; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is accompanied by a decline in cognitive functions; along with a variety of neurobiological changes. The association between inflammation and ageing is based on complex molecular and cellular changes that we are only just beginning to understand. The hippocampus is one of the structures more closely related to electrophysiological, structural and morphological changes during ageing. In the present study we examined the effect of normal ageing and LPS-induced inflammation on astroglia-neuron interaction in the rat hippocampus of adult, normal aged and LPS-treated adult rats. Astrocytes were smaller, with thicker and shorter branches and less numerous in CA1 Str. radiatum of aged rats in comparison to adult and LPS-treated rats. Astrocyte branches infiltrated apoptotic neurons of aged and LPS-treated rats. Cellular debris, which were more numerous in CA1 of aged and LPS-treated rats, could be found apposed to astrocytes processes and were phagocytated by reactive microglia. Reactive microglia were present in the CA1 Str. Radiatum, often in association with apoptotic cells. Significant differences were found in the fraction of reactive microglia which was 40% of total in adult, 33% in aged and 50% in LPS-treated rats. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) increased significantly in hippocampus homogenates of aged and LPS-treated rats. The number of CA1 neurons decreased in aged rats. In the hippocampus of aged and LPS-treated rats astrocytes and microglia may help clearing apoptotic cellular debris possibly through CX3CL1 signalling. Our results indicate that astrocytes and microglia in the hippocampus of aged and LPS-infused rats possibly participate in the clearance of cellular debris associated with programmed cell death. The actions of astrocytes may represent either protective mechanisms to control inflammatory processes and the spread of further cellular damage to neighboring tissue, or they may contribute to neuronal damage in pathological conditions. PMID:23028880

  7. Microglia and CNS Interleukin-1: Beyond Immunological Concepts

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    Xiaoyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of microglia and expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 in the CNS have become almost synonymous with neuroinflammation. In numerous studies, increased CNS IL-1 expression and altered microglial morphology have been used as hallmarks of CNS inflammation. A central concept of how CNS IL-1 and microglia influence functions of the nervous system was derived from the notion initially generated in the peripheral immune system: IL-1 stimulates monocyte/macrophage (the peripheral counterparts of microglia to amplify inflammation. It is increasingly clear, however, CNS IL-1 acts on other targets in the CNS and microglia participates in many neural functions that are not related to immunological activities. Further, CNS exhibits immunological privilege (although not as absolute as previously thought, rendering amplification of inflammation within CNS under stringent control. This review will analyze current literature to evaluate the contribution of immunological and non-immunological aspects of microglia/IL-1 interaction in the CNS to gain insights for how these aspects might affect health and disease in the nervous tissue.

  8. Microglia Control Neuronal Network Excitability via BDNF Signalling

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    Francesco Ferrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia-neuron interactions play a crucial role in several neurological disorders characterized by altered neural network excitability, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. While a series of potential messengers have been postulated as substrates of the communication between microglia and neurons, including cytokines, purines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide, the specific links between messengers, microglia, neuronal networks, and diseases have remained elusive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF released by microglia emerges as an exception in this riddle. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role played by microglial BDNF in controlling neuronal excitability by causing disinhibition. The efforts made by different laboratories during the last decade have collectively provided a robust mechanistic paradigm which elucidates the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and release of BDNF from microglia, the downstream TrkB-mediated signals in neurons, and the biophysical mechanism by which disinhibition occurs, via the downregulation of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, dysrupting Cl−homeostasis, and hence the strength of GABAA- and glycine receptor-mediated inhibition. The resulting altered network activity appears to explain several features of the associated pathologies. Targeting the molecular players involved in this canonical signaling pathway may lead to novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating a wide array of neural dysfunctions.

  9. The effect of minocycline on indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase expression and the levels of kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid in LPS-activated primary rat microglia.

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    Bahrami, Zahra; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Hashemi-Monfared, Afrouzeh; Zahednasab, Hamid; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-12-13

    Microglia are one of the most important neural cells in the central nervous system (CNS) which account for 10-15% of all cells found in the brain. A vast majority of studies indicate that microglia play a pivotal role in protection and damage of the CNS. It has been shown that microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also produce a barrage of factors that are involved in tissue repair and neural regeneration. Several lines of evidence indicate that unregulated activation of microglia in response to either endogenous or exogenous insults results in the production of toxic factors that propagate neuronal injury. Studies demonstrated that the activated microglia secret the excessive amounts of quinolinic acid (QA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) which are highly toxic for the neuronal cells. In line with this, indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme producing KYNA and QA has been shown to be elevated during the inflammation in microglia. In this study, we established primary microglial cell cultures obtained from cerebral cortices of 1-day neonatal Wistar rats. Minocycline (20-60 µM) or its vehicle was added to the culture media 60 min prior to 48 h incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL). Using a specific process of adhesion and shaking of the cultured glial cells, a purified culture of approximately 94% enriched microglia was obtained and then, corroborated by immunocytochemistry (ICC). The cell viability after minocycline treatments was assessed using the MTT colorimetric assay. The expression of IDO was evaluated using qPCR. The levels of KYNA and QA were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that minocycline significantly decreased the levels of both KYNA and QA in glia cells exposed to LPS. Moreover, minocycline decreased the expression of IDO in treated LPS-induced microglia. It seems that minocycline has a potent ability to oppress the inflammatory process via the decrease in production of IDO

  10. The spider effect: morphological and orienting classification of microglia in response to stimuli in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A Jonas

    Full Text Available The different morphological stages of microglial activation have not yet been described in detail. We transected the olfactory bulb of rats and examined the activation of the microglial system histologically. Six stages of bidirectional microglial activation (A and deactivation (R were observed: from stage 1A to 6A, the cell body size increased, the cell process number decreased, and the cell processes retracted and thickened, orienting toward the direction of the injury site; until stage 6A, when all processes disappeared. In contrast, in deactivation stages 6R to 1R, the microglia returned to the original site exhibiting a stepwise retransformation to the original morphology. Thin highly branched processes re-formed in stage 1R, similar to those in stage 1A. This reverse transformation mirrored the forward transformation except in stages 6R to 1R: cells showed multiple nuclei which were slowly absorbed. Our findings support a morphologically defined stepwise activation and deactivation of microglia cells.

  11. The gamma chain subunit of Fc receptors is required for alpha-synuclein-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in microglia

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    Cao Shuwen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein alpha-synuclein (α-SYN, which is found in the Lewy bodies of dopamine-producing (DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN, has an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Previous studies have shown that neuroinflammation plays a key role in PD pathogenesis. In an AAV-synuclein mouse model of PD, we have found that over-abundance of α-SYN triggers the expression of NF-κB p65, and leads to microglial activation and DA neurodegeneration. We also have observed that Fcγ receptors (FcγR, proteins present on the surface of microglia that bind immunoglobulin G (IgG and other ligands, are key modulators of α-SYN-induced neurodegeneration. Methods In order to study the role of FcγRs in the interactions of α-SYN and microglia, we treated the primary microglial cultures from wild-type (WT and FcγR−/− mice with aggregated human α-SYN in vitro. Results Using immunocytochemistry, we found that α-SYN was taken up by both WT and FcγR−/− microglia, however, their patterns of internalization were different, with aggregation in autophagosomes in WT cells and more diffuse localization in FcγR−/− microglia. In WT microglia, α-SYN induced the nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65 protein and downstream chemokine expression while in FcγR−/− mouse microglia, α-SYN failed to trigger the enhancement of nuclear NF-κB p65, and the pro-inflammatory signaling was reduced. Conclusions Our results suggest that α-SYN can interact directly with microglia and can be internalized and trafficked to autophagosomes. FcγRs mediate this interaction, and in the absence of the gamma chain, there is altered intracellular trafficking and attenuation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling. Therefore, blocking either FcγR signaling or downstream NF-κB activation may be viable therapeutic strategies in PD.

  12. USP18 lack in microglia causes destructive interferonopathy of the mouse brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Goldmann (Tobias); N. Zeller (Nicolas); J. Raasch (Jenni); K. Kierdorf (Katrin); K. Frenzel (Kathrin); L. Ketscher (Lars); A. Basters (Anja); O. Staszewski (Ori); S.M. Brendecke (Stefanie M.); A. Spiess (Alena); T.L. Tay (Tuan Leng); C. Kreutz (Clemens); J. Timmer (Jens); G.M.S. Mancini (Grazia); T. Blank (Thomas); G. Fritz (Günter); K.P.H. Biber (Knut); R. Lang (Roland); D. Malo (Danielle); D. Merkler (Doron); M. Heikenwälder (Mathias); K.-P. Knobeloch (Klaus-Peter); M. Prinz (Marco)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMicroglia are tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that control tissue homeostasis. Microglia dysregulation is thought to be causal for a group of neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, called "microgliopathies". However, how the

  13. USP18 lack in microglia causes destructive interferonopathy of the mouse brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Tobias; Zeller, Nicolas; Raasch, Jenni; Kierdorf, Katrin; Frenzel, Kathrin; Ketscher, Lars; Basters, Anja; Staszewski, Ori; Brendecke, Stefanie M.; Spiess, Alena; Tay, Tuan Leng; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Blank, Thomas; Fritz, Guenter; Biber, Knut; Lang, Roland; Malo, Danielle; Merkler, Doron; Heikenwaelder, Mathias; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Prinz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that control tissue homeostasis. Microglia dysregulation is thought to be causal for a group of neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, called "microgliopathies". However, how the intracellular

  14. Activation Status of Human Microglia Is Dependent on Lesion Formation Stage and Remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peferoen, L.A.N.; Vogel, D.Y.S.; Ummenthum, K.; Breur, M.; Heijnen, P.D.A.M.; Gerritsen, W.H.; Peferoen-Baert, R.M.B.; van der Valk, P.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Amor, S.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to macrophages, microglia adopt diverse activation states and contribute to repair and tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we show that in vitro M1-polarized (proinflammatory) human adult microglia

  15. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

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    Constanza Stefania Meneses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43. For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  16. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43). For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III) was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent) are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  17. Activated microglia in cortex of mouse models of mucopolysaccharidoses I and IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Greenberg, David S.; Rajavel, Kavitha S.; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Li, Hong Hua; Neufeld, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    α-N-Acetylglucosaminidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB, MPS IIIB) and α-l-iduronidase deficiency (MPS I) are heritable lysosomal storage diseases; neurodegeneration is prominent in MPS IIIB and in severe cases of MPS I. We have obtained morphologic and molecular evidence for the involvement of microglia in brain pathology of mouse models of the two diseases. In the cortex, a subset of microglia (sometimes perineuronal) consists of cells that are probably phagocytic; they have large storage vacuoles, react with MOMA-2 (monoclonal antibody against macrophages) and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin IB4, and stain intensely for the lysosomal proteins Lamp-1, Lamp-2, and cathepsin D as well as for GM3 ganglioside. MOMA-2-positive cells appear at 1 and 6 months in MPS IIIB and MPS I mice, respectively, but though their number increases with age, they remain sparse. However, a profusion of cells carrying the macrophage CD68/macrosialin antigen appear in the cortex of both mouse models at 1 month. mRNA encoding CD68/macrosialin also increases at that time, as shown by microarray and Northern blot analyses. Ten other transcripts elevated in both mouse models are associated with macrophage functions, including complement C4, the three subunits of complement C1q, lysozyme M, cathepsins S and Z, cytochrome b558 small subunit, macrophage-specific protein 1, and DAP12. An increase in IFN-γ and IFN-γ receptor was observed by immunohistochemistry. These functional increases may represent activation of resident microglia, an influx and activation of blood monocytes, or both. They show an inflammatory component of brain disease in the two MPS, as is known for many neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12576554

  18. Therapeutically Targeting Neuroinflammation and Microglia after Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Youngjeon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and recent studies posit that inflammation acts as a double-edged sword, not only detrimentally augmenting secondary injury, but also potentially promoting recovery. An initial event of inflammation in ischemic stroke is the activation of microglia, leading to production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators acting through multiple receptor signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the role of microglial mediators in acute ischemic stroke and elaborate on preclinical and clinical studies focused on microglia in stroke models. Understanding how microglia can lead to both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses may be essential to implement therapeutic strategies using immunomodulatory interventions in ischemic stroke.

  19. Role of microglia in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Liu, Han; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant widely abused around the world. The chronic use of Meth produces neurotoxicity featured by dopaminergic terminal damage and microgliosis, resulting in serious neurological and behavioral consequences. Ample evidence indicate that Meth causes microglial activation and resultant secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules leading to neural injury. However, the mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain to be determined. In this review, we attempt to address the effects of Meth on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated microglia activation both in vitro and in-vivo. Meth abuse not only increases HIV transmission but also exacerbates progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through activation of microglia. In addition, the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory drugs on ameliorating Meth-induced microglia activation and resultant neuronal injury is discussed. PMID:28694920

  20. The Role of Microglia in Retinal Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson, and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ana I.; de Hoz, Rosa; Salobrar-Garcia, Elena; Salazar, Juan J.; Rojas, Blanca; Ajoy, Daniel; López-Cuenca, Inés; Rojas, Pilar; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions. The retina is an extension of the brain and therefore the inflammatory response in the brain can occur in the retina. The brain and retina are affected in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and glaucoma. AD is an age-related neurodegeneration of the CNS characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss in the cerebral cortex, resulting in cognitive deficit and dementia. The extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (pTau) are the hallmarks of this disease. These deposits are also found in the retina and optic nerve. PD is a neurodegenerative locomotor disorder with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This is accompanied by Lewy body inclusion composed of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. PD also involves retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration. Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss. In this pathology, deposition of Aβ, synuclein, and pTau has also been detected in retina. These neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathogenic mechanism, the neuroinflammation, in which microglia play an important role. Microglial activation has been reported in AD, PD, and glaucoma in

  1. The Role of Microglia in Retinal Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson, and Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Ramirez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS, act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions. The retina is an extension of the brain and therefore the inflammatory response in the brain can occur in the retina. The brain and retina are affected in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and glaucoma. AD is an age-related neurodegeneration of the CNS characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss in the cerebral cortex, resulting in cognitive deficit and dementia. The extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid (Aβ and intraneuronal accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (pTau are the hallmarks of this disease. These deposits are also found in the retina and optic nerve. PD is a neurodegenerative locomotor disorder with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This is accompanied by Lewy body inclusion composed of α-synuclein (α-syn aggregates. PD also involves retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration. Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss. In this pathology, deposition of Aβ, synuclein, and pTau has also been detected in retina. These neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathogenic mechanism, the neuroinflammation, in which microglia play an important role. Microglial activation has been reported in AD, PD, and

  2. [Marek's disease virus can infect chicken brain microglia and promote the transcription of toll-like receptor 15 and 1LB genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-li; Chen, Hao; Wei, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Microglial cells were purified from a mixed neuroglia culture prepared from the neonatal chicken brain in vitro, and were infected with the vvMDV YL040920 isolate and an attenuated MDV vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens, respectively. The presence of cytopathic effect (CPE) was examined daily, and the MEQ expression in MDV-infected microglia was detected by immunohistochemistry assay. DNA replication of the MDV meq gene and transcription of the gB gene were determined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and qRT-PCR, respectively. The transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA in microglia post MDV infection were quantified by qRT-PCR. The results of this study showed that both vvMDV YL040920 and attenuated vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens could infect microglia and produce characteristic CPE with plaque formation. The plaques were formed due to cells shedding at multi-sites, then quickly expanded and integrated. Furthermore, the MEQ protein was detected in nuclei of YL040920 and CVI988/ Rispens-infected microglia, and MDV meq DNA replication and gB gene transcription in MDV-infected microglia were also confirmed. Although both MDV DNA copies and gB transcripts were increased in the virus-infected microglia, the higher viral DNA load and gB transcript were observed for CVI988/Rispens than for YL040920 in vitro (P < or = 0.05/0.001). The transcriptions of TLR15 and TLR1LB gene were found to be up-regulated in microglia following MDV infection in vitro. Purified microglia infected with YL040920 was observed increased TLR15 and TLR1LB transcripts as early as 1 day post infection (dpi), and reached its peak level at 3 dpi, then decreased mildly at 5 dpi. For CVI988/Rispens, it induced an increase of TLR15 transcript as early as 1 dpi, and rose rapidly at 3 dpi, and then decreased slightly at 5 dpi. At the same time, CVI988/Rispens induced the increase of chTLR1LB transcript at 3 dpi and decreased at 5 dpi. By comparing the TLRs transcription between YL040920 and CVI988

  3. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Microglia [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Nanostructured TiO2 surfaces promote polarized activation of microglia, but not astrocytes, toward a proinflammatory profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Astis, Silvia; Corradini, Irene; Morini, Raffaella; Rodighiero, Simona; Tomasoni, Romana; Lenardi, Cristina; Verderio, Claudia; Milani, Paolo; Matteoli, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Activation of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, has been implicated in the inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The classic activation state (M1) is characterized by high capacity to present antigens, high production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines. Classically activated cells act as potent effectors that drive the inflammatory response and may mediate detrimental effects on neural cells. The second phenotype (M2) is an alternative, apparently beneficial, activation state, more related to a fine tuning of inflammation, scavenging of debris, promotion of angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and repair. Specific environmental chemical signals are able to induce these different polarization states. We provide here evidence that nanostructured substrates are able, exclusively in virtue of their physical properties, to push microglia toward the proinflammatory activation phenotype, with an efficacy which reflects the graded nanoscale rugosity. The acquisition of a proinflammatory phenotype appears specific for microglia and not astrocytes, indicating that these two cell types, although sharing common innate immune responses, respond differently to external physical stimuli.

  11. Sensing of HSV-1 by the cGAS-STING pathway in microglia orchestrates antiviral defence in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line S; Lopušná, Katarína; Winther, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced t......Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV......-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are induced in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner. Consistently, mice defective in cGAS or STING are highly susceptible to acute HSE. Although STING is redundant for cell-autonomous antiviral resistance in astrocytes and neurons, viral replication...

  12. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in part via downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK activation in microglial and attenuates microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide treatment mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfei Yang

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation.

  13. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Ugolini, Filippo; Nosi, Daniele; Wenk, Gary L.; Giovannini, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL) and the Polymorphic Layer (PL) of the Dentate Gyrus (DG) of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for the different

  14. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL and the Polymorphic Layer (PL of the Dentate Gyrus (DG of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1 increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for

  15. Punicalagin inhibits neuroinflammation in LPS-activated rat primary microglia.

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    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Kumar, Asit; Velagapudi, Ravikanth; Okorji, Uchechukwu P; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of punicalagin on neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia were investigated. The ability of punicalagin to reduce the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 was measured in culture medium using enzyme immunoassay. TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression in mouse hippocampal slices was measured with PCR. cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 protein and mRNA were evaluated with Western blotting and PCR, respectively. Further experiments to investigate effects of punicalagin on protein expressions of inflammatory targets were also determined with Western blotting. Pretreatment of rat primary microglia with punicalagin (5-40 μM) prior to LPS (10 ng/mL) stimulation produced a significant (p Punicalagin completely abolished TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression in LPS-stimulated hippocampal slices. Protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 were also reduced by punicalagin pretreatment. Results show that punicalagin interferes with NF-κB signalling through attenuation of NF-κB-driven luciferase expression, as well as inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit in the microglia. These results suggest that punicalagin inhibits neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia through interference with NF-κB signalling, suggesting its potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Modulating the Phenotype of Macrophages and Microglia

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    Stephanie A. Amici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and microglia play crucial roles during central nervous system development, homeostasis and acute events such as infection or injury. The diverse functions of tissue macrophages and microglia are mirrored by equally diverse phenotypes. A model of inflammatory/M1 versus a resolution phase/M2 macrophages has been widely used. However, the complexity of macrophage function can only be achieved by the existence of varied, plastic and tridimensional macrophage phenotypes. Understanding how tissue macrophages integrate environmental signals via molecular programs to define pathogen/injury inflammatory responses provides an opportunity to better understand the multilayered nature of macrophages, as well as target and modulate cellular programs to control excessive inflammation. This is particularly important in MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases, where chronic inflammatory macrophage and microglial responses may contribute to pathology. Here, we perform a comprehensive review of our current understanding of how molecular pathways modulate tissue macrophage phenotype, covering both classic pathways and the emerging role of microRNAs, receptor-tyrosine kinases and metabolism in macrophage phenotype. In addition, we discuss pathway parallels in microglia, novel markers helpful in the identification of peripheral macrophages versus microglia and markers linked to their phenotype.

  17. Do microglia play a role in sex differences in TBI?

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    Caplan, Henry W; Cox, Charles S; Bedi, Supinder S

    2017-01-02

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both males and females and is, thus, a major focus of current study. Although the overall death rate of TBI for males is roughly three times higher than that for females, males have been disproportionately represented in clinical and preclinical studies. Gender differences are known to exist in many neurologic disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, and differences appear to exist in TBI. Furthermore, it is known that microglia have sexually dimorphic roles in CNS development and other neurologic conditions; however, most animal studies of microglia and TBI have focused on male subjects. Microglia are a current target of many preclinical and clinical therapeutic trials for TBI. Understanding the relationship among sex, sex hormones, and microglia is critical to truly understanding the pathophysiology of TBI. However, the evidence for sex differences in TBI centers mainly on sex hormones, and evidenced-based conclusions are often contradictory. In an attempt to review the current literature, it is apparent that sex differences likely exist, but the contradictory nature and magnitude of such differences in the existing literature does not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, except that more investigation of this issue is necessary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microglia-Synapse Pathways: Promising Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Jingdun Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD are extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles (tau. However, the mechanisms underlying these neuropathological changes remain largely unclear. To date, plenty of studies have shown that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of AD, and the microglia-synapse pathways have been repeatedly identified as the crucial factor in the disease process. In this review, evidences from microglia and synapse studies are presented, and the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AD, the contributing factors to synapse dysfunction, and the role and mechanisms of microglia-synapse pathways will be discussed.

  19. Galectin-1 Reduces Neuroinflammation via Modulation of Nitric Oxide-Arginase Signaling in HIV-1 Transfected Microglia: a Gold Nanoparticle-Galectin-1 "Nanoplex" a Possible Neurotherapeutic?

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    Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Mangum, Courtney S; Abou-Jaoude, Eliane; Reynolds, Jessica L; Liu, Maixian; Sundquist, Karin; Parikh, Neil U; Chaves, Lee D; Mammen, Manoj J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Mahajan, Supriya D

    2017-03-01

    Galectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that are important modulators of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Galectin-1 is a pivotal regulator of microglia activation that alters the immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection and could have therapeutic relevance in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We have previously shown that galectin-1 treatment decreased oxidative stress in microglia and hypothesize that the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is the cross regulatory interactions between Nitric oxide (NO) and Arginase I activity in microglia. We induced microglial activation and examined the effect of galectin-1 on the expression of various M1/M2 microglial phenotypic markers. Since, TNF-α is associated with activation of microglial cells involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we treated HIV transfected human microglial cell cultures (CHME-5/HIV) with TNF-α followed by treatment with galectin-1, to examine the galectin-1 mediated neuro-modulatory response. Our results show that treatment of CHME-5/HIV microglia with galectin-1 reduced TNF-α induced oxidative stress by ~40%, and also significantly reduced iNOS gene expression and NO production while correspondingly increasing arginase-1, cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-1) gene expression and arginase activity. Galectin-1 treatment results in shifting microglia polarization from M1 toward the beneficial M2 phenotype which may prevent neurodegeneration and promote neuroprotection. Thus, our data suggests that galectin-1 treatment reduces neuroinflammation in the CNS microenvironment via the modulation of the NO-arginase network in microglia and thus could play a neuroprotective role in HAND. Further, the therapeutic potential of galectin-1 could be enhanced by conjugation of galectin-1 onto gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), resulting in a nanogold-galectin-1 (Au-Gal-1) multivalent complex that will have more clinical translational

  20. Clusters of activated microglia in normal-appearing white matter show signs of innate immune activation

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    van Horssen Jack

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In brain tissues from multiple sclerosis (MS patients, clusters of activated HLA-DR-expressing microglia, also referred to as preactive lesions, are located throughout the normal-appearing white matter. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the frequency, distribution and cellular architecture of preactive lesions using a large cohort of well-characterized MS brain samples. Methods Here, we document the frequency of preactive lesions and their association with distinct white matter lesions in a cohort of 21 MS patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to gain further insight into the cellular and molecular composition of preactive lesions. Results Preactive lesions were observed in a majority of MS patients (67% irrespective of disease duration, gender or subtype of disease. Microglial clusters were predominantly observed in the vicinity of active demyelinating lesions and are not associated with T cell infiltrates, axonal alterations, activated astrocytes or blood–brain barrier disruption. Microglia in preactive lesions consistently express interleukin-10 and TNF-α, but not interleukin-4, whereas matrix metalloproteases-2 and −9 are virtually absent in microglial nodules. Interestingly, key subunits of the free-radical-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase-2 were abundantly expressed in microglial clusters. Conclusions The high frequency of preactive lesions suggests that it is unlikely that most of them will progress into full-blown demyelinating lesions. Preactive lesions are not associated with blood–brain barrier disruption, suggesting that an intrinsic trigger of innate immune activation, rather than extrinsic factors crossing a damaged blood–brain barrier, induces the formation of clusters of activated microglia.

  1. Glioma-associated microglia/macrophages display an expression profile different from M1 and M2 polarization and highly express Gpnmb and Spp1.

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    Frank Szulzewsky

    Full Text Available Malignant glioma belong to the most aggressive neoplasms in humans with no successful treatment available. Patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the highest-grade glioma, have an average survival time of only around one year after diagnosis. Both microglia and peripheral macrophages/monocytes accumulate within and around glioma, but fail to exert effective anti-tumor activity and even support tumor growth. Here we use microarray analysis to compare the expression profiles of glioma-associated microglia/macrophages and naive control cells. Samples were generated from CD11b+ MACS-isolated cells from naïve and GL261-implanted C57BL/6 mouse brains. Around 1000 genes were more than 2-fold up- or downregulated in glioma-associated microglia/macrophages when compared to control cells. A comparison with published data sets of M1, M2a,b,c-polarized macrophages revealed a gene expression pattern that has only partial overlap with any of the M1 or M2 gene expression patterns. Samples for the qRT-PCR validation of selected M1 and M2a,b,c-specific genes were generated from two different glioma mouse models and isolated by flow cytometry to distinguish between resident microglia and invading macrophages. We confirmed in both models the unique glioma-associated microglia/macrophage phenotype including a mixture of M1 and M2a,b,c-specific genes. To validate the expression of these genes in human we MACS-isolated CD11b+ microglia/macrophages from GBM, lower grade brain tumors and control specimens. Apart from the M1/M2 gene analysis, we demonstrate that the expression of Gpnmb and Spp1 is highly upregulated in both murine and human glioma-associated microglia/macrophages. High expression of these genes has been associated with poor prognosis in human GBM, as indicated by patient survival data linked to gene expression data. We also show that microglia/macrophages are the predominant source of these transcripts in murine and human GBM. Our

  2. Regulation of microglia activity by glaucocalyxin-A: attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neuroinflammation through NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

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    Byung-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Microglial cells are the resident macrophages and intrinsic arm of the central nervous system innate immune defense. Microglial cells become activated in response to injury, infection, environmental toxins, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Therefore, regulating microglial activation may have therapeutic benefits that lead to alleviating the progression of inflammatory-mediated neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glaucocalyxin A (GLA isolated from Rabdosia japonica on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated primary microglia and BV-2 cells. GLA significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and reversed the morphological changes in primary microglia. Further, GLA suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 dose-dependently at the mRNA and protein levels. The production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 were inhibited by suppressing their transcriptional activity. Furthermore, GLA suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation by blocking degradation of IκB-α and inhibited the induction of lipocalin-2 expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Mechanistic study revealed that the inhibitory effects of GLA were accompanied by blocking the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway in activated microglia. In conclusion, given that microglial activation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, GLA could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for treating microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases.

  3. Nimodipine fosters remyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis and induces microglia-specific apoptosis

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    Schampel, Andrea; Volovitch, Oleg; Koeniger, Tobias; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Jörg, Stefanie; Linker, Ralf A.; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Wunsch, Marie; Hell, Johannes W.; Ergün, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuous interest in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, there is still a lack of neuroprotective strategies, because the main focus has remained on modulating the immune response. Here we performed in-depth analysis of neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in in vitro studies regarding the effect of the well-established L-type calcium channel antagonist nimodipine. Nimodipine treatment attenuated clinical EAE and spinal cord degeneration and promoted remyelination. Surprisingly, we observed calcium channel-independent effects on microglia, resulting in apoptosis. These effects were cell-type specific and irrespective of microglia polarization. Apoptosis was accompanied by decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in cell culture as well as decreased iNOS and reactive oxygen species levels in EAE. In addition, increased numbers of Olig2+APC+ oligodendrocytes were detected. Overall, nimodipine application seems to generate a favorable environment for regenerative processes and therefore could be a treatment option for MS, because it combines features of immunomodulation with beneficial effects on neuroregeneration. PMID:28381594

  4. Modulating the inflammatory properties of activated microglia with Docosahexaenoic acid and Aspirin

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    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are considered the “resident macrophages” of the brain. When in their resting state, microglia perform routine maintenance and immune surveillance. Once activated, either by injury or an immune stimulus, microglia secrete a variety of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as Nitric Oxide, superoxide, and inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules is transient, and does not cause neurodegeneration. However, if up-regulation lasts for an extended period of time, neurodegeneration ensues. Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation due to microglial activation. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have been proposed as possible preventative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that has potent anti-inflammatory properties.This research work sought to elucidate whether microglial activation can be modulated by combining Aspirin, a classical NSAID, with Docosahexaenoic Acid, a natural anti-inflammatory agent. The combined ability of Aspirin and DHA to modulate microglial activation was determined in the context of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Nitric Oxide levels, as well as total Glutathione levels. Results Docosahexaenoic Acid increased total Glutathione levels in microglia cells and enhanced their anti-oxidative capacity. It reduced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 induced through TLR-3 and TLR-4 activation. Furthermore, it reduced production of Nitric Oxide. Aspirin showed similar anti-inflammatory effects with respect to TNF-α during TLR-3 and TLR-7 stimulation. Aspirin did not show any redection in terms of Nitric Oxide production. Combination of Aspirin and Docosahexaenoic Acid showed augmentation in total Glutathione production during TLR-7 stimulation as well as a reduction in IL-6, TNF-α and Nitric Oxide. Conclusions

  5. Osteopontin Peptide Icosamer Containing RGD and SLAYGLR Motifs Enhances the Motility and Phagocytic Activity of Microglia.

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    Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Hahnbie; Jin, Yin-Chuan; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2017-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein that is expressed in various tissues, including brain, and mediates a wide range of cellular activities. In a previous study, the authors observed the robust neuroprotective effects of recombinant OPN and of RGD and SLAYGLR-containing OPN-peptide icosamer (OPNpt20) in an animal model of transient focal ischemia, and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of OPNpt20 in the postischemic brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of OPNpt20 on the motility and phagocytic activity of BV2 cells (a microglia cell line). F-actin polymerization and cell motility were significantly enhanced in OPNpt20-treated BV2 cells, and numbers of filopodia-like processes increased and lamellipodia-like structures enlarged and thickened. In addition, treatment of cells with either of three mutant OPN icosamers containing mutation within RGD, SLAY, or RGDSLAY showed that the RGD and SLAY motifs of OPNpt20 play critical roles in the enhancement of cell motility, and the interaction between exogenous OPNpt20 and endogenous αv and α4 integrin and the activations of FAK, Erk, and Akt signaling pathways were found to be involved in the OPNpt20-mediated induction of cell motility. Furthermore, phagocytic activity of microglia was also significantly enhanced by OPNpt20 in a RGD and SLAY dependent manner. These results indicate OPNpt20 containing RGD and SLAY motifs triggers microglial motility and phagocytic activity and OPNpt20-integrin mediated signaling plays a critical role in these activities.

  6. GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of TLR4 and CD14 in murine microglia

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    Parajuli Bijay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF activates microglia and induces inflammatory responses via binding to GM-CSF receptor complex composed of two different subunit GM-CSF receptor α (GM-CSFRα and common β chain (βc. GM-CSF has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammatory responses in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanisms how GM-CSF promotes neuroinflammation still remain unclear. Methods Microglia were stimulated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF and the levels of TLR4 and CD14 expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and flowcytometry. LPS binding was analyzed by flowcytometry. GM-CSF receptor complex was analyzed by immunocytechemistry. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of GM-CSF-stimulated microglia and NF-κB nuclear translocation were determined by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO was measured by the Griess method. The levels of p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-p38 and p38 were assessed by Western blotting. Statistically significant differences between experimental groups were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Results GM-CSF receptor complex was expressed in microglia. GM-CSF enhanced TLR4 and CD14 expressions in microglia and subsequent LPS-binding to the cell surface. In addition, GM-CSF priming increased LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO by microglia. GM-CSF upregulated the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-p38, suggesting that induction of TLR4 and CD14 expression by GM-CSF was mediated through ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that GM

  7. Selective enhancement of wnt4 expression by cyclic AMP-associated cooperation between rat central astrocytes and microglia

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    Ohnishi, Masatoshi, E-mail: ohnishi@fupharm.fukuyama-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan); Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan); Urasaki, Tomoka [Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan); Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Kohei; Takeo, Shin; Harada, Tomoki; Ohsugi, Yoshihito [Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan); Inoue, Atsuko [Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan); Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, 985-1 Sanzo, Higashimura-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 729-0292 (Japan)

    2015-11-13

    The wnt protein family has important members involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and plasticity expression; however, little is known about its biosynthesis processes. On the other hand, an increase in the intracerebral cyclic adenosine 3′, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP) level leads to synaptic plasticity via the de novo synthesis of any protein. Here, the effect of dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), a membrane permeability cAMP analog, on the wnt family was investigated in rat primary-cultured glial cells containing astrocytes and microglia. Among wnt3a, 4, 5a, 7a and 11 mRNA, only wnt4 expression was increased by longer treatment (24 h), compared with short treatment (2 h), with dbcAMP in a concentration-dependent manner, and its effect reached statistical significance at 1 mM. In cultures of isolated astrocytes or microglia, wnt4 expression was not affected by 1 mM dbcAMP for 24 h, and microglial wnt4 protein was undetectable even when cells were treated with the drug. Mixed glial cells treated for 24 h with 1 mM dbcAMP showed significantly increased wnt4 protein, as well as mRNA. Immunofluorescence manifested that cells that expressed wnt4 protein were astrocytes, but not microglia. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.25 mg/kg rolipram, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV inhibitor that can pass through the blood brain barrier and inhibits cAMP degradation specifically, showed a tendency to increase wnt4 expression in the adult rat brain after 24 h, and the increases in wnt4 mRNA and protein levels reached statistical significance in the hippocampus and striatum, respectively. This is the first finding to help elucidate the selective biosynthesis of central wnt4 through cAMP-stimulated microglia and astrocytes interaction. - Highlights: • Dibutyryl cAMP increased wnt4, but not wnt3a, 5a, 7a and 11, mRNA in mixed glia. • Wnt4 protein increased in astrocytes co-cultivated with microglia. • It took a long time to robustly increase wnt4 expression. • Rolipram

  8. Expression and contributions of the Kir2.1 inward-rectifier K+ channel to proliferation, migration and chemotaxis of microglia in unstimulated and anti-inflammatory states

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    Doris eLam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When microglia respond to CNS damage, they can range from pro-inflammatory (classical, M1 to anti-inflammatory, alternative (M2 and acquired deactivation states. It is important to determine how microglial functions are affected by these activation states, and to identify molecules that regulate their behavior. Microglial proliferation and migration are crucial during development and following damage in the adult, and both functions are Ca2+-dependent. In many cell types, the membrane potential and driving force for Ca2+ influx are regulated by inward-rectifier K+ channels, including Kir2.1, which is prevalent in microglia. However, it is not known whether Kir2.1 expression and contributions are altered in anti-inflammatory states. We tested the hypothesis that Kir2.1 contributes to Ca2+ entry, proliferation and migration of rat microglia. Kir2.1 (KCNJ2 transcript expression, current amplitude, and proliferation were comparable in unstimulated microglia and following alternative activation (IL-4 stimulated and acquired deactivation (IL-10 stimulated. To examine functional roles of Kir2.1 in microglia, we first determined that ML133 was more effective than the commonly used blocker, Ba2+; i.e., ML133 was potent (IC50=3.5 M and voltage independent. Both blockers slightly increased proliferation in unstimulated or IL-4 (but not IL-10-stimulated microglia. Stimulation with IL-4 or IL-10 increased migration and ATP-induced chemotaxis, and blocking Kir2.1 greatly reduced both but ML133 was more effective. In all three activation states, blocking Kir2.1 with ML133 dramatically reduced Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels. Thus, Kir2.1 channel activity is necessary for microglial Ca2+ signaling and migration under resting and anti-inflammatory states but the channel weakly inhibits proliferation.

  9. Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid

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    Huang, Bor-Ren [Department of Neurosurgery, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taichung Branch, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Fang [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hsiao-Yun [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wen-Pei [Graduate Institute of Sports and Health, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua County, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shiang-Suo [Department of Pharmacology and Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chi-Rei [Graduate Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Wei-Lan [Cancer Research Center, Department of Medical Research, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lu, Dah-Yuu, E-mail: dahyuu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-15

    We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE{sub 2} production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-κB inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser{sup 536}, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of κB-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation. - Highlights: • LTA causes an increase in iNOS, COX-2, and HO-1 expression in microglia. • LTA induces iNOS and COX-2 expression through TLR-2/NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. • HO-1 expression is regulated through p38, JNK, PI3K/AKT and AP-1 pathways. • Induced HO-1 reduces LTA-induced iNOS expression. • LTA plays a regulatory role on inflammatory/anti-inflammatory responses.

  10. Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.

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    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretreatment attenuated Mn and/or LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its activation, and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in BV2 microglial cells. These results suggest that melatonin can effectively modulate phagocytosis and expression of proinflammatory mediators, and can prevent neuroinflammatory disorders accompanied by microglial activation.

  11. TROY and LINGO-1 expression in astrocytes and macrophages/microglia in multiple sclerosis lesions.

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    Satoh, J; Tabunoki, H; Yamamura, T; Arima, K; Konno, H

    2007-02-01

    Nogo constitutes a family of neurite outgrowth inhibitors contributing to a failure of axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Nogo-A is expressed exclusively on oligodendrocytes where Nogo-66 segment binds to Nogo receptor (NgR) expressed on neuronal axons. NgR signalling requires a coreceptor p75(NTR) or TROY in combination with an adaptor LINGO-1. To characterize the cell types expressing the NgR complex in the human CNS, we studied demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains by immunohistochemistry. TROY and LINGO-1 were identified in subpopulations of reactive astrocytes, macrophages/microglia and neurones but not in oligodendrocytes. TROY was up-regulated, whereas LINGO-1 was reduced in MS brains by Western blot. These results suggest that the ternary complex of NgR/TROY/LINGO-1 expressed on astrocytes, macrophages/microglia and neurones, by interacting with Nogo-A on oligodendrocytes, might modulate glial-neuronal interactions in demyelinating lesions of MS.

  12. Lithium limits trimethyltin-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory response in microglia without affecting the concurrent autophagy impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Cinzia; Pompili, Elena; Somma, Francesca; De Vito, Stefania; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Lenzi, Paola; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-02-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a highly toxic molecule present as an environmental contaminant causing neurodegeneration particularly of the limbic system both in humans and in rodents. We recently described the occurrence of impairment in the late stages of autophagy in TMT-intoxicated astrocytes. Here we show that similarly to astrocytes also in microglia, TMT induces the precocious block of autophagy indicated by the accumulation of the autophagosome marker, microtubule associated protein light chain 3. Consistent with autophagy impairment we observe in TMT-treated microglia the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1, a protein specifically degraded through this pathway. Lithium has been proved effective in limiting neurodegenerations and, in particular, in ameliorating symptoms of TMT intoxication in rodents. In our in vitro model, lithium displays a pro-survival and anti-inflammatory action reducing both cell death and the proinflammatory response of TMT-treated microglia. In particular, lithium exerts these activities without reducing TMT-induced accumulation of light chain 3 protein. In fact, the autophagic block imposed by TMT is unaffected by lithium administration. These results are of interest as defects in the execution of autophagy are frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases and lithium is considered a promising therapeutic agent for these pathologies. Thus, it is relevant that this cation can still maintain its pro-survival and anti-inflammatory role in conditions of autophagy block. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Immune dysregulation and cognitive vulnerability in the aging brain: Interactions of microglia, IL-1β, BDNF and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan L

    2015-09-01

    Older individuals often experience declines in cognitive function after events (e.g. infection, or injury) that trigger activation of the immune system. This occurs at least in part because aging sensitizes the response of microglia (the brain's resident immune cells) to signals triggered by an immune challenge. In the aging brain, microglia respond to these signals by producing more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-1beta or IL-1β) and producing them for longer than microglia in younger brains. This exaggerated inflammatory response can compromise processes critical for optimal cognitive functioning. Interleukin-1β is central to the inflammatory response and is a key mediator and modulator of an array of associated biological functions; thus its production and release is usually very tightly regulated. This review will focus on the impact of dysregulated production of IL-1β on hippocampus dependent-memory systems and associated synaptic plasticity processes. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) helps to protect neurons from damage caused by infection or injury, and it plays a critical role in many of the same memory and hippocampal plasticity processes compromised by dysregulated production of IL-1β. This suggests that an exaggerated brain inflammatory response, arising from aging and a secondary immune challenge, may erode the capacity to provide the BDNF needed for memory-related plasticity processes at hippocampal synapses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 or 2 reduces induced cytokine expression in microglia through a protein synthesis independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Benjamin S; Grigg, Ronald; Wood, Ian C

    2017-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors prevent neural cell death in in vivo models of cerebral ischaemia, brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. One mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors may do this is by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response of chronically activated microglia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect and the specific HDAC responsible are not fully understood. Recent data from in vivo rodent studies have shown that inhibition of class I HDACs suppresses neuroinflammation and is neuroprotective. In our study, we have identified that selective HDAC inhibition with inhibitors apicidin, MS-275 or MI-192, or specific knockdown of HDAC1 or 2 using siRNA, suppresses the expression of cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in BV-2 murine microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that in the absence of HDAC1, HDAC2 is up-regulated and these increased levels are compensatory, suggesting that these two HDACs have redundancy in regulating the inflammatory response of microglia. Investigating the possible underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms suggests an increase in protein expression is not important. Taken together, this study supports the idea that inhibitors selective towards HDAC1 or HDAC2, may be therapeutically useful for targeting neuroinflammation in brain injuries and neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Microglia Activation and Schizophrenia: Lessons From the Effects of Minocycline on Postnatal Neurogenesis, Neuronal Survival and Synaptic Pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Gass, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The implication of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia, sustained by recent genetic evidence, represents one of the most exciting topics in schizophrenia research. Drugs which inhibit microglia activation, especially the classical tetracycline antibiotic minocycline are currently under investigation as alternative antipsychotics. However, recent studies demonstrated that microglia activation is not only a hallmark of neuroinflammation, but plays important roles during brain development. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline was shown to induce extensive neuronal cell death and to impair subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and synaptic pruning in the early postnatal and adolescent rodent brain, respectively. These deleterious effects contrast with the neuroprotective actions of minocycline at adult stages. They are of potential importance for schizophrenia, since minocycline triggers similar pro-apoptotic effects in the developing brain as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, known to induce long-term schizophrenia-like abnormalities. Moreover, altered postnatal neurogenesis, recently described in the human striatum, was proposed to induce striatal dopamine dysregulation associated with schizophrenia. Finally, the effect of minocycline on synapse remodeling is of interest considering the recently reported strong genetic association of the pruning-regulating complement factor gene C4A with schizophrenia. This raises the exciting possibility that in conditions of hyperactive synaptic pruning, as supposed in schizophrenia, the inhibitory action of minocycline turns into a beneficial effect, with relevance for early therapeutic interventions. Altogether, these data support a differential view on microglia activation and its inhibition. Further studies are needed to clarify the relevance of these results for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the use of minocycline as antipsychotic drug. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  16. Cultured rat microglia express functional beta-chemokine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddeke, EWGM; Meigel, [No Value; Frentzel, S; Gourmala, NG; Harrison, JK; Buttini, M; Spleiss, O; Gebicke-Harter, P

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the functional expression of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR1 to 5 in cultured rat microglia. RT-PCR analysis revealed constitutive expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA. The beta-chemokines MCP-1 (1-30 nM) as well as RANTES and MIP-1 alpha (100-1000 nM) evoked calcium

  17. The Endogenous Hallucinogen and Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Displays Potent Protective Effects against Hypoxia via Sigma-1 Receptor Activation in Human Primary iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons and Microglia-Like Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila; Kovacs, Attila; Riba, Jordi; Djurovic, Srdjan; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Frecska, Ede

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent endogenous hallucinogen present in the brain of humans and other mammals. Despite extensive research, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Recently, DMT has been found to activate the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an intracellular chaperone fulfilling an interface role between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. It ensures the correct transmission of ER stress into the nucleus resulting in the enhanced production of antistress and antioxidant proteins. Due to this function, the activation of Sig-1R can mitigate the outcome of hypoxia or oxidative stress. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that DMT plays a neuroprotective role in the brain by activating the Sig-1R. We tested whether DMT can mitigate hypoxic stress in in vitro cultured human cortical neurons (derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs), monocyte-derived macrophages (moMACs), and dendritic cells (moDCs). Results showed that DMT robustly increases the survival of these cell types in severe hypoxia (0.5% O2) through the Sig-1R. Furthermore, this phenomenon is associated with the decreased expression and function of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) suggesting that DMT-mediated Sig-1R activation may alleviate hypoxia-induced cellular stress and increase survival in a HIF-1-independent manner. Our results reveal a novel and important role of DMT in human cellular physiology. We postulate that this compound may be endogenously generated in situations of stress, ameliorating the adverse effects of hypoxic/ischemic insult to the brain.

  18. Luteolin Inhibits Microglia and Alters Hippocampal-Dependent Spatial Working Memory in Aged Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Saebyeol; Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2010-01-01

    A dysregulated overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia may facilitate cognitive aging and neurodegeneration. Considerable evidence suggests the flavonoid luteolin has antiinflammatory effects, but its ability to inhibit microglia, reduce inflammatory mediators, and improve hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory...

  19. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    expression of purinoceptors and lack of ATP-elicitable chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of these microglia hampered the survival and migration of newly generated neuroblasts through the RMS to the olfactory bulb. SVZ and RMS microglia thus appear to comprise a functionally distinct class...... toward olfactory bulb layers. In addition to other unique populations residing in the SVZ niche, microglia display distinct morphofunctional properties that boost neuronal progenitor survival and migration in the mammalian brain....

  20. Curcumin Protects against Ischemic Stroke by Titrating Microglia/Macrophage Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongjian Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death. Ischemic stroke accounts for approximately 80% of all strokes. The remaining 20% of strokes are hemorrhagic in nature. To date, therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke are very limited. Recent research suggests that shifting microglial phenotype from the pro-inflammatory M1 state toward the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. The dietary phytochemical curcumin has shown promise in experimental stroke models, but its effects on microglial polarization and long-term recovery after stroke are unknown. Here we address these gaps by subjecting mice to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO and administering curcumin intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg immediately after ischemia and 24 h later. Histological studies revealed that curcumin post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral ischemic damage 3 days after dMCAO. Sensorimotor functions—as measured by the adhesive removal test and modified Garcia scores—were superior in curcumin-treated mice at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after stroke. RT-PCR measurements revealed an elevation of M2 microglia/macrophage phenotypic markers and a reduction in M1 markers in curcumin-treated brains 3 days after dMCAO. Immunofluorescent staining further showed that curcumin treatment significantly increased the number of CD206+Iba1+ M2 microglia/macrophages and reduced the number of CD16+Iba1+ M1 cells 10 days after stroke. In vitro studies using the BV2 microglial cell line confirmed that curcumin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon-γ (IFN-γ-induced M1 polarization. Curcumin treatment concentration-dependently reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p70, in the absence of any toxic effect on microglial cell survival. In conclusion, we demonstrate that curcumin has a

  1. A novel bivalent HIV-1 entry inhibitor reveals fundamental differences in CCR5 -μ- opioid receptor interactions in human astroglia and microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-HAGE, Nazira; DEVER, Seth M.; PODHAIZER, Elizabeth M.; ARNATT, Cristopher K.; ZHANG, Yan; HAUSER, Kurt F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored whether the opiate, morphine, affects the actions of maraviroc, as well as a recently synthesized bivalent derivative of maraviroc linked to an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on HIV-1 entry in primary human glia. Methods HIV-1 entry was monitored in glia transiently transfected with an LTR construct containing a luciferase reporter gene under control of a promoter for the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. The effect of maraviroc and the bivalent ligand ± morphine on CCR5 surface expression and cytokine release was also explored. Results Maraviroc inhibits HIV-1 entry into glial cells, while morphine negates the effects of maraviroc leading to a significant increase in viral entry. We also demonstrate that the maraviroc-containing bivalent ligand better inhibits R5-tropic viral entry in astrocytes than microglia compared to maraviroc when coadministered with morphine. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of the bivalent compound in astrocytes were not compromised by morphine. Exposure to maraviroc decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and restricted HIV-1-dependent increases in CCR5 expression in both astrocytes and microglia, while exposure to the bivalent had similar effect in astrocytes but not in microglia. CCR5-MOR stoichiometric ratio varied among the two cell types with CCR5 expressed at much higher levels than MOR in microglia, which could explain the effectiveness of the bivalent ligand in astrocytes compared to microglia. Conclusion A novel bivalent compound reveals fundamental differences in CCR5-MOR interactions and HIV-1 infectivity among glia, and has unique therapeutic potential in opiate abuse-HIV interactive comorbidity. PMID:23751259

  2. Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleskog Carina

    2012-05-01

    Thus, WNT-5A-induced and G protein-dependent signaling to ERK1/2 is important for the regulation of proinflammatory responses in mouse primary microglia cells. We show for the first time that WNT-5A/G protein signaling mediates physiologically important processes in primary mammalian cells with natural receptor and G protein stochiometry. Consequently, WNT-5A emerges as an important means of astrocyte-microglia communication and we, therefore, suggest WNT-5A as a new player in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease, hypoxia, stroke, injury and infection.

  3. Somatostatin modulates insulin-degrading-enzyme metabolism: implications for the regulation of microglia activity in AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Tundo

    Full Text Available The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ into senile plaques and the impairment of somatostatin-mediated neurotransmission are key pathological events in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Insulin-degrading-enzyme (IDE is one of the main extracellular protease targeting Aβ, and thus it represents an interesting pharmacological target for AD therapy. We show that the active form of somatostatin-14 regulates IDE activity by affecting its expression and secretion in microglia cells. A similar effect can also be observed when adding octreotide. Following a previous observation where somatostatin directly interacts with IDE, here we demonstrate that somatostatin regulates Aβ catabolism by modulating IDE proteolytic activity in IDE gene-silencing experiments. As a whole, these data indicate the relevant role played by somatostatin and, potentially, by analogue octreotide, in preventing Aβ accumulation by partially restoring IDE activity.

  4. Central Nervous System Regenerative Failure: Role of Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, and Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Jerry; Schwab, Martin E.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies are now showing the exciting potential to achieve significant functional recovery following central nervous system (CNS) injury by manipulating both the inefficient intracellular growth machinery in neurons, as well as the extracellular barriers, which further limit their regenerative potential. In this review, we have focused on the three major glial cell types: oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia/macrophages, in addition to some of their precursors, which form major extrinsic barriers to regrowth in the injured CNS. Although axotomized neurons in the CNS have, at best, a limited capacity to regenerate or sprout, there is accumulating evidence that even in the adult and, especially after boosting their growth motor, neurons possess the capacity for considerable circuit reorganization and even lengthy regeneration when these glial obstacles to neuronal regrowth are modified, eliminated, or overcome. PMID:25475091

  5. Role of Microglia in Oxidative Toxicity Associated with Encephalomycarditis Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

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    Yasuhisa Ano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The single-stranded RNA encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV can replicate in the central nervous system (CNS and lead to prominent brain lesions in the stratum pyramidale hippocampus and the stratum granulosum cerebelli. Activated microglia cells infected by EMCV produce a massive burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS via NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2 activation, leading to neuronal death. Balancing this effect is mechanisms by which ROS are eliminated from the CNS. Cellular prion protein (PrPC plays an important antioxidant role and contributes to cellular defense against EMCV infection. This review introduces recent knowledge on brain injury induced by EMCV infection via ROS generation as well as the involvement of various mediators and regulators in the pathogenesis.

  6. Long-term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Püntener Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against overactivity of the immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular endothelial cells in response to systemic inflammation or bacterial infection. Methods Mice were given repeated doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or a single injection of live Salmonella typhimurium. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum, spleen and brain, and microglial phenotype studied by immunohistochemistry. To assess priming of the innate immune response in the brain, mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and subsequently challenged with a focal unilateral intracerebral injection of LPS. Results Repeated systemic LPS challenges resulted in increased brain IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 levels, despite attenuated systemic cytokine production. Each LPS challenge induced significant changes in burrowing behaviour. In contrast, brain IL-1β and IL-12 levels in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice increased over three weeks, with high interferon-γ levels in the circulation. Behavioural changes were only observed during the acute phase of the infection. Microglia and cerebral vasculature display an activated phenotype, and focal intracerebral injection of LPS four weeks after infection results in an exaggerated local inflammatory response when compared to non-infected mice. Conclusions These studies reveal that the innate immune cells in the brain do not become tolerant to systemic infection, but are primed instead. This may lead to prolonged and damaging cytokine production that may have a profound effect on the onset and/or progression of pre-existing neurodegenerative disease.

  7. De novo expression of dopamine D2 receptors on microglia after stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, J.H.; Freyer, D.; Bottcher, C.; Mladinov, M.; Muselmann-Genschow, C.; Thielke, M.; Gladow, N.; Bloomquist, D.; Mergenthaler, P.; Priller, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is the predominant catecholamine in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is also a potent immune modulator. In this study, we have characterized the expression of dopamine receptors on murine microglia. We found that cultured primary microglia express dopamine D1, D2, D3,

  8. Optimized isolation enables Ex vivo analysis of microglia from various central nervous system regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Alexander H.; Boddeke, Hendricus W. G. M.; Brouwer, Nieske; Biber, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Ex vivo analysis is an accurate and convenient way to study in vivo microglia phenotype and function. However, current microglia isolation protocols for ex vivo analysis show many differences in isolation steps (perfusion, removal of meninges and blood vessels, mechanical dissociation, enzymatic

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of purified human cortical microglia reveals age-associated changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galatro, Thais F; Holtman, Inge R; Lerario, Antonio M; Vainchtein, Ilia D; Brouwer, Nieske; Sola, Paula R; Veras, Mariana M; Pereira, Tulio F; Leite, Renata E P; Möller, Thomas; Wes, Paul D; Sogayar, Mari C; Laman, Jon D; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Pasqualucci, Carlos A; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Marie, Suely K N; Eggen, Bart J L

    Microglia are essential for CNS homeostasis and innate neuroimmune function, and play important roles in neurodegeneration and brain aging. Here we present gene expression profiles of purified microglia isolated at autopsy from the parietal cortex of 39 human subjects with intact cognition. Overall,

  10. Changes in neuronal excitability by activated microglia: Differential Na+ current up-regulation in pyramid-shaped and bipolar neurons by TNF-α and IL-18

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    Lars eKlapal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS to hippocampal cultures up-regulates Na+ current densities (INavD of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a major cytokine released by activated microglia, up-regulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells the up-regulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the up-regulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18, are released from activated microglia we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5-10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose-response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines microglial cells up-regulate Na+ current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger up-regulation of

  11. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate alpha-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJU-N-Nterminal kinase-signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Rasmussen, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    or by passive transfer of nerve cell-conditioned medium. Conversely, inflammatory factors secreted from activated microglia increased JNK activation and alpha-SNC secretion several-fold in PC12 cells. While we do not identify these factors, we extend our observations by showing that exposure of neurons...... in monoculture to TNF alpha, a classical pro-inflammatory mediator of activated microglia, is sufficient to increase alpha-SNC secretion in a mechanism dependent on JNK2 or JNK3. In continuation hereof, we show that also IFN beta and TGF beta increase the release of alpha-SNC from PC12 neurons. Conclusions: We......Background: Secretion of proteopathic alpha-synuclein (alpha-SNC) species from neurons is a suspected driving force in the propagation of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously implicated exophagy, the exocytosis of autophagosomes, as a dominant mechanism of alpha-SNC secretion...

  12. Long-term effects of pre and post-ischemic exercise following global cerebral ischemia on astrocyte and microglia functions in hippocampus from Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Bertoldi, Karine; Elsnerb, Viviane Rostirola; Piazza, Francele Valente; Basso, Carla Giovana; Moysés, Felipe Dos Santos; Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Marcuzzo, Simone; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-10-31

    Persistent effects of pre- and postischemic exercise on glial cells activation after global cerebral ischemia remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of both pre and postischemic treadmill exercise protocols (20min/day during 2 weeks) on glial cells immunostaining in the hippocampus of Wistar rats submitted to global ischemia. A synergistic effect between ischemia and postischemic exercise on the astrocytic area was demonstrated. Postischemic exercise partially reversed the ischemia-induced increase on the area occupied by microglia, without any effect of pre-ischemic protocol. In conclusion, postischemic exercise distinctly modulates astrocyte and microglia immunostaining in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Interplay between Cyclic AMP, MAPK, and NF-κB Pathways in Response to Proinflammatory Signals in Microglia

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    Mousumi Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP is an important intracellular regulator of microglial cell homeostasis and its negative perturbation through proinflammatory signaling results in microglial cell activation. Though cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, decrease intracellular cyclic AMP, the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. The current study examined which signaling pathways are responsible for decreasing cyclic AMP in microglia following TNF-α stimulation and sought to identify the role cyclic AMP plays in regulating these pathways. In EOC2 microglia, TNF-α produced a dramatic reduction in cyclic AMP and increased cyclic AMP-dependent PDE activity that could be antagonized by Rolipram, myristoylated-PKI, PD98059, or JSH-23, implicating a role for PDE4, PKA, MEK, and NF-κB in this regulation. Following TNF-α there were significant increases in iNOS and COX-2 immunoreactivity, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and NF-κB-p65, IκB degradation, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which were reduced in the presence of high levels of cyclic AMP, indicating that reductions in cyclic AMP during cytokine stimulation are important for removing its inhibitory action on NF-κB activation and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression. Further elucidation of the signaling crosstalk involved in decreasing cyclic AMP in response to inflammatory signals may provide novel therapeutic targets for modulating microglial cell activation during neurological injury and disease.

  14. Interferon regulatory factor 3 plays an anti-inflammatory role in microglia by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarassishin Leonid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are the principal cells involved in the innate immune response in the CNS. Activated microglia produce a number of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in neurotoxicity but they also are a major source of anti-inflammatory cytokines, antiviral proteins and growth factors. Therefore, an immune therapy aiming at suppressing the proinflammatory phenotype while enhancing the anti-inflammatory, growth promoting phenotype would be of great benefit. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, a transcription factor required for the induction of IFNβ following TLR3 or TLR4 activation, is critical to the microglial phenotype change from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory, and that this phenotype change can be greatly facilitated by IRF3 gene transfer. Methods Cultures of primary human fetal microglia were transduced with IRF3 using recombinant adenovirus (Ad-IRF3 and subjected to microarray analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA to determine inflammatory gene expression. Two different types of immune stimuli were tested, the TLR ligands, poly IC (PIC and LPS, and the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1/IFNγ. In addition, the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway was examined by use of a pharmacological inhibitor, LY294002. Results Our results show that Ad-IRF3 suppressed proinflammatory genes (IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and CXCL1 and enhanced anti-inflammatory genes (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10 and IFNβ in microglia, regardless of the cell stimuli applied. Furthermore, Ad-IRF3 activated Akt, and LY294002 reversed the effects of Ad-IRF3 on microglial inflammatory gene expression. pAkt was critical in LPS- or PIC-induced production of IL-10 and IL-1ra. Significantly, microglial IFNβ protein production was also dependent on pAkt and required both Ad-IRF3 and immunological stimuli (PIC > IL-1/IFNγ. pAkt played much less prominent and variable roles in microglial

  15. Strategies to increase the activity of microglia as efficient protectors of the brain against infections

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    Roland eNau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, infections of the CNS are comparatively rare. Based on the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose and kill pathogens and on clinical findings in immunocompromized patients with CNS infections, we hypothesize that an intact microglial function is crucial to protect the brain from infections. Phagocytosis of pathogens by microglial cells can be stimulated by agonists of receptors of the innate immune system. Enhancing this pathway to increase the resistance of the brain to infections entails the risk of inducing collateral damage to the nervous tissue. The diversity of microglial cells opens avenue to selectively stimulate sub-populations responsible for the defence against pathogens without stimulating sub-populations which are responsible for collateral damage to the nervous tissue. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous lipid, increased phagocytosis of bacteria by microglial cells in vitro without a measurable proinflammatory effect. It was tested clinically apparently without severe side effects. Glatiramer acetate increased phagocytosis of latex beads by microglia and monocytes, and dimethyl fumarate enhanced elimination of human immunodeficiency virus from infected macrophages without inducing a release of proinflammatory compounds. Therefore, the discovery of compounds which stimulate the elimination of pathogens without collateral damage of neuronal structures appears an achievable goal. PEA and, with limitations, glatiramer acetate and dimethyl fumarate appear promising candidates.

  16. IRF8 Is a Critical Transcription Factor for Transforming Microglia into a Reactive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Ryohei; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Ozato, Keiko; Tamura, Tomohiko; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Microglia become activated by multiple types of damage in the nervous system and play essential roles in neuronal pathologies. However, how micro-glia transform into reactive phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) as a critical regulator of reactive microglia. Within the spinal cord, IRF8 expression was normally low; however, the expression was markedly upregulated in microglia, but not in neurons or astrocytes, after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). IRF8 overexpression in cultured microglia promoted the transcription of genes associated with reactive states; conversely, IRF8 deficiency prevented these gene expressions in the spinal cord following PNI. Furthermore, IRF8-deficient mice were resistant to neuropathic pain, a common sequela of PNI, and transferring IRF8-over-expressing microglia spinally to normal mice produced pain. Therefore, IRF8 may activate a program of gene expression that transforms microglia into a reactive phenotype. Our findings provide a newly observed mechanism for microglial activation. PMID:22832225

  17. IRF8 Is a Critical Transcription Factor for Transforming Microglia into a Reactive Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Masuda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microglia become activated by multiple types of damage in the nervous system and play essential roles in neuronal pathologies. However, how microglia transform into reactive phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8 as a critical regulator of reactive microglia. Within the spinal cord, IRF8 expression was normally low; however, the expression was markedly upregulated in microglia, but not in neurons or astrocytes, after peripheral nerve injury (PNI. IRF8 overexpression in cultured microglia promoted the transcription of genes associated with reactive states; conversely, IRF8 deficiency prevented these gene expressions in the spinal cord following PNI. Furthermore, IRF8-deficient mice were resistant to neuropathic pain, a common sequela of PNI, and transferring IRF8-overexpressing microglia spinally to normal mice produced pain. Therefore, IRF8 may activate a program of gene expression that transforms microglia into a reactive phenotype. Our findings provide a newly observed mechanism for microglial activation.

  18. Role of peripheral immune response in microglia activation and regulation of brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses induced during VSV encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christina D; Breving, Kimberly; Tavakoli, Susan; Kim, Woong-Ki; Sanford, Larry D; Ciavarra, Richard P

    2014-02-15

    We report herein that neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activates microglia and induces a peripheral dendritic cell (DC)-dependent inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS). VSV neuroinvasion rapidly induces multiple brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs that display bimodal kinetics. Peripheral DC ablation or T cell depletion suppresses the second wave of this response demonstrating that infiltrating T cells are primarily responsible for the bimodal characteristics of this response. The robust infiltrate associated with VSV encephalitis likely depends on sustained production of brain CCL19 and CCR7 expression on infiltrating inflammatory cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptor 9 is required for opioid-induced microglia apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been widely applied in clinics as one of the most potent pain relievers for centuries, but their abuse has deleterious physiological effects beyond addiction. However, the underlying mechanism by which microglia in response to opioids remains largely unknown. Here we show that morphine induces the expression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9, a key mediator of innate immunity and inflammation. Interestingly, TLR9 deficiency significantly inhibited morphine-induced apoptosis in microglia. Similar results were obtained when endogenous TLR9 expression was suppressed by the TLR9 inhibitor CpGODN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by its specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated morphine-induced microglia apoptosis in wild type microglia. Morphine caused a dramatic decrease in Bcl-2 level but increase in Bax level in wild type microglia, but not in TLR9 deficient microglia. In addition, morphine treatment failed to induce an increased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and MAP kinase kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6, the upstream MAPK kinase of p38 MAPK, in either TLR9 deficient or µ-opioid receptor (µOR deficient primary microglia, suggesting an involvement of MAPK and µOR in morphine-mediated TLR9 signaling. Moreover, morphine-induced TLR9 expression and microglia apoptosis appears to require μOR. Collectively, these results reveal that opioids prime microglia to undergo apoptosis through TLR9 and µOR as well. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of TLR9 and/or blockage of µOR is capable of preventing opioid-induced brain damage.

  20. Involvement of microglia activation in the lead induced long-term potentiation impairment.

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    Ming-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Exposure of Lead (Pb, a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits.

  1. Seed-induced Aβ deposition is modulated by microglia under environmental enrichment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler-Waldkirch, Stephanie; d'Errico, Paolo; Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Erny, Daniel; Savanthrapadian, Shakuntala; Loreth, Desirée; Katzmarski, Natalie; Blank, Thomas; Bartos, Marlene; Prinz, Marco; Meyer-Luehmann, Melanie

    2018-01-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe neuronal loss as well as the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), which ultimately leads to plaque formation. Although there is now a general agreement that the aggregation of Aβ can be initiated by prion-like seeding, the impact and functional consequences of induced Aβ deposits (Aβ seeding) on neurons still remain open questions. Here, we find that Aβ seeding, representing early stages of plaque formation, leads to a dramatic decrease in proliferation and neurogenesis in two APP transgenic mouse models. We further demonstrate that neuronal cell death occurs primarily in the vicinity of induced Aβ deposits culminating in electrophysiological abnormalities. Notably, environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise not only revives adult neurogenesis and reverses memory deficits but, most importantly, prevents Aβ seeding by activated, phagocytic microglia cells. Our work expands the current knowledge regarding Aβ seeding and the consequences thereof and attributes microglia an important role in diminishing Aβ seeding by environmental enrichment. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  2. Metformin as a key to alternative activation of microglia?

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    Krzysztof Łabuzek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent studies suggest that metformin, in addition to its antihyperglycemic efficacy, may also attenuate neuroinflammation and directly act on the central nervous system. However, the molecular mechanisms by which metformin exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in the brain remain largely unknown. Adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation is the most well-known mechanism of metformin action. However, some of the biological responses to metformin (e.g. the release of cytokines and the expression of arginase I or PGC-1α are not limited to AMPK activation but also are mediated by AMPK-independent mechanisms. This article reviews current evidence supporting the hypothesis that the shift of microglia toward alternative activation may underlie the beneficial effects of metformin observed in animal models of neurological disorders.

  3. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Tucker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET. Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer 124I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain.

  4. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Elizabeth W; Pokkali, Supriya; Zhang, Zhi; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah; Smith, Elizabeth S; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Penet, Marie-France; Bhujwalla, Zaver; Jain, Sanjay K; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET). Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer (124)I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. A local anesthetic, ropivacaine, suppresses activated microglia via a nerve growth factor-dependent mechanism and astrocytes via a nerve growth factor-independent mechanism in neuropathic pain

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    Sakamoto Atsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of nociceptive pathways that occurs in the neuropathic pain state. In recent years, spinal glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain, but their participation in the analgesic effects of local anesthetics remains largely unknown. Results Repetitive epidural administration of ropivacaine reduced the hyperalgesia induced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Concomitantly with this analgesia, ropivacaine suppressed the increases in the immunoreactivities of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal spinal cord, as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. In addition, epidural administration of a TrkA-IgG fusion protein that blocks the action of nerve growth factor (NGF, which was upregulated by ropivacaine in the dorsal root ganglion, prevented the inhibitory effect of ropivacaine on microglia, but not astrocytes. The blockade of NGF action also abolished the analgesic effect of ropivacaine on neuropathic pain. Conclusions Ropivacaine provides prolonged analgesia possibly by suppressing microglial activation in an NGF-dependent manner and astrocyte activation in an NGF-independent manner in the dorsal spinal cord. Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, may represent a new approach for glial cell inhibition and, therefore, therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain.

  6. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner

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    Jessica L. Bolton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1. Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute

  7. Brain plasticity and microglia: is transsynaptic glial activation in the thalamus after limb denervation linked to cortical plasticity and central sensitisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banati, Richard B

    2002-01-01

    Microglia are a subset of tissue-macrophages that are ubiquitously distributed throughout the entire CNS. In health, they remain largely dormant until activated by a pathological stimulus. The availability of more sensitive detection techniques has allowed the early measurement of the cell responses of microglia in areas with few signs of active pathology. Subtle neuronal injury can induce microglial activation in retrograde and anterograde projection areas remote from the primary lesion focus. There is also evidence that in cases of long-standing abnormal neuronal activity, such as in patients after limb amputation with chronic pain and phantom sensations, glial activation may occur transsynaptically in the thalamus. Such neuronally driven glial responses may be related to the emergence central sensitisation in chronic pain states or plasticity phenomena in the cerebral cortex. It is suggested, that such persistent low-level microglial activation is not adequately described by the traditional concept of phagocyte-mediated tissue damage that largely evolved from studies of acute brain lesion models or acute human brain pathology. Due to the presence of signal molecules that can act on neurons and microglia alike, the communication between neurons and microglia is likely to be bi-directional. Persistent subtle microglial activity may modulate basal synaptic transmission and thus neuronal functioning either directly or through the interaction with astrocytes. The activation of microglia leads to the emergence of microstructural as well as functional compartments in which neurokines, interleukins and other signalling molecules introduce a qualitatively different, more open mode of cell-cell communication that is normally absent from the healthy adult brain. This 'neo-compartmentalisation', however, occurs along predictable neuronal pathways within which these glial changes are themselves under the modulatory influence of neurons or other glial cells and are subject to

  8. The role of microglia at synapses in the healthy CNS: novel insights from recent imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2011-02-01

    In the healthy brain, quiescent microglia continuously remodel their shape by extending and retracting highly motile processes. Despite a seemingly random sampling of their environment, microglial processes specifically interact with subsets of synaptic structures, as shown by recent imaging studies leading to proposed reciprocal interactions between microglia and synapses under non-pathological conditions. These studies revealed that various modalities of microglial dynamic behavior including their interactions with synaptic elements are regulated by manipulations of neurotransmission, neuronal activity and sensory experience. Conversely, these observations implied an unexpected role for quiescent microglia in the elimination of synaptic structures by specialized mechanisms that include the phagocytosis of axon terminals and dendritic spines. In light of these recent discoveries, microglia are now emerging as important effectors of neuronal circuit reorganization.

  9. (+-Naloxone inhibits morphine-induced chemotaxis via prevention of heat shock protein 90 cleavage in microglia

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    Ru-Yin Tsai

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, we suggest that (+-naloxone inhibits morphine-induced microglia activation by regulating HDAC6-dependent α-tubulin deacetylation and HSP90 fragmentation.

  10. Depletion of microglia and inhibition of exosome synthesis halt tau propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hirohide; Ikezu, Seiko; Tsunoda, Satoshi; Medalla, Maria; Luebke, Jennifer; Haydar, Tarik; Wolozin, Benjamin; Butovsky, Oleg; Kügler, Sebastian; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of pathological tau protein is a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Tau protein spreads from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal region early in the disease. Microglia, the primary phagocytes in the brain, are positively correlated with tau pathology, but their involvement in tau propagation is unknown. We developed an adeno-associated virus–based model exhibiting rapid tau propagation from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus in 4 weeks. We found that depleting microglia dramatically suppressed the propagation of tau and reduced excitability in the dentate gyrus in this mouse model. Moreover, we demonstrate that microglia spread tau via exosome secretion, and inhibiting exosome synthesis significantly reduced tau propagation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that microglia and exosomes contribute to the progression of tauopathy and that the exosome secretion pathway may be a therapeutic target. PMID:26436904

  11. Luteolin inhibits microglia and alters hippocampal-dependent spatial working memory in aged mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jang, Saebyeol; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2010-01-01

    ... and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory mediators after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation...

  12. Temporal characterization of microglia/macrophage phenotypes in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

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    Nina Hellström Erkenstam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI. HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 d post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation. Using cell-markers, CD86 (classic activa-tion and CD206 (alternative activation, we assessed temporal changes of CD11b+ cell populations in the brain and studied the protein expression of the immunomodulatory factor galectin-3 in these cells. HI induced a rapid regulation (6h of genes associated with both classical and alternative polarization phenotypes in the injured hemisphere. FACS analysis showed a marked increase in the number of CD11+CD86+ positive cells at 24 h after HI (+3,667 %, which was coupled with a relative suppression of CD11+CD206+ cells and cells that did not express either CD86 or CD206. The CD11+CD206+ popula-tion was mixed with some cells also expressing CD86. Confocal microscopy confirmed that a subset of cells expressed both CD86 and CD206, particularly in injured grey and white matter. Protein con-centration of galectin-3 was markedly increased mainly in the cell population lacking CD86 or CD206 in the injured hemisphere. These cells were predominantly resident microglia as very few galectin-3 positive cells co-localized with infiltrating myeloid cells in Lys-EGFP-ki mice after HI.In summary, HI was characterized by an early mixed gene response, but with a large expansion of mainly the CD86 positive population during the first day. However, the injured hemisphere also con-tained a subset of cells expressing both CD86 and CD206 and a

  13. Silibinin rescues learning and memory deficits by attenuating microglia activation and preventing neuroinflammatory reactions in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ge; Bai, Dafeng; Yin, Shiliang; Yang, Zhihang; Zou, Dan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xiaoxiu; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Qiwen

    2016-08-26

    Silibinin was reported to be effective in reversing the learning and memory deficits of several AD animal models. These improvements are thought to be regulated by various factors, including antioxidative stress, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and Aβ aggregation. However, there are still no reports that demonstrate the effect of silibinin on microglia activation in vivo. Thus, in this study, we used the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain to test the effects of silibinin on behavioral impairments and microglia activation-induced neuroinflammation. Silibinin treatment significantly rescued memory deficits in novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Silibinin treatment significantly attenuated microglial activation; down-regulated the level of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, and inflammation-associated proteins, iNOS and COX-2; and further modulated MAPK to protect neural cells. These results suggest that silibinin could be a potential candidate for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Amantadine protects dopamine neurons by a dual action: reducing activation of microglia and inducing expression of GDNF in astroglia [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Bernardino; Schendzielorz, Nadia; Chen, Shih-Heng; Bird, Gary S; Tuominen, Raimo K; Männistö, Pekka T; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-09-01

    Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA receptor. However, several lines of evidence questioned the neuroprotective capacity of NMDA receptor antagonists in animal models of PD. Thus the cellular and molecular mechanism of neuroprotection of amantadine remains unclear. Using primary cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia, and astroglia we investigated the direct role of these glial cell types in the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. First, amantadine protected rat midbrain cultures from either MPP(+) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two toxins commonly used as PD models. Second, our studies revealed that amantadine reduced both LPS- and MPP(+)-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons through 1) the inhibition of the release of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, 2) an increase in expression of neurotrophic factors such as GDNF from astroglia. Lastly, differently from the general view on amantadine's action, we provided evidence suggesting that NMDA receptor inhibition was not crucial for the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. In conclusion, we report that amantadine protected dopamine neurons in two PD models through a novel dual mechanism, namely reducing the release of pro-inflammatory factors from activated microglia and increasing the expression of GNDF in astroglia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Amantadine protects dopamine neurons by a dual action: reducing activation of microglia and inducing expression of GNDF in astroglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Bernardino; Schendzielorz, Nadia; Chen, Shih-Heng; Bird, Gary S.; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Männistö, Pekka T.; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-01-01

    Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA receptor. However, several lines of evidence questioned the neuroprotection capacity of NMDA receptor antagonists in animal models of PD. Thus the cellular and molecular mechanism of neuroprotection of amantadine remains unclear. Using primary cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia, and astroglia we investigated the direct role of these different glial cell types in the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. First, amantadine protected rat midbrain cultures from either MPP+ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two toxins commonly used PD models. Second, our studies revealed that amantadine reduced both LPS- and MPP+ -induced toxicity of dopamine neuron through 1) the inhibition of the release of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, 2) an increase in expression of neurotrophic factor such as GDNF from astroglia. Lastly, differently from the general view on amantadine´s action, we provided evidence suggesting that NMDA receptor inhibition was not crucial for the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. In conclusion, we report that amantadine protected dopamine neurons in two PD models through a novel dual mechanism, namely reducing the release of pro-inflammatory factors from activated microglia and increasing the expression of GNDF in astroglia. PMID:21586298

  16. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male appswe/ps1de9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JY Xiong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P 0.05. The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  17. Roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in Mediating the Inflammatory Response in Mouse Microglia following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection

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    Rong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection can cause central nervous system disease with irreversible neurological damage in humans and animals. Evidence suggests that overactivation of microglia leads to greatly increased neuronal damage during JEV infection. However, the mechanism by which JEV induces the activation of microglia remains unclear. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I can recognize double-stranded RNA, and their downstream signaling results in production of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the roles of TLR3 and RIG-I in the inflammatory response caused by JEV infection in the mouse microglial cell line. JEV infection induced the expression of TLR3 and RIG-I and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK. Knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I attenuated activation of ERK, p38MAPK, activator protein 1 (AP-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL-2, which was induced by JEV, was reduced by TLR3 and RIG-I knockdown and inhibitors of phosphorylated ERK and p38MAPK. Furthermore, viral proliferation was increased following knockdown of TLR3 and RIG-I. Our findings suggest that the signaling pathways of TLR3 and RIG-I play important roles in the JEV-induced inflammatory response of microglia.

  18. The "Big-Bang" for modern glial biology: Translation and comments on Pío del Río-Hortega 1919 series of papers on microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Amanda; de Castro, Fernando; Del Río-Hortega, Juan; Rafael Iglesias-Rozas, José; Garrosa, Manuel; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The word "glia" was coined in the mid-19th century and defined as "the nerve glue". For decades, it was assumed to be a uniform matrix, until cell theorists raised the "neuron doctrine" which stipulated that nervous tissue was composed of individual cells. The term "astrocytes" was introduced in the late 19th century as a synonym for glial cells, but it was Santiago Ramón y Cajal who defined a "third element" distinct from glial cells (astrocytes) and neurons. It was not until 1919 when Pío del Río-Hortega, an alumnus of the Cajal School, introduced the modern terms we use today, and thoroughly described both "oligodendrocytes" and "microglia" to clearly distinguish them from astrocytes. In a series of four papers published that year in Spanish, Río-Hortega described the distribution and morphological phenotype of microglia. He also noted that these cells were the origin of the rod cells described earlier in pathologic tissue, and recognized that resting microglia transformed into an ameboid phenotype in different types of brain diseases and pathologies. He also noted the mesodermal origin of these cells and recognized their phagocytic capacity. We here provide the first English translation of these landmark series of papers, which paved the way for modern glial research. To heighten the value and accessibility of these classic papers and their original figures, an introduction to this critical period of neuroscience is provided, along with unpublished photographs. By adding comments to the translated text, we provide sufficient context so that contemporary scientists may fully appreciate it. GLIA 2016;64:1801-1840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Developmental time course and effects of immunostressors that alter hormone-responsive behavior on microglia in the peripubertal and adult female mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Holder

    Full Text Available In female mice, the experience of being shipped from the breeder facility or a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during pubertal development alters the behavioral response to estradiol in adulthood as demonstrated by perturbations of estradiol's effects on sexual behavior, cognitive function, as well as its anxiolytic and anti-depressive properties. Microglia, the primary type of immunocompetent cell within the brain, contribute to brain development and respond to stressors with marked and long-lasting morphological and functional changes. Here, we describe the morphology of microglia and their response to shipping and LPS in peripubertal and adult female mice. Peripubertal mice have more microglia with long, thick processes in the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus as compared with adult mice in the absence of an immune challenge. An immune challenge also increases immunoreactivity (IR of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1, which is constitutively expressed in microglia. In the hippocampus, the age of animal was without effect on the increase in Iba1- IR following shipping from the breeder facility or LPS exposure. In the amygdala, we observed more Iba1-IR following shipping or LPS treatment in peripubertal mice, compared to adult mice. In the hypothalamus, there was a disassociation of the effects of shipping and LPS treatment as LPS treatment, but not shipping, induced an increase in Iba1-IR. Taken together these data indicate that microglial morphologies differ between pubertal and adult mice; moreover, the microglial response to complex stressors is greater in pubertal mice as compared to adult mice.

  20. Influence of methylene blue on microglia-induced inflammation and motor neuron degeneration in the SOD1(G93A model for ALS.

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    Payam Dibaj

    Full Text Available Mutations in SOD1 cause hereditary variants of the fatal motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Pathophysiology of the disease is non-cell-autonomous, with toxicity deriving also from glia. In particular, microglia contribute to disease progression. Methylene blue (MB inhibits the effect of nitric oxide, which mediates microglial responses to injury. In vivo 2P-LSM imaging was performed in ALS-linked transgenic SOD1(G93A mice to investigate the effect of MB on microglia-mediated inflammation in the spinal cord. Local superfusion of the lateral spinal cord with MB inhibited the microglial reaction directed at a laser-induced axon transection in control and SOD1(G93A mice. In vitro, MB at high concentrations inhibited cytokine and chemokine release from microglia of control and advanced clinical SOD1(G93A mice. Systemic MB-treatment of SOD1(G93A mice at early preclinical stages significantly delayed disease onset and motor dysfunction. However, an increase of MB dose had no additional effect on disease progression; this was unexpected in view of the local anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of systemically MB-treated mice also showed no alterations of microglia activity in response to local lesions. Thus although systemic MB treatment had no effect on microgliosis, instead, its use revealed an important influence on motor neuron survival as indicated by an increased number of lumbar anterior horn neurons present at the time of disease onset. Thus, potentially beneficial effects of locally applied MB on inflammatory events contributing to disease progression could not be reproduced in SOD1(G93A mice via systemic administration, whereas systemic MB application delayed disease onset via neuroprotection.

  1. Amyloid β oligomers induce interleukin-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner

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    Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Aiko; Takayasu, Kunio [Responses to Environmental Signals and Stresses, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takahara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: ktakahar@zoo.zool.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan); Inaba, Kayo [Department of Animal Development and Physiology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 102-0081 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared Aβ oligomer and fibril from Aβ (1–42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, Aβ oligomers but not Aβ monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1β production in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, Aβ oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. Aβ oligomer-induced IL-1β production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1β. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes Aβ oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1β. These results indicate that Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. - Highlights: • We prepared amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils with minimum contamination of Aβ oligomers. • Primary microglia (MG) produced IL-1β in response to Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils. • Only Aβ oligomers induced leakage of cathepsin B from endo/phagolysosomes. • IL-1β production in response to Aβ oligomers depended on both cathepsin B and ROS. • Crosslinking reduced the ability of the Aβ oligomers to induce IL-1β from MG.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation through the up-regulation of surface transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels in rodent microglia.

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    Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Kato, Takahiro A; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Sagata, Noriaki; Horikawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Hayakawa, Kohei; Inoue, Ryuji; Kanba, Shigenobu; Monji, Akira

    2014-06-27

    Microglia are immune cells that release factors, including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and neurotrophins, following activation after disturbance in the brain. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is important for microglial functions such as the release of cytokines and NO from activated microglia. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin well known for its roles in the activation of microglia as well as in pathophysiology and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we sought to examine the underlying mechanism of BDNF-induced sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in rodent microglial cells. We observed that canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the maintenance of BDNF-induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Immunocytochemical technique and flow cytometry also revealed that BDNF rapidly up-regulated the surface expression of TRPC3 channels in rodent microglial cells. In addition, pretreatment with BDNF suppressed the production of NO induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which was prevented by co-adiministration of a selective TRPC3 inhibitor. These suggest that BDNF induces sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation through the up-regulation of surface TRPC3 channels and TRPC3 channels could be important for the BDNF-induced suppression of the NO production in activated microglia. We show that TRPC3 channels could also play important roles in microglial functions, which might be important for the regulation of inflammatory responses and may also be involved in the pathophysiology and/or the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

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    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  4. Piperine attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia.

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    Wang-Sheng, Chen; Jie, An; Jian-Jun, Li; Lan, Hong; Zeng-Bao, Xing; Chang-Qing, Li

    2017-01-01

    Piperine, the chief alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum, has been known to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia and investigated the molecular mechanism. The results showed that piperine significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Furthermore, piperine was found to amplify the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 up-regulated by LPS. In addition, the inhibition of inflammatory mediators by piperine can be reversed by transfection with Nrf2 siRNA. In conclusion, piperine inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. These results indicated that piperine may be a promising agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lanostane triterpenoids from Ganoderma curtisii and their NO production inhibitory activities of LPS-induced microglia.

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    Jiao, Yang; Xie, Ting; Zou, Lu-Hui; Wei, Qian; Qiu, Li; Chen, Li-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-nine lanostane triterpenoids (1-29) were obtained from the EtOH extract of fruiting bodies of the Ganoderma curtisii. Among them, compound 1 was a new lanostane triterpenoid and compounds 2-5 were isolated from the genus Ganoderma for the first time and their structures were unambiguously identified in this work. The NMR data of the four known lanostane triterpenoids (2-5) were reported for the first time because their structures were all tentatively characterized by interpreting the MS data from the methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum or from the metabolites in rat bile after oral administration of crude extract of the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum using fragmentation rules. Their anti-inflammatory activities were tested by measuring their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 microglia cells activated by lipopolysaccharide. Their IC50 values were in a range from 3.65±0.41 to 28.04±2.81μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LXW7 ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia injury and attenuates inflammatory responses in activated microglia in rats

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    Fang, T.; Zhou, D.; Lu, L.; Tong, X.; Wu, J.; Yi, L. [Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University, Shenzhen (China)

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. α-Iso-cubebene exerts neuroprotective effects in amyloid beta stimulated microglia activation.

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    Park, Sun Young; Park, Se Jin; Park, Nan Jeong; Joo, Woo Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Young-Whan

    2013-10-25

    Schisandra chinensis is commonly used for food and as a traditional remedy for the treatment of neuronal disorders. However, it is unclear which component of S. chinensis is responsible for its neuropharmacological effects. To answer this question, we isolated α-iso-cubebene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin, from S. chinensis and determined if it has any anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective properties against amyloid β-induced neuroinflammation in microglia. Microglia that are stimulated by amyloid β increased their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We found this was all inhibited by α-iso-cubebene. Consistent with these results, α-iso-cubebene inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and MMP-9 in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that α-iso-cubebene inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation and transactivity of NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of MAPK in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. These results suggest that α-iso-cubebene impairs the amyloid β-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Importantly, α-iso-cubebene can provide critical neuroprotection for primary cortical neurons against amyloid β-stimulated microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that α-iso-cubebene can provide neuroprotection against, and influence neuroinflammation triggered by, amyloid β activation of microglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Curcumin protects microglia and primary rat cortical neurons against HIV-1 gp120-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

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    Luyan Guo

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a molecule found in turmeric root that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties and has been widely used as both an herbal drug and a food additive to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. To explore whether curcumin is able to ameliorate HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity, we treated a murine microglial cell line (N9 and primary rat cortical neurons with curcumin in the presence or absence of neurotoxic HIV-1 gp120 (V3 loop protein. We found that HIV-1 gp120 profoundly induced N9 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. HIV-1 gp120 also induced apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin exerted a powerful inhibitory effect against HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage, reducing the production of ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 by N9 cells and inhibiting apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin may exert its biological activities through inhibition of the delayed rectification and transient outward potassium (K(+ current, as curcumin effectively reduced HIV-1 gp120-mediated elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ channel current in neurons. We conclude that HIV-1 gp120 increases ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 production in microglia, and induces cortical neuron apoptosis by affecting the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ channel current. Curcumin reduces production of ROS and inflammatory mediators in HIV-1-gp120-stimulated microglia, and protects cortical neurons against HIV-1-mediated apoptosis, most likely through inhibition of HIV-1 gp120-induced elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+ current.

  9. Activation of microglia induces symptoms of Parkinson's disease in wild-type, but not in IL-1 knockout mice.

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    Tanaka, Sachiko; Ishii, Atsuko; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. The initial factor that triggers neurodegeneration is unknown; however, inflammation has been demonstrated to be significantly involved in the progression of PD. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the activation of microglia and the decline of motor function using IL-1 knockout (KO) mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was stereotaxically injected into the SN of mice brains as a single dose or a daily dose for 5 days (5 mg/2 ml/injection, bilaterally). Animal behavior was assessed with the rotarod test at 2 hr and 8, 15 and 22 days after the final LPS injection. LPS treatment induced the activation of microglia, as demonstrated by production of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α as well as a change in microglial morphology. The number of cells immunoreactive for 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT), which are markers for oxidative insults, increased in the SN, and impairment of motor function was observed after the subacute LPS treatment. Cell death and aggregation of α-synuclein were observed 21 and 30 days after the final LPS injection, respectively. Behavioral deficits were observed in wild-type and TNFα KO mice, but IL-1 KO mice behaved normally. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was attenuated by LPS treatment in wild-type and TNFα KO mice but not in IL-1 KO mice. The subacute injection of LPS into the SN induces PD-like pathogenesis and symptoms in mice that mimic the progressive changes of PD including the aggregation of α-synuclein. LPS-induced dysfunction of motor performance was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of TH. These findings suggest that activation of microglia by LPS causes functional changes such as dopaminergic neuron attenuation in an IL-1-dependent manner

  10. Maximal COX-2 and ppRb expression in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease

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    Arendt Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and cell cycle proteins is suggested to contribute to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's disease (AD. The stimulus that induces COX-2 and cell cycle protein expression in AD is still elusive. Activated glia cells are shown to secrete substances that can induce expression of COX-2 and cell cycle proteins in vitro. Using post mortem brain tissue we have investigated whether activation of microglia and astrocytes in AD brain can be correlated with the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (ppRb. The highest levels of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity are observed in the first stages of AD pathology (Braak 0–II, Braak A. No significant difference in COX-2 or ppRb neuronal immunoreactivity is observed between Braak stage 0 and later Braak stages for neurofibrillary changes or amyloid plaques. The mean number of COX-2 or ppRb immunoreactive neurons is significantly decreased in Braak stage C compared to Braak stage A for amyloid deposits. Immunoreactivity for glial markers KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP appears in the later Braak stages and is significantly increased in Braak stage V-VI compared to Braak stage 0 for neurofibrillary changes. In addition, a significant negative correlation is observed between the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP immunoreactivity and the presence of neuronal immunoreactivity for COX-2 and ppRb. These data show that maximal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia. In contrast to in vitro studies, post mortem data do not support a causal relation between the activation of microglia and astrocytes and the expression of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb in the pathological cascade of AD.

  11. Astroglia-Microglia Cross Talk during Neurodegeneration in the Rat Hippocampus

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    Montserrat Batlle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury triggers a progressive inflammatory response supported by a dynamic astroglia-microglia interplay. We investigated the progressive chronic features of the astroglia-microglia cross talk in the perspective of neuronal effects in a rat model of hippocampal excitotoxic injury. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA injection triggered a process characterized within 38 days by atrophy, neuronal loss, and fast astroglia-mediated S100B increase. Microglia reaction varied with the lesion progression. It presented a peak of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α secretion at one day after the lesion, and a transient YM1 secretion within the first three days. Microglial glucocorticoid receptor expression increased up to day 5, before returning progressively to sham values. To further investigate the astroglia role in the microglia reaction, we performed concomitant transient astroglia ablation with L-α-aminoadipate and NMDA-induced lesion. We observed a striking maintenance of neuronal death associated with enhanced microglial reaction and proliferation, increased YM1 concentration, and decreased TNF-α secretion and glucocorticoid receptor expression. S100B reactivity only increased after astroglia recovery. Our results argue for an initial neuroprotective microglial reaction, with a direct astroglial control of the microglial cytotoxic response. We propose the recovery of the astroglia-microglia cross talk as a tissue priority conducted to ensure a proper cellular coordination that retails brain damage.

  12. Astroglia-Microglia Cross Talk during Neurodegeneration in the Rat Hippocampus

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    Batlle, Montserrat; Ferri, Lorenzo; Andrade, Carmen; Ortega, Francisco-Javier; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M.; Pugliese, Marco; Mahy, Nicole; Rodríguez, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury triggers a progressive inflammatory response supported by a dynamic astroglia-microglia interplay. We investigated the progressive chronic features of the astroglia-microglia cross talk in the perspective of neuronal effects in a rat model of hippocampal excitotoxic injury. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection triggered a process characterized within 38 days by atrophy, neuronal loss, and fast astroglia-mediated S100B increase. Microglia reaction varied with the lesion progression. It presented a peak of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion at one day after the lesion, and a transient YM1 secretion within the first three days. Microglial glucocorticoid receptor expression increased up to day 5, before returning progressively to sham values. To further investigate the astroglia role in the microglia reaction, we performed concomitant transient astroglia ablation with L-α-aminoadipate and NMDA-induced lesion. We observed a striking maintenance of neuronal death associated with enhanced microglial reaction and proliferation, increased YM1 concentration, and decreased TNF-α secretion and glucocorticoid receptor expression. S100B reactivity only increased after astroglia recovery. Our results argue for an initial neuroprotective microglial reaction, with a direct astroglial control of the microglial cytotoxic response. We propose the recovery of the astroglia-microglia cross talk as a tissue priority conducted to ensure a proper cellular coordination that retails brain damage. PMID:25977914

  13. Vascular consequences of passive Aβ immunization for Alzheimer's disease. Is avoidance of "malactivation" of microglia enough?

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    Barger Steven W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD has been controversial since its first consideration. As with most instances of neuroinflammation, the possibility must be considered that activation of glia and cytokine networks in AD arises merely as a reaction to neurodegeneration. Active, healthy neurons produce signals that suppress inflammatory events, and dying neurons activate phagocytic responses in microglia at the very least. But simultaneous with the arrival of a more complex view of microglia, evidence that inflammation plays a causal or exacerbating role in AD etiology has been boosted by genetic, physiological, and epidemiological studies. In the end, it may be that the semantics of "inflammation" and glial "activation" must be regarded as too simplistic for the advancement of our understanding in this regard. It is clear that elaboration of the entire repertoire of activated microglia – a phenomenon that may be termed "malactivation" – must be prevented for healthy brain structure and function. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that phagocytosis of Aβ by microglia plays an important role in clearance of amyloid plaques, a process boosted by immunization paradigms. To the extent that this clearance might produce clinical improvements (still an open question, this relationship thus obligates a more nuanced consideration of the factors that indicate and control the various activities of microglia and other components of neuroinflammation.

  14. Role of microglia in ethanol-induced neurodegenerative disease: Pathological and behavioral dysfunction at different developmental stages.

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    Yang, Jing-Yu; Xue, Xue; Tian, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Dong, Ying-Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yao, Xue-Chun; Cui, Wei; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol abuse can result in significant alterations to the structure of the brain and ultimately to behavioral dysfunctions. Epidemiological studies have shown that alcoholism is closely associated with impaired memory and judgment. However, the degree of deficit (brain injury) depends on factors such as the age of onset, duration of heavy drinking, continuous versus periodic (binge) drinking and the typical amount consumed per session. In recent years, neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcoholism-induced neuropathological mechanisms, since increased levels of microglial markers are observed in the brains of both post-mortem human alcoholics and various alcohol-treated animals, from newborn or adolescent rodents to adult rodents. Many studies have investigated how microglia modulate alcohol-induced behavioral changes such as cognitive deficits, abnormal locomotor activity, motor impairment and mood disturbance. Importantly, we try to characterize and compare the distinct features in different ethanol (EtOH)-induced neurodegenerative disease (NDD) models. Moreover, mounting evidence indicates that in response to certain environmental toxins, microglia can become over-activated under oxidative stress, releasing pro-inflammatory mediators that cause central nervous system (CNS) disease. The molecular mechanisms involve free radical formation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neighboring neurons and interfere with the molecules regulating cell-cell interactions. The identification and understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of microglial activation are described, as well as multiple downstream targets, in different alcohol-treated animal models. This review might contribute to the development of treatments and/or therapeutic agents that can reduce or eliminate the deleterious effects of alcohol-induced NDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Microglia in Brain Homeostasis and Proteopathy

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    Kevin A. Clayton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is central to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD, although the mechanisms by which it occurs at protein or cellular levels are not fully understood. Alzheimer's disease is the most common proteopathy and is characterized by two unique pathologies: senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the former accumulating earlier than the latter. Aging alters the proteostasis of amyloid-β peptides and microtubule-associated protein tau, which are regulated in both autonomous and non-autonomous manners. Microglia, the resident phagocytes of the central nervous system, play a major role in the non-autonomous clearance of protein aggregates. Their function is significantly altered by aging and neurodegeneration. This is genetically supported by the association of microglia-specific genes, TREM2 and CD33, and late onset Alzheimer's disease. Here, we propose that the functional characterization of microglia, and their contribution to proteopathy, will lead to a new therapeutic direction in Alzheimer's disease research.

  16. A non-inflammatory role for microglia in autism spectrum disorders

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    Catherine Anne Edmonson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. The etiology of ASD is still largely unclear, but immune dysfunction and abnormalities in synaptogenesis have repeatedly been implicated as contributing to the disease phenotype. However, an understanding of how and if these two processes are related has not firmly been established. As non-inflammatory roles of microglia become increasingly recognized as critical to normal neurodevelopment, it is important to consider how dysfunction in these process might explain the seemingly disparate findings of immune dysfunction and aberrant synaptogenesis seen in ASD. In this review, we highlight research demonstrating the importance of microglia to development of normal neural networks, review recent studies demonstrating abnormal microglia in autism, and discuss how the relationship between these processes may contribute to the development of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders at the cellular level.

  17. Induction of a common microglia gene expression signature by aging and neurodegenerative conditions : a co-expression meta-analysis

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    Holtman, Inge R; Raj, Divya D; Miller, Jeremy A.; Schaafsma, Wandert; Yin, Zhuoran; Brouwer, Nieske; Wes, Paul D; Möller, Thomas; Orre, Marie; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, EM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/F-1891-2013; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microglia are tissue macrophages of the central nervous system that monitor brain homeostasis and react upon neuronal damage and stress. Aging and neurodegeneration induce a hypersensitive, pro-inflammatory phenotype, referred to as primed microglia. To determine the gene expression

  18. Neuronal CCL21 up-regulates microglia P2X4 expression and initiates neuropathic pain development

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    Biber, Knut; Tsuda, Makoto; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Toyomitsu, Emika; Masuda, Takahiro; Boddeke, Hendrikus; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2011-01-01

    Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal cord microglia is crucial for tactile allodynia, an untreatable pathological pain reaction occurring after peripheral nerve injury. How nerve injury in the periphery leads to this microglia reaction in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is not yet

  19. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice

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    Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Babcock, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We...... investigated whether IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are synthesized by overlapping or segregated populations of cells after ischemic stroke in mice. METHODS: We used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to examine cellular co-expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at 6, 12 and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral...

  20. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice

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    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of

  1. Quantification of the functional expression of the Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channel KCa 3.1 on microglia from adult human neocortical tissue

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    Blomster, Linda V; Strøbaek, Dorte; Hougaard, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The KCa 3.1 channel (KCNN4) is an important modulator of microglia responses in rodents, but no information exists on functional expression on microglia from human adults. We isolated and cultured microglia (max 1% astrocytes, no neurons or oligodendrocytes) from neocortex surgically removed from...

  2. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

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    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  3. Purinergic signaling induces cyclooxygenase-1-dependent prostanoid synthesis in microglia: roles in the outcome of excitotoxic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Anrather

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenases (COX are prostanoid synthesizing enzymes constitutively expressed in the brain that contribute to excitotoxic neuronal cell death. While the neurotoxic role of COX-2 is well established and has been linked to prostaglandin E(2 synthesis, the role of COX-1 is not clearly understood. In a model of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA induced excitotoxicity in the mouse cerebral cortex we found a distinctive temporal profile of COX-1 and COX-2 activation where COX-1, located in microglia, is responsible for the early phase of prostaglandin E(2 synthesis (10 minutes after NMDA, while both COX-1 and COX-2 contribute to the second phase (3-24 hours after NMDA. Microglial COX-1 is strongly activated by ATP but not excitatory neurotransmitters or the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand bacterial lipopolysaccharide. ATP induced microglial COX-1 dependent prostaglandin E(2 synthesis is dependent on P2X7 receptors, extracellular Ca(2+ and cytoplasmic phospholipase A2. NMDA receptor activation induces ATP release from cultured neurons leading to microglial P2X7 receptor activation and COX-1 dependent prostaglandin E(2 synthesis in mixed microglial-neuronal cultures. Pharmacological inhibition of COX-1 has no effect on the cortical lesion produced by NMDA, but counteracts the neuroprotection exerted by inhibition of COX-2 or observed in mice lacking the prostaglandin E(2 receptor type 1. Similarly, the neuroprotection exerted by the prostaglandin E(2 receptor type 2 agonist butaprost is not observed after COX-1 inhibition. P2X7 receptors contribute to NMDA induced prostaglandin E(2 production in vivo and blockage of P2X7 receptors reverses the neuroprotection offered by COX-2 inhibition. These findings suggest that purinergic signaling in microglia triggered by neuronal ATP modulates excitotoxic cortical lesion by regulating COX-1 dependent prostanoid production and unveil a previously unrecognized protective role of microglial COX-1 in excitotoxic brain

  4. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Young [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Deuk [Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Science, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wun Jae [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung Hyun, E-mail: choiyh@deu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. -- Highlights: ► DADS attenuates production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ► DADS downregulates levels of iNOS and COX-2. ► DADS inhibits production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. ► DADS exhibits these effects by suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

  5. Extended magnetic resonance imaging studies on the effect of classically activated microglia transplantation on white matter regeneration following spinal cord focal injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcol, Wiesław; Ślusarczyk, Wojciech; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Kapustka, Bartosz; Staszkiewicz, Rafał; Rosicka, Paulina; Kalita, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Władysław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    Spinal cord injuries are still a serious problem for regenerative medicine. Previous research has demonstrated that activated microglia accumulate in spinal lesions, influencing the injured tissues in various ways. Therefore, transplantation of activated microglia may have a beneficial role in the regeneration of the nervous system. The present study examined the influence of transplanted activated microglial cells in adult rats with injured spinal cords. Rats were randomly divided into an experimental (M) and control (C) group, and were subjected to non-laminectomy focal injury of spinal cord white matter by means of a high-pressured air stream. In group M, activated cultured microglial cells were injected twice into the site of injury. Functional outcome and morphological features of regeneration were analyzed during a 12-week follow-up. The lesions were characterized by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurons in the brain stem and motor cortex were labeled with FluoroGold (FG). A total of 12 weeks after surgery, spinal cords and brains were collected and subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Lesion sizes in the spinal cord were measured and the number of FG-positive neurons was counted. Rats in group M demonstrated significant improvement of locomotor performance when compared with group C (Pcord in the group M following microglia treatment, as compared with group C. The water diffusion perpendicular to the spinal cord in group M was closer to the reference values for a healthy spinal cord than it was in group C. The sizes of lesions were also significantly smaller in group M than in the group C (Pcord gives some positive effects for the regeneration of the white matter.

  6. Diesel exhaust activates and primes microglia: air pollution, neuroinflammation, and regulation of dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E; Kodavanti, Urmila; Stadler, Krisztian; Wagner, Alison; Johnson, Jo Anne; Duke, Laura; Kodavanti, Prasada; Surace, Michael J; Block, Michelle L

    2011-08-01

    Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms underlying DE-induced microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity. Rats were exposed to DE (2.0, 0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks or as a single intratracheal administration of DE particles (DEP; 20 mg/kg). Primary neuron-glia cultures and the HAPI (highly aggressively proliferating immortalized) microglial cell line were used to explore cellular mechanisms. Rats exposed to DE by inhalation demonstrated elevated levels of whole-brain IL-6 (interleukin-6) protein, nitrated proteins, and IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1) protein (microglial marker), indicating generalized neuroinflammation. Analysis by brain region revealed that DE increased TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), fractalkine, and the IBA-1 microglial marker in most regions tested, with the midbrain showing the greatest DE response. Intratracheal administration of DEP increased microglial IBA-1 staining in the substantia nigra and elevated both serum and whole-brain TNFα at 6 hr posttreatment. Although DEP alone failed to cause the production of cytokines and chemokines, DEP (5 μg/mL) pretreatment followed by lipopolysaccharide (2.5 ng/mL) in vitro synergistically amplified nitric oxide production, TNFα release, and DA neurotoxicity. Pretreatment with fractalkine (50 pg/mL) in vitro ameliorated DEP (50 μg/mL)-induced microglial hydrogen peroxide production and DA neurotoxicity. Together, these findings reveal complex, interacting mechanisms responsible for how air pollution may cause neuroinflammation and DA neurotoxicity.

  7. Microglia protect neurons against ischemia by synthesis of tumor necrosis factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Babcock, Alicia Anne

    2009-01-01

    Microglia and infiltrating leukocytes are considered major producers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a crucial player in cerebral ischemia and brain inflammation. We have identified a neuroprotective role for microglial-derived TNF in cerebral ischemia in mice. We show that cortical infa...

  8. Enhanced uptake of multiple sclerosis-derived myelin by THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Draanen, Michael; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin phagocytosis. It remains unclear why microglia and macrophages demyelinate axons in MS, but previously found or yet-unknown changes in the myelin of MS patients could contribute to this process. We therefore studied whether

  9. Differential Relationships of Reactive Astrocytes and Microglia to Fibrillar Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Muzikansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2013-01-01

    While it is clear that astrocytes and microglia cluster around dense-core amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD), whether they are primarily attracted to amyloid deposits or are just reacting to plaque-associated neuritic damage remains elusive. We postulate that astrocytes and microglia may differentially respond to fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ). Therefore, we quantified the size distribution of dense-core Thioflavin-S (ThioS)-positive plaques in the temporal neocortex of 40 AD patients and the microglial and astrocyte responses in their vicinity (≤50 μm), and performed correlations between both measures. As expected, both astrocytes and microglia were clearly spatially associated with ThioS-positive plaques (p = 0.0001, ≤50 μm vs. >50 μm from their edge), but their relationship to ThioS-positive plaque size differed; larger ThioS-positive plaques were associated with more surrounding activated microglia (p = 0.0026), but this effect was not observed with reactive astrocytes. Microglial response to dense-core plaques appears to be proportional to their size, which we postulate reflects a chemotactic effect of Aβ. By contrast, plaque-associated astrocytic response does not correlate with plaque size and seems to parallel the behavior of plaque-associated neuritic damage. PMID:23656989

  10. Transformation of Astrocytes to a Neuroprotective Phenotype by Microglia via P2Y1 Receptor Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Shinozaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury. This change in astrocyte phenotype resulted from P2Y1 receptor downregulation, mediated by microglia-derived cytokines. In mice, astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor overexpression (Astro-P2Y1OE counteracted scar formation, while astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor knockdown (Astro-P2Y1KD facilitated scar formation, suggesting critical roles of P2Y1 receptors in the transformation. Astro-P2Y1OE and Astro-P2Y1KD mice showed increased and reduced neuronal damage, respectively. Altogether, our findings indicate that microglia-astrocyte interaction, involving a purinergic signal, is essential for the formation of neuroprotective astrocytes.

  11. Critical Data-Based Re-Evaluation of Minocycline as a Putative Specific Microglia Inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, Thomas; Bard, Frederique; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Biber, Knut; Campbell, Brian; Dale, Elena; Eder, Claudia; Gan, Li; Garden, Gwenn A.; Hughes, Zoe A.; Pearse, Damien D.; Staal, Roland G. W.; Sayed, Faten A.; Wes, Paul D.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline, a second generation broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been frequently postulated to be a "microglia inhibitor." A considerable number of publications have used minocycline as a tool and concluded, after achieving a pharmacological effect, that the effect must be due to "inhibition" of

  12. Myelin down-regulates myelin phagocytosis by microglia and macrophages through interactions between CD47 on myelin and SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Fanny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic injury to axons produces breakdown of axons and myelin at the site of the lesion and then further distal to this where Wallerian degeneration develops. The rapid removal of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is advantageous for repair since molecules in myelin impede regeneration of severed axons. Thus, revealing mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia is important. We hypothesize that myelin regulates its own phagocytosis by simultaneous activation and down-regulation of microglial and macrophage responses. Activation follows myelin binding to receptors that mediate its phagocytosis (e.g. complement receptor-3, which has been previously studied. Down-regulation, which we test here, follows binding of myelin CD47 to the immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on macrophages and microglia. Methods CD47 and SIRPα expression was studied by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and myelin phagocytosis by ELISA. Results We first document that myelin, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells express CD47 without SIRPα and further confirm that microglia and macrophages express both CD47 and SIRPα. Thus, CD47 on myelin can bind to and subsequently activate SIRPα on phagocytes, a prerequisite for CD47/SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis by itself. We then demonstrate that phagocytosis of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented when binding between myelin CD47 and SIRPα on phagocytes is blocked by mAbs against CD47 and SIRPα, indicating that down-regulation of phagocytosis indeed depends on CD47-SIRPα binding. Further, phagocytosis in serum-free medium of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented after knocking down SIRPα levels (SIRPα-KD in phagocytes by lentiviral infection with SIRPα-shRNA, whereas phagocytosis of myelin that lacks CD47 (CD47-/- is not. Thus, myelin CD47 produces SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis in phagocytes

  13. Neuroprotective mechanism of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against PTZ induced kindling and associated cognitive dysfunction: Possible role of microglia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Kumar, Anil

    2016-12-01

    Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a significant role to explain the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Neuroinflammation through microglia activation has been documented in epileptogenesis. Compounds which inhibit activation of glial cells have been suggested as one of the treatment approaches for the effective treatment of epilepsy. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of coenzyme Q10 and its interaction with minocycline (microglia inhibitor) against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced kindling epilepsy. Laca mice received Coenzyme Q10 and minocycline for a period of 29 days. PTZ (40mg/kg ip) injection has been given on alternate days. Various behavioural parameters (kindling score and elevated plus maze), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite and acetylcholinesterase) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities of (I, II and IV) were assessed in the discrete areas of the brain. Administration of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40mg/kg) repeatedly increased significantly kindling score, oxidative damage and impaired mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) and pro-inflammatory marker (TNF-α) as compared to naive animals. Coenzyme Q10 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) and minocycline (50 and 100mg/kg) for a duration of 29days significantly attenuated kindling score, reversed oxidative damage, TNF-α and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared to control. Further, combinations of CoQ10 (10, 20mg/kg) with minocycline (50 and 100mg/kg) significantly modulate the protective effect of CoQ10 which was significant as compared to their effect per se in PTZ treated animals. The present study suggests the involvement of microglia inhibition in the protective effect of CoQ10 in PTZ induced kindling in mice. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o

  14. Histamine Regulates the Inflammatory Profile of SOD1-G93A Microglia and the Histaminergic System Is Dysregulated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Apolloni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a late-onset motor neuron disease where activated glia release pro-inflammatory cytokines that trigger a vicious cycle of neurodegeneration in the absence of resolution of inflammation. Given the well-established role of histamine as a neuron-to-glia alarm signal implicated in brain disorders, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of the histaminergic pathway in microglial activation in ALS mouse model and in humans. By examining the contribution of the histaminergic system to ALS, we found that particularly via H1 and H4 receptors, histamine promoted an anti-inflammatory profile in microglia from SOD1-G93A mice by modulating their activation state. A decrease in NF-κB and NADPH oxidase 2 with an increase in arginase 1 and P2Y12 receptor was induced by histamine only in the ALS inflammatory environment, but not in the healthy microglia, together with an increase in IL-6, IL-10, CD163, and CD206 phenotypic markers in SOD1-G93A cells. Moreover, histaminergic H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors, and histamine metabolizing enzymes histidine decarboxylase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and diamine oxidase were found deregulated in spinal cord, cortex, and hypothalamus of SOD1-G93A mice during disease progression. Finally, by performing a meta-analysis study, we found a modulated expression of histamine-related genes in cortex and spinal cord from sporadic ALS patients. Our findings disclose that histamine acts as anti-inflammatory agent in ALS microglia and suggest a dysregulation of the histaminergic signaling in ALS.

  15. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Jing, Da; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Lin, Tian; Xie, Zhen; Zhu, Yi; Zhao, Haibo; Shi, Xiaodan; Du, Fang; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Infrasound, a kind of common environmental noise and a major contributor of vibroacoustic disease, can induce the central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, no relevant anti-infrasound drugs have been reported yet. Our recent studies have shown that infrasound resulted in excessive microglial activation rapidly and sequential inflammation, revealing a potential role of microglia in infrasound-induced CNS damage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive component in green tea, has the capacity of protecting against various neurodegenerative diseases via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. However, it is still unknown to date whether EGCG acts on infrasound-induced microglial activation and neuronal damage. We showed that, after 1-, 2- or 5-day exposure of rats to 16 Hz, 130 dB infrasound (2 h/day), EGCG significantly inhibited infrasound-induced microglial activation in rat hippocampal region, evidenced by reduced expressions of Iba-1 (a marker for microglia) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α). Moreover, infrasound-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampi was significantly suppressed by EGCG. EGCG also inhibited infrasound-induced activation of primary microglia in vitro and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of microglial culture, which were toxic to cultured neurons. Furthermore, EGCG attenuated infrasound-induced increases in nuclear NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated IκBα, and ameliorated infrasound-induced decrease in IκB in microglia. Therefore, our study provides the first evidence that EGCG acts against infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation through a potential NF-κB pathway-related mechanism, suggesting that EGCG can be used as a promising drug for the treatment of infrasound-induced CNS damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microglia are involve in pain related behaviors during the acute and chronic phase of arthritis inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Nasseri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Pain is one of the main protests of inflammatory diseases, hence, understanding the mechanisms which involved in the induction and persistence of pain is essential. Microglia is a contributing factor in the onset and maintenance of inflammation. Increased microglial   activation increases the level of central pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of central sensitization following inflammation. The aim of this study was evaluate the relation of spinal microglia activity with pain related behaviors during Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammation.Materials and Methods: Inflammation caused by subcutaneous injection of Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA in a single dose to the animals right hind paw. The edema and hyperalgesia caused by inflammation, respectively are measured by Plethysmometer and Radiant Heat, on days 0,7,14 and 21. Spinal Iba-1 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Minocycline hydrochloride (Sigma, U.S.A was administered i.p. at a dose of 40mg/kg daily.Results: Our study findings indicated that CFA injection to right hindpaw of rats increased paw volume and hyperalgesia significantly during different stages of study, while Minocycline treatment significantly reduced paw volume and hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the right hindpaw of the rat increases the expression of molecules Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule -1 (Iba-1 on different days of study, while Minocycline administration reduced spinal Iba-1 expression significantly compared to the CFA group.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated the significant roles of microglia activation in deterioration of pain related behaviors during different stages of CFA-induced inflammation. The steady injection of Minocycline (as a microglia inhibitor could reduce the inflammatory symptoms.Keywords: Inflammation, pain, microglia, minocycline

  17. Human endogenous retrovirus W env increases nitric oxide production and enhances the migration ability of microglia by regulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Li, Shan; Cao, Qian; Wang, Xiuling; Yan, Qiujin; Tu, Xiaoning; Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Fan

    2017-06-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env. Moreover, HERV-W env increased the expression and function of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) and enhanced the promoter activity of hiNOS. Microglial migration was also enhanced. These data revealed that HERV-W env might contribute to increase NO production and microglial migration ability in neuropsychological disorders by regulating the expression of inducible NOS. Results from this study might lead to the identification of novel targets for the treatment of neuropsychological diseases, including neuroinflammatory diseases, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Histamine induces microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal toxicity via H1 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sandra M; Saraiva, Tatiana; Cristóvão, Ana C; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Esteves, Marta; Saraiva, Cláudia; Je, Goun; Cortes, Luísa; Valero, Jorge; Alves, Gilberto; Klibanov, Alexander; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-06-04

    Histamine is an amine widely known as a peripheral inflammatory mediator and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been suggested that histamine acts as an innate modulator of microglial activity. Herein, we aimed to disclose the role of histamine in microglial phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to explore the consequences of histamine-induced neuroinflammation in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival. The effect of histamine on phagocytosis was assessed both in vitro by using a murine N9 microglial cell line and primary microglial cell cultures and in vivo. Cells were exposed to IgG-opsonized latex beads or phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes to evaluate Fcγ or PS receptor-mediated microglial phagocytosis, respectively. ROS production and protein levels of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 were assessed as a measure of oxidative stress. DA neuronal survival was evaluated in vivo by counting the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. We found that histamine triggers microglial phagocytosis via histamine receptor 1 (H1R) activation and ROS production via H1R and H4R activation. By using apocynin, a broad NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, and Nox1 knockout mice, we found that the Nox1 signaling pathway is involved in both phagocytosis and ROS production induced by histamine in vitro. Interestingly, both apocynin and annexin V (used as inhibitor of PS-induced phagocytosis) fully abolished the DA neurotoxicity induced by the injection of histamine in the SN of adult mice in vivo. Blockade of H1R protected against histamine-induced Nox1 expression and death of DA neurons in vivo. Overall, our results highlight the relevance of histamine in the modulation of microglial activity that ultimately may interfere with neuronal survival in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD) and, eventually, other neurodegenerative diseases which are accompanied by microglia

  19. Sialic acid on the neuronal glycocalyx prevents complement C1 binding and complement receptor-3-mediated removal by microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Bettina; Kopatz, Jens; Tenner, Andrea J; Neumann, Harald

    2012-01-18

    Microglial cells are professional phagocytes of the CNS responsible for clearance of unwanted structures. Neuronal processes are marked by complement C1 before they are removed in development or during disease processes. Target molecules involved in C1 binding and mechanisms of clearance are still unclear. Here we show that the terminal sugar residue sialic acid of the mouse neuronal glycocalyx determines complement C1 binding and microglial-mediated clearance function. Several early components of the classical complement cascade including C1q, C1r, C1s, and C3 were produced by cultured mouse microglia. The opsonin C1q was binding to neurites after enzymatic removal of sialic acid residues from the neuronal glycocalyx. Desialylated neurites, but not neurites with intact sialic acid caps, were cleared and taken up by cocultured microglial cells. The removal of the desialylated neurites was mediated via the complement receptor-3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18). Data demonstrate that mouse microglial cells via CR3 recognize and remove neuronal structures with an altered neuronal glycocalyx lacking terminal sialic acid.

  20. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activated Microglia Targeting Dendrimer-Minocycline Conjugate as Therapeutics for Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Kim, Soo-Young; Sharma, Anjali; Zhang, Zhi; Kambhampati, Siva Pramodh; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2017-11-15

    Brain-related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response have led to side effects. Targeted delivery of minocycline to the injured site and injured cells in the brain can be highly beneficial. Systemically administered hydroxyl poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) generation-6 (G6) dendrimers have a longer blood circulation time and have been shown to cross the impaired BBB. We have successfully prepared and characterized the in vitro efficacy and in vivo targeting ability of hydroxyl-G6 PAMAM dendrimer-9-amino-minocycline conjugate (D-mino). Minocycline is a challenging drug to carry out chemical transformations due to its inherent instability. We used a combination of a highly efficient and mild copper catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction (CuAAC) along with microwave energy to conjugate 9-amino-minocycline (mino) to the dendrimer surface via enzyme responsive linkages. D-mino was further evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in lipopolysaccharides-activated murine microglial cells. D-mino conjugates enhanced the intracellular availability of the drug due to their rapid uptake, suppressed inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production, and reduced oxidative stress by suppressing nitric oxide production, all significantly better than the free drug. Fluorescently labeled dendrimer conjugate (Cy5-D-mino) was systematically administered (intravenous, 55 mg/kg) on postnatal

  2. Targeting CXCR4 by a selective peptide antagonist modulates tumor microenvironment and microglia reactivity in a human glioblastoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Laura; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cecchetti, Serena; Ricci, Alessandro; Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Molinari, Agnese; Manni, Isabella; Pollo, Bianca; Scala, Stefania; Carpinelli, Giulia; Minghetti, Luisa

    2016-03-25

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway regulates tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and the tumor-microenvironment cross-talk in several solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and fatal brain cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of peptide R, a new specific CXCR4 antagonist that we recently developed by a ligand-based approach, in an in vitro and in vivo model of GBM. The well-characterized CXCR4 antagonist Plerixafor was also included in the study. The effects of peptide R on CXCR4 expression, cell survival and migration were assessed on the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG exposed to CXCL12, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and transwell chamber migration assay. Peptide R was then tested in vivo, by using U87MG intracranial xenografts in CD1 nude mice. Peptide R was administered for 23 days since cell implantation and tumor volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4.7 T. Glioma associated microglia/macrophage (GAMs) polarization (anti-tumor M1 versus pro-tumor M2 phenotypes) and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We found that peptide R impairs the metabolic activity and cell proliferation of human U87MG cells and stably reduces CXCR4 expression and cell migration in response to CXCL12 in vitro. In the orthotopic U87MG model, peptide R reduced tumor cellularity, promoted M1 features of GAMs and astrogliosis, and hindered intra-tumor vasculature. Our findings suggest that targeting CXCR4 by peptide R might represent a novel therapeutic approach against GBM, and contribute to the rationale to further explore in more complex pre-clinical settings the therapeutic potential of peptide R, alone or in combination with standard therapies of GBM.

  3. Luteolin Inhibits Microglia and Alters Hippocampal-Dependent Spatial Working Memory in Aged Mice1-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saebyeol Jang; Ryan N Dilger; Rodney W Johnson

    2010-01-01

    ... and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory mediators after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation...

  4. Methylene Blue Mitigates Acute Neuroinflammation after Spinal Cord Injury through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Hang; Wang, Si-Yuan; Chen, Li-Li; Zhuang, Jia-Yuan; Ke, Qing-Feng; Xiao, Dan-Rui; Lin, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental neurological disease involving the primary mechanical injury and secondary inflammatory damage. Curtailing the detrimental neuroinflammation would be beneficial for spinal cord function recovery. Microglia reside in the spinal cord and actively participate in the onset, progression and perhaps resolution of post-SCI neuroinflammation. In the current study, we tested the effects of methylene blue on microglia both in vitro and in a rat SCI model. We found that methylene blue inhibited the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-18 rather than their mRNA levels in activated microglia. Further investigation indicated that methylene blue deceased the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and NLRC4 inflammasome in microglia in vitro . Moreover, in the rat SCI model, the similar effect of methylene blue on post-SCI microglia was also observed, except that the activation of NLRC4 inflammasome was not seen. The inhibition of microglia NLRP3 inflammasome was associated with down-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The administration of methylene blue mitigated the overall post-SCI neuroinflammation, demonstrated by decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and leukocyte infiltrates. Consequently, the neuronal apoptosis was partially inhibited and the hind limb locomotor function was ameliorated by methylene blue treatment. Our research highlights the role of methylene blue in inhibiting post-SCI neuroinflammation, and suggests that methylene blue might be used for SCI therapy.

  5. Selective activation of microglia in spinal cord but not higher cortical regions following nerve injury in adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yuze

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal plasticity along the pathway for sensory transmission including the spinal cord and cortex plays an important role in chronic pain, including inflammatory and neuropathic pain. While recent studies indicate that microglia in the spinal cord are involved in neuropathic pain, a systematic study has not been performed in other regions of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we used heterozygous Cx3cr1GFP/+mice to characterize the morphological phenotypes of microglia following common peroneal nerve (CPN ligation. We found that microglia showed a uniform distribution throughout the CNS, and peripheral nerve injury selectively activated microglia in the spinal cord dorsal horn and related ventral horn. In contrast, microglia was not activated in supraspinal regions of the CNS, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2, insular cortex (IC, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. Our results provide strong evidence that nerve injury primarily activates microglia in the spinal cord of adult mice, and pain-related cortical plasticity is likely mediated by neurons.

  6. Early long-term administration of the CSF1R inhibitor PLX3397 ablates microglia and reduces accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid, neuritic plaque deposition and pre-fibrillar oligomers in 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosna, Justyna; Philipp, Stephan; Albay, Ricardo; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Baglietto-Vargas, David; LaFerla, Frank M; Glabe, Charles G

    2018-03-01

    Besides the two main classical features of amyloid beta aggregation and tau-containing neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation plays an important yet unclear role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia are believed to be key mediators of neuroinflammation during AD and responsible for the regulation of brain homeostasis by balancing neurotoxicity and neuroprotective events. We have previously reported evidence that neuritic plaques are derived from dead neurons that have accumulated intraneuronal amyloid and further recruit Iba1-positive cells, which play a role in either neuronal demise or neuritic plaque maturation or both. To study the impact of microglia on neuritic plaque development, we treated two-month-old 5XFAD mice with a selective colony stimulation factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor, PLX3397, for a period of 3 months, resulting in a significant ablation of microglia. Directly after this treatment, we analyzed the amount of intraneuronal amyloid and neuritic plaques and performed behavioral studies including Y-maze, fear conditioning and elevated plus maze. We found that early long-term PLX3397 administration results in a dramatic reduction of both intraneuronal amyloid as well as neuritic plaque deposition. PLX3397 treated young 5XFAD mice also displayed a significant decrease of soluble fibrillar amyloid oligomers in brain lysates, a depletion of soluble pre-fibrillar oligomers in plasma and an improvement in cognitive function measured by fear conditioning tests. Our findings demonstrate that CSF1R signaling, either directly on neurons or mediated by microglia, is crucial for the accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid and formation of neuritic plaques, suggesting that these two events are serially linked in a causal pathway leading to neurodegeneration and neuritic plaque formation. CSF1R inhibitors represent potential preventative or therapeutic approach that target the very earliest stages of the formation of

  7. Icariin Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss and Microglia-Mediated Inflammation in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized with a gradual loss of midbrain substantia nigra (SN dopamine (DA neurons. An excessive evidence demonstrated that microglia-mediated inflammation might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, inhibition of neuroinflammation might possess a promising potential for PD treatment. Icariin (ICA, a single active component extracted from the Herba Epimedii, presents amounts of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-aging. Recent studies show ICA produced neuroprotection against brain dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying ICA-exerted neuroprotection are fully illuminated. In the present study, two different neurotoxins of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced rat midbrain DA neuronal damage were applied to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ICA. In addition, primary rat midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures were performed to explore the mechanisms underlying ICA-mediated DA neuroprotection. In vitro data showed that ICA protected DA neurons from LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal damage and inhibited microglia activation and pro-inflammatory factors production via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway activation. In animal results, ICA significantly reduced microglia activation and significantly attenuated LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal loss and subsequent animal behavior changes. Together, ICA could protect DA neurons against LPS- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. These actions might be closely associated with the inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

  8. Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice.

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    Shankar Sadasivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH is a psychostimulant that exerts its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT and the norepinephrine transporter (NET, resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. Clinically, methylphenidate is prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; although lately, there has been an increased incidence of its use in individuals not meeting the criteria for these disorders. MPH has also been misused as a "cognitive enhancer" and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of MPH in mice at either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (∼20% in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc following chronic administration of 10 mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the SNpc. Additionally, exposure to either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN of mice exposed to 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2, and th in the substantia nigra (SN were observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10 mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum, although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10 mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice at doses spanning the therapeutic range in humans, especially at

  9. The established and emerging roles of astrocytes and microglia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Andrew Warren Radford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD are two progressive, fatal neurodegenerative syndromes with considerable clinical, genetic and pathological overlap. Clinical symptoms of FTD can be seen in ALS patients and vice versa, recent genetic discoveries conclusive link the two diseases, and several common molecular players have been identified (TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72.The definitive aetiologies of ALS and FTD are currently unknown and both disorders lack a cure. Glia, specifically astrocytes and microglia are heavily implicated in the onset and progression of neurodegeneration witnessed in ALS and FTD. In this review, we summarise the current understanding of the role of microglia and astrocytes involved in ALS and FTD, highlighting their recent implications in neuroinflammation, alterations in waste clearance involving phagocytosis and the newly described glymphatic system, and vascular abnormalities. Elucidating the precise mechanisms of how astrocytes and microglia are involved in ALS and FTD will be crucial in characterising these two disorders and may represent more effective interventions for disease progression and treatment options in the future.

  10. Transcriptomic determinants of scrapie prion propagation in cultured ovine microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    While infection by scrapie prions is dependent on expression of cellular prion protein (PrP-C), other factors must play a role since not all cells that express equivalent levels of PrP-C are permissive to infection. The aim of this study was to determine the cellular factors associated with permissi...

  11. Hypoxia attenuates purinergic P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith SMC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie MC Smith,1,2 Gordon S Mitchell,1,2 Scott A Friedle,3 Christine M Sibigtroth,1 Stéphane Vinit,1 Jyoti J Watters1–31Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Comparative Biomedical Sciences Training Program, 3Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USAAbstract: Hypoxia and increased extracellular nucleotides are frequently coincident in the brainstem. Extracellular nucleotides are potent modulators of microglial inflammatory gene expression via P2X purinergic receptor activation. Although hypoxia is also known to modulate inflammatory gene expression, little is known about how hypoxia or P2X receptor activation alone affects inflammatory molecule production in brainstem microglia, nor how hypoxia and P2X receptor signaling interact when they occur together. In the study reported here, we investigated the ability of a brief episode of hypoxia (2 hours in the presence and absence of the nonselective P2X receptor agonist 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyladenosine-5′-triphosphate (BzATP to promote inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia in adult rats. We evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and interleukin (IL-6 messenger RNA levels in immunomagnetically isolated brainstem microglia. While iNOS and IL-6 gene expression increased with hypoxia and BzATP alone, TNFα expression was unaffected. Surprisingly, BzATP-induced inflammatory effects were lost after hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia impairs proinflammatory P2X-receptor signaling. We also evaluated the expression of key P2X receptors activated by BzATP, namely P2X1, P2X4, and P2X7. While hypoxia did not alter their expression, BzATP upregulated P2X4 and P2X7 mRNAs; these effects were ablated in hypoxia. Although both P2X4 and P2X7 receptor expression correlated with increased microglial iNOS and IL-6 levels in microglia from normoxic rats, in hypoxia, P2X7 only correlated with IL-6, and P2X

  12. Blockade of Glutamine Synthetase Enhances Inflammatory Response in Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Erika M; Menga, Alessio; Lebrun, Aurore; Hooper, Douglas C; Butterfield, D Allan; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Castegna, Alessandra

    2017-03-10

    Microglial cells are brain-resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia. GS inhibition enhances release of inflammatory mediators of LPS-activated microglia in vitro, leading to perturbation of the redox balance and decreased viability of cocultured neurons. GS inhibition also decreases insulin-mediated glucose uptake in microglia. In vivo, microglia-specific GS ablation enhances expression of inflammatory markers upon LPS treatment. In the spinal cords from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), GS expression levels and glutamine/glutamate ratios are reduced. Recently, metabolism has been highlighted as mediator of immune cell function through the discovery of mechanisms that (behind these metabolic changes) modulate the inflammatory response. The present study shows for the first time a metabolic mechanism mediating microglial response to a proinflammatory stimulus, pointing to GS activity as a master modulator of immune cell function and thus unraveling a potential therapeutic target. Our study highlights a new role of GS in modulating immune response in microglia, providing insights into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with inflammation and new strategies of therapeutic intervention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 351-363.

  13. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: the extent of microglia activation is dependent on the biochemical type of PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Giaccone, Giorgio; Mangieri, Michela; Limido, Lucia; Fociani, Paolo; Zerbi, Pietro; Suardi, Silvia; Rossi, Giacomina; Iussich, Selina; Capobianco, Raffaella; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Marcon, Gabriella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Filippini, Graziella; Bugiani, Orso; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2005-10-01

    In prion-related encephalopathies, microglial activation occurs early and is dependent on accumulation of disease-specific forms of the prion protein (PrPSc) and may play a role in nerve cell death. Previously, we found that different types of PrPSc (i.e. type 1 and type 2) coexisted in approximately 25% of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); and a close relationship was detected between PrPSc type, the pattern of PrP immunoreactivity, and extent of spongiform degeneration. To investigate whether microglial reaction is related to the biochemical type and deposition pattern of PrPSc, we carried out a neuropathologic and biochemical study on 26 patients with sporadic CJD, including all possible genotypes at codon 129 of the prion protein gene. By quantitative analysis, we demonstrated that strong microglial activation was associated with type 1 PrPSc and diffuse PrP immunoreactivity, whereas type 2 PrPSc and focal PrP deposits were accompanied by mild microglia reaction. These findings support the view that the phenotypic heterogeneity of sporadic CJD is largely determined by the physicochemical properties of distinct PrPSc conformers.

  14. Distinct domanial and lamellar distribution of clustered lipofuscin granules in microglia in the main olfactory bulb of young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Sawai, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Chie; Imafuji, Maki; Kamei, Ayako; Kosaka, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    Lipofuscin granules are generally considered as age-pigment. However, we encountered numerous large irregular clusters of lipofuscin granules in the olfactory nerve layer and glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of young adult and even juvenile mice of C57BL/6J strain. Those numerous autofluorescent irregular lipofuscin granules were contained in the cytoplasm of microglial cells. Importantly they showed a prominent pattern of distribution; that is, they were rather restricted to the OCAM positive ventro-lateral domain (V-domain) of the MOB but few in the OCAM negative dorso-medial domain (D-domain), even when microglia distributed rather homogeneously in both OCAM positive V-domain and OCAM negative D-domain. Those lipofuscin granules were not seen in MOBs of 10 days and 2w old C57BL mice, but usually encountered in the MOBs of 3w old mice. Similar clusters of lipofuscin granules in the olfactory nerve layer and glomerular layer were also encountered in BALB/c strain, and, although less prominent, in ICR and ddY strains. However, they were not encountered in young adult rats of three strains, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans, indicating one of prominent species differences between mice and rats.

  15. Emerging roles of protein kinases in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-12-15

    Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation. To date, 32 small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer and inflammation. However, there is no drug effectively targeting neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have advanced several protein kinases as important drug targets in neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review emerging protein kinases potentially involved in neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Etiogenic factors present in the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients induce predominantly pro-inflammatory responses in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pooja-Shree; Vijayalakshmi, K; Nalini, A; Sathyaprabha, T N; Kramer, B W; Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Raju, T R

    2017-12-16

    Microglial cell-associated neuroinflammation is considered as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the specific role of microglia in the disease pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. We studied the activation profiles of the microglial cultures exposed to the cerebrospinal fluid from these patients which recapitulates the neurodegeneration seen in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This was done by investigating the morphological and functional changes including the expression levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and trophic factors. We also studied the effect of chitotriosidase, the inflammatory protein found upregulated in the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, on these cultures. We report that the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients could induce an early and potent response in the form of microglial activation, skewed primarily towards a pro-inflammatory profile. It was seen in the form of upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and factors including IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2. Concomitantly, a downregulation of beneficial trophic factors and anti-inflammatory markers including VEGF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and IFN-γ was seen. In addition, chitotriosidase-1 appeared to act specifically via the microglial cells. Our findings demonstrate that the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients holds enough cues to induce microglial inflammatory processes as an early event, which may contribute to the neurodegeneration seen in the sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These findings highlight the dynamic role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of the disease, thus suggesting the need for a multidimensional and temporally guarded therapeutic approach targeting the inflammatory

  17. Microglia: An Interface between the Loss of Neuroplasticity and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Singhal; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2017-01-01

    Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervou...

  18. Staining of HLA-DR, Iba1 and CD68 in human microglia reveals partially overlapping expression depending on cellular morphology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; van Eden, Corbert G; Schuurman, Karianne G; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2017-08-15

    HLA-DR, Iba1 and CD68 are widely used microglia markers in human tissue. However, due to differences in gene regulation, they may identify different activation stages of microglia. Here, we directly compared the expression of HLA-DR, Iba1 and CD68 in microglia with different phenotypes, ranging from ramified to amoeboid, to foamy phagocytizing macrophages, in adjacent sections immunocytochemically double stained for two of the markers. Material was used from patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and control subjects because together they contain all the microglia activation stages in an acute and a chronic inflammatory setting. We found a similar, yet not identical, overall expression pattern. All three markers were expressed by ramified/amoeboid microglia around chronic active MS lesions, but overlap between HLA-DR and Iba1 was limited. Foamy macrophages in the demyelinating rims of active MS lesions of MS expressed more HLA-DR and CD68 than Iba1. All markers were expressed by small microglia accumulations (nodules) in MS NAWM. Dense core AD plaques in the hippocampus were mostly associated with microglia expressing HLA-DR. Diffuse AD plaques were not specifically associated with microglia at all. These results indicate that microglia markers have different potential for neuropathological analysis, with HLA-DR and CD68 reflecting immune activation and response to tissue damage, and Iba1 providing a marker more suited for structural studies in the absence of pathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Isolation and characterization of apolipoproteins from murine microglia. Identification of a low density lipoprotein-like apolipoprotein J-rich but E-poor spherical particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Li, Y; Cyras, C; Sanan, D A; Cordell, B

    2000-10-13

    Amyloid Abeta deposition is a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Activated microglia are intimately associated with plaques and appear to facilitate Abeta deposition, an event believed to contribute to pathogenesis. It is unclear if microglia can modulate pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by secreting lipoprotein particles. Here we show that cultured BV2 murine microglial cells, like astrocytes, secrete apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein J (apoJ) in a time-dependent manner. To isolate and identify BV2 microglial particles, gel filtration chromatography was employed to fractionate BV2-conditioned medium. Analyses by Western blot, lipid determination, electron microscopy, and native gel electrophoresis demonstrate that BV2 microglial cells release spherical low density lipoprotein (LDL)-like lipid-containing particles rich in apoJ but poor in apoE. These microglial particles are dissimilar in size, shape, and lipoprotein composition to astrocyte-derived particles. The microglial-derived particles were tested for functional activity. Under conditions of suppressed de novo cholesterol synthesis, the LDL-like particles effectively rescued primary rat cortical neurons from mevastatin-induced neurotoxicity. The particles were also shown to bind Abeta. We speculate that the LDL-like apoJ-rich apoE-poor microglial lipoproteins preferentially bind the lipoprotein receptor, recognizing apoJ, which is abundant in the choroid plexus, facilitating Abeta clearance from the brain. BV2 cells also secrete an apoE-rich lipid-poor species that binds Abeta. Consistent with the role of apoE in Abeta fibril formation and deposition, this microglial species may promote plaque formation.

  20. Induction of Microglial Activation by Mediators Released from Mast Cells

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    Xiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in immune surveillance in the central nervous system (CNS. Brain mast cells are activated in CNS disorders and induce the release of several mediators. Thus, brain mast cells, rather than microglia, are the “first responders” due to injury. However, the functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain uninvestigated. Methods: Conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells induces microglial activation similar to co-culture of microglia with HMC-1 cells. Primary cultured microglia were examined by flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy. TNF- alpha and IL-6 were measured with commercial ELISA kits. Cell signalling was analysed by Western blotting. Results: In the present study, we found that the conditioned medium from activated HMC-1 cells stimulated microglial activation and the subsequent production of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6. Co-culture of microglia and HMC-1 cells with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH for 24, 48 and 72 hours increased TNF-α and IL-6 production. Antagonists of histamine receptor 1 (H1R, H4R, proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 reduced HMC-1-induced pro-inflammatory factor production and MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Conclusions: These results imply that activated mast cells trigger microglial activation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS inflammation-related diseases.

  1. Intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and JAK1/STAT3 pathway are involved in the protective effect of propofol on BV2 microglia against hypoxia-induced inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Gu, Yuechao; Ding, Xiaowei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Jiawei; Miao, Changhong

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative hypoxia may induce microglial inflammation and apoptosis, resulting in brain injury. The neuroprotective effect of propofol against hypoxia has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we explored whether and how propofol could attenuate microglia BV2 cells from CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury. Mouse microglia BV2 cells were pretreated with propofol, and then stimulated with CoCl2. TNF-α level in the culture medium was measured by ELISA kit. Cell apoptosis and intracellular calcium concentration were measured by flow cytometry analysis. The effect of propofol on CoCl2-modulated expression of Ca2+/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKIIα), phosphorylated CAMKIIα (pCAMKIIα), STAT3, pSTAT3Y705, pSTAT3S727, ERK1/2, pERK1/2, pNFκB(p65), pro-caspase3, cleaved caspase 3, JAK1, pJAK1, JAK2, pJAK2 were detected by Western blot. In BV2 cell, CoCl2 treatment time-dependently increased TNF-α release and induced apoptosis, which were alleviated by propofol. CoCl2 (500μmol/L, 8h) treatment increased intracellular Ca2+ level, and caused the phosphorylation of CAMKIIα, ERK1/2 and NFκB (p65), as well as the activation of caspase 3. More importantly, these effects could be modulated by 25μmol/L propofol via maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and via up-regulating the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3 at Tyr705. Propofol could protect BV2 microglia from hypoxia-induced inflammation and apoptosis. The potential mechanisms may involve the maintaining of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and the activation of JAK1/STAT3 pathway.

  2. IOP induces upregulation of GFAP and MHC-II and microglia reactivity in mice retina contralateral to experimental glaucoma

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    Gallego Beatriz I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by an irreversible decrease in ganglion cells and their axons. Macroglial and microglial cells appear to play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Here, we study the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT in the macroglia, microglia and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of eyes with OHT (OHT-eyes and contralateral eyes two weeks after lasering. Methods Two groups of adult Swiss mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n = 9; and lasered (n = 9. In the lasered animals, both OHT-eyes and contralateral eyes were analyzed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, neurofilament of 200kD (NF-200, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1 and major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC-II. The GFAP-labeled retinal area (GFAP-RA, the intensity of GFAP immunoreaction (GFAP-IR, and the number of astrocytes and NF-200 + RGCs were quantified. Results In comparison with naïve: i astrocytes were more robust in contralateral eyes. In OHT-eyes, the astrocyte population was not homogeneous, given that astrocytes displaying only primary processes coexisted with astrocytes in which primary and secondary processes could be recognized, the former having less intense GFAP-IR (P P P P P = 0.05 and in OHT-eyes (P  Conclusion The use of the contralateral eye as an internal control in experimental induction of unilateral IOP should be reconsidered. The gliotic behavior in contralateral eyes could be related to the immune response. The absence of NF-200+RGCs (sign of RGC degeneration leads us to postulate that the MHC-II upregulation in contralateral eyes could favor neuroprotection.

  3. Replacement of microglial cells using Clodronate liposome and bone marrow transplantation in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice as an in vivo model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Chul; Seong, Jinsil; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Se Jeong; Cho, Yu Jin; An, Jaeyeol; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min; Cha, Choong Ik

    2012-02-10

    Disease progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is partially mediated by the toxic microenvironment established by microglia. In the present study, we used SOD1G93A transgenic mice as an in vivo ALS model and replaced microglia expressing mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) with microglia expressing wild-type SOD1 (w/tSOD1) to modulate the toxic microenvironment. Stereotactic injection of Clodronate liposome, a selective toxin against the monocyte/macrophage system, into the fourth ventricle of the brains of 12-week-old asymptomatic ALS mice reduced the number of microglia effectively in the central nervous system. Subsequent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with bone marrow cells (BMCs) expressing w/tSOD1 and GFP leads to replacement of the endogenous microglia of the ALS mice with microglia expressing w/tSOD1 and GFP. The expression of mSOD1 in the other neural cells was not influenced by the replacement procedures, and immunological side effects were not observed. The replacement of microglia significantly slowed disease progression and prolonged survival of the ALS mice compared with the ALS mice treated by stereotactic injection of PBS-liposome and BMT with BMCs expressing mSOD1 or w/tSOD1. These results suggest that replacement of microglia would improve the neural cell microenvironment, thereby slowing disease progression. The mechanisms and functional implications of this replacement require further elucidation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of abnormally activated microglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and its potential clinical application

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    DING Jian-qing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder which usually affects old-aged people, and the mechanism underling the disease still remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested that abnormally activated microglia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several stimuli, such as α-synuclein, neurotoxins, aging, as well as attenuated or deficient inhibiting signals of endogenous CD200-CD200R can cause the abnormal activation of microglia, which will result in dopaminergic neuron injuries through secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, activating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2. Therefore, it may be a novel way for PD therapy to inhibit neuroinflammatory injuries by suppressing the abnormal activation of microglia.

  5. Microglia are required for astroglial toll-like receptor 4 response and for optimal TLR2 and TLR3 response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Draeby, Dina; Owens, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Within the central nervous system, astrocytes and microglia are the primary responders to endogenous ligands released upon injury and stress, as well as to infectious pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are implicated in recognition of both types of stimulus. Whether astrocytes respond as stron......Within the central nervous system, astrocytes and microglia are the primary responders to endogenous ligands released upon injury and stress, as well as to infectious pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are implicated in recognition of both types of stimulus. Whether astrocytes respond...... astrocytes from mixed glial cultures and measured their response to TLR agonists. Our results show that the response of astrocytes to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists is greatly enhanced by, and response to TLR4 agonists is completely dependent on, the presence of functional microglia. In the case of the TLR4 response...

  6. Microglia-Secreted Galectin-3 Acts as a Toll-like Receptor 4 Ligand and Contributes to Microglial Activation

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    Miguel Angel Burguillos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response induced by microglia plays a critical role in the demise of neuronal populations in neuroinflammatory diseases. Although the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in microglia’s inflammatory response is fully acknowledged, little is known about endogenous ligands that trigger TLR4 activation. Here, we report that galectin-3 (Gal3 released by microglia acts as an endogenous paracrine TLR4 ligand. Gal3-TLR4 interaction was further confirmed in a murine neuroinflammatory model (intranigral lipopolysaccharide [LPS] injection and in human stroke subjects. Depletion of Gal3 exerted neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects following global brain ischemia and in the neuroinflammatory LPS model. These results suggest that Gal3-dependent-TLR4 activation could contribute to sustained microglia activation, prolonging the inflammatory response in the brain.

  7. Contribution of microglia and astrocytes to the central sensitization, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the juvenile rat

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    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of pain after peripheral nerve and tissue injury involves not only neuronal pathways but also immune cells and glia. Central sensitization is thought to be a mechanism for such persistent pain, and ATP involves in the process. We examined the contribution of glia to neuronal excitation in the juvenile rat spinal dorsal horn which is subjected to neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Results In rats subjected to neuropathic pain, immunoreactivity for the microglial marker OX42 was markedly increased. In contrast, in rats subjected to inflammatory pain, immunoreactivity for the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased slightly. Optically-recorded neuronal excitation induced by single-pulse stimulation to the dorsal root was augmented in rats subjected to neuropathic and inflammatory pain compared to control rats. The bath application of a glial inhibitor minocycline and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 inhibited the neuronal excitation in rats subjected to neuropathic pain. A specific P2X1,2,3,4 antagonist TNP-ATP largely inhibited the neuronal excitation only in rats subjected to neuropathic pain rats. In contrast, an astroglial toxin L-alpha-aminoadipate, a gap junction blocker carbenoxolone and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 inhibited the neuronal excitation only in rats subjected to inflammatory pain. A greater number of cells in spinal cord slices from rats subjected to neuropathic pain showed Ca2+ signaling in response to puff application of ATP. This Ca2+ signaling was inhibited by minocycline and TNP-ATP. Conclusions These results directly support the notion that microglia is more involved in neuropathic pain and astrocyte in inflammatory pain.

  8. Mast cells in neuroinflammation and brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Erik; van Bergeijk, Doris; Oosting, Ronald S; Redegeld, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia and astrocytes are major pathogenic components within this process and known to respond to proinflammatory mediators released from immune cells such as mast cells. Mast cells

  9. p38 phosphorylation in medullary microglia mediates ectopic orofacial inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Nakaya, Yuka; Dezawa, Ko; Katagiri, Ayano; Kamakura, Satoshi; Inoue, Tomio; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-08-12

    Orofacial inflammatory pain is likely to accompany referred pain in uninflamed orofacial structures. The ectopic pain precludes precise diagnosis and makes treatment problematic, because the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Using the established ectopic orofacial pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into trapezius muscle, we analyzed the possible role of p38 phosphorylation in activated microglia in ectopic orofacial pain. Mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin was induced following trapezius muscle inflammation, which accompanied microglial activation with p38 phosphorylation and hyperexcitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Intra-cisterna successive administration of a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase selective inhibitor, SB203580, suppressed microglial activation and its phosphorylation of p38. Moreover, SB203580 administration completely suppressed mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin and enhanced WDR neuronal excitability in Vc. Microglial interleukin-1β over-expression in Vc was induced by trapezius muscle inflammation, which was significantly suppressed by SB203580 administration. These findings indicate that microglia, activated via p38 phosphorylation, play a pivotal role in WDR neuronal hyperexcitability, which accounts for the mechanical hypersensitivity in the lateral facial skin associated with trapezius muscle inflammation.

  10. Microglia and their CX3CR1 signaling are involved in hippocampal- but not olfactory bulb-related memory and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ronen; Kreisel, Tirzah; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Yirmiya, Raz

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that microglia play an important role in cognitive and neuroplasticity processes, at least partly via microglial CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling. Furthermore, microglia are responsive to environmental enrichment (EE), which modulates learning, memory and neurogenesis. In the present study we examined the role of microglial CX3CR1 signaling in hippocampal- and olfactory-bulb (OB)-related memory and neurogenesis in homozygous mice with microglia-specific transgenic expression of GFP under the CX3CR1 promoter (CX3CR1(-/-) mice), in which the CX3CR1 gene is functionally deleted, as well as heterozygous CX3CR1(+/-) and WT controls. We report that the CX3CR1-deficient mice displayed better hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and olfactory recognition, along with increased number and soma size of hippocampal microglia, suggestive of mild activation status, but no changes in OB microglia. A similar increase in hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and microglia number was also induced by pharmacological inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling, using chronic (2weeks) i.c.v. administration of CX3CR1 blocking antibody. In control mice, EE improved hippocampal-dependent memory and neurogenesis, and increased hippocampal microglia number and soma size, whereas odor enrichment (OE) improved olfactory recognition and OB neurogenesis without changing OB microglia status. In CX3CR1-deficient mice, EE and OE did not produce any further improvement in memory functioning or neurogenesis and had no effect on microglial status. These results support the notion that in the hippocampus microglia and their interactions with neurons via the CX3CR1 play an important role in memory functioning and neurogenesis, whereas in the OB microglia do not seem to be involved in these processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

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    Siham eRaboune

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide, and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: 1 Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, 2 Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and 3 N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation.

  12. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboune, Siham; Stuart, Jordyn M.; Leishman, Emma; Takacs, Sara M.; Rhodes, Brandon; Basnet, Arjun; Jameyfield, Evan; McHugh, Douglas; Widlanski, Theodore; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide), and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: (1) Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, (2) Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and (3) N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting) TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation. PMID:25136293

  13. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

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    Joanna Ślusarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of α-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

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    Yeon-Hui Jeong

    Full Text Available Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory e