WorldWideScience

Sample records for c1 lateral mass

  1. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Muncrief, T;

    2000-01-01

    gel and their contents were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) or nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after in-gel digestion with trypsin. A database search identified the proteins as the C1 and C2 heterogeneous nuclear...

  2. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the h_c(1P1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P

    2008-01-01

    A precision measurement of the mass of the h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) events produced in e+e- annihilation at CESR. The reaction used was psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c, pi0 -> gamma gamma, h_c -> gamma eta_c, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which eta_c decays are reconstructed in fifteen hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(h_c)=3525.28+-0.19 (stat)+-0.12(syst) MeV, and B(psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c)xB(h_c -> gamma eta_c)= (4.19+-0.32+-0.45)x10^-4. Using the 3PJ centroid mass, Delta M_hf(1P)= - M(h_c) = +0.02+-0.19+-0.13 MeV.

  3. Effect of blocking mass on characteristics of beam lateral vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral vibration equation is established by setting up two separate co-coordinate systems of the mass-beam system, and the non-dimensional coefficients implying the position and mass radio of the mass in the system are presented in the paper. The effect on the vibration frequencies of changing the position and the mass radio in the system is numerically discussed, and the modes of the system with different mass radio and position are considered. The result shows that the frequencies decrease as increasing the mass radio, but the frequencies fluctuate with position changing, and there exists some positions that the frequencies do not vary after the mass radio increases except the first frequency, also that the effects on the vibration characteristic as increasing the mass radio can be decreased by modulating the position of the mass. (authors)

  4. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F;

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  5. Decompressive cervical laminectomy and lateral mass screw-rod arthrodesis. Surgical analysis and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidat Mouness H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the outcome and complications of decompressive cervical Laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in 110 cases treated for variable cervical spine pathologies that included; degenerative disease, trauma, neoplasms, metabolic-inflammatory disorders and congenital anomalies. Methods A retrospective review of total 785 lateral mass screws were placed in patients ages 16-68 years (40 females and 70 males. All cases were performed with a polyaxial screw-rod construct and screws were placed by using Anderson-Sekhon trajectory. Most patients had 12-14-mm length and 3.5 mm diameter screws placed for subaxial and 28-30 for C1 lateral mass. Screw location was assessed by post operative plain x-ray and computed tomography can (CT, besides that; the facet joint, nerve root foramen and foramen transversarium violation were also appraised. Results No patients experienced neural or vascular injury as a result of screw position. Only one patient needed screw repositioning. Six patients experienced superficial wound infection. Fifteen patients had pain around the shoulder of C5 distribution that subsided over the time. No patients developed screw pullouts or symptomatic adjacent segment disease within the period of follow up. Conclusion decompressive cervical spine laminectomy and Lateral mass screw stabilization is a technique that can be used for a variety of cervical spine pathologies with safety and efficiency.

  6. Lateral Mass Fixation in Subaxial Cervical Spine: Anatomic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-elw

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical...

  7. Percutaneous Cervical Vertebroplasty in a MultifunctionalImage-Guided Therapy Suite: Hybrid Lateral Approach to C1 andC4 Under CT and Fluoroscopic Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 76-year-old patient suffering from two painful osteolytic metastases in C1 and C4 underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty by a hybrid technique in a multi-functional image-guided therapy suite (MIGTS). Two trocars were first placed into the respective bodies of C1 and C4 under fluoroscopic computed tomography guidance using a lateral approach. Thereafter, the patient was transferred on a moving table to the digital subtraction angiography unit in the same room for implant injection. Good pain relief was achieved by this minimally invasive procedure without complications. A hybrid approach for vertebroplasty in a MIGTS appears to be safe and feasible and might be indicated in selected cases for difficult accessible lesions

  8. Myelography in achondroplasia: value of a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suss, R.A.; Udvarhelyi, G.B.; Wang, H.; Kumar, A.J.; Zinreich, S.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.

    1983-10-01

    Because of technical difficulties and diagnostic limitations encountered with other myelographic techniques in patients with achondroplasia, the authors employed a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium in 18 achondroplastic patients with spinal compression (21 procedures). This technique proved most appropriate for identifying the upper limit of degenerative osteophytes causing exacerbation of congenital spinal stenosis, which is crucial in planning decompressive surgery. A potentially important additional finding was the presence of degenerative lower cervical spine disease in the majority of patients. There were no serious complications. The authors recommend this technique as safe and effective in achondroplastic patients with severe congenital spinal stenosis.

  9. Myelography in achondroplasia: value of a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of technical difficulties and diagnostic limitations encountered with other myelographic techniques in patients with achondroplasia, the authors employed a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium in 18 achondroplastic patients with spinal compression (21 procedures). This technique proved most appropriate for identifying the upper limit of degenerative osteophytes causing exacerbation of congenital spinal stenosis, which is crucial in planning decompressive surgery. A potentially important additional finding was the presence of degenerative lower cervical spine disease in the majority of patients. There were no serious complications. The authors recommend this technique as safe and effective in achondroplastic patients with severe congenital spinal stenosis

  10. Mass sensitivity in the radio lateral distribution function

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Finger, M; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Łuczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmid, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is one of the main tasks in the cosmic rays field. Here we are exploring the composition signature in the coherent electromagnetic emission from extensive air showers, detected in the MHz frequency range. One of the experiments that successfully detects radio events in the frequency band of 40-80 MHz is the LOPES experiment at KIT. It is a digital interferometric antenna array and has the important advantage of taking data in coincidence with the particle detector array KASCADE-Grande. A possible method to look at the composition signature in the radio data, predicted by simulations, concerns the radio lateral distribution function, since its slope is strongly correlated with Xmax. Recent comparison between REAS3 simulations and LOPES data showed a significantly improved agreement in the lateral distribution function and for this reason an analysis on a possible LOPES mass signature through the slope method is promising. Trying to reproduce a rea...

  11. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  12. LASER MICROPROBE MASS ANALYSIS DETECTION LIMITS AND LATERAL RESOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, P.; Wurster, R.; Seiler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Detection limits of the elements Li, Na, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb obtained by lasermicroprobe massanalysis (LAMMAR 500, Leybold-Heraeus) of organic particulate matter doped with salts are given. The difference between optical and analytical spatial resolution of the lasermicroprobe is discussed. Hints are given that lateral effects may influence the microanalytical results.

  13. Decompressive cervical laminectomy and lateral mass screw-rod arthrodesis. Surgical analysis and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Obaidat Mouness H; Dabbas Waleed F; Qudsieh Tareq M; Obeidat Moutasem M; Audat Ziad A; Al Barbarawi Moh'd M; Malkawi Anas A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluates the outcome and complications of decompressive cervical Laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in 110 cases treated for variable cervical spine pathologies that included; degenerative disease, trauma, neoplasms, metabolic-inflammatory disorders and congenital anomalies. Methods A retrospective review of total 785 lateral mass screws were placed in patients ages 16-68 years (40 females and 70 males). All cases were performed with a polyaxial screw-...

  14. Radiological assessment of cervical lateral mass screw angulations in Asian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapan Sureisen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various lateral mass screw fixation methods have been described in the literature with various levels of safety in relation to the anterior neurovascular structures. This study was designed to radiologically determine the minimum lateral angulations of the screw to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canalusing three of the most common techniques: Roy-Camille, An, and Magerl. Materials and Methods: Sixty normal cervical CT scans were reviewed. A minimum lateral angulation of a 3.5 mm lateral mass screw which was required to avoid penetration of the vertebral artery canal at each level of vertebra were measured. Results: The mean lateral angulations of the lateral mass screws (with 95% confidence interval to avoid vertebral artery canal penetration, in relation to the starting point at the midpoint (Roy-Camille, 1 mm medial (An, and 2 mm medial (Magerl to the midpoint of lateral mass were 6.8° (range, 6.3-7.4°, 10.3° (range, 9.8-10.8°, and 14.1° (range, 13.6-14.6° at C3 vertebrae; 6.8° (range, 6.2-7.5°, 10.7° (range, 10.0-11.5°, and 14.1° (range, 13.4-14.8° at C4 vertebrae; 6.6° (range, 6.0-7.2°, 10.1° (range, 9.3-10.8°, and 13.5° (range, 12.8-14.3° at C5 vertebrae and 7.6° (range, 6.9-8.3°, 10.9° (range, 10.3-11.6°, and 14.3° (range, 13.7-15.0° at C6 vertebrae. The recommended lateral angulations for Roy-Camille, Magerl, and An are 10°, 25°,and 30°, respectively. Statistically, there is a higher risk of vertebral foramen violation with the Roy-Camille technique at C3, C4 and C6 levels, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Magerl and An techniques have a wide margin of safety. Caution should be practised with Roy-Camille′s technique at C3, C4, and C6 levels to avoid vertebral vessels injury in Asian population.

  15. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, I; Balmaceda, L; Dohmen, I

    2016-01-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the $Solar$-$Terrestrial$ $Relations$ $Observatory$ (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the $Solar$ $and$ $Heliospheric$ $Observatory$ (SOHO) and the $Solar$ $Dynamics$ $Observatory$ (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent ($L$) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective ($D$) presents this behavior only from the low corona to $\\approx\\,$5 $R_...

  16. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  17. Series solutions of boundary-layer flows in porous media with lateral mass flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Kechil, Seripah [Universiti Tekonologi MARA, Department of Mathematics, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Ishak [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, School of Mathematical Sciences, UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-08-15

    Approximate analytical solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the modified Adomian decomposition method and Pade technique. Several values of the wall temperature exponent for illustrating the effects of suction/injection parameter on the flow and heat transfer are considered. This study also includes the influence of the exponent on an impermeable surface. The results obtained are comparable to the exact analytical solutions and elucidate reliability and efficiency of the technique. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of lateral and torsional vibration characteristics of beams and shafts with end located rotational masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    Partial differential equations are derived for free lateral and torsional vibration of a uniform free-free beam with a rotational mass attached to each extremity. For appropriate boundary conditions, nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained using a symbolic manipulation computer program, the solutions of which enable the computation of the neutral frequencies and mode-shapes. The mode-shapes are linear combinations of trigonometric and hyperbolic sine and cosine functions. A computer program is written for the numerical solution of the algebraic equations mentioned above, which can compute the natural frequencies, mode-shapes, and node points for any given set of parameters, for any given number of modes.

  19. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-07-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent (L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective (D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.

  20. First Simultaneous Views of the Axial and Lateral Perspectives of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, I.; Cremades, H.; Balmaceda, L.; Dohmen, I.

    2016-08-01

    The different appearances exhibited by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are believed to be in part the result of different orientations of their main axis of symmetry, consistent with a flux-rope configuration. There are observational reports of CMEs seen along their main axis (axial perspective) and perpendicular to it (lateral perspective), but no simultaneous observations of both perspectives from the same CME have been reported to date. The stereoscopic views of the telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft, in combination with the views from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), allow us to study the axial and lateral perspectives of a CME simultaneously for the first time. In addition, this study shows that the lateral angular extent ( L) increases linearly with time, while the angular extent of the axial perspective ( D) presents this behavior only from the low corona to {≈} 5 R_{⊙}, where it slows down. The ratio L/D ≈ 1.6 obtained here as the average over several points in time is consistent with measurements of L and D previously performed on events exhibiting only one of the perspectives from the single vantage point provided by SOHO.

  1. Quantitative Anatomy of C7 Vertebra in Southern Chinese for Insertion of Lateral Mass Screws and Pedicle Screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Hin; Wong, Kam Kwong; Wong, Wing Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To analyze the quantitative anatomy of C7 vertebra for insertion of lateral mass screws and pedicle screws in Southern Chinese patients. Overview of Literature C7 lateral mass is smaller when compared to other subaxial cervical levels, which limits the length of lateral mass screws that can be used. Some studies have suggested pedicle screws for better fixation. But, this option is limited by the narrow pedicle width. Methods We have obtained computed tomography (CT) cervical spine data in 0.625 mm slices from our radiology department. The patients were adults. CTs were from May to August, 2015. The lateral mass screw length was measured using Margerl's technique and pedicle width and pedicle screw trajectory were determined in three-dimensional reformated images. Results CT scans of cervical spines of 94 patients were obtained and 188 lateral masses and pedicles of C7 vertebrae were measured. The mean lateral mass screw length was 13.2 mm (standard deviation [SD] 1.6 mm), mean outer pedicle width was 5.9 mm (SD 1.0 mm) and mean pedicle screw trajectory was 29.4 degrees (SD 3.6 degrees). Most (91.0%) of the pedicles had an outer diameter ≥4.5 mm. Conclusions The mean lateral mass screw length was longer when compared with other similar studies, while the mean outer pedicle width was narrower. Nearly 10% of the pedicles were unable to accommodate 3.5 mm screws. These findings favor the use of lateral mass screws to provide a safe and stable fixation for C7 vertebrae in Southern Chinese patients, while the final choice of fixation method should only be confirmed after careful preoperative planning with CT scan. PMID:27559451

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions. PMID

  3. Mass spectrometric analysis of accumulated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametani, Fuyuki; Obi, Tomokazu; Shishido, Takeo; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko; Yoshida, Mari; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is the major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions linked to TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). Abnormal phosphorylation, truncation and cytoplasmic mis-localization are known to be the characteristics for the aggregated forms of TDP-43, and gain of toxic abnormal TDP-43 or loss of function of physiological TDP-43 have been suggested as the cause of neurodegeneration. However, most of the post-translational modifications or truncation sites in the abnormal TDP-43 in brains of patients remain to be identified by protein chemical analysis. In this study, we carried out a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Sarkosyl-insoluble pathological TDP-43 from brains of ALS patients and identified several novel phosphorylation sites, deamidation sites, and cleavage sites. Almost all modifications were localized in the Gly-rich C-terminal half. Most of the cleavage sites identified in this study are novel and are located in N-terminal half, suggesting that these sites may be more accessible to proteolytic enzymes. The data obtained in this study provide a foundation for the molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 aggregation and ALS pathogenesis. PMID:26980269

  4. Posterior cervical arthrodesis and stabilization: an early report using a novel lateral mass screw and rod technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan; Kellogg; Chesnut

    1999-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: Posterior cervical arthrodesis and stabilization with lateral mass plates is a biomechanically sound construct in multiple planes of motion. It is reproducible and especially useful when the posterior elements are missing or fractured. Unfortunately, it is difficult to use in patients with severe degenerative spondylosis because the plate is malleable only in the sagittal plane and the screw positions are dictated by the plate's entry holes. METHODS: A novel system of lateral mass screws that can be positioned before placement of a lateral construct was used in nine patients. Their outcomes as well as the technical applications of this system were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 52 screws were placed in nine patients who underwent posterior cervical arthrodesis with the Cervifix system (Synthes USA, Paoli, PA). Diagnoses included trauma in four patients, degenerative spondylosis in three, and tumor in two. Rods were molded individually according to the patient's anatomy. Compression, distraction, and lateral rotation, if indicated, were performed. Follow-up averaged 36 weeks. Lateral and anteroposterior radiographs, obtained at progressive intervals, revealed excellent fixation and screw purchase without pull-out. There were no cases of spinal cord, nerve root, or vertebral artery injury. CONCLUSION: The Cervifix system accommodates variation in anatomic size and spacing of the lateral masses, potentiating precise screw placement. The rods can be molded in multiple planes, and selective application of compressive, distractive, or lateral rotatory forces is allowed. The system is very straightforward and simple to use, and we have had good success without pseudarthrosis or complications from screw placement in our series. PMID:10371626

  5. Exercise at different ages and appendicular lean mass and strength in later life: results from the Berlin Aging Study II

    OpenAIRE

    Eibich, P.; Buchmann, N.; Kroh, M.; Wagner, GG; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Demuth, I.; Norman, K

    2016-01-01

    Excessive loss of muscle mass in advanced age is a major risk factor for decreased physical ability and falls. Physical activity and exercise training are typically recommended to maintain muscle mass and prevent weakness. How exercise in different stages of life relates to muscle mass, grip strength, and risk for weakness in later life is not well understood.Baseline data on 891 participants at least 60 years old from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) were analyzed. Linear and logistic reg...

  6. Effect of Presymptomatic Body Mass Index and Consumption of Fat and Alcohol on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.H.B.; Seelen, M.; Doormaal, van P.T.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Because dietary intakemay influence pathophysiologic mechanisms in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the association between premorbid dietary intake and the risk of sporadic ALS will provide insight into which mechanisms are possibly involved in ALS pathophogenesis. OBJECTIVE

  7. Alternative technique of cervical spinal stabilization employing lateral mass plate and screw and intra-articular spacer fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The author discusses an alternative technique of segmental cervical spinal fixation. Material and Methods: The subtleties of the technique are discussed on the basis of experience with 3 cases with a follow-up of between 30 and 36 months. Technique: The technique involves debridement of facetal articular cartilage, distraction of facets, jamming of ′Goel spacer′ into the articular cavity and fortification of the fixation by lateral mass plate and screw fixation. The ′double-insurance′ me...

  8. Uniform lateral mass flux effect on natural convection of non-Newtonian fluids over a cone in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih, K.A. [Air Force Aeronautical and Technical School, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of General Course

    1998-10-01

    Convective heat transfer in a porous medium has a number of thermal engineering applications such as ceramic processing, nuclear reactor cooling system, crude oil drilling, chemical reactor design, ground water pollution and filtration processes. In this paper, the authors have investigated a boundary layer analysis for uniform lateral mass flux effect on natural convection of non-Newtonian power-law fluids along an isothermal or isoflux vertical cone embedded in a porous medium. Numerical results for the dimensionless temperature profiles as well as the local Nusselt number are presented for the mass flux parameter, viscosity index n and geometry shape parameter {lambda}. The local surface heat transfer increases for the case withdrawal of fluid, the increase of the value of {lambda}. The local Nusselt number is found to be significantly affected by the surface mass flux than the viscosity index.

  9. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium structure and mass of filamentary isothermal cloud threaded by lateral magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschel observations have recently revealed that interstellar molecular clouds consist of many filaments. Polarization observations in optical and infrared wavelengths indicate that the magnetic field often runs perpendicular to the filament. In this article, we study the magnetohydrostatic configuration of isothermal gas in which the thermal pressure and the Lorentz force are balanced against the self-gravity, and the magnetic field is globally perpendicular to the axis of the filament. The model is controlled by three parameters: center-to-surface density ratio (ρ c/ρ s), plasma β of surrounding interstellar gas (β0), and the radius of the hypothetical parent cloud normalized by the scale-height (R0′), although there remains freedom in how the mass is distributed against the magnetic flux (mass loading). In the case where R0′ is small enough, the magnetic field plays a role in confining the gas. However, the magnetic field generally has the effect of supporting the cloud. There is a maximum line-mass (mass per unit length) above which the cloud is not supported against gravity. Compared with the maximum line-mass of a nonmagnetized cloud (2cs2/G, where cs and G represent, respectively, the isothermal sound speed and the gravitational constant), that of the magnetized filament is larger than the nonmagnetized one. The maximum line-mass is numerically obtained as λmax≃0.24Φcl/G1/2+1.66cs2/G, where Φcl represents one half of the magnetic flux threading the filament per unit length. The maximum mass of the filamentary cloud is shown to be significantly affected by the magnetic field when the magnetic flux per unit length exceeds Φcl ≳ 3 pc μG (cs /190 m s–1)2.

  10. Body Mass Index, Modulated by Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Predicts ACL Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Melanie L.; Krieger, Daniel Imaizumi; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention strategies to prevent ACL injury rely on increasing knowledge of risk factors. While several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for ACL rupture have been identified, the interaction between them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMI and several knee geometries as potential risk factors for ACL injury. We hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of an increased posterior tibial slope or middle cartilage slope would increase risk of ACL injury. We also hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of a decreased posterior meniscal height or meniscal bone angle would result in an increased risk of ACL injury. Methods: Sagittal knee MRI files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 non-injured subjects were gathered from the institution’s archive. The PTS, MCS, PMH, and MBA were measured using the circle method and compared with BMI from the subject demographic. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistical regression. Figure 1 details measurements made for each knee geometry. Results: Univariate analysis of PTS showed increases in PTS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.043, OR =1.12). Univariate analysis of MCS showed increases of MCS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.037, OR = 1.12). Multivariate analysis of PTS and BMI centered around the mean (PTS*cBMI) showed increases of PTS in combination with increases in cBMI significantly increases the odds of ACL rupture (p value = .050, OR = 1.03). Table 1 shows predicted increases in ACL injury risk for combinations of increases in PTS and BMI. Conclusion: An increase in BMI will increase the risk of ACL tear when an increase in lateral posterior tibial slope is present. An increase in lateral posterior tibial slope or lateral middle cartilage slope increases the risk of an ACL tear.

  11. Original Experimental equipment for Slow Processes of Lateral Pressure in Granular Masses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Bryscejn, Jan

    Olomouc : Faculty of Science of Palacký University, Olomouc, 2010 - (Šmíd, P.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.), s. 177-184 ISBN 978-80-244-2533-7. - (Thompson Reuters. Web of Science). [IC on Experimental stress analysis /48./. Velké Losiny (CZ), 31.05.2010-03.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : experimental equipment * lateral / earth pressure * slow processes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Forgive Me Now, Fire Me Later: Mass Communication Students' Ethics Gap Concerning School and Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mike; Groshek, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Survey data on mass communication students' perceptions of plagiarism and fabrication indicate an ethics gap in which students are more concerned about ethical breaches in journalism than in academics. Further analyses found that the ethics gap increases among students near graduation who had higher levels of concern and suggested harsher…

  13. Evidence for e+e− →γχc1,2 at center-of-mass energies from 4.009 to 4.360 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data samples collected at center-of-mass energies of √s=4.009, 4.230, 4.260, and 4.360 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider, we perform a search for the process e+e− → γχcJ (J=0, 1, 2) and find evidence for e+e− → γχc1 and e+e− → γχc2 with statistical significances of 3.0σ and 3.4σ, respectively. The Born cross sections σB(e+e− → γχcJ), as well as their upper limits at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) are determined at each center-of-mass energy

  14. Magnetohydrostatic Equilibrium Structure and Mass of Filamentary Isothermal Cloud Threaded by Lateral Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tomisaka, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Herschel observation has recently revealed that interstellar molecular clouds consist of many filaments. Polarization observations in optical and infrared wavelengths indicate that the magnetic field often runs perpendicular to the filament. In this paper, the magnetohydrostatic configuration of isothermal gas is studied, in which the thermal pressure and the Lorentz force are balanced against the self-gravity and the magnetic field is globally perpendicular to the axis of the filament. The model is controlled by three parameters: center-to-surface density ratio (\\rho_c/\\rho_s), plasma \\beta of surrounding interstellar gas (\\beta_0) and the radius of the hypothetical parent cloud normalized by the scale-height (R'_0), although there remains a freedom how the mass is distributed against the magnetic flux (mass loading). In the case that R'_0 is small enough, the magnetic field plays a role in confining the gas. However, the magnetic field generally has an effect in supporting the cloud. There is a maximum line...

  15. Alternative technique of cervical spinal stabilization employing lateral mass plate and screw and intra-articular spacer fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author discusses an alternative technique of segmental cervical spinal fixation. Material and Methods: The subtleties of the technique are discussed on the basis of experience with 3 cases with a follow-up of between 30 and 36 months. Technique: The technique involves debridement of facetal articular cartilage, distraction of facets, jamming of ′Goel spacer′ into the articular cavity and fortification of the fixation by lateral mass plate and screw fixation. The ′double-insurance′ method of fixation is safe for vertebral artery, nerve roots and spinal neural structures and the fixation is strong. Conclusions: The discussed technique is safe and provides a strong fixation and a ground for ultimate arthrodesis.

  16. A case report of rod migration into cerebellum through foramen magnum after lateral mass fixation of cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Belsare; Sharma, Ayush; Prashant, Gedam; Parekh, Aseem

    2016-04-01

    We report on a rare case of connecting rod migration into the posterior cranial fossa after posterior cervical decompression and lateral mass screw fixation. A 55-year-old male patient who was operated on for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament complained of sudden-onset giddiness followed by loss of consciousness one and half year following surgery. CT scan showed migration of left-sided connecting rod into the right cerebellum through foramen magnum. The patient was operated on for rod removal but he sustained a cardiorespiratory arrest and died on the eighth postoperative day. Autopsy confirmed damage to the right cerebellum due to rod migration. The clinician should be aware that superior rod migration is a rare but potentially disastrous complication. Regular follow-up with radiological evaluation should be done to look for implant loosening, migration, and non-union even in asymptomatic patients. The implant should be subsequently removed after it has served its purpose. PMID:26748502

  17. Experiment E5/0,1 with lateral passive pressure during rotation about the toe - granular mass deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Bryscejn, Jan

    Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 300-305 ISBN 978-80-87012-47-5. ISSN 1805-8256. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. Svratka (CZ), 13.05.2013-16.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/02/0956; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/0557; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1617; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2071302 Grant ostatní: GAČR(CZ) GA103/05/2130; GAČR(CZ) GAP105/11/1160 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : lateral earth pressure * pressure at rest * passive pressure * physical experiments * ideally non-cohesive sand * mass deformation * slip surface * bi-component pressure sensor Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  18. Assessment of anatomic parameters on lateral cephalogram and body mass index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Mokhtari Amir Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious and life threatening disorder caused by various anatomic and physio-pathologic factors. This study was conducted to clarify some anatomic etiologic factors of OSAS and the role of body mass index (BMI in expression of its symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 127 patients were included. Sixty patients had OSAS symptoms and 67 patients were considered as controls. Cephalometric parameters from lateral skull view of CT scan and BMI of patients were statistically analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: The position of hyoid bone was significantly lower and soft palate was significantly larger in patients with OSAS symptoms than control group. Moreover, mean BMI measurement was significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in addition to apparent role of BMI in OSAS symptoms, increased soft tissue compartment of pharyngeal area and position of hyoid bone are significant etiologic factors in this syndrome.    

  19. Evidence for e+e- →γχc1,2 at center-of-mass energies from 4.009 to 4.360 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; R. Baldini, Ferroli; Ban, Y.; W. Bennett, D.; V. Bennett, J.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; A. Briere, R.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; A. Cetin, S.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; F. De, Mori; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; P. Guo, Y.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; A. Harris, F.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; C. Ke, B.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; B. Kolcu, O.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; S. Lange, J.; M., Lara; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; X. Lin(Lin, D.; Liu, B. J.; L. Liu, C.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhiqing, Liu; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; E. Maas, F.; Maggiora, M.; A. Malik, Q.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; G. Messchendorp, J.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; E. Mitchell, R.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; C. Morales, Morales; Moriya, K.; Yu. Muchnoi, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; B. Nikolaev, I.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; H. Rashid, K.; F. Redmer, C.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; R. Shepherd, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; H. Thorndike, E.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; S. Varner, G.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; D. Wang(Yadi, Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; A. Zafar, A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Using data samples collected at center-of-mass energies of √s = 4.009, 4.230, 4.260, and 4.360 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider, we perform a search for the process e+e- → γχcJ (J=0, 1, 2) and find evidence for e+e- → γχc1 and e+e- → γχc2 with statistical significances of 3.0σ and 3.4σ, respectively. The Born cross sections σB(e+e- → γχcJ), as well as their upper limits at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) are determined at each center-of-mass energy. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079008, 11179007, U1232201, U1332201, U1232107), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (10935007, 11121092, 11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology; German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0)

  20. Lateral oscillations of the center of mass of bipeds as they walk. Inverted pendulum model with two degrees of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo H Goldsztein

    2015-01-01

    The use of inverted pendulum models to study the bio-mechanics of biped walkers is a common practice. In its simplest form, the inverted pendulum consists of a point mass, which models the center of mass of the biped, attached to two straight mass-less legs. Most works using the simplest inverted pendulum model constrain the mass and the legs to the sagittal plane (the plane that contains the direction perpendicular to the ground and the direction toward the biped is walking). In this article...

  1. Unilateral extended suboccipital approach for a C1 dumbbell schwanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan R.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniovertebral junction tumors represent a complex pathology carrying a high risk of injuring the vertebral artery and the lower cranial nerves. Dumbbell C1- C2 schannomas are very rare tumors in this location. We present a case of a 66 years old male accepted for left laterocervical localized pain, headache and vertigo, with a large C1 dumbbell schwannoma extending in lateral over the C1 arch and displacing the C3 segment of the vertebral artery superiorly and anteriorly. Complete removal of the tumor was achieved using a far lateral approach. The approach is discussed with focus on the vertebral artery anatomy as the approach should give enough space to gain control of the artery without creating instability. Safe removal of C1 nerve root schwanomas can be achieved even if they compress and displace the vertebral artery by entering a fibrous tissue plane between the tumor and the vertebral artery.

  2. Lateral oscillations of the center of mass of bipeds as they walk. Inverted pendulum model with two degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Goldsztein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    The use of inverted pendulum models to study the bio-mechanics of biped walkers is a common practice. In its simplest form, the inverted pendulum consists of a point mass, which models the center of mass of the biped, attached to two straight mass-less legs. Most works using the simplest inverted pendulum model constrain the mass and the legs to the sagittal plane (the plane that contains the direction perpendicular to the ground and the direction toward the biped is walking). In this article, we remove this constrain and use this unconstrained inverted pendulum model to study the oscillations the mass experiences in the direction perpendicular to the sagittal plane as the biped walks. While small, these oscillations are unavoidable and of importance in the understanding of balance and stability of walkers, as well as walkers induced oscillations in pedestrian bridges.

  3. Lateral oscillations of the center of mass of bipeds as they walk. Inverted pendulum model with two degrees of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo H Goldsztein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of inverted pendulum models to study the bio-mechanics of biped walkers is a common practice. In its simplest form, the inverted pendulum consists of a point mass, which models the center of mass of the biped, attached to two straight mass-less legs. Most works using the simplest inverted pendulum model constrain the mass and the legs to the sagittal plane (the plane that contains the direction perpendicular to the ground and the direction toward the biped is walking. In this article, we remove this constrain and use this unconstrained inverted pendulum model to study the oscillations the mass experiences in the direction perpendicular to the sagittal plane as the biped walks. While small, these oscillations are unavoidable and of importance in the understanding of balance and stability of walkers, as well as walkers induced oscillations in pedestrian bridges.

  4. Fluid Collection in the Right Lateral Portion of the Superior Aortic Recess Mimicking a Right Mediastinal Mass: Assessment with Chest Posterior Anterior and MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shn, Dong Rock; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ahn, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Choi, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We observed patients in whom the fluid collection in the right lateral portion of the superior aortic recess on computed tomography (CT) scans mimicked a right anterior mediastinal mass on chest PA radiographs. The purpose of this study was to assess chest PA and CT features of these patients. All chest PA radiographs and CT scans in 9 patients were reviewed by two radiologists on a consensus basis; for the presence of pleural effusion, pulmonary edema and heart size on chest PA radiographs. For the portion of the fluid collection in the superior aortic recess (SAR), a connection between the right lateral portion of the SAR (rSAR) and posterior portion of the SAR (pSAR) on CT scans, and the distance between the right lateral margin of the rSAR and the right lateral margin of the superior vena cava. Fluid collection in the rSAR on CT scans caused a right anterior mediastinal mass or a bulging contour on chest PA radiographs in all women patients. All patients showed cardiomegaly, five patients had pleural effusion, and two patients had mild pulmonary edema. Further, eight patients showed a connection between the rSAR and the pSAR. The characteristic features of these patients are the right anterior mediastinal mass-like opacity due to fluid collection in the rSAR, are bulging contour with a smooth margin and cardiomegaly regardless of pulmonary edema on the chest PA radiographs, and fluid connection between the rSAR and the pSAR on CT scans.

  5. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolić, Nikola; Creissen, Alain; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it has many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices that could be employed in studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied, and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  6. Utilizing a Robotic Sprayer for High Lateral and Mass Resolution MALDI FT-ICR MSI of Microbial Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderton, Christopher R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Creissen, Alain V.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-07

    The ability to visualize biochemical interactions between microbial communities using MALDI MSI has provided tremendous insights into a variety of biological fields. Matrix application using a sieve proved to be incredibly useful, but it had many limitations that include uneven matrix coverage and limitation in the types of matrices one could employ in their studies. Recently, there has been a concerted effort to improve matrix application for studying agar plated microbial cultures, many of which utilized automated matrix sprayers. Here, we describe the usefulness of using a robotic sprayer for matrix application. The robotic sprayer has two-dimensional control over where matrix is applied and a heated capillary that allows for rapid drying of the applied matrix. This method provided a significant increase in MALDI sensitivity over the sieve method, as demonstrated by FT-ICR MS analysis, facilitating the ability to gain higher lateral resolution MS images of Bacillus Subtilis than previously reported. This method also allowed for the use of different matrices to be applied to the culture surfaces.

  7. Parafuso de massa lateral do atlas para fixação da coluna cervical superior: resultados cirúrgicos Tornillos de masa lateral del atlas para la fijación de la columna cervical superior: resultados quirúrgicos Lateral mass screws of the atlas for upper cervical spine fixation: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    alcanzar la fusión y la estabilidad de la columna cervical, y con el conocimiento de la anatomía y de la técnica quirúrgica es posible obtenerse excelentes resultados.OBJECTIVE: To present the surgical results of a case series of upper cervical spine stabilization with the use of lateral mass screws of the atlas. METHODS: Retrospective review of the surgical results of patients submitted to upper cervical spine stabilization with the use of lateral mass screws of the atlas. RESULTS: Six patients were operated in the period between January 2009 to April 2010, four men and two women. There was no permanent morbidity or mortality in the presented series. The main cause of atlanto-axial instability was trauma and there was just one case of odontoid pathologic fracture from a prostate metastasis. Axis fixation was achieved with the use of three different screw techniques (pars, pedicle and laminar, with equal distribution among the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of lateral mass screws of the atlas is an important technique to achieve fusion and stability of the upper cervical spine and with the knowledge of the anatomy and of the surgical technique good results can be achieved.

  8. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants in Whole Cells and Culture Filtrates of Bacillus subtilis C-1 Isolated from Petroleum Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vater, Joachim; Kablitz, Bärbel; Wilde, Christopher; Franke, Peter; Mehta, Neena; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2002-01-01

    An innovative method was developed for rapid sensitive detection and efficient structural characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactants by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry by using whole microbial cells and crude culture filtrates as targets in combination with surface tension measurements. This was done for a bacterial strain that was isolated from petroleum sludge and efficiently produces biosurfactants. This organism was identified b...

  9. Thermophoretic hydromagnetic dissipative heat and mass transfer with lateral mass flux, heat source, Ohmic heating and thermal conductivity effects: Network simulation numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional mathematical model is presented for the laminar heat and mass transfer of an electrically-conducting, heat generating/absorbing fluid past a perforated horizontal surface in the presence of viscous and Joule (Ohmic) heating. The Talbot-Cheng-Scheffer-Willis formulation (1980) is used to introduce a thermophoretic coefficient into the concentration boundary layer equation. The governing partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential similarity equations, in a single independent variable, η. The resulting coupled, nonlinear equations are solved under appropriate transformed boundary conditions using the Network Simulation Method. Computations are performed for a wide range of the governing flow parameters, viz Prandtl number, thermophoretic coefficient (a function of Knudsen number), Eckert number (viscous heating effect), thermal conductivity parameter, heat absorption/generation parameter, wall transpiration parameter, Hartmann number and Schmidt number. The numerical details are discussed with relevant applications. Excellent correlation is achieved with earlier studies due to White (1974) and Chamkha and Issa (2000). The present problem finds applications in optical fiber fabrication, aerosol filter precipitators, particle deposition on hydronautical blades, semiconductor wafer design, thermo-electronics and nuclear hazards.

  10. LATERAL OFFSET OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE X-FLARE OF 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND ITS TWO PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two GOES sub-C-class precursor eruptions occurred within ∼10 hr prior to and from the same active region as the 2006 December 13 X4.3-class flare. Each eruption generated a coronal mass ejection (CME) with center laterally far offset (∼> 45°) from the co-produced bright flare. Explaining such CME-to-flare lateral offsets in terms of the standard model for solar eruptions has been controversial. Using Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data, and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data, we find or infer the following. (1) The first precursor was a 'magnetic-arch-blowout' event, where an initial standard-model eruption of the active region's core field blew out a lobe on one side of the active region's field. (2) The second precursor began similarly, but the core-field eruption stalled in the side-lobe field, with the side-lobe field erupting ∼1 hr later to make the CME either by finally being blown out or by destabilizing and undergoing a standard-model eruption. (3) The third eruption, the X-flare event, blew out side lobes on both sides of the active region and clearly displayed characteristics of the standard model. (4) The two precursors were offset due in part to the CME originating from a side-lobe coronal arcade that was offset from the active region's core. The main eruption (and to some extent probably the precursor eruptions) was offset primarily because it pushed against the field of the large sunspot as it escaped outward. (5) All three CMEs were plausibly produced by a suitable version of the standard model.

  11. A New Radio Frequency Plasma Oxygen Primary Ion Source on Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Improved Lateral Resolution and Detection of Electropositive Elements at Single Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Julien; Penen, Florent; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Frank, Julia; Hause, Gerd; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Gontier, Etienne; Horréard, François; Hillion, François; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2016-07-19

    An important application field of secondary ion mass spectrometry at the nanometer scale (NanoSIMS) is the detection of chemical elements and, in particular, metals at the subcellular level in biological samples. The detection of many trace metals requires an oxygen primary ion source to allow the generation of positive secondary ions with high yield in the NanoSIMS. The duoplasmatron oxygen source is commonly used in this ion microprobe but cannot achieve the same quality of images as the cesium primary ion source used to produce negative secondary ions (C(-), CN(-), S(-), P(-)) due to a larger primary ion beam size. In this paper, a new type of an oxygen ion source using a rf plasma is fitted and characterized on a NanoSIMS50L. The performances of this primary ion source in terms of current density and achievable lateral resolution have been characterized and compared to the conventional duoplasmatron and cesium sources. The new rf plasma oxygen source offered a net improvement in terms of primary beam current density compared to the commonly used duoplasmatron source, which resulted in higher ultimate lateral resolutions down to 37 nm and which provided a 5-45 times higher apparent sensitivity for electropositive elements. Other advantages include a better long-term stability and reduced maintenance. This new rf plasma oxygen primary ion source has been applied to the localization of essential macroelements and trace metals at basal levels in two biological models, cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27291826

  12. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C1 compounds, and new directions in C1 metabolism. (DT)

  13. C1q and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walport, M J; Davies, K A; Botto, M

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter we review the association between SLE and C1q. In the first part of the chapter we discuss the clinical associations of C1q deficiency, and tabulate the available information in the literature relating to C1q deficiency and autoimmune disease. Other clinical associations of C1q deficiency are then considered, and we mention briefly the association between other genetically determined complement deficiencies and lupus. In the review we explore the relationship between C1q consumption and lupus and we discuss the occurrence of low molecular weight (7S) C1q in lupus, which raises the possibility that increased C1q turnover in the disease may result in unbalanced chain synthesis of the molecule. Anti-C1q antibodies are also strongly associated with severe SLE affecting the kidney, and with hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis, and these associations are also examined. We address the question of how C1q deficiency may cause SLE, discussing the possibility that this may be due to abnormalities of immune complex processing, which have been well characterised in a umber of different human models. There is clear evidence that immune complex processing is abnormal in patients with hypocomplementaemia, and this is compatible with the hypothesis that ineffective immune complex clearance could cause tissue injury, and this may in turn stimulate an autoantibody response. We have also considered the possibility that C1q-C1q receptor interactions are critical in the regulation of apoptosis, and we explore the hypothesis that dysregulation of apoptosis could explain important features in the development of autoimmune disease associated with C1q deficiency. An abnormally high rate of apoptosis, or defective clearance of apoptotic cells, could promote the accumulation of abnormal cellular products that might drive an autoimmune response. Anti-C1q antibodies have been described in a number of murine models of lupus, and these are also briefly discussed. We focus

  14. Autoantibodies against complement C1q specifically target C1q bound on early apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Cornelia; Schaller, Monica; Perahud, Iryna; Osthoff, Michael; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role in SLE. Because anti-C1q are known to recognize a neoepitope on bound C1q, but not on fluid-phase C1q, the aim of this study was to clarify the origin of anti-C1q by determining the mechanism that renders C1q antigenic. We investigated anti-C1q from serum and purified total IgG of patients with SLE and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis as well as two monoclonal human anti-C1q Fab from a SLE patient generated by phage display. Binding characteristics, such as their ability to recognize C1q bound on different classes of Igs, on immune complexes, and on cells undergoing apoptosis, were analyzed. Interestingly, anti-C1q did not bind to C1q bound on Igs or immune complexes. Neither did we observe specific binding of anti-C1q to C1q bound on late apoptotic/necrotic cells when compared with binding in the absence of C1q. However, as shown by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy, anti-C1q specifically targeted C1q bound on early apoptotic cells. Anti-C1q were found to specifically target C1q bound on cells undergoing apoptosis. Our observations suggest that early apoptotic cells are a major target of the autoimmune response in SLE and provide a direct link between human SLE, apoptosis, and C1q. PMID:19648280

  15. Multi-platform mass spectrometry analysis of the CSF and plasma metabolomes of rigorously matched amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuolikainen, Anna; Jonsson, Pär; Ahnlund, Maria; Antti, Henrik; Marklund, Stefan L; Moritz, Thomas; Forsgren, Lars; Andersen, Peter M; Trupp, Miles

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are protein-aggregation diseases that lack clear molecular etiologies. Biomarkers could aid in diagnosis, prognosis, planning of care, drug target identification and stratification of patients into clinical trials. We sought to characterize shared and unique metabolite perturbations between ALS and PD and matched controls selected from patients with other diagnoses, including differential diagnoses to ALS or PD that visited our clinic for a lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from rigorously age-, sex- and sampling-date matched patients were analyzed on multiple platforms using gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). We applied constrained randomization of run orders and orthogonal partial least squares projection to latent structure-effect projections (OPLS-EP) to capitalize upon the study design. The combined platforms identified 144 CSF and 196 plasma metabolites with diverse molecular properties. Creatine was found to be increased and creatinine decreased in CSF of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Glucose was increased in CSF of ALS patients and α-hydroxybutyrate was increased in CSF and plasma of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Leucine, isoleucine and ketoleucine were increased in CSF of both ALS and PD. Together, these studies, in conjunction with earlier studies, suggest alterations in energy utilization pathways and have identified and further validated perturbed metabolites to be used in panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ALS and PD. PMID:26883206

  16. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatti, C

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using blender-horseshoes, we prove that homoclinic classes of $C^1$-generic diffeomorphisms containing saddles with different indices and that do not admit dominated splittings (of appropriate dimensions) display $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies.

  17. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, C.; Diaz, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using bl...

  18. Anti-C1q autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this condition. They occur, however, more frequently in (proliferative) lupus nephritis, particularly during active disease. Furthermore, levels of anti-C1q rise, in many cases, prior to a relapse of lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role for the autoantibodies. Indeed, experimental studies strongly support a pathogenic role for anti-C1q in immune complex-mediated renal disease. In addition, anti-C1q may interfere with the clearance of apoptotic cells, so influencing induction and expression of autoimmunity. PMID:18606253

  19. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-10-25

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  20. On Orientifolds of c=1 Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, T P T; Riccioni, F; Schellekens, Adrian Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  1. Anti-C1q autoantibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Autoantibodies to complement components are associated with various diseases. Anti-C1q antibodies are present in all patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, but also, with varying prevalence, in other conditions. In SLE, these antibodies are neither sensitive nor specific for this co

  2. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  3. Suppression strategy for parametrically excited lateral vibration of mass-loaded string%载重绳索参数激励横向振动的减振策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长友; 朱昌明; 林忠钦

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a simple way to suppress the parametrically excited lateral vibration of a mass-loaded string. Supposing that the mass at the lower end of the string is subjected to a vertical harmonic excitation and neglecting the higher order vibration modes, the equation of motion for the mass-loaded string can be represented by a Mathieus equation with cubic nonlinearity. According to the theory of the Mathieus equation, in the mass-loaded string system, when the vertical vibration frequency of the mass approaches twice the natural frequency of the string lateral vibration, once the vertical vibration amplitude of the mass exceeds a critical value, the parametric resonance will occur in the string. To avoid the parametric resonance, a vibration absorber, composed of a thin beam and two mass blocks attached at both sides of the beam symmetrically, is proposed to install with the mass to reduce its vertical vibration, and ultimately suppress the lateral vibration of the string. Such a suppression strategy is finally validated by experiments.%论述了一种抑制载重绳索参数激励横向振动的简便方法. 假设绳索底端的质量受到一个垂直简谐激励并忽略载重绳索高阶振型的影响, 载重绳索的运动方程可以用一个带有立方非线性项的Mathieu方程来描述. 根据Mathieu方程的有关理论, 在载重绳索系统中, 当索端质量垂直振动的频率接近绳索横向振动固有频率2倍时, 一旦索端质量垂直振动的幅度超过某个临界数值时, 绳索将产生参数共振. 为了避免这种现象, 建议在索端质量上加装一个减振器以削减索端质量的垂直振动, 进而抑制绳索的横向振动. 实验验证了该减振方案的有效性.

  4. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  5. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26231209

  6. Hereditary Angioedema due to C1 Inhibitor Deficiency: C1-INH Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cancian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare condition affecting about 1 in 50.000 individuals and caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH, which is involved in the control of complement, clotting, fibrinolytic and kinin pathways. HAE is characterized by plasma outflow from blood vessels, leading to fluid collecting (edema in the deep tissue layers of the face, larynx, abdomen, and extremities. Three different types of HAE have been identified: in type I the mutation leads to the lack of production of C1-INH, in type II the mutation leads to the production of dysfunctional C1-INH, while type III is extremely rare and still not fully understood. Therapeutic approaches for HAE include on-demand treatments to stop angioedema attacks and prophylactic treatment to prevent attacks both by pre-procedural (short-term and routine (long-term prophylaxis. Aim of the present review is to present an overview of C1-INH replacement therapy with the plasma-derived concentrate of C1-INH Berinert® (CSL Behring GmbH in the treatment of type I and II HAE.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i2.913

  7. Lifetime body mass index and later atherosclerosis risk in young adults: examining causal links using Mendelian randomization in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, Mika; Smith, George Davey; Nic J. Timpson; Debbie A. Lawlor; Batty, G. David; Kähönen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T

    2008-01-01

    Aims Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants related to environmentally modifiable risk factors in an attempt to improve causal inference from observational data. We examined the effect of lifetime body mass index (BMI) on adult carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and various atherosclerotic risk factors by using both Mendelian randomization and conventional analyses. Methods and results A total of 2230 individuals (1218 women), aged 3–18 at study induction, took part in clinical exam...

  8. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G.; Gillman, M.; Oken, E.; Martin, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observatio...

  9. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

  10. C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) autoantibodies in hereditary angioedema. Strong correlation with the severity of disease in C1-INH concentrate naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Lilian; Széplaki, Gábor; Visy, Beáta; Füst, George; Harmat, George; Miklós, Katalin; Németh, Julianna; Cervenak, László; Karádi, István; Farkas, Henriette

    2007-02-01

    The presence of autoantibodies to C1-inhibitor (C1-INH-Abs) is a hallmark of acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency. However, only scarce data are available on their prevalence in hereditary angioedema (HAE). In a prospective study performed between 2001 and 2004 in 95 patients with Type I or II HAE, serum samples were taken one to three times a year and clinical status of the patients was registered. Serum samples were tested for total activity of the classical pathway, C1q, C3, C4 and C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) concentration and activity levels, as well as the presence of IgG, IgA and IgM type anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies (C1-INH-Ab). Fifty-four healthy age and gender matched persons served as control. Significant differences between the patients and controls in the occurrence of elevated (2S.D. higher than mean of control) C1-INH-Abs titers was found only in the case of IgM type C1-INH-Abs. Elevated (>4.22AU/ml) IgM C1-INH-Abs levels were found in 31 and 4% of the patients and controls, respectively (p<0.001). Surprisingly, high titer IgM C1-INH-Abs were present with equal frequency in the 41 HAE patients ever treated with C1-INH concentrate and in the 54 C1-INH treatment naïve patients. In the latter group, strong positive correlation between the levels of the IgM C1-INH-Abs and the most severe disease (score 1) (p=0.0021) and the yearly attack rate (p=0.0173) were obtained. In addition, the levels of the IgM C1-INH-Abs exhibited strong negative correlation to the C1-inhibitor concentration and functional activity, total classical complement pathway activity, and a positive correlation to total IgM concentration. Taken together, these data indicate that IgM type C1-INH-Abs are present with highly elevated frequency in HAE patients irrespectively of the previous treatment with C1-INH concentrate. Most probable production of these autoantibodies is the consequence of the activation of complement and other plasma enzyme systems during HAE attacks. Determination of IgM C1

  11. Interaction between complement subcomponent C1q and bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohair, A; Chesne, S; Wade, R H; Colomb, M G

    1989-02-01

    The heptose-less mutant of Escherichia coli, D31m4, bound complement subcomponent C1q and its collagen-like fragments (C1qCLF) with Ka values of 1.4 x 10(8) and 2.0 x 10(8) M-1 respectively. This binding was suppressed by chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF using diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). To investigate the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in this binding, biosynthetically labelled [14C]LPS were purified from E. coli D31m4 and incorporated into liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PC/PE/LPS, 2:2:1, by wt.]. Binding of C1q or its collagen-like fragments to the liposomes was estimated via a flotation test. These liposomes bound C1q and C1qCLF with Ka values of 8.0 x 10(7) and 2.0 x 10(7) M-1; this binding was totally inhibited after chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF by DEPC. Liposomes containing LPS purified from the wild-strain E. coli K-12 S also bound C1q and C1qCLF, whereas direct binding of C1q or C1qCLF to the bacteria was negligible. Diamines at concentrations which dissociate C1 into C1q and (C1r, C1s)2, strongly inhibited the interaction of C1q or C1qCLF with LPS. Removal of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid; KDO) from E. coli D31m4 LPS decreases the binding of C1qCLF to the bacteria by 65%. When this purified and modified LPS was incorporated into liposomes, the C1qCLF binding was completely abolished. These results show: (i) the essential role of the collagen-like moiety and probably its histidine residues in the interaction between C1q and the mutant D31m4; (ii) the contribution of LPS, particularly the anionic charges of KDO, to this interaction. PMID:2649081

  12. Shadowing and Inverse Shadowing for C1 Endomorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jun ZHU; Jin Lian ZHANG; Lian Fa HE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the shadowing and the inverse shadowing properties for C1 endomorphisms. We show that near a hyperbolic set a C1 endomorphism has the shadowing property, and a hyperbolic endomorphism has the inverse shadowing property with respect to a class of continuous methods. Moreover, each of these shadowing properties is also "uniform" with respect to C1 perturbation.

  13. Nursing care of occipital-cervical fusion patients with pedicle screws and lateral mass screws%经椎弓根螺钉加侧块螺钉内固定行枕颈融合的术后护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉慧

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经椎弓根螺钉加侧块螺钉内固定行枕颈融合术的术后护理要点.方法 回顾性总结3例经椎弓根螺钉加侧块螺钉内固定行枕颈融合术患者的临床资料及护理效果.结果 3例患者术后恢复良好,2例脊髓损伤患者术后感觉运动功能均有恢复,生活可以自理.结论 术后严密观察生命体征的变化和脊髓神经功能的变化,严格体位护理和呼吸道管理以及通过引导式教育训练等对于促进患者伤口愈合、预防术后并发症的发生起着重要的作用.%Objective To evaluate nursing care of occipital - cervical fusion patients with pedicle screws and lateral mass screws. Methods The clinical data and nursing effect of three patients who underwent occipital - cervical fusion with lateral mass screws during January 2009 to June 2010 were reviewed. Results Three patients recovered well after surgery, among which 2 cases of spinal cord injury had sensory- motor function recovery, and could take care of themselves.Conclusion After surgery, the close observation of vital signs and the changes in spinal cord function, strict posture and respiratory care management, and conductive education to patients for the wound healing promotion, prevention of postoperative complications are very important.

  14. Lateral orientation (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  15. Revisiting the mechanism of the autoactivation of the complement protease C1r in the C1 complex: structure of the active catalytic region of C1r.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, József; Harmat, Veronika; Palló, Anna; Barabás, Orsolya; Szilágyi, Katalin; Gráf, László; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Goto, Yuji; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter

    2008-03-01

    C1r is a modular serine protease which is the autoactivating component of the C1 complex of the classical pathway of the complement system. We have determined the first crystal structure of the entire active catalytic region of human C1r. This fragment contains the C-terminal serine protease (SP) domain and the preceding two complement control protein (CCP) modules. The activated CCP1-CCP2-SP fragment makes up a dimer in a head-to-tail fashion similarly to the previously characterized zymogen. The present structure shows an increased number of stabilizing interactions. Moreover, in the crystal lattice there is an enzyme-product relationship between the C1r molecules of neighboring dimers. This enzyme-product complex exhibits the crucial S1-P1 salt bridge between Asp631 and Arg446 residues, and intermolecular interaction between the CCP2 module and the SP domain. Based on these novel structural information we propose a new split-and-reassembly model for the autoactivation of the C1r. This model is consistent with experimental results that have not been explained adequately by previous models. It allows autoactivation of C1r without large-scale, directed movement of C1q arms. The model is concordant with the stability of the C1 complex during activation of the next complement components. PMID:17996945

  16. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information...... serologies. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis....

  17. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency. PMID:24565612

  18. Development of a lateral PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Karl; Kronberger, Hermann; Fafilek, Guenter [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Technology Vienna, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytic/EC 164, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Loibl, Helmut; Schlauf, Thomas [FOTEC Forschungs und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pallanits, Josef [HTP High Tech Plastics AG, A-7201 Neudoerfl (Austria); Gornik, Christian [Battenfeld Kunststoffmaschinen GmbH, Wiener Neustaedterstrasse 81, A-2542 Kottingbrunn (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Vienna, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Waehringerstr. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-06-15

    A novel lateral PEM fuel cell was developed. The anodes and cathodes are situated nearby each other on a polymer electrolyte membrane. The transport of the protons takes place in a lateral way in the membrane. All manufacturing steps of the lateral PEM fuel cell were designed to meet the requirements of mass production. The base plate being the central part was made by means of polymer micro injection moulding. (author)

  19. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis mu...

  20. Anti-C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojan, G; Petri, M

    2016-07-01

    C1q is the first component of the classical complement pathway. Both clinically validated in-house ELISA assays as well as commercial ELISA kits are used for detection of anti-C1q antibodies. Anti-C1q autoantibodies can be detected in a wide range of autoimmune diseases and are highly sensitive for hypocomplementemic uticarial vasculitis. In SLE, anti-C1q are strongly associated with proliferative lupus nephritis, and their absence carries a negative predictive value for development of lupus nephritis of close to 100%. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement has the strongest serological association with renal involvement. The anti-C1q titers correlate with global disease activity scores in patients with renal involvement, and higher titers seem to precede renal flares. After the successful treatment of a renal flare, anti-C1q has the tendency to decrease or even become undetectable. The main obstacle to the inclusion of anti-C1q in the classification criteria and clinical management of SLE is the lack of standardized laboratory assays. PMID:27252264

  1. 26 CFR 31.3402(c)-1 - Wage bracket withholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage bracket withholding. 31.3402(c)-1 Section... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(c)-1 Wage bracket withholding. (a) In general. (1) The employer may elect to use the wage bracket method provided in section 3402(c) instead of...

  2. Sexuality in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raquo Sexuality in Later Life Heath and Aging Sexuality in Later Life What Are Normal Changes? What ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

  3. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can ...

  4. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-10

    We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

  5. Lateralized odontoid in plain film radiography. Sign of fractures? A comparison study with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, S.; Bieck, K.; Karul, M.; Schoennagel, B.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.; Yamamura, J. [University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate X-ray standards for the detection of odontoid fractures. Summary of background data: Cervical spine fractures are a common finding in emergency medicine, accounting for 1 - 3 % of injuries. Involvement of the C1 / C2 complex is found in 25 % of cases, affecting the odontoid peg in 55 - 80 %. Regarding the consequences of missed fractures, radiographic techniques built the groundwork for further treatment procedures. As standardized X-ray measurements have not been established, the incidence of unrecognized cervical spine fracture is expected to be up to 20 %. The establishment of X-ray-based guidelines is also limited by the presumed low specificity and sensitivity of distance measurements caused by rotational distortion which leads to a rising popularity of CT. 79 (age 60 ± 26 yrs) patients with lateralization of the odontoid process on conventional plain film radiography (anteroposterior, lateral, and open mouth odontoid process view projection) were examined. The distance between the odontoid process and lateral mass of C1, angles of vertical odontoid line and basis of C2 were measured in the ap view. In the lateral view, dorsal alignment and atlantodental distance were assessed. MDCT examinations were used as a reference. Discriminatory power test was applied to assess significance. 8/79 (10.1 %) odontoid process fractures were found. Diagnosis was achieved on conventional radiographs in 6 patients. Neither distance and angle measurements between odontoid and C1 nor the dorsal alignment of the vertebral bodies differed significantly between healthy and affected patients. Decentralization of the odontoid process is not necessarily an indirect sign for its fracture. In patients with suspected injury of the odontoid process, an MDCT scan might be the method of choice to rule out a fracture.

  6. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  7. C1-C2 rotary subluxation following posterior stabilization for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari S

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a rare complication of C1-C2 rotary subluxation in two children following posterior stabilization for congenital atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD. A patient, with mobile AAD, underwent Brook′s C1-C2 fusion while the other, with fixed AAD, underwent transoral decompression followed by Jain′s occipitocervical fusion. A pre-existing ligamentous laxity associated with an asymmetrical wire tightening or slippage of the wires due to rotation of the neck in the former, and the drilling of the C1-C2 lateral joints during the transoral procedure in the latter, could have contributed to the rotary subluxation. Both patients presented with persistent torticollis due to fusion in an asymmetrical position with dislocated facet joints. Rotary C1-C2 subluxation, when coexisting with anterior dislocation, has the potential to cause severe and occasionally fatal cord compression. Well defined criteria to diagnose this entity by conventional radiology exist, however, due to the overlap of anatomy, the condition is often overlooked. In the present study, three dimensional reconstruction images using helical computerized tomography were very useful in delineating the subluxation and in planning its surgical reduction and arthrodesis.

  8. An Exact Bosonization Rule for c=1 Noncritical String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, N.; A. Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c=1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)-7, inclusive, the term “trade or business”, for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for...

  10. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood tests C1-6 (RUN 15), C1-9 (RUN 18), C1-11 (RUN 20) and C1-13 (RUN 22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the effects of the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water injection rate on the reflooding phenomena observed in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF). The evaluation is based on the data of Tests C1-5, C1-6, C1-9, C1-11 and C1-13 of the CCTF Core-I test series. In these tests, the injection rates of an accumulator system (Acc) and a low pressure coolant injection system (LPCI) and the injection duration of the Acc were parametrically varied from Test C1-5 (base case test). The higher ECC water injection rate caused the downcomer water head and core flooding rate to be higher resulting in the better core cooling. However, there was little effect of the LPCI injection rate on the core cooling once the downcomer water head reached the maximum level. Although the effects of the Acc injection rate and duration on the primary system thermo-hydrodynamic behavior and the core cooling behavior were dominant in an early period of the transient, they also significantly influenced the core cooling behavior through the whole transient. The similar trends of the effect of Acc injection rate on the core cooling behavior were observed in the CCTF and the FLECHT-SET Phase A experiments. (author)

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) methylation following stressful events between birth and adolescence. The TRAILS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, L J; Riese, H; Hudziak, J J; Verbiest, M M P J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J; van Oort, F V A

    2014-01-01

    Stress early in life is a known risk factor for the development of affective disorders later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may have an important role in mediating that risk. Recent epigenetic research reported on the long-term relationship between traumatic stress in childhood and DNA methylation in adulthood. In this study, we examined the impact of various types of stress (perinatal stress, stressful life events (SLEs) and traumatic youth experiences) on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in the blood of a population sample of 468 adolescents (50.4% female, mean age 16.1 years). Second, we determined whether stress at different ages was associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. NR3C1 methylation rates were higher after exposure to SLEs and after exposure to traumatic youth experiences. NR3C1 methylation in adolescence was not higher after exposure to perinatal stress. Experience of SLEs in adolescence was associated with a higher NR3C1 methylation, independently of childhood SLEs. We demonstrate that not only traumatic youth experiences but also (more common) SLEs are associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. In addition, our findings underline the relevance of adolescent stress for epigenetic changes in the NR3C1 gene. PMID:24713862

  12. C1-Inhibitor protects from focal brain trauma in a cortical cryolesion mice model by reducing thrombo-inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Mencl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and thrombotic circuits and is activated in different neurological diseases. C1-Inhibitor counteracts activation of the contact-kinin system at multiple levels. We investigated the therapeutic potential of C1-Inhibitor in a model of TBI. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cortical cryolesion and treated with C1-Inhibitor after 1 hour. Lesion volumes were assessed between day 1 and day 5 and blood-brain barrier damage, thrombus formation as well as the local inflammatory response were determined post TBI. Treatment of male mice with 15.0 IU C1-Inhibitor, but not 7.5 IU, 1 hour after cryolesion reduced lesion volumes by ~75% on day 1. This protective effect was preserved in female mice and at later stages of trauma. Mechanistically, C1-Inhibitor stabilized the blood-brain barrier and decreased the invasion of immune cells into the brain parenchyma. Moreover, C1-Inhibitor had strong antithrombotic effects. C1-Inhibitor represents a multifaceted antiinflammatory and antithrombotic compound that prevents traumatic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings.

  13. Os odontoideum with "free-floating" atlantal arch causing C1-2 anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis with cervicomedullary compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Os odontoideum (OO with C1-2 anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis may cause cervicomedullary injury both from anterior and posterior aspects. We analyzed fourteen such patients for biomechanical issues, radiological features and management of OO with free-floating atlantal arch and review pertinent literature. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients having nonsyndromic, reducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD with orthotopic OO were analyzed. During neck flexion, their C1 anterior arch-os complex displaced anteriorly relative to remnant odontoid-C2 body. The posteriorly directed hypoplastic remnant odontoid sliding below the atlas and forward translation of the C1 posterior arch caused concomitant cervicomedullary compression. During neck extension, there was retrolisthesis of the "free-floating" C1 arch-os complex into spinal canal. Spinal stenosis and lateral C1-2 facet dislocation; Klippel-Feil anomaly; and posterior circulation infarcts were also present in one patient each, respectively. Posterior C1-2 (n=10 or occipitocervical fusion (n=3 was performed in neutral position to stabilize atlantoaxial movements. Results: Follow-up (mean, 3.9 years assessment revealed improvement in spasticity and weakness in 13 patients. One patient had neurological deterioration following C1-2 posterior sublaminar fusion, requiring its conversion to occipitocervical contoured rod fusion. One patient with posterior circulation stroke died prior to any operative intervention. Follow-up lateral view radiographs showed a bony union or a stable construct in these 13 patients. Conclusions: OO with free-floating atlantal arch may precipitate cord injury both during neck flexion and extension. This condition may be overlooked unless lateral radiographs of craniovertebral junction are undertaken in neck extension, along with the usual ones in neutral and flexed positions. Etiological factors include C1 ring-OO unrestrained movements above the hypoplastic

  14. Safety and Usage of C1-Inhibitor in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Marc A; Bygum, Anette; Lumry, William;

    2016-01-01

    ) and 16.6 IU/kg (prophylaxis). Approximately 95% of infusions were administered outside of a health care setting. No adverse events (AEs) were reported in retrospective data. Among prospective data (n = 296 subjects; 9148 infusions), 252 AEs were reported in 85 (28.7%) subjects (rate of 0.03 events....../infusion); 9 events were considered related to pnfC1-INH. Two thromboembolic events were reported in subjects with thrombotic risk factors. No patient was noted to have undergone viral testing for suspected blood-borne infection during registry participation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this large......, international patient registry documented widespread implementation of pnfC1-INH self-administration outside of a health care setting consistent with current HAE guidelines. These real-world data revealed pnfC1-INH usage for a variety of reasons in patients with HAE and showed a high level of safety regardless...

  15. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Maarten E.A.; Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(−)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast...

  16. Lax matrix solution of c=1 Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    To a correlation function in a two-dimensional conformal field theory with the central charge c=1, we associate a matrix differential equation \\Psi'=L\\Psi, where the Lax matrix L is a matrix square root of the energy-momentum tensor. Then local conformal symmetry translates into isomonodromy of the differential equation. This provides a justification for the recently observed relation between four-point conformal blocks and solutions of the Painleve VI equation. This also provides a direct way to compute the three-point function of Runkel-Watts theory - the common c->1 limit of Minimal Models and Liouville theory.

  17. Topological cigar and the c=1 string: Open and closed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We clarify some aspects of the map between the c=1 string theory at self-dual radius and the topologically twisted cigar at level one. We map the ZZ and FZZT D-branes in the c=1 string theory at self dual radius to the localized and extended branes in the topological theory on the cigar. We show that the open string spectrum on the branes in the two theories are in correspondence with each other, and their two point correlators are equal. We also find a representation of an extended N = 2 algebra on the worldsheet which incorporates higher spin currents in terms of asymptotic variables on the cigar. (author)

  18. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  19. Studying χc1 → ηπ+π- decays at BESIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornicer, Mihajlo

    2016-05-01

    Based on 447.5 × 106 ψ(3686) produced at BESIII, we present results from an Amplitude Analysis of the ψ(3686) → γχc1; χc1 → ηπ+π- decays. Strong evidence for a two-body structure in ηπ+ + c.c. decays, with the invariant mass, width and spin consistent with the a2 (1700) is found. This decay mode of the χc1 has not been reported before. Using a dispersion relation to model the a0(980) → ηπ line shape, a non-zero value for the a0 (980) → η'π coupling is measured for the first time. The production of mesons with exotic quantum numbers, JPC = 1-+, decaying to the ηπ final state in the mass range 1.4-2.0 GeV/c2 is investigated, and the upper limits at 90% confidence level for the production of the π1(1400), π1(1600) and π1(2015) are determined.

  20. 26 CFR 1.514(c)-1 - Acquisition indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(c)-1... where State law provides that a tax lien attaches to property prior to the time when such lien becomes... and payable and the organization has had an opportunity to pay such lien in accordance with State...

  1. Isometric C1-immersions for pairs of Riemannian metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let h1, h2 be two Euclidean metrics on Rq, and let V be a C∞-manifold endowed with two Riemannian metrics g1 and g2. We study the existence of C1-immersions f:(V,g1,g2)→(Rq,h1,h2) such that f*(hi)=gi for i=1,2. (author)

  2. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

  3. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  4. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  5. Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

  6. On consistent boundary conditions for c = 1 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    O'Loughlin, M H

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new parametrisation for the Fermi sea of the c = 1 matrix model. This leads to a simple derivation of the scattering matrix, and a calculation of boundary corrections in the corresponding 1+1--dimensional string theory. The new parametrisation involves relativistic chiral fields, rather than the non-relativistic fields of the usual formulations. The calculation of the boundary corrections, following recent work of Polchinski, allows us to place restrictions on the boundary conditions in the matrix model. We provide a consistent set of boundary conditions, but believe that they need to be supplemented by some more subtle relationship between the space-time and matrix model. Inspired by these boundary conditions, some thoughts on the black hole in c=1 string theory are presented.

  7. $C^{1,\\alpha}$ estimates for the parallel refractor

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Farhan; Tralli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    We consider the parallel refractor problem when the planar radiating source lies in a medium having higher refractive index than the medium in which the target is located. We prove local $C^{1,\\alpha}$ estimates for parallel refractors under suitable geometric assumptions on the source and target, and under local regularity hypotheses on the target set. We also discuss existence of refractors under energy conservation assumptions.

  8. Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Woo Park

    2013-01-01

    Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, dia...

  9. On Consistent Boundary Conditions for c=1 String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loughlin, Martin

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new parametrisation for the Fermi sea of the $c = 1$ matrix model. This leads to a simple derivation of the scattering matrix, and a calculation of boundary corrections in the corresponding $1+1$--dimensional string theory. The new parametrisation involves relativistic chiral fields, rather than the non-relativistic fields of the usual formulations. The calculation of the boundary corrections, following recent work of Polchinski, allows us to place restrictions on the boundary ...

  10. Double-scaled field theory at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the double-scaled free fermion theory of the c=1 matrix model. We compute correlation functions of the eigenvalue density field and compare with the predictions of a relativistic boson theory. The c=1 theory behaves as a relativistic theory at long distances, but has softer behavior at short distances. The soft-distance behavior is closely related to the breakdown of the topological expansion at high energies. We also compute macroscopic loop amplitudes at c=1, finding an integral representation for n-loop amplitudes to all orders of perturbation theory. We evaluate the integrals explicitly for two, three, and four macroscopic loops. The small loop length asymptotic expansion then gives correlation functions of local operators in the theory. The two-macroscopic-loop formula gives information on the spectrum and wave functions in the theory. The three- and four-loop amplitudes give scattering amplitudes for tachyon operators to all orders of perturbation theory. Again, the topological expansion breaks down at high energies. We compare our amplitudes with predictions from the Liouville theory. (orig.)

  11. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  12. Measurement of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay $\\eta_c (1S) \\rightarrow p \\bar{p}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Graverini, Elena; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The production of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the $p \\bar{p}$ final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range $2.0 6.5$ GeV/c. The cross-section for prompt production of $\\eta_c (1S)$ mesons relative to the prompt $J/\\psi$ cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be $\\sigma_{\\eta_c (1S)}/\\sigma_{J/\\psi} = 1.74 \\pm 0.29 \\pm 0.28 \\pm 0.18 _{B}$ at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb$^{-1}$, and $\\sigma_{\\eta_c (1S)}/\\sigma_{J/\\psi} = 1.60 \\pm 0.29 \\pm 0.25 \\pm 0.17 _{B}$ at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV using 2.0 fb$^{-1}$. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ and $J/\\psi$ decays to the $p \\bar{p}$ final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of $b$-hadron decays into $\\eta_c (1S)$ mesons is measured, for the first time, to be $B ( b \\rightarrow \\eta_c X ) = (4.88 \\pm 0.64 \\pm ...

  13. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D. R.; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent ...

  14. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed. PMID:26382643

  15. Amplitude analyses of the decays chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, G S; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Szczepaniak, A; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B

    2011-01-01

    Using a data sample of 2.59 x 10^7 psi(2S) decays obtained with the CLEO-c detector, we perform amplitude analyses of the complementary decay chains chi_c1 -> eta pi+ pi- and chi_c1 -> eta' pi+ pi-. We find evidence for a P-wave eta' pi scattering amplitude, which, if interpreted as a resonance, would have exotic J^PC = 1^-+ and parameters consistent with the pi_1(1600) state reported in other production mechanisms. We also make the first observation of the decay a_0(980) -> eta' pi and measure the ratio of branching fractions B(a_0(980) -> eta' pi)/B(a_0(980) -> eta pi) = 0.064 +- 0.014 +- 0.014. The pi pi spectrum produced with a recoiling eta is compared to that with eta' recoil.

  16. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability. The...

  17. Large Dumbbell-Shaped C1 Schwannoma Presenting as a Foramen Magnum Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jody; Michael, Lattimore Madison

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas involving the foramen magnum commonly originate from the lower cranial nerves, but they are rarely found arising from the first cervical root. To date, very few cases have been described in the literature. The majority involve either the intradural or extradural compartment but not both. We report the second case of a dumbbell-shaped schwannoma arising from the first cervical root. Our patient presented with hemisensory deficits secondary to brainstem compression at the level of t...

  18. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  19. Linearization of class C1 for contractions on Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hildebrando M.; Solà-Morales, J.

    In this work we prove a C1-linearization result for contraction diffeomorphisms, near a fixed point, valid in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. As an intermediate step, we prove a specific result of existence of invariant manifolds, which can be interesting by itself and that was needed on the proof of our main theorem. Our results essentially generalize some classical results by P. Hartman in finite dimensions, and a result of Mora-Sola-Morales in the infinite-dimensional case. It is shown that the result can be applied to some abstract systems of semilinear damped wave equations.

  20. Topological B-model and ${\\hat c}=1$ String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, S; Park, J D; Yi, S H; Hyun, Seungjoon; Oh, Kyungho; Park, Jong-Dae; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2005-01-01

    We study the topological B-model on a deformed $\\Z_2$ orbifolded conifold by investigating variation of complex structures via quantum Kodaira-Spencer theories. The fermionic/brane formulation together with systematic utilization of symmetries of the geometry gives rise to a free fermion realization of the amplitudes. We derive Ward identities which solve the perturbed free energy exactly. We also obtain the corresponding Kontsevich-like matrix model. All these confirm the recent conjecture on the connection of the theory with ${\\hat c}=1$ type 0A string theory compactified at the radius $R=\\sqrt{\\alpha'/2}$.

  1. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  2. Prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Jens; Strassen, Ulrich; Gorczyza, Marina; Dominas, Nina; Frahm, Uta-Marie; Mühlberg, Heike; Wiednig, Michaela; Zampeli, Vasiliki; Magerl, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal edema. Laryngeal manifestations can be life-threatening. In the majority of cases, the disease can be adequately treated with an on-demand approach - in some cases, however, short- or long-term prophylaxis is indicated. Attenuated androgens used to be the drugs of choice, but they are associated with considerable side effects and no longer commercially available in the German-speaking countries of the EU. They are currently being replaced by more effective and more tolerable agents such C1-inhibitors, the kallikrein inhibitor ecallantide, and the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, which have recently obtained market authorization. These new drugs have had a major impact, especially on the indications and procedures for long-term prophylaxis. According to the most recent international consensus papers and our own experience, self-administered C1-inhibitors are now the first option for long-term prophylactic therapy. The decision for prophylaxis should no longer be based on single parameters such as the frequency of attacks but on adequate overall disease control including quality of life. More drugs are currently being developed, which may lead to further changes in the treatment algorithms of HAE. PMID:26972189

  3. Land validation for GCOM-C1/SGLI using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yhosiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Sharma, Ram; Ono, Akiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yusaku; Rostand, Dim

    2012-09-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch new Earth observation satellite GCOM-C1 in near future. The core sensor of GCOM-C1, Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) has a set of along track slant viewing Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR). These multi-angular views aim to detect the structural information from vegetation canopy, especially forest canopy, for estimating productivity of the vegetation. SGLI Land science team has been developing the algorithm for above ground biomass, canopy roughness index, shadow index, etc. In this paper, we introduce the ground observation method developed by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in order to contribute the algorithm development and its validation. Mainly, multi-angular spectral observation method and simple BRF model have been developed for estimating slant view response of forest canopy. The BRF model developed by using multi-angular measurement has been able to obtain structural information from vegetation canopy. In addition, we have conducted some observation campaigns on typical forest in Japan in collaboration with other science team experienced with vegetation phenology and carbon flux measurement. Primary results of these observations are also be demonstrated.

  4. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  5. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel insecticidal gene (tccC1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have identified and cloned a novel toxin gene (tccC1/xptB1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain isolated from Korea-specific entomophagous nematode Steinernema glaseri MK. The DNA sequence of cloned toxin gene (3048 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 1016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111058 Da. The toxin sequence shares 50-96% identical amino acid residues with the previously reported tccC1 cloned from X. nematophilus (AJ308438), Photorhabdus luminescens W14 (AF346499) P. luminescens TTO1 (BX571873), and Yersinia pestis CO92 (NC003143). The toxin gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant toxin protein caused a rapid cessation in mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae (80% death of larvae within 2 days). Conclusively, the heterologous expression of the novel gene tccC1 cloned into E. coli plasmid vector produced recombinant toxin with high insecticidal activity

  6. Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1 is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In this review, the identification and characterization of NPC1L1, NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport, the relationship with pathogenesis of metabolic disease and its newly introduced function for virus entry are discussed.

  7. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  8. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  9. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  10. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  11. Study of the decay $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} K^+ \\pi^-$ and search of exotic resonances at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, Francesco; Alves Junior, Antonio Augusto

    In 2008 the Belle Collaboration reported the observation of two charged resonance-like structures in the ${\\chi_c}_1 \\pi^-$ mass spectrum produced in the decay $B^0 \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^+ \\pi^-$. These were labelled as $Z_1(4050)^-$ and $Z_2(4250)^-$. Alternatively, a single wider resonance hypothesis was also pursued by Belle, and labelled as $Z(4150)^-$. The fact that these are charged states would be a clear sample, if they really exist, of four quark bound systems; for this reason this observation has given rise to a great deal of interest. In 2012 the BABAR Collaboration has searched for these resonances in the channels $B^{0,+} \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^{+,0} \\pi^-$ and did not find any evidence of them. In this thesis a search for these claimed exotic charmonium-like states $Z_1(4050)^-$ and $Z_2(4250)^-$ is presented, in the decay $B^0 \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^+ \\pi^-$, where ${\\chi_c}_1 \\to J/\\psi \\gamma$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. Charged conjugate are implied throughout the whole thesis. The analysis is performed us...

  12. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  13. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    in cytokinins and auxin (IAA). After bud excision, ZRP increased dramatically in the subapical stem within 1 h, followed by ZR within 1 week. Supernormal levels of ZR were maintained through autumn and persisted in spring in the destipitated trees, but had returned to normal in the decapitated trees...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...... that subapical leader tissues beneath the apical bud group are a primary source of cytokinin regulation. Keywords ABA - Apical control - Auxin - Bud development - Cytokinin - Plant architecture...

  14. Laterality and language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  15. Radiation damage of the HEAO C-1 germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage from proton bombardment of the four HEAO C-1 high purity germanium detectors have been measured and compared to predictions. Because of the presence of numerous gamma-ray lines in the detector background spectra and because of the relatively long exposure time of the HEAO 3 satellite to cosmic-ray and trapped protons, it has been possible to measure both the energy and time dependence of radiation damage. After 100 d in orbit, each of the four detectors has been exposed to approximately 3 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm, and the average energy resolution at 1460 keV had degraded from 3.2 keV fwhm to 8.6 keV fwhm. The lines were all broadened to the low energy side although the line profile was different for each of the four detectors. The damage-related contribution to the degradation in energy resolution was found to be linear in energy and proton influence.

  16. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  17. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spine surgery called XLIF, extreme lateral interbody fusion. Dr. Juan Uribe will perform the procedure. Dr. ... A better term would be extreme lateral interbody fusion. This is a procedure that has been performed ...

  18. Measurement of the η{sub c}(1S) production cross-section in proton–proton collisions via the decay η{sub c}(1S) → pp{sup -bar}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beteta, C. Abellán [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zurich (Switzerland); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-07-04

    The production of the η{sub c}(1S) state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the pp{sup -bar} final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range 2.06.5 GeV/c. The cross-section for prompt production of η{sub c}(1S) mesons relative to the prompt J/ψ cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be σ{sub η{sub c(1S)}}/σ{sub J/ψ}=1.74 ± 0.29 ± 0.28 ± 0.18{sub B} at a centre-of-mass energy √s=7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}, and σ{sub η{sub c(1S)}}/σ{sub J/ψ}=1.60±0.29±0.25±0.17{sub B} at √s=8 TeV using 2.0 fb{sup -1}. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the η{sub c}(1S) and J/ψ decays to the pp{sup -bar} final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of b-hadron decays into η{sub c}(1S) mesons is measured, for the first time, to be B(b→η{sub c}X)=(4.88 ± 0.64 ± 0.29 ± 0.67{sub B})×10{sup -3}, where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the J/ψ inclusive branching fraction from b-hadron decays. The difference between the J/ψ and η{sub c}(1S) meson masses is determined to be 114.7±1.5±0.1 MeV /c{sup 2}.

  19. Measurement of the η{sub c}(1S) production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay η{sub c}(1S) → p anti p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beteta, C.A. [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    The production of the η{sub c}(1S) state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the p anti p final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range 2.0 < y < 4.5 and in the meson transverse-momentum range p{sub T} > 6.5 GeV/c. The cross-section for prompt production of η{sub c}(1S) mesons relative to the prompt J/ψ cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be σ{sub η{sub c(1S)}}/σ{sub J/ψ} = 1.74 ± 0.29 ± 0.28 ± 0.18{sub B} at a centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}, and σ{sub η{sub c(1S)}}/σ{sub J/ψ} = 1.60 ± 0.29 ± 0.25 ± 0.17{sub B} at √(s) = 8 TeV using 2.0 fb{sup -1}. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the η{sub c}(1S) and J/ψ decays to the p anti p final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of b-hadron decays into η{sub c}(1S) mesons is measured, for the first time, to be B(b → η{sub c}X) = (4.88 ± 0.64 ± 0.29 ± 0.67{sub B}) x 10{sup -3}, where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the J/ψ inclusive branching fraction from b-hadron decays. The difference between the J/ψ and η{sub c}(1S) meson masses is determined to be 114.7 ± 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  20. [Hereditary angioneurotic edema: a molecular disease caused by a defect in the O-glycosylation of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier-Hartmann, M P; Strecker, G; Montreuil, J; Hartmann, L

    1984-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of neutral and aminosaccharides in C 1-esterase inhibitor (C 1-INH), protein of the complement system, was performed. We observe a mixed glycosylation of the molecule with an N-glycosylated: O-glycosylated chain ratio of 1: 4. The loss of the inhibitory activity of the molecule in hereditary angioedema (O ANH) is associated with an O-glycosylation deficiency which differs according to the two molecular variants: C 1-INH (1 A) and C 1-INH (II) previously described. PMID:6440668

  1. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  2. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  3. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  5. Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Petersen, Steen Vang; Vorup-Jensen, T; Matsushita, M; Fujita, T; Stover, C M; Schwaeble, W J; Jensenius, J C

    2000-01-01

    of C1r and C1s with C1q in that both high salt concentrations and calcium chelation (EDTA) are required to fully dissociate the MASPs or MAp19 from MBL. In the presence of calcium, most of the MASP-1, MASP-2, and MAp19 emerged on gel-permeation chromatography as large complexes that were not...... associated with MBL, whereas in the presence of EDTA most of these components formed smaller complexes. Over 95% of the total MASPs and MAp19 found in serum are not complexed with MBL. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jul-15...

  6. A survey on C 1,1 fuctions: theory, numerical methods and applications

    OpenAIRE

    La Torre Davide; Rocca Matteo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey some notions of generalized derivative for C 1,1 functions. Furthermore some optimality conditions and numerical methods for nonlinear minimization problems involving C1,1 data are studied.

  7. Endotoxin-induced pulmonary dysfunction is prevented by C1-esterase inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Guerrero; Velasco, F; M. Rodriguez; Lopez, A; Rojas, R; Alvarez, M A; Villalba, R.; V. Rubio; Torres, A.; del Castillo, D

    1993-01-01

    In septic shock, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and neutrophil activation are related to the activation of the blood coagulation contact system. This study evaluates in dogs the effect of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a main inhibitor of the blood coagulation contact system, on the cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction associated with endotoxic shock. Two groups were included: controls, which received Escherichia coli endotoxin, and a C1-INH group in which C1-...

  8. Serum IgG antibodies to C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, J J; Naff, G B

    1989-09-01

    Urticaria, angioedema, and arthritis are cardinal features of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS). Considered to be an immune complex-mediated disorder, HUVS has been differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on its clinical manifestations and the C1q precipitin (C1q-p) reaction, which is manifested as gel precipitation of C1q by a small percentage of HUVS IgG molecules. This phenomenon has been attributed to an Fc region abnormality, and the responsible IgG molecules are said to possess C1q-p activity. We purified IgG from 4 HUVS patients and confirmed that HUVS IgG contains C1q binding activity. F(ab')2 fragments from these patients also bound to C1q, as measured by 2 different C1q binding methods at physiologic ionic strength; HUVS IgG Fc fragments did not bind to C1q. Preincubation of HUVS F(ab')2 fragments with antibody to human F(ab')2 prevented subsequent binding to C1q. We conclude that IgG antibodies to C1q are present in HUVS serum, and it is likely that these antibodies are C1q-p. Because the clinical manifestations of HUVS and the presence of anti-C1q antibodies have been described in patients with SLE, our findings support the concept that HUVS is an autoimmune syndrome related to SLE. PMID:2528353

  9. Safety of C1-Esterase Inhibitor in Acute and Prophylactic Therapy of Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, Paula; Bygum, Anette; Edelman, Jonathan; Lumry, William; Machnig, Thomas; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Rojavin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The plasma-derived, pasteurized C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate, Berinert has a 4-decade history of use in hereditary angioedema (HAE), with a substantial literature base that demonstrates safety and efficacy. Thromboembolic events have rarely been reported with C1-INH products...

  10. The role of ficolins and MASPs in hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Kocsis, Andrea; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Gál, Péter; Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette; Füst, George; Garred, Peter

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) causes disturbances in the complement system. However, the influence of HAE-C1-INH on the lectin pathway of complement is unresolved. Thus, we studied the main initiator molecules, enzymes and regulators in the lectin pathway in...

  11. Presence of C1-Inhibitor Polymers in a Subset of Patients Suffering from Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel; Hansen, Søren; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Bygum, Anette; Drouet, Christian; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor (C1-inh). The mutations cause decreased functional plasma levels of C1-inh, which triggers unpredictable recurrent edema attacks...

  12. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of...

  13. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, C. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). EECE Dept.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  14. Anti-C1q Autoantibodies, Novel Tests, and Clinical Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Michael; van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A.; Trouw, Leendert A.

    2013-01-01

    Although anti-C1q autoantibodies have been described more than four decades ago a constant stream of papers describing clinical associations or functional consequences highlights that anti-C1q antibodies are still hot and happening. By far the largest set of studies focus on anti-C1q antibodies is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE anti-C1q antibodies associate with involvement of lupus nephritis in such a way that in the absence of anti-C1q antibodies it is unlikely that a flare in n...

  15. Human keratinocyte ATP2C1 localizes to the Golgi and controls Golgi Ca2+ stores

    OpenAIRE

    Behne, M J; Tu, Chia-Ling L; Aronchik, I; Epstein, E; Bench, G.; Bikle, D D; Pozzan, T; Mauro, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease (MIM16960) is a blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the Ca2+ ATPase ATP2C1. We found that the abnormal Ca2+ signaling seen in Hailey-Hailey disease keratinocytes correlates with decreased protein levels of ATP2C1. Human ATP2C1 protein approximated 115 kDa in size. The ATP2C1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus in human keratinocytes, similar to its localization in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. To test whether the ATP2C1 controls Golgi Ca2+ stores, we measu...

  16. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  17. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with plasma-derived C1 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Prematta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Prematta, Tracy Prematta, Timothy J CraigSection of Allergy and Immunology, Penn State University, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, PA, USABackground: Plasma-derived C1 inhibitor (C1-INH concentrate is a treatment option for acute hereditary angioedema (HAE attacks and is considered the standard-of-care in many countries, although it is not yet available in the United States. Studies are still being conducted to establish its safety and efficacy as required by the FDA.Objective: To review the medical literature to determine if C1-INH concentrate is a safe and effective treatment for acute HAE attacks.Methods: The following keywords were searched in PubMed and OVID: C1 esterase inhibitor, C1-inhibitor, C1 inhibitor, and hereditary angioedema treatment. English-language articles were searched from 1966 to the present to look for studies demonstrating the efficacy and the safety of C1-INH concentrate.Results: The English-language literature search revealed several studies showing significantly improved relief of HAE symptoms with the administration of C1-INH concentrate – many studies demonstrated some improvement of symptoms within 30 minutes. Side effects have been similar to placebo, and no proven cases of viral transmission have occurred in over 20 years.Conclusion: C1-INH concentrate appears to be a very safe and effective treatment option for HAE.Keywords: hereditary angioedema, c1 inhibitor, c1 esterase inhibitor, hereditary angioedema treatment

  18. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Sue-Yun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 belongs to a superfamily of NADPH-dependent reductases that convert a wide range of substrates, including carbohydrates, steroid hormones, and endogenous prostaglandins. The 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD is a member of AKR family. The aims of this study were to determine its expression in the ovary and uterus endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE experiments were performed to obtain the 5' and 3' ends of the porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blot analysis, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine 20alpha-HSD. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine the localization in the ovary. Results The porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA is 957 bp in length and encodes a protein of 319 amino acids. The cloned cDNA was virtually the same as the porcine AKR1C1 gene (337 amino acids reported recently, and only differed in the C-terminal region (the AKR1C1 gene has a longer C-terminal region than our sequence. The 20alpha-HSD gene (from now on referred to as AKR1C1 cloned in this paper encodes a deletion of 4 amino acids, compared with the C-terminal region of AKR1C1 genes from other animals. Porcine AKR1C1 mRNA was expressed on day 5, 10, 12, 15 of the cycle and 0-60 of pregnancy in the ovary. The mRNA was also specifically detected in the uterine endometrium on day 30 of pregnancy. Western blot analysis indicated that the pattern of AKR1C1 protein in the ovary during the estrous cycle and uterus during early pregnancy was similar to that of AKR1C1 mRNA expression. The recombinant protein produced in CHO cells was detected at approximately 37 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that pig AKR1C1 protein was localized in the large luteal cells in the early stages of the estrous cycle and before parturition

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seur Kee Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.

  20. Expression patterns of semaphorin7A and plexinC1 during rat neural development suggest roles in axon guidance and neuronal migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellemons Anita JCGM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although originally identified as embryonic axon guidance cues, semaphorins are now known to regulate multiple, distinct, processes crucial for neuronal network formation including axon growth and branching, dendritic morphology, and neuronal migration. Semaphorin7A (Sema7A, the only glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored semaphorin, promotes axon growth in vitro and is required for the proper growth of the mouse lateral olfactory tract in vivo. Sema7A has been postulated to signal through two unrelated receptors, an RGD-dependent α1β1-integrin and a member of the plexin family, plexinC1. β1-integrins underlie Sema7A-mediated axon growth and Sema7A function in the immune system. Sema7A-plexinC1 interactions have also been implicated in immune system function, but the neuronal role of this ligand-receptor pair remains to be explored. To gain further insight into the function(s of Sema7A and plexinC1 during neural development, we present here a detailed analysis of Sema7A and plexinC1 expression in the developing rat nervous system. Results In situ hybridization revealed select expression of Sema7A and plexinC1 in multiple neuronal systems including: the olfactory system, the hypothalamo-hypophysial system, the hippocampus, the meso-diencephalic dopamine system, and the spinal cord. Within these systems, Sema7A and plexinC1 are often expressed in specific neuronal subsets. In general, Sema7A transcript levels increase significantly towards adulthood, whereas plexinC1 expression decreases as development proceeds. PlexinC1, but not Sema7A, is strongly expressed by distinct populations of migrating neurons. In addition to neuronal expression, Sema7A and plexinC1 transcripts were detected in oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, respectively. Conclusion Sema7A and plexinC1 expression patterns are consistent with these proteins serving both cooperative and separate functions during neural development. The prominent expression of

  1. Expression patterns of semaphorin7A and plexinC1 during rat neural development suggest roles in axon guidance and neuronal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Kolk, Sharon M; Hellemons, Anita JCGM; Kolodkin, Alex L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although originally identified as embryonic axon guidance cues, semaphorins are now known to regulate multiple, distinct, processes crucial for neuronal network formation including axon growth and branching, dendritic morphology, and neuronal migration. Semaphorin7A (Sema7A), the only glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored semaphorin, promotes axon growth in vitro and is required for the proper growth of the mouse lateral olfactory tract in vivo. Sema7A has been postulated to signal through two unrelated receptors, an RGD-dependent α1β1-integrin and a member of the plexin family, plexinC1. β1-integrins underlie Sema7A-mediated axon growth and Sema7A function in the immune system. Sema7A-plexinC1 interactions have also been implicated in immune system function, but the neuronal role of this ligand-receptor pair remains to be explored. To gain further insight into the function(s) of Sema7A and plexinC1 during neural development, we present here a detailed analysis of Sema7A and plexinC1 expression in the developing rat nervous system. Results In situ hybridization revealed select expression of Sema7A and plexinC1 in multiple neuronal systems including: the olfactory system, the hypothalamo-hypophysial system, the hippocampus, the meso-diencephalic dopamine system, and the spinal cord. Within these systems, Sema7A and plexinC1 are often expressed in specific neuronal subsets. In general, Sema7A transcript levels increase significantly towards adulthood, whereas plexinC1 expression decreases as development proceeds. PlexinC1, but not Sema7A, is strongly expressed by distinct populations of migrating neurons. In addition to neuronal expression, Sema7A and plexinC1 transcripts were detected in oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, respectively. Conclusion Sema7A and plexinC1 expression patterns are consistent with these proteins serving both cooperative and separate functions during neural development. The prominent expression of plexinC1 in several distinct

  2. Bioinformatic identification of genes encoding C1q-domain containing proteins in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    C1q is the first subcomponent of classical pathway in the complement system and a major link between innate and acquired immunities. The globular (gC1q) domain similar with C1q was also found in many non-complement C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins which have similar crystal structure to that of the multifunctional tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, and also have diverse functions. In this study, we identified a total of 52 independent gene sequences encoding C1q-domain-containing proteins through comprehensive searches of zebrafish genome, cDNA and EST databases. In comparison to 31 orthologous genes in human and different numbers in other species, a significant selective pressure was suggested during vertebrate evolution. Domain organization of C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins mainly includes a leading signal peptide, a collagen-like region of variable length, and a C-terminal C1q domain. There are 11 highly conserved residues within the C1q domain, among which 2 are invariant within the zebrafish gene set. A more extensive database searches also revealed homologous C1qDC proteins in other vertebrates, invertebrates and even bacterium, but no homologous sequences for encoding C1qDC proteins were found in many species that have a more recent evolutionary history with zebrafish. Therefore, further studies on C1q-domain-containing genes among different species will help us understand evolutionary mechanism of innate and acquired immunities.

  3. Enzymatic pathways in the pathogenesis of hereditary angioedema: the role of C1 inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2010-11-01

    A functional abnormality of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is present in types I and II hereditary angioedema (HAE), and normal C1INH may be rendered ineffective in the newly described type III HAE. C1INH inhibits factor XIIa, factor XII fragment (XIIf), kallikrein, and plasmin. Thus, in its absence, there is marked activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade resulting in severe angioedema. Factor XII may autoactivate on binding to endothelial cell surface gC1qR (receptor for the globular heads of C1q) thus initiating the cascade. Alternatively, stimuli that activate endothelial cells may liberate (or express at the cell surface) heat shock protein 90 or the enzyme prolylcarboxypeptidase, either of which can interact with the prekallikrein-high-molecular-weight kininogen complex to convert prekallikrein to kallikrein stoichiometrically. The kallikrein produced can cleave high-molecular-weight kininogen to produce bradykinin and also recruit factor XII by enzymatically activating it. Patients with type I or II HAE have mutant C1INH so that control of C1 activation is lost. Autoactivation of C1r in the absence of C1INH leads to C1s activation followed by C4 cleavage and depletion. An attack of swelling is accompanied by conversion of factor XIIa to factor XIIf and further enzymatic activation of C1r so that C4 levels drop further and C2 is depleted. New therapies for HAE focus on the bradykinin-forming cascade and include a kallikrein inhibitor and a bradykinin B-2 receptor antagonist in addition to administration of purified C1INH. PMID:20889195

  4. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G. A. W.; Ludvigsen, M.; Jacobsen, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75, grp75, as binding partners of the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin. Surface plasmon resonance was used to verify...... interacted with both proteins with an estimated dissociation constant at 1 mu M for reticulocalbin and 150 nM for calumenin. The interaction, at least for calumenin, was dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ with strong interaction at 3.5 mM while no detectable interaction could be found at 0.1 mM. Grp75 binds...

  5. Some Properties of the M3D-C1 Form of the 3D Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a set of scalar variables and projection operators for the vector momentum and magnetic field evolution equations that have several unique and desirable properties, making them a preferred system for solving the magnetohydrodynamics equations in a torus with a strong toroidal magnetic field. We derive a 'weak form' of these equations that explicitly conserves energy and is suitable for a Galerkin finite element formulation provided the basis elements have C1 continuity. Systems of reduced equations are discussed, along with their energy conservation properties. An implicit time advance is presented that adds diagonally dominant self-adjoint energy terms to the mass matrix to obtain numerical stability.

  6. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure. PMID:27273458

  7. Cell surface expression and function of the macromolecular C1 complex on the surface of human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga K Hosszu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r, and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture ELISA, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, PB monocytes and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, DC and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance.

  8. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... perform the discectomy and place a lot of screws from behind. Well, it's complicated. And both surgeries ... adequate, we can even place a plate and screws from the lateral approach. That also will give ...

  9. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 107 cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the 125I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of 125I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10-10 M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 106 cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 103 antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner

  10. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  11. Toward the accurate analysis of C1-C4 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Christian; Wilton, Nicholas; Robbat, Albert

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) are sulfur analogues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Alkylated PAH attract much attention as carcinogens, mutagens, and as diagnostics for environmental forensics. PASH, in contrast, are mostly ignored in the same studies due to the conspicuous absence of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) retention times and fragmentation patterns. To obtain these data, eight coal tar and crude oils were analyzed by automated sequential GC-GC. Sample components separated based on their interactions with two different stationary phases. Newly developed algorithms deconvolved combinatorially selected ions to identify and quantify PASH in these samples. Simultaneous detection by MS and pulsed flame photometric detectors (PFPD) provided additional selectivity to differentiate PASH from PAH when coelution occurred. A comprehensive library of spectra and retention indices is reported for the C(1)-C(4) two-, three-, and four-ring PASH. Results demonstrate the importance of using multiple fragmentation patterns per homologue (MFPPH) compared to selected ion monitoring (SIM) or extraction (SIE) to identify isomers. Since SIM/SIE analyses dramatically overestimate homologue concentrations, MFPPH should be used to correctly quantify PASH for bioavailability, weathering, and liability studies. PMID:22339202

  12. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  13. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be...... restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease. METHODS: We performed an international...... survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published. RESULTS: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    OpenAIRE

    Seur Kee Park; Young Cheol Kim

    2015-01-01

    The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in ...

  15. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a summary of two more detailed reports, covering the chapters of the WG 5 - C report C.1.3, C.1.4, C.1.5, and C.1.6. The main results of the investigations are that no environmental and ecological problems specific of FBR exist in comparison to thermal reactors. The ecological impact of spent fuel is quantified by generally adapted measures such as the ''Hazard Measure''. It is demonstrated that e.g. the ingestion ''Hazard Measure'' of the FBR over cooling times ranging from 0 to 106 years is lower than that of LWR once-through systems

  16. Receptor-mediated binding of C1 q on pulmonary endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal undamaged pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) do not express receptors for C3b or the Fc portion of IgG, but both receptors become unmasked after viral infection or exposure to white cell lysates. Here, highly purified human C1q was labeled with 125I, and the globular subunits were separated from the collagenous portion by collagenase digestion and chromatography. Bovine pulmonary artery EC were cultured without exposure to proteolytic enzymes. Binding assays were carried out at 00C, pH 7.4, μ = 0.15. Results showed that 125I-C1q binds to EC, the binding is dose-dependent, and the receptor is saturable. Saturation was approached at a C1q concentration of ca 0.1 ug. By Scatchard analysis, maximum binding was 0.219 pmoles in a volume of 250 μl for 7 x 105 cells, and the average number of binding sites per cell was 1.88 x 105. Isolated 125I-C1q heads do not bind, and when native 125I-C1q was bound to EC radioactivity was eliminated after collagenase treatment for 4 h at 370C. Thus, C1q binds to EC via the collagenous portion. That Fc receptors (globular heads) are exposed was shown by rosette formation with EA and EC bound C1q. Using similar conditions, native C1(C1w x 2C1r x 2C1s) did not bind to EC. These results suggest a mechanism for localizing immune complexes on undamaged pulmonary vessels which may be important for initiation of the inflammatory response

  17. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  18. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  19. C1-curved finite elements with numerical integration for thin plate and thin shell problems : part 1 : construction and interpolation properties of curved C1 finite elements

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadou, Michel

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct curved finite elements of class C1 compatible with the elements of Argyris-Fried-Scharpf and Bell. We start by the approximation of the curved boundary and next, we construct curved finite elements of class C1. We conclude by proving that the correspond- ing asymptotic interpolation error has the same order than for the associate straight elements. In the second part of this work, we will study the approximation of thin plate and thin shell problems b...

  20. Genetic analysis of complement C1s deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus highlights alternative splicing of normal C1s gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armano, MT; Ferriani, VP; Florido, MP;

    2008-01-01

    ' fibroblasts when analyzed by confocal microscopy. We show that all four siblings are homozygous for a mutation at position 938 in exon 6 of the C1s cDNA that creates a premature stop codon. Our investigations led us to reveal the presence of previously uncharacterized splice variants of C1s mRNA transcripts...... in normal human cells. These variants are derived from the skipping of exon 3 and from the use of an alternative 3' splice site within intron 1 which increases the size of exon 2 by 87 nucleotides....

  1. On the LTSN solution of the transport equation in a slab for c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a LTSN formulation for the isotropic neutron transport problem in a slab assuming c = 1. We modify the LTSN solution encoding the Case solution for c = 1 by the application of the combined Schur decomposition and Heaviside expansion techniques. We also report numerical results. (author)

  2. Autoantibodies against C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus are antigen-driven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Monica; Bigler, Cornelia; Danner, Doris;

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q Abs) were shown to strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting a potential pathogenic role by interfering with the complement cascade. To analyze the humoral immune...

  3. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section...

  4. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-1 - Use of Government depositaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in 31 CFR part 203). (2) Deposits by electronic funds transfer. For the requirement to deposit excise... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of Government depositaries. 40.6302(c)-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-1 Use of Government depositaries....

  5. Functional C1-inhibitor diagnostics in hereditary angioedema: assay evaluation and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G A; Drouet, Christian; Aygören-Pursun, Emel;

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition ...

  6. C1-inhibitor polymers activate the FXII-dependent kallikrein-kinin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Biltoft, Daniel; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Hansen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FXII-dependent kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is tightly regulated by the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1-inhibitor (C1-inh). When regulation of the FXII-dependent KKS fails, which is the case in hereditary angioedema (HAE), patients consequently experience invalidating edema...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6323(c)-1 - Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is any right to payment for goods sold or leased or for services rendered which is not evidenced by... financing agreements. 301.6323(c)-1 Section 301.6323(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... the tax lien filing, (2) Is in qualified property covered by the terms of a commercial...

  8. Differential regulation of Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenner Andrea J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expression of C1q, an early component of the classical complement pathway, has been shown to be induced in neurons in hippocampal slices, following accumulation of exogenous Aβ42. Microglial activation was also detected by surface marker expression and cytokine production. To determine whether C1q induction was correlated with intraneuronal Aβ and/or microglial activation, D-(--2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist and glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-proline peptide (RGD, an integrin receptor antagonist, which blocks and enhances Aβ42 uptake, respectively, were assessed for their effect on neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation. APV inhibited, and RGD enhanced, microglial activation and neuronal C1q expression. However, addition of Aβ10–20 to slice cultures significantly reduced Aβ42 uptake and microglial activation, but did not alter the Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q expression. Furthermore, Aβ10–20 alone triggered C1q production in neurons, demonstrating that neither neuronal Aβ42 accumulation, nor microglial activation is required for neuronal C1q upregulation. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that multiple receptors are involved in Aβ injury and signaling in neurons. Some lead to neuronal C1q induction, whereas other(s lead to intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and/or stimulation of microglia.

  9. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z; Sándor, N;

    2007-01-01

    absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional......Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...... activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose...

  10. C1GALT1 enhances proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via modulating MET glycosylation and dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Huang, Miao-Juei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Hu, Rey-Heng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2013-09-01

    Altered glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer. The core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) controls the formation of mucin-type O-glycans, far overlooked and underestimated in cancer. Here, we report that C1GALT1 mRNA and protein are frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors compared with nontumor liver tissues, where it correlates with advanced tumor stage, metastasis, and poor survival. Enforced expression of C1GALT1 was sufficient to enhance cell proliferation, whereas RNA interference-mediated silencing of C1GALT1 was sufficient to suppress cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, C1GALT1 attenuation also suppressed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated phosphorylation of the MET kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, whereas enforced expression of C1GALT1 enhanced MET phosphorylation. MET blockade with PHA665752 inhibited C1GALT1-enhanced cell viability. In support of these results, we found that the expression level of phospho-MET and C1GALT1 were associated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Mechanistic investigations showed that MET was decorated with O-glycans, as revealed by binding to Vicia villosa agglutinin and peanut agglutinin. Moreover, C1GALT1 modified the O-glycosylation of MET, enhancing its HGF-induced dimerization and activation. Together, our results indicate that C1GALT1 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma activates HGF signaling via modulation of MET O-glycosylation and dimerization, providing new insights into how O-glycosylation drives hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis. PMID:23832667

  11. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min. PMID:15250420

  12. Experimental investigation on the combined use of C1O2 and NaC1O for drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy, most of the plants producing water for human consumption, use Chlorine Dioxide (C1O2) and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaC1O) for the oxidation and disinfection treatments. These chemical disinfectants, which are very effective as regards the oxidation power, the disinfection capability and the bacteriostatic action, produce by-products harmful for human health: Chlorite and Trihalomethanes (THMs) respectively. The Italian Regulations (D.Lgs. 31/2001) sets very restrictive limits for the maximum concentration of these by-products in drinking water. Moreover, from December 2006, the limit for chlorite will be even more restrictive and, with present treatment process, the compliance with the regulation will be very difficult. Therefore the experimentation of alternative treatment techniques and products is of great interest. This article presents an experimental investigation on the combined use of C1O2 and NaC1O in the treatment of final water from two different plants producing drinking water in Florence. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the use of these two products in combination so as to keep the advantages (disinfection efficiency and stability in water) and to minimize the disadvantages (by-products formation) present when using this products separately. Positive results achieved in the experimental phase were used to evaluate the possible applications on real drinking water treatment conditions

  13. Self-administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary or acquired angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M; Choi, G; Picavet, C; Hack, CE

    2006-01-01

    Background: Administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate is effective for prophylaxis and treatment of severe angioedema attacks caused by Cl-inhibitor deficiency. The concentrate should be administered intravenously and hence needs to be administered by health care professionals, which might cause co

  14. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Levi, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled generation of bradykinin (BK) due to insufficient levels of protease inhibitors controlling contact phase (CP) activation, increased activity of CP proteins, and/or inadequate degradation of BK into inactive peptides increases vascular permeability via BK-receptor 2 (BKR2) and results in subcutaneous and submucosal edema formation. Hereditary and acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE and -AAE) are diseases characterized by serious and potentially fatal attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of upper airways, facial structures, abdomen, and extremities, due to inadequate control of BK generation. A decreased activity of C1-inhibitor is the hallmark of C1-INH-HAE (types 1 and 2) due to a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene, whereas the deficiency in C1-inhibitor in C1-INH-AAE is the result of autoimmune phenomena. In HAE with normal C1-inhibitor, a significant percentage of patients have an increased activity of factor XIIa due to a FXII mutation (FXII-HAE). Treatment of C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focuses on restoring control of BK generation by inhibition of CP proteases by correcting the balance between CP inhibitors and BK breakdown or by inhibition of BK-mediated effects at the BKR2 on endothelial cells. This review will address the pathophysiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and available treatment in C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focusing on BK-release and its regulation. Key Messages Inadequate control of bradykinin formation results in the formation of characteristic subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of the skin, upper airways, facial structures, abdomen and extremities as seen in hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema. Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema may be troublesome as illustrated by the fact that there is a significant delay in diagnosis; a certain grade of suspicion is therefore crucial for quick diagnosis. Submucosal edema formation in

  15. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  16. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This muscle is really important for us to work around, and we have to go through that ... levels to approach from the lateral approach. It works really well at L4/5, L3/4, L2/ ...

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  18. Temporal variability, sources, and sinks of C1-C5 alkyl nitrates in Coastal New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Sive

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven C1-C5 alkyl nitrates were measured both on the mainland and off the coast of New Hampshire using gas chromatographic techniques. Five separate data sets will be presented to characterize the seasonal and diurnal trends and the major sources and loss processes of these compounds. In situ measurements were conducted at the University of New Hampshire (UNH Atmospheric Observing Station at Thompson Farm (TF located in southeast NH during winter (January–February and summer (June–August 2002 and summer (July–August 2004. The median (±standard deviation total alkyl nitrate mixing ratio (ΣRONO2 was 25 (±7 in winter and 16 (±14 pptv in summer. Furthermore, daily canister samples collected at midday and later analyzed in the laboratory from January 2004–February 2008 gave median ΣRONO2 of 23 (±8 in winter and 14 (±10 pptv in summer. Alkyl nitrate mixing ratios increased throughout the morning and were highest in the afternoon reflecting mixing of remnant boundary layer air toward the surface and photochemical production during the day. During summers 2002 and 2004, MeONO2 decreased overnight and reached minimum hourly average mixing ratios in the early morning (05:00–07:00 LT. Comparison with wind speed and trace gas (i.e., hydrocarbons, ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen trends suggested that dry deposition contributed to the early morning MeONO2 minimum which is a previously unaccounted for removal mechanism. The mean dry deposition rate and velocity of MeONO2 was estimated to be −0.5 nmol m−2 hr−1 and 0.13 cm s−1, respectively. Results from ambient air and surface seawater measurements made onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Maine during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study and from ambient canister samples collected throughout the Great Bay estuary in August 2003 are also presented. Comparisons between the alkyl nitrate trends with anthropogenic and marine source fingerprints and tracers

  19. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the complement classical pathway by potentiating C1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Rajabi, Mohsen; Chen, Trina; Karnaukhova, Elena; Kozlowski, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) has become the subject of multidisciplinary investigation as a non-traditional contaminant in the heparin therapeutic preparations that were linked to severe adverse events. In this study, it was found that OSCS inhibited complement fixation on bacteria and bacterial lysis mediated by the complement classical pathway. The inhibition of complement by OSCS is not due to interference with antibody/antigen interaction or due to consumption of C3 associated with FXII-dependent contact system activation. However, OSCS complement inhibition is dependent on C1 inhibitor (C1inh) since the depletion of C1inh from either normal or FXII-deficient complement plasma prevents OSCS inhibition of complement activity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that immobilized C1inhibitor bound greater than 5-fold more C1s in the presence of OSCS than in presence of heparin. Although heparin can also inhibit complement, OSCS and OSCS contaminated heparin are more potent inhibitors of complement. Furthermore, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), an anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine with a similar structure to OSCS, also inhibited complement in the plasma of dogs and farm animals. This study provides a new insight that in addition to the FXII-dependent activation of contact system, oversulfated and polysulfated chondroitin-sulfate can inhibit complement activity by potentiating the classical complement pathway regulator C1inh. This effect on C1inh may play a role in inhibiting inflammation as well as impacting bacterial clearance. PMID:23077587

  20. Thyroid hormone transport and metabolism by OATP1C1 and consequences of genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Deure, Wendy M; Hansen, Pia Skov; Peeters, Robin P;

    2008-01-01

    OATP1C1 has been characterized as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. Based on its expression in capillaries in different brain regions, OATP1C1 is thought to play a key-role in transporting thyroid hormone across the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, we studied the specificity of...... iodothyronine transport by OATP1C1 in detail by analysis of thyroid hormone uptake in OATP1C1-transfected COS1 cells. Furthermore, we examined whether OATP1C1 is rate-limiting in subsequent thyroid hormone metabolism in cells co-transfected with deiodinases. We also studied the effect of genetic variation in...... the OATP1C1 gene: polymorphisms were determined in 155 blood donors and 1192 Danish twins, and related to serum thyroid hormone levels. In vitro effects of the polymorphisms were analyzed in cells transfected with the variants. Cells transfected with OATP1C1 showed increased transport of T4 and T4...

  1. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the complement classical pathway by potentiating C1 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hua Zhou

    Full Text Available Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS has become the subject of multidisciplinary investigation as a non-traditional contaminant in the heparin therapeutic preparations that were linked to severe adverse events. In this study, it was found that OSCS inhibited complement fixation on bacteria and bacterial lysis mediated by the complement classical pathway. The inhibition of complement by OSCS is not due to interference with antibody/antigen interaction or due to consumption of C3 associated with FXII-dependent contact system activation. However, OSCS complement inhibition is dependent on C1 inhibitor (C1inh since the depletion of C1inh from either normal or FXII-deficient complement plasma prevents OSCS inhibition of complement activity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that immobilized C1inhibitor bound greater than 5-fold more C1s in the presence of OSCS than in presence of heparin. Although heparin can also inhibit complement, OSCS and OSCS contaminated heparin are more potent inhibitors of complement. Furthermore, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG, an anti-inflammatory veterinary medicine with a similar structure to OSCS, also inhibited complement in the plasma of dogs and farm animals. This study provides a new insight that in addition to the FXII-dependent activation of contact system, oversulfated and polysulfated chondroitin-sulfate can inhibit complement activity by potentiating the classical complement pathway regulator C1inh. This effect on C1inh may play a role in inhibiting inflammation as well as impacting bacterial clearance.

  2. Trichinella spiralis Paramyosin Binds Human Complement C1q and Inhibits Classical Complement Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis expresses paramyosin (Ts-Pmy as a defense mechanism. Ts-Pmy is a functional protein with binding activity to human complement C8 and C9 and thus plays a role in evading the attack of the host's immune system. In the present study, the binding activity of Ts-Pmy to human complement C1q and its ability to inhibit classical complement activation were investigated.The binding of recombinant and natural Ts-Pmy to human C1q were determined by ELISA, Far Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Binding of recombinant Ts-Pmy (rTs-Pmy to C1q inhibited C1q binding to IgM and consequently inhibited C3 deposition. The lysis of antibody-sensitized erythrocytes (EAs elicited by the classical complement pathway was also inhibited in the presence of rTs-Pmy. In addition to inhibiting classical complement activation, rTs-Pmy also suppressed C1q binding to THP-1-derived macrophages, thereby reducing C1q-induced macrophages migration.Our results suggest that T. spiralis paramyosin plays an important role in immune evasion by interfering with complement activation through binding to C1q in addition to C8 and C9.

  3. Treatment response after repeated administration of C1 esterase inhibitor for successive acute hereditary angioedema attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Timothy J; Bewtra, Againdra K; Hurewitz, David; Levy, Robyn; Janss, Gerti; Jacobson, Kraig W; Packer, Flint; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Rojavin, Mikhail A; Machnig, Thomas; Keinecke, Heinz-Otto; Wasserman, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Placebo-controlled studies established the efficacy of replacement therapy with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate for treating single acute hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks, but only limited data from prospective studies are available on repeated treatment of successive HAE attacks. This study evaluates the association between repeated treatments with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate (Berinert; CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) for HAE attacks at any body location and treatment response. In a post hoc analysis of an open-label extension study (International Multicenter Prospective Angioedema C1-INH Trial [I.M.P.A.C.T.2]), the association between repeated treatment with C1-INH and times to onset of symptom relief and complete resolution of HAE symptoms was assessed in patients who were treated for at least 15 attacks by linear regression on the ordinal attack number. Eighteen patients received C1-INH concentrate for at least 15 HAE attacks over a mean duration of 34 months. Demographic and baseline characteristics of these patients were similar to those of all patients in the study. The distribution of body locations and the intensity of HAE attacks were similar for each of the first 15 attacks and subsequent attacks. The extent of previous use of C1-INH concentrate had no effect on the time to onset of symptom relief, the time to complete resolution of HAE symptoms, or the time between attacks treated with C1-INH concentrate; the median of individual linear regression coefficients was not statistically significantly different from 0. Treatment with 20 U/kg of C1-INH concentrate provided consistent treatment response in patients treated for multiple successive HAE attacks at any body location. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00292981). PMID:22856636

  4. Atlantoaxial arthrodesis using C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in a case of Morquio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind G Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic or therapeutic arthrodesis is recommended for atlantoaxial instability in Morquio syndrome. Occipitocervical fusion, the common approach for upper cervical fusion in Morquio syndrome sacrifices the movements at the occipitoatlantal joints. The use of C1-C2 transarticular screws for achieving C1-C2 arthrodesis, without compromising mobility at the occipitoatlantal joint in Morquio syndrome has not been reported. We report a case of Morquio syndrome with atlantoaxial instability and odontoid hypoplasia, where we successfully achieved C1-C2 arthrodesis using transarticular screws and bone graft. The advantages of this method over other methods of atlantoaxial arthrodesis in Morquio syndrome have also been discussed.

  5. Mutants of complement component C3 cleaved by the C4-specific C1-s protease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias, P; Carrillo, C J; Zepf, N E; Cooper, N R; Ogata, R T

    1992-01-01

    To identify some of the structural features determining specific protease recognition of complement components C3 and C4, we used site-specific mutagenesis to construct mutants of murine C3 that are cleaved by the C4-specific C1-s protease. Insertion of three amino acid residues corresponding to residues at the C1-s cleavage site of human C4 into murine C3 at the analogous C3 convertase cleavage site was adequate to render the mutant protein susceptible to C1-s cleavage. In addition, insertio...

  6. Involvement of Helices at the Dimer Interface in ClC-1 Common Gating

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Michael; Rychkov, Grigori; Bretag, Allan; Roberts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    ClC-1 is a dimeric, double-pored chloride channel that is present in skeletal muscle. Mutations of this channel can result in the condition myotonia, a muscle disorder involving increased muscle stiffness. It has been shown that the dominant form of myotonia often results from mutations that affect the so-called slow, or common, gating process of the ClC-1 channel. Mutations causing dominant myotonia are seen to cluster at the interface of the ClC-1 channel monomers. This study has investigat...

  7. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ravindran; Marc Schapira; Patston, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the...

  8. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  9. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor

    2010-01-01

    A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...

  10. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    ATASSI, NAZEM; Cook, Amanda; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2010-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS sympto...

  11. Simultaneous analysis of C1 and C4 oxidized oligosaccharides, the products of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases acting on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westereng, Bjørge; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Aachmann, Finn L; Várnai, Anikó; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Agger, Jane Wittrup

    2016-05-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases play a pivotal role in enzymatic deconstruction of plant cell wall material due to their ability to catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. LPMOs may release different products, often in small amounts, with various oxidation patterns (C1 or C4) and with varying stabilities, making accurate analysis of product profiles a major challenge. So far, HPAEC has been the method of choice but it has limitations with respect to analysis of C4-oxidized products. Here, we compare various HPLC methods and present procedures that allow efficient separation of intact C1- and C4-oxidized products. We demonstrate that both PGC and HILIC (in WAX-mode) can separate C1- and C4-oxidized products and that PGC gives superior chromatographic performance. In contrast to HPAEC, these methods are directly compatible with mass spectroscopy and charged aerosol detection (CAD), which enables online peak validation and quantification with LOD levels in the low ng range. While the novel methods show lower resolution than HPAEC, this is compensated by easy peak identification, allowing, for example, discrimination between chromatographically highly similar native and C4-oxidized cello-oligomers. HPAEC-MS studies revealed chemical oxidation of C4-geminal diol products, which implies that peaks commonly believed to be C4-oxidized cello-oligomers, in fact are on-column generated derivatives. Non-destructive separation of C4-oxidized cello-oligosaccharides on the PGC column allowed us, for the first time, to isolate C4-oxidized standards. HPAEC fractionation of a purified C4-oxidized tetramer revealed that on-column decomposition leads to formation of the native trimer, which may explain why product mixtures generated by C4-oxidizing LPMOs seem to be rich in native oligosaccharides when analyzed by HPAEC. The findings and methods described here will aid in future studies in the emerging LPMO field. PMID:27059395

  12. New insight into the spatiotemporal variability and source apportionments of C1-C4 alkyl nitrates in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Simpson, I. J.; Saunders, S. M.; Lam, S. H. M.; Lyu, X. P.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) were measured concurrently at a mountain site (TMS) and an urban site (TW) at the foot of the same mountain in Hong Kong from September to November 2010, when high O3 mixing ratios were frequently observed. The abundance and temporal patterns of five C1-C4 RONO2 and their parent hydrocarbons (RH), the RONO2/RH ratios and photochemical age of air masses at TMS differed from those at TW, reflecting different contributions of direct emissions and secondary formation of RONO2 at the two sites. Relative to 2-BuONO2/n-butane, the measured ratios of C1-C2 RONO2/RH at the two sites exhibited significant positive deviations from pure photochemical (PP) curves and background initial ratio (BIR) curves obtained from laboratory kinetic data, suggesting that background mixing ratios had a significant influence on the RONO2 and RH distributions. In contrast to the C1-C2 RONO2/RH ratios, the evolution for the measured ratios of C3 RONO2/RH to 2-BuONO2/n-butane agreed well with the ratio distributions in the PP and BIR curves at the two sites. Furthermore, the ratios of 1-/2-PrONO2 and yields of 1- and 2-PrONO2 suggested that the C3 RONO2 were mainly from secondary formation at TMS, whereas secondary formation and other additional sources had a significant influence on C3 RONO2 mixing ratios at TW. The source apportionment results confirmed that secondary formation was the dominant contributor to all the RONO2 at TMS, while most of the RONO2 at TW were from secondary formation and biomass burning. The findings of the source apportionments and photochemical evolution of RONO2 are helpful to evaluate photochemical processing in Hong Kong using RONO2 as an indicator.

  13. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the presence of type IV collagen, whereas plasma kallikrein and β-factor XIIa were more stable. The rate of inhibition of plasma kallikrein by C1-inhibitor was decreased by type IV collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These studies could be relevant to the properties of biomaterials, which contain collagen, and should be considered in the testing for biocompatibility.

  14. Observation of the h_c(1P) using e^+e^- collisions above DDbar threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlar, T K; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D

    2011-01-01

    Using 586pb^-1 of e^+e^- collision data at Ecm = 4170MeV, produced at the CESR collider and collected with the CLEO-c detector, we observe the process e^+e^- --> pi^+ pi^- h_c(1P) with a significance of greater than 10 sigma. We measure its cross section to be 15.6+-2.3+-1.9+-3.0pb, where the third error is due to the external uncertainty on the branching fraction of psi(2S) --> pi^0 h_c(1P), which we use for normalization. We also find evidence for e^+e^- --> eta h_c(1P) at 4170MeV at the 3 sigma level, and see hints of a rise in the e^+e^- --> pi^+ pi^- h_c(1P) cross section at 4260MeV.

  15. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) Subunit of the Iejimalides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendlik, Matthew T.; Cottard, Muriel; Rein, Tobias;

    1997-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) subunit of the iejimalides has been accomplished through a combination of an asymmetric Homer-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation and a chiral pool approach. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  16. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  17. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    OpenAIRE

    Waye Mary MY; Chou Crystal HN; Ho Connie SH; Lim Cadmon KP

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and R...

  18. Atlantoaxial arthrodesis using C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in a case of Morquio syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Arvind G; Siddharth M Shah

    2011-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic arthrodesis is recommended for atlantoaxial instability in Morquio syndrome. Occipitocervical fusion, the common approach for upper cervical fusion in Morquio syndrome sacrifices the movements at the occipitoatlantal joints. The use of C1-C2 transarticular screws for achieving C1-C2 arthrodesis, without compromising mobility at the occipitoatlantal joint in Morquio syndrome has not been reported. We report a case of Morquio syndrome with atlantoaxial instability an...

  19. Complement C1q Activates Canonical Wnt Signaling and Promotes Aging-Related Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuhiko T. Naito; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Liu, Mei-Lan; Higo, Tomoaki; NAKAGAWA, AKITO; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Hara, Yurina; Shimizu, Ippei; Zhu, Weidong; Toko, Haruhiro; Katada, Akemi; Akazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in development of various organs and pathogenesis of many diseases, and augmented Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in mammalian aging and aging-related phenotypes. We here report that complement C1q activates canonical Wnt signaling and promotes aging-associated decline in tissue regeneration. Serum C1q concentration is increased with aging, and Wnt signaling activity is augmented during aging in the serum and in multiple tissues of wild-type mice,...

  20. Analysis of healthy cohorts for single nucleotide polymorphisms in C1q gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA A. RADANOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first component of the classical pathway of complement activation. The coding region for C1q is localized on chromosome 1p34.1–36.3. Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in C1q gene cluster can cause developing of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE because of C1q deficiency or other unknown reason. We selected five SNPs located in 7.121 kbp region on chromosome 1, which were previously associated with SLE and/or low C1q level, but not causing C1q deficiency and analyzed them in terms of allele frequencies and genotype distribution in comparison with Hispanic, Asian, African and other Caucasian cohorts. These SNPs were: rs587585, rs292001, rs172378, rs294179 and rs631090. One hundred eighty five healthy Bulgarian volunteers were genotyped for the selected five C1q SNPs by quantative real-time PCR methods. International HapMap Project has been used for information about genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the five SNPs in, Hispanics, Asians, Africans and others Caucasian cohorts. Bulgarian healthy volunteers and another pooled Caucasian cohort had similar frequencies of genotypes and alleles of rs587585, rs292001, rs294179 and rs631090 SNPs. Nevertheless, genotype AA of rs172378 was significantly overrepresented in Bulgarians when compared to other healthy Caucasians from USA and UK (60% vs 31%. Genotype distribution of rs172378 in Bulgarians was similar to Greek-Cyriot Caucasians. For all Caucasians the major allele of rs172378 was A. This is the first study analyzing the allele frequencies and genotype distribution of C1q gene cluster SNPs in Bulgarian healthy population.

  1. Differential regulation of Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation

    OpenAIRE

    Tenner Andrea J; Fan Rong

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Expression of C1q, an early component of the classical complement pathway, has been shown to be induced in neurons in hippocampal slices, following accumulation of exogenous Aβ42. Microglial activation was also detected by surface marker expression and cytokine production. To determine whether C1q induction was correlated with intraneuronal Aβ and/or microglial activation, D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist) and glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic a...

  2. Transcriptional Factor PU.1 Regulates Decidual C1q Expression in Early Pregnancy in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Kishore, Uday; Jamil, Kaiser; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Choolani, Mahesh; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue-specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in DCs and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR, and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation. PMID:25762996

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a...

  4. Single-stage Anterior and Posterior Fusion Surgery for Correction of Cervical Kyphotic Deformity Using Intervertebral Cages and Cervical Lateral Mass Screws: Postoperative Changes in Total Spine Sagittal Alignment in Three Cases with a Minimum Follow-up of Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Satoshi; Kunogi, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical kyphotic deformity remains challenging. As a surgical method that is safer and avoids major complications, the authors present a procedure of single-stage anterior and posterior fusion to correct cervical kyphosis using anterior interbody fusion cages without plating, as illustrated by three consecutive cases. Case 1 was a 78-year-old woman who presented with a dropped head caused by degeneration of her cervical spine. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman with athetoid cerebral palsy. She presented with cervical myelopathy and cervical kyphosis. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman with cervical kyphotic deformity following a laminectomy. All three patients underwent anterior release and interbody fusion with cages and posterior fusion with cervical lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation. Postoperative radiographs showed that correction of kyphosis was 39° in case 1, 43° in case 2, and 39° in case 3. In all three cases, improvement of symptoms was established without major perioperative complications, solid fusion was achieved, and no loss of correction was observed at a minimum follow-up of 61 months. We also report that preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment was improved after corrective surgery for cervical kyphosis and was maintained at the latest follow-up in all three cases. The combination of anterior fusion cages and LMS is considered a safe and effective procedure in cases of severe cervical kyphotic deformity. Preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment improved, accompanied by correction of cervical kyphosis, and was maintained at last follow-up in all three cases. PMID:26119893

  5. C~0 and C~1 theories and test functions for FEM patch test in microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Among many theories and categories in microstructures,rotation-displacement used as "independent" or "dependent" variables,is a noticeable topic. In FEM,it is called C0 and C1 theory. The convergence criteria of finite elements for microstructures are less mature than those for the conventional thin plate bending problem. In this paper,the patch test functions for assessing convergence of the C0 and C1 finite elements in microstructures is established based on the enhanced patch test theory. The author has further explored the C0 and C1 finite element theories and investigated the difference and correlation between their finite element formulations. Newly proposed finite element theories for microstructures are as follows:(1) the displacement-rotation dependent C1 element that requires the element function satisfying both C0 and C1 continuity;(2) the displacement-rotation independent C0 element which requires new convergence criteria,such as non-zero constant shear stress patch test and zero constant shear stress patch test for approximating C1 element.

  6. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomains identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hybridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny

  7. Non-oxidative aromatization of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons over Pd-promoted Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst under mild conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Chun Shen; Hui Lou; Kai Hu; Xiao Ming Zheng

    2007-01-01

    The Pd-promoted Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method and its catalytic activity for non-oxidative aromatization of C1 to C3 hydrocarbons was assessed using a microreactor-GC system operated with temperature at 823 K and space velocity at 410 h-1. The catalyst is more catalytically active for methane conversion than Ga/HZSM-5. The mass spectroscopy analyses confirmed that 13CH4 was converted to aromatic products.

  8. Observation of e(+)e(-) -> omega chi(c1,2) near root s=4.42 and 4.6 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Tiemens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on data samples collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring at center-of-mass energies root s > 4.4 GeV, the processes e(+)e(-) -> omega chi(c1,2) are observed for the first time. With an integrated luminosity of 1074 pb(-1) near root s = 4.42 GeV, a significant ome

  9. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water Part 3. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 11 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aromatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For nine systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All new data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  10. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water. Part 2. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 37 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aliphatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For 14 systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem and another one can be in the methanol + hydrocarbon subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  11. Transcriptional response of four C1q domain containing protein (C1qDC) genes from Venerupis philippinarum exposed to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbao; Sun, Wei; Cai, Wengui; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Haigang; Ma, Shengwei; Jia, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    As pattern recognitionreceptors, the C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins play an important role in the pathogen recognition and complement pathway activation. In the present study, four novel C1q domain containing proteins (designated as VpC1qDC1, VpC1qDC2, VpC1qDC3 and VpC1qDC4) were cloned and characterized from clam Venerupis philippinarum. The four VpC1qDCs all possessed the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of the C1q family. The four VpC1qDCs genes showed differential response profiles after exposure to the water soluble fraction of No.0 diesel oil (WSFD). More notably, VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were more sensitive to low concentration of WSFD, as their mRNA level changed by higher magnitudes. In addition, VpC1qDC2 and VpC1qDC4 displayed notable increases with larger amplitude to high concentration of WSFD. All these results suggested that the transcriptional response of VpC1qDCs genes were probably a protective mechanism of the cell to oils pollution. The diverse expression patterns of VpC1qDCs demonstrated that VpC1qDC1 and VpC1qDC3 were sensitive responders to environmental stress in V. philippinarum. PMID:27261881

  12. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. M. Greeter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.

  13. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  14. The Janus faces of acquired angioedema: C1-inhibitor deficiency, lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Castelli, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Several clinical and biological features of lymphoproliferative diseases have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations. Acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) (AAE) is a rare syndrome clinically similar to hereditary angioedema (HAE) characterized by local increase in vascular permeability (angioedema) of the skin and the gastrointestinal and oro-pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa. Bradykinin, a potent vasoactive peptide, released from high molecular weight kininogen when it is cleaved by plasma kallikrein (a serine protease controlled by C1-INH), is the mediator of symptoms. In total 46% of AAE patients carry an underlying hematological disorder including monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) or B cell malignancies. However, 74% of AAE patients have anti-C1-INH autoantibodies without hematological, clinical or instrumental evidence of lymphoproliferative disease. Unlike HAE patients, AAE patients usually have late-onset symptoms, do not have a family history of angioedema and present variable response to treatment due to the hypercatabolism of C1-INH. Experiments show that C1-INH and/or the classical complement pathway were consumed by the neoplastic lymphatic tissues and/or anti-C1-INH neutralizing autoantibodies. Therapy of AAE follows two directions: 1) prevention/reversal of the symptoms of angioedema; and 2) treatment of the associated disease. Different forms of B cell disorders coexist and/or evolve into each other in AAE and seem to be dominated by an altered control of B cell proliferation, thus AAE represents an example of the strict link between autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. PMID:26068904

  15. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P

    2012-01-01

    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  16. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  17. C1 inhibitor serpin domain structure reveals the likely mechanism of heparin potentiation and conformational disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinrohr, László; Harmat, Veronika; Dobó, József; Lörincz, Zsolt; Gál, Péter; Závodszky, Péter

    2007-07-20

    C1 inhibitor, a member of the serpin family, is a major down-regulator of inflammatory processes in blood. Genetic deficiency of C1 inhibitor results in hereditary angioedema, a dominantly inheritable, potentially lethal disease. Here we report the first crystal structure of the serpin domain of human C1 inhibitor, representing a previously unreported latent form, which explains functional consequences of several naturally occurring mutations, two of which are discussed in detail. The presented structure displays a novel conformation with a seven-stranded beta-sheet A. The unique conformation of the C-terminal six residues suggests its potential role as a barrier in the active-latent transition. On the basis of surface charge pattern, heparin affinity measurements, and docking of a heparin disaccharide, a heparin binding site is proposed in the contact area of the serpin-proteinase encounter complex. We show how polyanions change the activity of the C1 inhibitor by a novel "sandwich" mechanism, explaining earlier reaction kinetic and mutagenesis studies. These results may help to improve therapeutic C1 inhibitor preparations used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema, organ transplant rejection, and heart attack. PMID:17488724

  18. Caspase cleavage of cytochrome c1 disrupts mitochondrial function and enhances cytochrome c release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan Zhu; Min Li; Xiaohui Wang; Haijing Jin; Shusen Liu; Jianxin Xu; Quan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial catastrophe can be the cause or consequence of apoptosis and is associated with a number of pathophysiological conditions.The exact relationship between mitochondrial catastrophe and caspase activation is not completely understood.Here we addressed the underlying mechanism,explaining how activated caspase could feedback to attack mitochondria to amplify further cytochrome e (cyto.c) release.We discovered that cytochrome c1 (cyto.c1) in the bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiration chain was a novel substrate of caspase 3 (casp.3).We found that cyto.c1 was cleaved at the site of D106,which is critical for binding with cyto.c,following apoptotic stresses or targeted expression of casp.3 into tbe mitochondrial intermembrane space.We demonstrated that this cleavage was closely linked with further cyto.c release and mitochondrial catastrophe.These mitochondrial events could be effectively blocked by expressing non-cleavable cyto.c1 (D106A) or by caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk.Our results demonstrate that the cleavage of cyto.c1 represents a critical step for the feedback amplification of cyto.c release by caspases and subsequent mitochondrial catastrophe.

  19. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  20. Allelic variants of DYX1C1 are not associated with dyslexia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saviour Pushpa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene, DYX1C1 influence dyslexia. In the present study, exon 2 and 10 of DYX1C1 has been analyzed to verify whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs influence dyslexia, in our population. Our study identified 4 SNPs however, none of these SNPS were found to be significantly associated with dyslexia suggesting DYX1C1 allelic variants are not associated with dyslexia.

  1. Cervicogenic vertigo treated by c1 transverse foramen decompression : a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Lee, Chulkyu; You, Namkyu; Kim, Sanghyun; Cho, Kihong

    2014-09-01

    Cervicogenic vertigo was known as Bow hunter's syndrome. Occlusion of vertebral artery causes vertebrobasilar insufficiency and we reported cervicogenic vertigo case which was treated by simple decompression of transverse foramen of C1. The patient was 48 years old female who had left side dominant vertebral artery and vertigo was provoked when she rotated her head to right side. Angiography showed complete obliteration of blood flow of left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. The operation was decompression of left vertebral artery at C1 level. Posterior wall of transverse foramen was resected and vertebral artery was exposed and decompressed. After surgery, vertigo of the patient was disappeared, and angiography showed patent left vertebral artery when her head was rotated to right side. Vertigo caused by compression of cervical vertebral artery could be treated by decompression without fusion or instrumentation, especially in C1 transverse foramen. PMID:25346772

  2. C1q binding and complement activation by prions and amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday; Villiers, Christian L; Marche, Patrice N; Mitchell, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    C1q binds to many non-self and altered-self-materials. These include microorganisms, immune complexes, apoptotic and necrotic cells and their breakdown products, and amyloids. C1q binding to amyloid fibrils found as extracellular deposits in tissues, and subsequent complement activation are involved in the pathology of several amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Prion diseases, such as scrapie also involve formation of amyloid by polymerization of the host prion protein (PrP). Complement activation is likely to contribute to neuronal damage in the end stages of prion diseases, but is also thought to participate in the initial infection, dissemination and replication stages. Infectious prion particles are likely to bind C1q and activate the complement system. Bound complement proteins may then influence the uptake and transport of prion particles by dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsequent proliferation at sites such as follicular DCs. PMID:17544820

  3. Treatment of type I and II hereditary angioedema with Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Lilian; Farkas, Henriette

    2008-11-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema are of outstanding clinical importance, as edematous attacks associated with these conditions can thrust afflicted patients into mortal danger. Currently, C1 inhibitor concentrate - a human blood product - is available as a replacement therapy. In view of the limited number of donors, as well as the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections, it is a reasonable expectation to develop a therapeutic alternative based on recombinant technology, which would eliminate all these shortcomings. Pharming (Leiden, The Netherlands) has developed Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 inhibitor, as a proprietary product, which is currently being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials. Ongoing studies conducted within the framework of the development program are almost complete and their interim findings are reassuring. This should facilitate successful regulatory approval in the near future, which is indispensable in order to make Rhucin available for patients with hereditary angioedema or other disorders amenable to C1 inhibitor replacement. PMID:20477114

  4. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  5. Detection of vanC 1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiane Martin de Moura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC 1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  6. Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool and its global biogeochemical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. G. Hamilton

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We report that the most abundant C1 units of terrestrial plants, the methoxyl groups of pectin and lignin, have a unique carbon isotope signature exceptionally depleted in 13C. Plant-derived C1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs are also anomalously depleted in 13C compared with Cn+1 VOCs. The results confirm that the plant methoxyl pool is the predominant source of biospheric C1 compounds of plant origin such as methanol, chloromethane and bromomethane. Furthermore this pool, comprising ca. 2.5% of carbon in plant biomass, represents an important substrate for methanogenesis and could be a significant source of isotopically light methane entering the atmosphere. Our findings have significant implications for the use of carbon isotope ratios in elucidation of global carbon cycling. Moreover methoxyl groups could act as markers for biological activity in organic matter of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin.

  7. Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool and its global biogeochemical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keppler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that the most abundant C1 units of terrestrial plants, the methoxyl groups of pectin and lignin, have a unique carbon isotope signature exceptionally depleted in 13C. Plant-derived C1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs are also anomalously depleted in 13C compared with Cn+1 VOCs. The results confirm that the plant methoxyl pool is the predominant source of biospheric C1 compounds of plant origin such as methanol, chloromethane and bromomethane. Furthermore this pool, comprising ca 2.5% of carbon in plant biomass, could be an important substrate for methanogenesis and thus be envisaged as a possible source of isotopically light methane entering the atmosphere. Our findings have significant implications for the use of carbon isotope ratios in elucidation of global carbon cycling. Moreover methoxyl groups could act as markers for biological activity in organic matter of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin.

  8. Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Ian, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    soma positioned near the calyces of mushroom bodies and with numerous neuronal processes in the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. Mass-staining of ventral-cord neurons supported the assumption that the ventro-lateral region of the moth brain was the main target for the auditory projections ascending from...

  9. Inactivation of factor XII active fragment in normal plasma. Predominant role of C-1-inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Lijnen, H R; Pixley, R A; Colman, R W; Schapira, M

    1984-06-01

    To define the factors responsible for the inactivation of the active fragment derived from Factor XII (Factor XIIf ) in plasma, we studied the inactivation kinetics of Factor XIIf in various purified and plasma mixtures. We also analyzed the formation of 125I-Factor XIIf -inhibitor complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In purified systems, the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of Factor XIIf with C-1-inhibitor, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III were 18.5, 0.91, and 0.32 X 10(4) M-1 min-1, respectively. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 1:1 stoichiometric complexes were formed between 125I-Factor XIIf and each of these three inhibitors. In contrast, kinetic and SDS-PAGE studies indicated that Factor XIIf did not react with alpha 1-antitrypsin or alpha 2-macroglobulin. The inactivation rate constant of Factor XIIf by prekallikrein-deficient plasma was 14.4 X 10(-2) min-1, a value that was essentially identical to the value predicted from the studies in purified systems (15.5 X 10(-2) min-1). This constant was reduced to 1.8 X 10(-2) min-1 when Factor XIIf was inactivated by prekallikrein-deficient plasma that had been immunodepleted (less than 5%) of C-1-inhibitor. In addition, after inactivation in normal plasma, 74% of the active 125I-Factor XIIf was found to form a complex with C-1-inhibitor, whereas 26% of the enzyme formed complexes with alpha 2-antiplasmin and antithrombin III. Furthermore, 42% of the labeled enzyme was still complexed with C-1-inhibitor when 125I-Factor XII was inactivated in hereditary angioedema plasma that contained 32% of functional C-1-inhibitor. This study quantitatively demonstrates the dominant role of C-1-inhibitor in the inactivation of Factor XIIf in the plasma milieu. PMID:6725552

  10. Penicillinase plasmid-linked genetic determinants for enterotoxins B and C1 production in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Altboum, Z; Hertman, I; Sarid, S

    1985-01-01

    The genes encoding for beta-lactamase (bla+) and resistance to metallic ions (cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenate, and arsenite) were located in a 56.2-kilobase plasmid, pZA10, isolated from a clinical strain, Staphylococcus aureus 6344. This strain produced enterotoxin B and enterotoxin C1. Elimination of pZA10 by either sodium dodecyl sulfate or heat treatment (43 degrees C) resulted in the loss of the capability of the bacteria to produce both enterotoxin B and enterotoxin C1. A physical map ...

  11. Meningococcal PorA/C1, a channel that combines high conductance and high selectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, J.; Minetti, C A; Blake, M. S.; Colombini, M

    1999-01-01

    Class 1 porins (PorA/C1) from Neisseria meningitidis achieve both high selectivity and high conductance. The channel is highly selective (24:1 Na+ over Cl-), suggesting a highly negatively charged selectivity filter. The trimeric nature of PorA/C1 accounts for part of the enormous conductance in 200 mM NaCl (0.97nS). However, the currents that can be achieved exceed the simple infinite-sink calculation for a pore 0.7 nm in radius (estimated from nonelectrolyte permeability). The conductance i...

  12. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports a...

  13. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A;

    1998-01-01

    beta2m in nanomolar amounts to a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) increased the endogenous production of IL-2 and the generation of allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. C1-inh was purified from fresh human plasma and added to human or murine MLC and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte...... cultures grown in the presence of complement-inactivated serum. Read-outs were cell proliferation, lymphokine production and development of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that addition of C1-inh to MLC and mitogen-exposed murine and human lymphocyte cultures inhibited proliferation, the development...

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bork Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema is a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity and protein in plasma were described. Since then numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients by far were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. Recently, in some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor gene were detected in the affected persons.

  15. Role of human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 in dengue virus replication

    OpenAIRE

    Dechtawewat, Thanyaporn; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Noisakran, Sansanee

    2015-01-01

    Background Host and viral proteins are involved in dengue virus (DENV) replication. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2 are abundant host cellular proteins that exhibit RNA binding activity and play important roles in the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses such as poliovirus and hepatitis C virus. hnRNP C1/C2 have previously been shown to interact with vimentin and viral NS1 in DENV-infected cells; however, their functional role in DENV replication is not clearly understood....

  16. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing but...... it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified......? ‘Active’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active...

  17. C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in X-linked hypogammaglobulinaemia: an anomaly fostering anaphylactoid reactions following intramuscular gammaglobulin administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, S; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Good, R A; Day, N K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with apparent X-linked agammaglobulinaemia was found to be inordinately susceptible to anaphylactoid reactions to intramuscular injections of gammaglobulin. The patient was found also to have low levels of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). The possibility that the C1 INH deficiency and in this patient, whether genetic or acquired, fostered the susceptibility to the production of anaphylactoid reactions after gammaglobulin injections urges further studies of the association of C1 INH d...

  18. Lateralization in Insects: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making ...

  19. White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2011-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two d...

  20. C 1 natural element method for strain gradient linear elasticity and its application to microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Shen-Jie; Han, Ru-Jun; Xiao, Lin-Jing; Wang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    C 1 natural element method ( C 1 NEM) is applied to strain gradient linear elasticity, and size effects on microstructures are analyzed. The shape functions in C 1 NEM are built upon the natural neighbor interpolation (NNI), with interpolation realized to nodal function and nodal gradient values, so that the essential boundary conditions (EBCs) can be imposed directly in a Galerkin scheme for partial differential equations (PDEs). In the present paper, C 1 NEM for strain gradient linear elasticity is constructed, and several typical examples which have analytical solutions are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the constructed method. In its application to microstructures, the size effects of bending stiffness and stress concentration factor (SCF) are studied for microspeciem and microgripper, respectively. It is observed that the size effects become rather strong when the width of spring for microgripper, the radius of circular perforation and the long axis of elliptical perforation for microspeciem come close to the material characteristic length scales. For the U-shaped notch, the size effects decline obviously with increasing notch radius, and decline mildly with increasing length of notch.

  1. C1 natural element method for strain gradient linear elasticity and its application to microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Feng Nie; Shen-Jie Zhou; Ru-Jun Han; Lin-Jing Xiao; Kai Wang

    2012-01-01

    C1 natural element method (C1 NEM) is applied to strain gradient linear elasticity,and size effects on microstructures are analyzed.The shape functions in C1 NEM are built upon the natural neighbor interpolation (NNI),with interpolation realized to nodal function and nodal gradient values,so that the essential boundary conditions (EBCs) can be imposed directly in a Galerkin scheme for partial differential equations (PDEs).In the present paper,C1 NEM for strain gradient linear elasticity is constructed,and several typical examples which have analytical solutions are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the constructed method.In its application to microstructures,the size effects of bending stiffness and stress concentration factor (SCF) are studied for microspeciem and microgripper,respectively.It is observed that the size effects become rather strong when the width of spring for microgripper,the radius of circular perforation and the long axis of elliptical perforation for microspeciem come close to the material characteristic length scales.For the U-shaped notch,the size effects decline obviously with increasing notch radius,and decline mildly with increasing length of notch.

  2. Reactor pressure vessel steels ASME SA533B and SA508 C1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of the microstructural studies of steels SA533B and SA508 C1.2 obtained in connection with a programme initiated to gather and create information needed for the assessment of structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessels. The as-quenched and variably tempered microstructures were studied with optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. (author)

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  4. Toward the Total Synthesis of Scleritodermin A: Preparation of the C1-N15 Fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Sellanes, Diver; Manta, Eduardo; Serra, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of the C1-N15 fragment of the marine natural product Scleritodermin A has been accomplished through a short and stereocontrolled sequence. Highlights of this route include the synthesis of the novel ACT fragment and the formation of the α-keto amide linkage by the use of a highly activated α, β-ketonitrile.

  5. Known results and open problems on C1 linearization in Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Munhoz Rodrigues, Hildebrando; Solà-Morales Rubió, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results obtained by the authors on linearization of dynamical systems in infinite dimen- sional Banach spaces, especially in the C 1 case, and also to present some open problems that we believe that are still important for the understanding of the theory.

  6. $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production at $e^+e^-$ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Czyz, Henryk; Tracz, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Direct, resonant production of the charmonium states $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ in electron-positron annihilation is investigated. Depending on details of the model, a sizeable variation of the prediction for the production cross section is anticipated. It is demonstrated that resonant production could be observed under favorable circumstances.

  7. Percolation on strings and the cover-up of the c=1 disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study percolation on the worldsheets of string theory for c=0, 1/2, 1 and 2. For c1. It thus appears likely that simulations for c=2, 3 .. on numerically accessible lattices will fail to capture even the qualitative behavior of the continuum limit. (orig.)

  8. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limit on total credits. 31.3302(c)-1 Section 31... credits. (a) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section relates to the limitation on the aggregate of the credits allowable under section 3302 (a) and (b). Paragraph (c) of this section relates to...

  9. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, S J; Yen, Y; Wolber, J; Chen, A P; Albers, M J; Bok, R; Zhang, V; Tropp, J; Nelson, S; Vigneron, D B; Kurhanewicz, J; Hurd, R E

    2007-07-01

    We present for the first time dynamic spectra and spectroscopic images acquired in normal rats at 3T following the injection of (13)C-1-pyruvate that was hyperpolarized by the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. Spectroscopic sampling was optimized for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and for spectral resolution of (13)C-1-pyruvate and its metabolic products (13)C-1-alanine, (13)C-1-lactate, and (13)C-bicarbonate. Dynamic spectra in rats were collected with a temporal resolution of 3 s from a 90-mm axial slab using a dual (1)H-(13)C quadrature birdcage coil to observe the combined effects of metabolism, flow, and T(1) relaxation. In separate experiments, spectroscopic imaging data were obtained during a 17-s acquisition of a 20-mm axial slice centered on the rat kidney region to provide information on the spatial distribution of the metabolites. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate occurred within a minute of injection. Alanine was observed primarily in skeletal muscle and liver, while pyruvate, lactate, and bicarbonate concentrations were relatively high in the vasculature and kidneys. In contrast to earlier work at 1.5 T, bicarbonate was routinely observed in skeletal muscle as well as the kidney and vasculature. PMID:17659629

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  11. Stereoselective synthesis of the C1–C13 segment of dolabelide B

    OpenAIRE

    Keck, Gary E.; McLaws, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficient construction of the C1–C13 segment of dolabelide B is described. A key element of the synthesis entails BITIP catalyzed asymmetric methallylation to establish the C7 stereocenter, which was then used to direct the stereoselective installation of the C9 and C11 centers through Evans reduction and 1,5-anti aldol condensation, respectively.

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and... any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6230(c)-1 - Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc....6230(c)-1 Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc. (a) In general. A claim for refund...

  14. 12 CFR 563c.1 - Form and content of financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.1 Form and content of financial... statements shall: (1) Be prepared and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and content of financial statements....

  15. Mutational spectrum and phenotypes in Danish families with hereditary angioedema because of C1 inhibitor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, A; Fagerberg, C R; Ponard, D; Monnier, N; Lunardi, J; Drouet, C

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE), type I and II, is an autosomal dominant disease with deficiency of functional C1 inhibitor protein causing episodic swellings of skin, mucosa and viscera. HAE is a genetically heterogeneous disease with more than 200 different mutations in the SERPING1 gene. A genotype...

  16. Rhucin, a recombinant C1 inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Hilary

    2008-03-01

    Pharming NV and Esteve are developing Rhucin, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor. Rhucin is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in North America and is awaiting regulatory approval in Western Europe for the treatment of prophylactic and acute hereditary angioedema. Pharming is also investigating Rhucin for the potential treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:18311668

  17. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  18. 26 CFR 25.2523(c)-1 - Interest in unidentified assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest in unidentified assets. 25.2523(c)-1... unidentified assets. (a) Section 2523(c) provides that if an interest passing to a donee spouse may be satisfied out of a group of assets (or their proceeds) which include a particular asset that would be...

  19. ${H}^{1}\\cap {L}^{p}$ versus ${C}^{1}$ Local Minimizers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    We show that a local minimizer of $\\mathrm{\\Phi }$ in the ${C}^{1}$ topology must be a local minimizer in the ${H}^{1}\\cap {L}^{p}$ topology, under suitable assumptions for the functional $\\Phi =(1/2){{\\int }_{\\Omega}|\

  20. Spirastrellolide E: Synthesis of an advanced C(1)-C(24) southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, Alexander; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a C(1)-C(24) advanced southern hemisphere fragment towards the total synthesis of spirastrellolide E has been achieved. Highlights of the route include a highly convergent Type I Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) tactic for fragment assembly, in conjunction with a directed, regioselective gold-catalyzed alkyne functionalization to generate the central unsaturated [6,6]-spiroketal. PMID:26097261

  1. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waye Mary MY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  2. A simple method for the preparation and purification of C1 complement cleaved beta 2-microglobulin from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Johansen, B; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    1997-01-01

    A simple method is described for the preparation of proteolytically processed forms of beta 2-microglobulin suitable for structural and biological studies. PEG 6000 was added to the serum of healthy individuals to precipitate the C1 complement complex from C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). After di...... component was seen by SDS-PAGE stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue....

  3. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  5. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  6. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  7. Neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Buccella, F

    2004-01-01

    By requiring the lower limit for the lightest right-handed neutrino mass, obtained in the baryogenesis from leptogenesis scenario, and a Dirac neutrino mass matrix similar to the up-quark mass matrix we predict small values for the $\

  8. Complement component C1r mediated cleavage of the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility class I antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1992-01-01

    Apart from cleaving C1s, we demonstrate for the first time that: 1) at concentrations found in serum, the activated forms of the complement components C1r in addition to C1s can cleave the heavy chain of MHC class I antigens, 2) the cleavage by C1r and C1s is seemingly dependent upon a native con...... MHC class I was shown to take place between the alpha 2- and alpha 3- domains as estimated by the Con A-Sepharose precipitation pattern on SDS-PAGE. The alpha 1/alpha 2 fragment was still shown to interact with beta 2-microglobulin as shown by immunoprecipitation....

  9. Posterior C1-C2 calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Isaac Bing-Yi; Arkun, Knarik; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease rarely occurs in the posterior aspect of the craniocervical junction (CCJ). To the best of our knowledge, there have been only 2 previously reported cases of patients with posterior CPPD lesions in this region that have led to cervical myelopathy. We report the case of a 70-year-old man presenting with neck pain and cervical myelopathy with multilevel stenosis from C1-C6. The stenosis was worst at C1-C2, secondary to compression by a CPPD lesion posterior to the spinal cord. The patient underwent a C2-C6 laminectomy and fusion with resection of the CPPD lesion. In this report, we discuss the patient and present a novel theory to explain the preponderance of CPPD lesions in the CCJ occurring anteriorly and not posteriorly to the spinal cord. PMID:26976840

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  11. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment. PMID:27357228

  12. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  13. Evidence for $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi ^0$ at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, R; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Bay, A; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Dash, M; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Eidelman, S; Gabyshev, N; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, M; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Kyeong, S H; Lange, J S; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Mandl, F; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mori, T; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Pestotnik, R; Piilonen, L E; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Schneider, O; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Shapkin, M; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Vervink, K; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Won, E; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the Cabibbo- and color-suppressed $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1}\\pi^0$ decay based on a data sample of $657\\times 10^6$ $B\\bar B$ events collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. We observe a signal of $40\\pm9$ events with a significance of $4.7\\sigma$ including systematic uncertainties. The measured branching fraction is $\\mathcal {B}(B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi^0) = (1.12\\pm 0.25(\\rm {stat.})\\pm 0.12({\\rm syst.}))\\times 10^{-5}$.

  14. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C_{1h} Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-Ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl/Si(110)-(1×1) surface with C_{1h} symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ[over ¯] and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C_{1h} symmetry of the surface. PMID:27419582

  15. Nonvortical Rashba Spin Structure on a Surface with C1 h Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annese, Emilia; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Nakano, Hiroto; Kato, Haruki; Araki, Atsushi; Ohtaka, Minoru; Aoki, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Takashi; Osiecki, Jacek R.; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Yaji, Koichiro; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Nittoh, Koh-ichi; Yang, Wooil; Miki, Kazushi; Oda, Tatsuki; Yeom, Han Woong; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    A totally anisotropic peculiar Rashba-Bychkov (RB) splitting of electronic bands was found on the Tl /Si (110 )-(1 ×1 ) surface with C1 h symmetry by angle- and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles theoretical calculation. The constant energy contour of the upper branch of the RB split band has a warped elliptical shape centered at a k point located between Γ ¯ and the edge of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., at a point without time-reversal symmetry. The spin-polarization vector of this state is in-plane and points almost the same direction along the whole elliptic contour. This novel nonvortical RB spin structure is confirmed as a general phenomenon originating from the C1 h symmetry of the surface.

  16. NLO NRQCD disfavors the interpretation of X(3872) as χc1(2P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study χc1(2P) inclusive hadroproduction at next-to-leading order (NLO) within the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD), including both the color-singlet 3P1[1] and color-octet 3S1[8] c anti c Fock states. Assuming the recently discovered X(3872) hadron to be the 2P (1++) charmonium state, we perform a fit to the cross sections measured by the CDF, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations. We either obtain an unacceptably high value of χ2 or a value of vertical stroke R2P'(0) vertical stroke incompatible with well-established potential models. We thus conclude that NLO NRQCD is incompatible with the hypothesis X(3872)≡χc1(2P).

  17. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  18. C1A Cysteine protease-cystatin interactions in leaf senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Mendoza, María Mercedes; Velasco Arroyo, Blanca; González Melendi, Pablo; Martinez Muñoz, Manuel; Diaz Rodriguez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a crucial process to relocalize nutrients from leaves to growing or storage tissues. The massive net degradation of proteins involves broad metabolic networks, different subcellular compartments, and several types of proteases and regulators. C1A cysteine proteases, grouped as cathepsin L-, B-, H-, and F-like according to their gene structures and phylogenetic relationships, are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity d...

  19. Tomographic correlation for Magerl's technique in C1-C2 arthrodesis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaramonti, Bárbara Camargo; Kim, So Yeon; Marchese, Luiz Roberto Delboni; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze through tomographic studies, the morphology and dimensions of the C1-C2 vertebrae in pediatric patients, to evaluate the possibility of application of Magerl's technique in these patients, and to contribute with data for the usage of the technique in safety. METHOD: Forty normal cervical tomographies, from patients at an age range of 24-120 months of age and from both genders, were retrospectively analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed to obtain mean value and variati...

  20. Non- (quantum) differentiable $C^1$-functions in the spaces with trivial Boyd indices

    OpenAIRE

    Potapov, Denis; Sukochev, Fyodor

    2008-01-01

    If E is a separable symmetric sequence space with trivial Boyd indices and $\\cC^E$ is the corresponding ideal of compact operators, then there exists a $C^1$-function $f_E$, a self-adjoint element $W\\in \\cC^E$ and a densely defined closed symmetric derivation $\\delta$ on $\\cC^E$ such that $W \\in Dom \\delta$, but $f_E(W) \

  1. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Nan; Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m2/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons.

  2. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste.

  3. Impaired Autophagy in the Lipid-Storage Disorder Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in misfolded protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in several diseases. Whether alterations in autophagy also contribute to the pathology of lipid-storage disorders is not clear. Here, we show defective autophagy in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease associated with cholesterol accumulation, where the maturation of autophagosomes is impaired because of defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery, whereas the lysosomal prot...

  4. Chromatofocusing: a new method for purification of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1.

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, I A; Terplan, G; Kickhöfen, B; Hammer, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new chromatographic procedure was developed which obtained highly purified preparations of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1 in yields of 60% from cultures of Staphylococcus aureus and which is faster than any of the separation methods used previously. The procedure involves chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose, removal of alpha-toxin by adsorption to rabbit erythrocyte membranes, and finally, chromatofocusing as the fundamental new step. Enterotoxins were obtained in highly purified...

  5. The global uniqueness and $C^1$-regularity of geodesics in expanding impulsive gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, Jiri; Steinbauer, Roland; Svarc, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We study geodesics in the complete family of expanding impulsive gravitational waves propagating in spaces of constant curvature, that is Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter universes. Employing the continuous form of the metric we rigorously prove existence and global uniqueness of continuously differentiable geodesics (in the sense of Filippov) and study their interaction with the impulsive wave. Thereby we justify the "$C^1$-matching procedure" used in the literature to derive their explicit form.

  6. chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} decay angular distributions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Palisoc, C P

    2003-01-01

    We consider the hadroproduction of chi_{c1} and chi_{c2} mesons and their subsequent radiative decays to J/psi mesons and photons in the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics, and study the decay angular distributions, by means of helicity density matrices, in view of their sensitivity to color-octet processes. We present numerical results appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron.

  7. Synthesis of 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelled compound was prepared by chlorination of [2-14C]acetone obtained from the barium salt of [1-14C]acetic acid by pyrolysis. The reaction product 1,1-dichloro[2-14C]acetone was converted to 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane by condensation with ethylene glycol in the presence of thionyl chloride. Radiochemical yield: 62% based on [1-14C]acetic acid. (author) 7 refs

  8. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    OpenAIRE

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome...

  9. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  10. Use of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yurong; Kim, Jinrang; Ni, Min; Wei, Yi; Okamoto, Haruka; Lee, Joseph; Adler, Christina; Cavino, Katie; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Gromada, Jesper

    2016-03-22

    This study provides an assessment of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells. The system combines microfluidic technology and nanoliter-scale reactions. We sequenced 622 cells, allowing identification of 341 islet cells with high-quality gene expression profiles. The cells clustered into populations of α-cells (5%), β-cells (92%), δ-cells (1%), and pancreatic polypeptide cells (2%). We identified cell-type-specific transcription factors and pathways primarily involved in nutrient sensing and oxidation and cell signaling. Unexpectedly, 281 cells had to be removed from the analysis due to low viability, low sequencing quality, or contamination resulting in the detection of more than one islet hormone. Collectively, we provide a resource for identification of high-quality gene expression datasets to help expand insights into genes and pathways characterizing islet cell types. We reveal limitations in the C1 Fluidigm cell capture process resulting in contaminated cells with altered gene expression patterns. This calls for caution when interpreting single-cell transcriptomics data using the C1 Fluidigm system. PMID:26951663

  11. A review of C1 chemistry synthesis using yttrium-stabilized zirconia catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonius Indarto; Jae-Wook Choi; Hwaung Lee; Hyung Keun Song

    2008-01-01

    C1 chemistry based on synthesis gas, methane, and carbon dioxide offers many routes to industrial chemicals. The reactions related to the synthesis of gas can be classified into direct and indirect approach for making such products, such as acetic acid, dimethyl ether, and alcohol. Catalytic syngas processing is currently done at high temperatures and pressures, conditions that could be unfavorable for the life of the catalyst. Another issue of C1 chemistry is related to the methane-initiated process. It has been known that direct methane conversions are still suffering from low yields and selectivity of products resulting in unprofitable ways to produce products, such as higher hydrocarbons, methanol, and so on. However, many experts and researchers are still trying to find the best method to overcome these barriers, for example, by finding the best catalyst to reduce the high-energy barrier of the reactions and conduct only selective catalyst-surface reactions. The application of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and its combination with other metals for catalyzing purposes are increasing. The existence of an interesting site that acts as oxygen store could be the main reason for it. Moreover, formation of intermediate species on the surface of YSZ also contributes significantly in increasing the production of some specific products. Understanding the phenomena happening inside could be necessary. In this article, the use of YSZ for some C1 chemistry reactions was discussed and reviewed.

  12. Axino mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2012-01-01

    I will talk on my recent works. Axino, related to the SUSY transformation of axion, can mix with Goldstino in principle. In this short talk, I would like to explain what is the axino mass and its plausible mass range. The axino mass is known to have a hierarchical mass structure depending on accidental symmetries. With only one axino, if G_A=0 where G=K+ 2ln|W|, we obtain axino mass= gravitino mass. For G_A nonzero, the axino mass depends on the details of the Kaehler potential. I also comment on the usefulness of a new parametrization of the CKM matrix.

  13. Isotope dependent predissociation in the C1Σ+, v=0 and v=1 states of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotationally resolved spectral lines in the C-X(1, 0) band of carbon monoxide are investigated under high resolution using a coherent vacuum ultraviolet laser source, continuously tunable near 107 nm. Transition frequencies are determined by calibrating against a reference standard of iodine lines, recorded with saturation spectroscopy in the visible range, yielding an absolute accuracy of 0.003 cm-1 in the vacuum ultraviolet. Improved molecular constants for the excited state are derived and no effects of perturbation are found at the present level of accuracy. Line broadening measurements result in information on the excited state lifetime of the C1Σ+, v = 1 state for five natural isotopomers of carbon monoxide: τ(12C17O) = 280 ps, τ(12C18O) = 210 ps, τ(13C16O) = 295 ps, τ(13C17O) = 160 ps, and τ(13C18O) = 150 ps. Within the accuracy of the present measurements no effects of J-dependent lifetimes were observed, for neither of the isotopomers. In addition direct time domain measurements of the lifetime of the C1Σ+, v = 0 and v = 1 states of the main isotopomer are performed in a pump-probe experiment using a picosecond VUV-laser, yielding τ(12C16O) = 1780 ps for v = 0 and τ(12C16O) = 625 ps for v = 1. For C1Σ+, v = 0 in 12C16O and 13C16O the same lifetime is found; this lifetime matches experimental values of the oscillator strength and hence supports previous results showing pure radiative decay in this state; the error margins however do not exclude some low level of predissociation. The measurements indicate that the C1Σ+, v = 0 state of the 13C18O isotopomer is predissociated with an estimated yield of 17% (i.e. above the level of predissociation for 12C16O.) From the combined data predissociation yields upon excitation of the C1Σ+, v = 1 state are derived, lying in the range 0.84-0.91 for the five less abundant isotopomers; for the main 12C16O isotopomer a strongly deviating predissociation yield of 0.65 is deduced. (orig.)

  14. Conjugate lateral eye movements: A second look

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, S; Bakan, P.; Moretti, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    It has been suggested that conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEM) are related to cerebral lateralization. Two types of research have developed: studies examining individual differences (hemisphericity) and studies examining the type of questions used to elicit eye movements (hemispheric specialization). in a 1978 review, Ehrlichman and Weinberger questioned the notion that CLEM is related to cerebral lateralization, particularly with regard to individual differences. However, since their revi...

  15. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Wilzeck, Christiane; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Prior, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in pigeons. Having shown that pigeons are capable of learning magnetic compass directions in an operant task, we wanted to know whether the brain hemispheres contribute differently and how the lateralization pattern relates to findings in other avian species. Birds that had learnt to locate food in an operant chamber by means of magnetic directions were tested for lateralization of magnetic compass orientation...

  16. Avaliação de série de pacientes com artrodese C1-C2 Evaluación de diferentes casos con artrodesis C1-C2 Evaluation of different cases with C1-C2 arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Salge Ghilardi

    2012-01-01

    vasculares. Complicaciones infecciosas se registraron en dos pacientes. Hemos logrado una tasa de 85% de consolidación de la artrodesis y no se requirieron cirugías de revisión. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las técnicas usadas produjeron la consolidación ósea satisfactoria y fueron excelentes para controlar la inestabilidad atlantoaxial.OBJECTIVE: Retrospective record analysis of patients with C1-C2 instability of traumatic and nontraumatic causes who underwent C1-C2 arthrodesis. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of medical records of 20 outpatients from the column of IOT-FMUSP aged between 7 and 83 years (mean 43 years of both sexes. The radiographic parameters for instability were based on measurement of atlanto-axial interval greater than 3 mm in adults and 5 mm in children, using measures obtained from lateral plain X-rays. RESULTS: We operated 20 patients with high cervical instability, mostly due to trauma. The surgical technique used was that described by Magerl. There were no vascular injuries. Infectious complications were reported in two patients. We achieved a solid fusion rate of 85% and no revision surgeries were required. CONCLUSIONS: All techniques produced satisfactory bone healing and were excellent for the control of atlanto-axial instability.

  17. 86 The Efficacy and Safety of Human Plasma-derived C1-Inhibitor Concentrate Administered for the Treatment of Attacks in Pediatric Patients with Hereditary Angioedema Due to C1-Inhibitor Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Henriette; Csuka, Dorottya; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Erika; Kelemen, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Lilian; Fejes, János; Harmat, George

    2012-01-01

    Background Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) is a life-threatening, rare disease characterized by recurrent edematous attacks. In 50% of cases, the initial onset of symptoms occurs between 5 and 11 years of age. There are limited data on the emergency treatment of acute episodes in pediatric patients. Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of human plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate in our pediatric patient population with HAE-C1-INH. Methods 50 pediatri...

  18. Characterization of a purified thermostable xylanase from Caldicoprobacter algeriensis sp. nov. strain TH7C1(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Bouanane-Darenfed; Nawel, Boucherba; Khelifa, Bouacem; Mohammed, Gagaoua; Manon, Joseph; Salima, Kebbouche-Gana; Farida, Nateche; Hocine, Hacene; Bernard, Ollivier; Jean-Luc, Cayol; Marie-Laure, Fardeau

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular thermostable xylanase (called XYN35) from Caldicoprobacter algeriensis sp. nov., strain TH7C1(T), a thermophilic, anaerobic strain isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma (Algeria). The maximum xylanase activity recorded after 24 h of incubation at 70 °C and in an optimized medium containing 10 g/L mix birchwood- and oats spelt-xylan was 250 U/mL. The pure protein was obtained after heat treatment (1 h at 70 °C), followed by sequential column chromatographies on Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration and Mono-S Sepharose anion-exchange. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis indicated that the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 35,075.10 Da. The results from amino-acid sequence analysis revealed high homology between the 21 NH2-terminal residues of XYN35 and those of bacterial xylanases. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 11 and 70 °C. While XYN35 was activated by Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+), it was completely inhibited by Hg(2+) and Cd(2+). The xylanase showed higher specific activity on soluble oat-spelt xylan, followed by beechwood xylan. This enzyme was also noted to obey the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with Km and kcat values on oat-spelt xylan being 1.33 mg/mL and 400 min(-1), respectively. Thin-layer chromatography soluble oat-spelt xylan (TLC) analysis showed that the final hydrolyzed products of the enzyme from birchwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose. Taken together, the results indicated that the XYN35 enzyme has a number of attractive biochemical properties that make it a potential promising candidate for future application in the pulp bleaching industry. PMID:26687892

  19. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 cerebellum identifies protein biomarkers and provides pathological insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Cologna

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no definitive therapy. In NPC1, a pathological cascade including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis likely contribute to the clinical phenotype. While the genetic cause of NPC1 is known, we sought to gain a further understanding into the pathophysiology by identifying differentially expressed proteins in Npc1 mutant mouse cerebella. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, 77 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Npc1 mutant mice cerebella compared to controls. These include proteins involved in glucose metabolism, detoxification/oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease-related proteins. Furthermore, members of the fatty acid binding protein family, including FABP3, FABP5 and FABP7, were found to have altered expression in the Npc1 mutant cerebellum relative to control. Translating our findings from the murine model to patients, we confirm altered expression of glutathione s-transferase α, superoxide dismutase, and FABP3 in cerebrospinal fluid of NPC1 patients relative to pediatric controls. A subset of NPC1 patients on miglustat, a glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor, showed significantly decreased levels of FABP3 compared to patients not on miglustat therapy. This study provides an initial report of dysregulated proteins in NPC1 which will assist with further investigation of NPC1 pathology and facilitate implementation of therapeutic trials.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide SLCO4C1 as a new therapeutic modality to prevent chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Toyohara, Takafumi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Mishima, Eikan; Suzuki, Chitose; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    Uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) and cause further progression of renal damage and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was reported that some of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and the organic anion transporters (OATs) are involved in the renal elimination of uremic toxins. SLCO4C1 is the only OATP expressed at the basolateral side of proximal tubular cells in human kidney, and it mediates the excretion of uremic toxins. The overexpression of human SLCO4C1 in rat kidney promotes the renal excretion of uremic toxins and reduces hypertension, cardiomegaly, and renal inflammation in renal failure. Statins induce SLCO4C1 expression thorough transcriptional factor Aryl hydrocarbon receptor through binding of the xenobiotic responsive element at its promoter region. The administration of statin in a rat renal failure model facilitated the elimination of uremic toxins and mitigated organ damage. In addition, metabolomic analysis of rat renal failure models and patients with CKD by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is a useful method for identifying new uremic solutes and explores surrogate biomarkers for detecting the progression of early stage CKD. PMID:21656517

  1. Spontaneous C1 anterior arch fracture as a postoperative complication of foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Atsushi; Mizuno, Junichi; Takeda, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo; OGASAWARA, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Background: C1 fracture accounts for 2% of all spinal column injuries and 10% of cervical spine fractures, and is most frequently caused by motor vehicle accidents and falls. We present a rare case of C1 anterior arch fracture following standard foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type 1. Case Description: A 63-year-old man underwent standard foramen magnum decompression (suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy) under a diagnosis of Chiari malformation type 1 with syringo...

  2. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  3. Complement protein C1q directs macrophage polarization and limits inflammasome activity during the uptake of apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Marie E.; Clarke, Elizabeth V.; Morgado, Pedro; Fraser, Deborah A.; Tenner, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency in C1q, the recognition component of the classical complement cascade and a pattern recognition receptor involved in apoptotic cell clearance, leads to lupus-like auto-immune diseases characterized by auto-antibodies to self proteins and aberrant innate immune cell activation likely due to impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. Here, we developed an autologous system using primary human lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) to characterize the effect of C1q on macrophage gene expression profiles during the uptake of apoptotic cells. C1q bound to autologous apoptotic lymphocytes modulated expression of genes associated with JAK/STAT signaling, chemotaxis, immunoregulation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-stimulated HMDMs. Specifically, C1q sequentially induced type I interferons (IFNs), IL-27 and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated HMDMs and IL-27 in HMDMs when incubated with AL conditioned media. Co-incubation with C1q tails prevented the induction of type I IFNs and IL-27 in a dose dependent manner and neutralization of type I IFNs partially prevented IL-27 induction by C1q. Finally, C1q decreased procaspase-1 cleavage and caspase-1 dependent cleavage of IL-1β suggesting potent inhibitory effect of C1q on inflammasome activation. These results identify specific molecular pathways induced by C1q to suppress macrophage inflammation providing potential therapeutic targets to control macrophage polarization, and thus inflammation and autoimmunity. PMID:22523386

  4. Mechanism of progestin resistance in endometrial precancer/cancer through Nrf2-AKR1C1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenbo; Park, Ji-Young; Guo, Donghui; Liao, Hong; Yi, Xiaofang; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Donna; Chambers, Setsuko K; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-03-01

    Progestin resistance is a main obstacle for endometrial precancer/cancer conservative therapy. Therefore, biomarkers to predict progestin resistance and studies to gain a more detailed understanding of the mechanism are needed. The antioxidant Nrf2-AKR1C1 signal pathway exerts chemopreventive activity. However whether it plays a role in progestin resistance has not been explored. In this study, elevated levels of AKR1C1 and Nrf2 were found in progestin-resistant endometrial epithelia, but not in responsive endometrial glands. Exogenous overexpression of Nrf2/AKR1C1 resulted in progestin resistance. Inversely, silencing of Nrf2 or AKR1C1 rendered endometrial cancer cells more susceptible to progestin treatment. Moreover, medroxyprogesterone acetate withdrawal resulted in suppression of Nrf2/AKR1C1 expression accompanied by a reduction of cellular proliferative activity. In addition, brusatol and metformin overcame progestin resistance by down-regulating Nrf2/AKR1C1 expression. Our findings suggest that overexpression of Nrf2 and AKR1C1 in endometrial precancer/cancer may be part of the molecular mechanisms underlying progestin resistance. If validated in a larger cohort, overexpression of Nrf2 and AKR1C1 may prove to be useful biomarkers to predict progestin resistance. Targeting the Nrf2/AKR1C1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of endometrial hyperplasia/cancer. PMID:26824415

  5. Clinical Presentation of Cervical Myelopathy at C1–2 Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective study. Purpose To clarify the clinical features of cervical myelopathy at the C1–2 level. Overview of Literature Methods for distinguishing the affected level based on myelomere symptoms or dysfunction of the conducting pathway were established. However, no symptoms have been identified as being specific to the C1–2 level segment. Methods We evaluated 24 patients with cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at the C1–2 level. Preoperative neurological assessment were investigated and compared with the rate and site of compression of the spinal cord using computed tomography-myelography. Results Impaired temperature and pain sensation were confirmed in 18 of the 24 patients with that localized to the upper arms (n=3), forearm (n=9), both (n=2), and whole body (n=4). Muscle weakness was observed in 18 patients, muscle weakness extended from the biceps brachii to the abductor digiti minimi in 10 patients, and in the whole body in 8 patients. Deep tendon reflexes were normal in 10 patients, whereas hyperactive deep tendon reflexes were noted in 14 patients. The rate of spinal cord compression was significantly higher in patients with perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness compared with those with no dysfunction. However, no significant difference in the rate and site of compression was identified in those with dysfunction. Conclusions Perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness localized to the upper limbs was observed in 58% and 42% of patients, respectively. Neurological abnormalities, such as perceptual dysfunction and muscle weakness, were visualized in patients with marked compression.

  6. Global modeling of the C1-C3 alkyl nitrates using STOCHEM-CRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Morris, W. C.; Archibald, A. T.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; Orr-Ewing, A. J.; Higgins, C. M.; Percival, C. J.; Leather, K. E.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric global budget and distribution of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates have been investigated using a global three-dimensional chemistry transport model, STOCHEM-CRI. Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are significant NOx reservoir species and the more detailed VOC oxidation mechanism (CRI v2-R5) leads to greater photochemical production. RONO2 are significant sources of NOx in regions remote from NOx sources. The study shows that the global burden and the atmospheric life-time of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates are 113 Gg and 9-10 days, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with estimates established by previous studies. The abundance of alkyl nitrates have been found to be higher in the continental atmosphere, with CH3ONO2 mixing ratios up to 20 ppt over the Amazon rainforest. Up to 15, 10, 2, and 5 ppt of modelled CH3ONO2, C2H5ONO2, n-C3H7ONO2 and i-C3H7ONO2 have been found in the northern hemisphere over regions with large anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOCs. The combination of atmospheric production and long-range transport led to high alkyl nitrate levels at high latitudes. The model performance for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates was established using observations from nine flights and nine field campaigns. The comparison shows a tendency towards model under-prediction of the observations, particularly in the southern hemispheric marine boundary layer, possibly due to the absence of oceanic production mechanisms and air-sea exchange processes in the model. The discrepancies between model and observed seasonal cycles, especially of CH3ONO2, in both hemispheres are discussed.

  7. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c". PMID:26414291

  8. Naphthyl azomesogens with lateral chloro groups†

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; H M Pandya; N L Bonde

    2004-06-01

    A homologous series of azomesogens, 2"-[4-(4'--alkoxybenzoyloxy)-2-chlorophenylazo] naphthalenes, with lateral chloro groups was synthesised. All the homologues synthesized exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of lateral chloro group and its position on mesomorphism.

  9. Allelic variants of DYX1C1 are not associated with dyslexia in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saviour, Pushpa; Kumar, Satish; Kiran, U; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Rao, V R; Ramachandra, Nallur Basappa

    2008-01-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene, DYX1C1 influence dyslexia. In the present...

  10. Allelic variants of DYX1C1 are not associated with dyslexia in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saviour Pushpa; Kumar Satish; Kiran U; Ravuri Rajasekhara; Rao V.; Ramachandra Nallur

    2008-01-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene, DYX1C1 influence dyslexia. In the ...

  11. Optical spectral observations of a flickering white-light kernel in a C1 solar flare

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Cauzzi, Gianna; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 18 Aug 2011 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 \\AA\\ to 4550 \\AA\\ acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph a...

  12. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klanchui Amornpan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438 genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a

  13. C^1-approximate solutions of second-order singular ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Karakostas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new method is developed to obtain C^1-approximate solutions of initial and boundary-value problems generated from a one - parameter second order singular ordinary differential equation. Information about the order of approximation is also given by introducing the so called growth index of a function. Conditions are given for the existence of such approximations for initial and boundary-value problems of several kinds. Examples associated with the corresponding graphs of the approximate solutions, for some values of the parameter, are also given.

  14. W-algebras, new rational models and completeness of the c=1 classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of W-algebras with two generators are constructed from chiral vertex operators of a free field representation. If c=1-24k, there exists a W(2,3k) algebra for k element of Z+/2 and a W(2,8k) algebra for k element of Z+/4. All possible lowest-weight representations, their characters and fusion rules are calculated proving that these theories are rational. It is shown, that these non-unitary theories complete the classification of all rational theories with effective central charge ceff=1. The results are generalized to the case of extended supersymmetric conformal algebras. (orig.)

  15. W-algebras, new rational models and completeness of the c=1 classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of W-algebras with two generators are constructed from chiral vertex operators of a free field representation. If c = 1 - 24 k, there exists a W(2,3k) algebra for kelement of Z+/2 and a W (2,8k) algebra for k element of Z+/4. All possible lowest-weight representations, their characters and fusion rules are calculated proving that these therories are rational. It is shown, that these non-unitary theories complete the classification of all rational therories with effective central charge ceff = 1. The results are generalized to the case of extended supersymmetric conformal algebras. (orig.)

  16. Development of Cotton leaf curl virus resistant transgenic cotton using antisense ßC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ilah, Abdul; Husen, Azamal; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2016-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a serious pathogen causing leaf curl disease and affecting the cotton production in major growing areas. The transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Coker 310) plants were developed by using βC1 gene in antisense orientation gene driven by Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter and nos (nopaline synthase) terminator and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and somatic embryogenesis system. Molecular confirmation of the transformants was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. The developed transgenic and inoculated plants remained symptomless till their growth period. In conclusion, the plants were observed as resistant to CLCuV. PMID:27081361

  17. Indirect 13C-1H spin-spin coupling constants in 3-carene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential value of the indirect constants nJCH (n ≥ 2) for the analysis of the compositions and spatial structures of organic compounds is known, but the usual procedures for their measurement from proton-linked 13C NMR spectra are ineffective in the case of terpenoids because of the complex multiplet structures of the signals. In this paper, using (+)-3-carene as an example, the possibility is demonstrated of measuring the complete set of indirect 13C-1H spin-spin coupling constants with the aid of two-dimensional J-resolved 13C NMR with selective excitation of protons. 6 refs

  18. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  19. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  20. Association between nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and the human complement cascade activator serine protease C1 inhibitor (C1INH) valine vs. methionine polymorphism at amino acid position 480.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, M.; Jongh, C.E. de; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Leeuwen, W.B. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Belkum, A. van

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces compounds that interfere with complement deposition. We hypothesized that humans have developed countermeasures to staphylococcal complement evasion and we screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the serine protease C1 inhibitor (C1INH) gene at amino acid posit

  1. $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $a_0(980)$ production in the $\\chi_{c1} \\to \\eta \\pi^+\\pi^-$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Oset, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the $\\chi_{c1} \\to \\eta \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decay, paying attention to the production of $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$ and $a_0(980)$ from the final state interaction of pairs of mesons that can lead to these three mesons in the final state, which is implemented using the chiral unitary approach. Very clean and strong signals are obtained for the $a_0(980)$ excitation in the $\\eta \\pi$ invariant mass distribution and for the $f_0(500)$ in the $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ mass distribution. A smaller, but also clear signal for the $f_0(980)$ excitation is obtained. The results are contrasted with experimental data and the agreement found is good, providing yet one more test in support of the picture where these resonances are dynamically generated from the meson-meson interaction.

  2. An interaction of a NR3C1 polymorphism and antenatal solar activity impacts both hippocampus volume and neuroticism in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMontag

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the interaction of genes and environment in the context of mental health and personality yields important new insights for a better understanding of human nature. Both antenatal and postnatal environmental factors have been considered as potential modulators of genetic activity. Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life. In the present study we would like to introduce a more 'distant' factor that is not under the control of the becoming mother but that nevertheless plays a potential role for the health of the unborn child later on in adulthood. Here, we retrospectively investigate the influence of sunspot activity (while the child is still in the uterus of the becoming mother on brain structure (with a focus on hippocampus and amygdala volume and personality in adulthood. We observe an interaction of a genetic variant (rs41423247 of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1 and sunspot activity in the first trimester after conception on both hippocampal volume and the personality trait neuroticism in adulthood in N = 254 participants. The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and negative emotionality. Carriers of the CC variant of rs41423247 grown in the womb under the influence of high sun radiation (high sunspot activity show both the highest hippocampal gray matter volume in the left hemisphere and lowest neuroticism scores. The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Subtype C1 persistent infection of HHV-8 in a PEL patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxa-Mariatou, V; Papaioannou, D; Loli, A; Papadopoulou, I; Gazouli, M; Mavroudis, P; Nasioulas, G

    2005-10-01

    PEL, a rare type of lymphoma constituting less than 5% of NHLs, has been recently identified as a distinct clinical and pathological entity among the B-cell lymphomas, with characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic, molecular and viral features. ICC, PCR, RT-PCR and sequencing were carried out in biologicals samples from a 44-year-old, non-smoker Caucasian male patient of Greek nationality, HIV-1 negative and HCV positive. The ICC results showed CD30 + , Vimentin + , EMA + , Ki67 + , Pankeratin- and negative to B and T antibodies. In addition, HHV-8 was detected in pleural fluid. Examination of blood samples of the patient over a period of nearly two years showed a persistent infection of HHV-8. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relation to the C1 variant of HHV-8. The samples was also found EBV negative by PCR. Using a combination of clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical features and molecular biology techniques in this study we document a PEL case with persistent HHV-8 of genotype C1 infection. PMID:16194897

  4. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  5. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  6. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  7. Ecallantide is a novel treatment for attacks of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Henriette Farkas, Lilian Varga3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, HungaryAbstract: Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor protein is a rare disease, characterized by paroxysms of edema formation in the subcutis and in the submucosa. Edema can cause obstruction of the upper airway, which may lead to suffocation. Prompt elimination of edema is necessary to save patients from this life-threatening condition. Essentially, these edematous attacks are related to the activation of the kinin-kallikrein system and the consequent release of bradykinin. Ecallantide (known as DX-88 previously, a potent and specific inhibitor of plasma kallikrein is an innovative medicinal product. This is the only agent approved recently by the FDA for all localizations of edematous HAE attacks. Its advantages include no risk of viral contamination, high selectivity, very rapid onset of action, good tolerability, and straightforward subcutaneous administration. Owing to the risk of anaphylaxis, ecallantide should be administered by a health care professional. A postmarketing survey to improve risk-assessment and risk-minimization has been launched. The results of these studies may lead to the approval of ecallantide for self-administration.Keywords: hereditary angioedema, C1-inhibitor deficiency, treatment, bradykinin, kallikrein inhibitor, subcutaneous administration

  8. Formation of carbon nano- and micro-structures on C+1 irradiated copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has identified mechanisms of carbon nano- and micro-structure formation at room temperature, without catalyst and in the environment of immiscible metallic surroundings. The structures include threaded nano fibres, graphitic sheets and carbon onions. Copper as substrate was used due to its immiscibility with carbon. Energetic carbon ions (C+1) of 0.2–2.0 MeV irradiated Cu targets. Cu substrates, apertures and 3 mm dia TEM Cu grids were implanted with the carbon. We observed wide range of μm-size structures formed on Cu grids and along the edges of the irradiated apertures. These are shown to be threaded nano fibers (TNF) of few μm thicknesses with lengths varying from 10 to 3000 μm. Secondary electron microscopy (SEM) identifies the μm-size structures while Confocal microscopy was used to learn about the mechanisms by which C+1 irradiated Cu provides the growth environment. Huge carbon onions of diameters ranging from hundreds of nm to μm were observed in the as-grown and annealed samples. Transformations of the nanostructures were observed under prolonged electron irradiations of SEM and TEM. A mechanism for the formation of carbon nano- and micro-structures is proposed.

  9. Borel and Stokes Nonperturbative Phenomena in Topological String Theory and c=1 Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquetti, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We address the nonperturbative structure of topological strings and c=1 matrix models, focusing on understanding the nature of instanton effects alongside with exploring their relation to the large-order behavior of the 1/N expansion. We consider the Gaussian, Penner and Chern-Simons matrix models, together with their holographic duals, the c=1 minimal string at self-dual radius and topological string theory on the resolved conifold. We employ Borel analysis to obtain the exact all-loop multi-instanton corrections to the free energies of the aforementioned models, and show that the leading poles in the Borel plane control the large-order behavior of perturbation theory. We understand the nonperturbative effects in terms of the Schwinger effect and provide a semiclassical picture in terms of eigenvalue tunneling between critical points of the multi-sheeted matrix model effective potentials. In particular, we relate instantons to Stokes phenomena via a hyperasymptotic analysis, providing a smoothing of the nonp...

  10. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  11. Neutrino Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidenced that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot tell us the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single $\\beta$-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments with different techniques are being constructed, commissioned or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino ...

  12. Mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  13. Molecular basis of hereditary C1q deficiency-revisited: identification of several novel disease-causing mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, L; Skattum, L; Hagelberg, S; Ahlin, A; Schiller, B; Berg, Steve; Genel, F; Truedsson, L; Garred, P

    2011-01-01

    increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. However, the clinical symptoms may vary. For long, the molecular basis of C1q deficiency was ascribed to only six different mutations. In the present report, we describe five new patients with C1q deficiency, present the 12 causative mutations described till...

  14. Dietary cholesterol induces trafficking of intestinal Niemann-Pick Type C1 Like 1 from the brush border to endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Tønnesen, Carina K; Hansen, Gert H;

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) belongs to the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) family of cholesterol transporters and is mainly expressed in the liver and the small intestine. NPC1L1 is believed to be the main transporter responsible for the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Like...

  15. Self-administration of intravenous C1-inhibitor therapy for hereditary angioedema and associated quality of life benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is often debilitating with a serious effect on quality of life (QOL). Treatment of acute HAE attacks is usually with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrates; however, treatment can be delayed by patients' travel time for attending emergency units. We assessed the...

  16. C1, a highly potent novel curcumin derivative, binds to tubulin, disrupts microtubule network and induces apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Mishra, Satyendra; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized a curcumin derivative, 4-{5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-acryloyl]-3-oxo-penta-1,4-dienyl}-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (C1) that displays much stronger antiproliferative activity against various types of cancer cells including multidrug resistance cells than curcumin. C1 depolymerized both interphase and mitotic microtubules in MCF-7 cells and also inhibited the reassembly of microtubules in these cells. C1 inhibited the polymerization of purified tubulin, disrupted the lattice structure of microtubules and suppressed their GTPase activity in vitro. The compound bound to tubulin with a dissociation constant of 2.8±1 μM and perturbed the secondary structures of tubulin. Further, C1 treatment reduced the expression of Bcl2, increased the expression of Bax and down regulated the level of a key regulator of p53, murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) (S166), in MCF-7 cells. C1 appeared to induce p53 mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, C1 showed more stability in aqueous buffer than curcumin. The results together showed that C1 perturbed microtubule network and inhibited cancer cells proliferation more efficiently than curcumin. The strong antiproliferative activity and improved stability of C1 indicated that the compound may have a potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:26980197

  17. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  18. 86 The Efficacy and Safety of Human Plasma-derived C1-Inhibitor Concentrate Administered for the Treatment of Attacks in Pediatric Patients with Hereditary Angioedema Due to C1-Inhibitor Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Henriette; Csuka, Dorottya; Zotter, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Erika; Kelemen, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Lilian; Fejes, János; Harmat, George

    2012-01-01

    Background Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) is a life-threatening, rare disease characterized by recurrent edematous attacks. In 50% of cases, the initial onset of symptoms occurs between 5 and 11 years of age. There are limited data on the emergency treatment of acute episodes in pediatric patients. Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of human plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate in our pediatric patient population with HAE-C1-INH. Methods 50 pediatric patients (23 boys, 27 girls; 45 HAE type I, 5 HAE type II patients) were enrolled. The follow-up period began at the time of diagnosis and ended when the patient turned 18 years old. The indications for the use of C1-INH concentrate were upper airway oedema of any severity; moderate-to-severe abdominal edema; edema of face, neck, or lips and severe edema of the extremities and trunk. Clinical and laboratory data were entered into the Hungarian HAE Registry. Results 152 attacks out of 1392 experienced by 42 patients were treated with C1-INH concentrate (28% of attacks at home and 72% at the clinic). The distribution of C1-INH-treated attacks by location was as follows: 38% subcutaneous, 32% abdominal, 30% upper airway. In all locations, the clinical symptoms were consistently relieved by 500 IU C1-INH concentrate. An additional 500 IU dose of C1-INH concentrate was required in 4 cases only. The symptoms improved within 15 to 60 minutes of drug administration. Time to complete resolution was 24 to 48 hours in subcutaneous edema, 12 to 24 hours in abdominal attacks, and less than 12 hours when the edema involved the upper airways. No progression or recurrence of the attack was observed. Repeated administration did not reduce therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Adverse events did not occur. Transmission of viral infections (HIV, HBV, HBC, Parvo virus B19) was not detected. Comparing the first and last year of follow-up, anti-C1-INH antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM types) did not show any

  19. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  20. Overlapping ATP2C1 and ASTE1 Genes in Human Genome: Implications for SPCA1 Expression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Micaroni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATP2C1 gene encodes for the secretory pathway calcium (Ca2+-ATPase pump (SPCA1, which localizes along the secretory pathway, mainly in the trans-Golgi. The loss of one ATP2C1 allele causes Hailey-Hailey disease in humans but not mice. Examining differences in genomic organization between mouse and human we speculate that the overlap between ATP2C1 and ASTE1 genes only in humans could explain this different response to ATP2C1 dysregulation. We propose that ASTE1, overlapping with ATP2C1 in humans, affects alternative splicing, and potentially protein expression of the latter. If dysregulated, the composition of the SPCA1 isoform pool could diverge from the physiological status, affecting cytosolic Ca2+-signaling, and in turn perturbing cell division, leading to cell death or to neoplastic transformation.

  1. H+CH→H2+C(1D)反应的立体动力学研究%Theoretical study of the stereo-dynamics of the reaction H+CH→H2 +C(1D)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴

    2012-01-01

    The vector correlations between products and reagents for the reactions H + C(ID)H-*-H2+C CD) at different collision energy have been studied by using the quasi—classical trajectories (QCT) on an ab initio potential energy surface of 1A'symmetry. Four polarization-dependent generalized differential cross-sections (PDDCSs) have been calculated in center-of-mass (CM) frame. The distribution P(0r) of the angle between Jk and j', the distribution P( ψr ) of dihedral angle denoting k — k' —j' correlation in the form of polar plots are calculated as well. The effect of deep well in potential surface and differ collision energies on the alignment and the orientation of product molecule H2 rotational angular momentum vectors j' is revealed.%利用从头计算的对称性为1A'的势能面,用准经典轨线(QCT)方法在不同的碰撞能下研究了反应H+CH→H2 +C(1D)的产物和反应物的矢量相关性质.在质心系下计算了四个极化微分反应截面.计算并讨论了描述k和j '夹角分布关系的P(θr)和描述k-k'-j'三者的二面角分布关系的P(φr).计算结果表明势能面上的深势阱和不同的碰撞能对产物分子H2有重要影响.

  2. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually...... major overlap between the female and male shapes. In the light of the observed results, we confirm the lack of accuracy reported when using the lateral angle method to determine sex and we hypothesise that it may be explained by a lack of sexual dimorphism of the cranial base in terms of shape....

  3. Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

    2014-08-01

    Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

  4. The lateral canthus in cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael L; Hornblass, Albert

    2002-02-01

    Normally contoured eyelid fissures will enhance the appearance of patients who undergo cosmetic eyelid surgery. The shape and integrity of the lateral canthal structures frequently affect the configuration of the eyelid fissure. Undetected canthal abnormalities may lead to untoward postoperative functional and cosmetic results. An understanding of the etiology and detection of lateral canthal pathology and the treatment of the lateral can thus as a functional unit in cosmetic surgery will enable the plastic surgeon to avoid these complications and enhance surgical results. PMID:15062327

  5. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  6. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Wook; Yun, Byung Min

    2016-07-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  7. Probing scalar meson structures in $\\chi_{c1}$ decays into pseudoscalar and scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the decay branching ratios of $\\chi_{c1}\\to PS$, in a quark model parametrization scheme, where $P$ and $S$ stand for pseudoscalar and scalar meson, respectively. An interesting feature of this decay process is that the $c\\bar{c}$ annihilate via the pQCD hair-pin diagram is supposed to be dominant. Hence, this decay process should be sensitive to the quark components of the final-state light mesons, and would provide a great opportunity for testing the mixing relations among the scalar mesons, i.e. $f_0(1370)$, $f_0(1500)$ and $f_0(1710)$, by tagging the final state pseudoscalar mesons.

  8. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  9. On trigonometric basis functions for C1 curved beam finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, J. E. F.; Heppler, G. R.

    1992-10-01

    The formulation of a finite element model for a thin curved beam which is described by the Winkler beam model is presented. A review and discussion of the literature that pertains to this type of element is included with special attention being paid to the need to be able to recover incremental rigid body motions. Three different C1 trigonometric trial functions that allow the recovery of incremental rigid body motions are investigated. The attributes and deficiencies of the various elements are examined and discussed via several problems which have been designed to evaluate the performance of the element. The 4U4W element is shown to be the best choice of those elements considered here.

  10. The set of badly approximable vectors is strongly $C^1$ incompressible

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Ryan; Kleinbock, Dmitry; Reich, Asaf; Weiss, Barak

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the countable intersection of $C^1$-diffeomorphic images of certain Diophantine sets has full Hausdorff dimension. For example, we show this for the set of badly approximable vectors in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, improving earlier results of Schmidt and Dani. To prove this, inspired by ideas of McMullen, we define a new variant of Schmidt's $(\\alpha, \\beta)$-game and show that our sets are hyperplane absolute winning (HAW), which in particular implies winning in the original game. The HAW property passes automatically to games played on certain fractals, thus our sets intersect a large class of fractals in a set of positive dimension. This extends earlier results of Fishman to a more general set-up, with simpler proofs.

  11. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (3 links) Motor Neurone Disease Association (UK) Muscular Dystrophy Association National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) ALS2-Related Disorders Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ...

  13. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  14. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  15. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  16. Upper blepharoplasty and lateral wound dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment, tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  17. New Technique for C1 Double-Door Laminoplasty Using Allograft Spacers and Titanium Miniplate Screw Fixation: Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Woo; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Lee, Ho-Won; Oh, Jae-Keun; Kwak, Yoon-Hae

    2016-03-01

    Although conventional C1 laminectomy is the gold standard for decompression at the atlas, it provides little space for the bone graft to fuse. The fusion area can be extended cranially up to the occipital bone, but it requires sacrificing the function of the craniocervical junction. To date, no reports have focused on surgical techniques for successful decompression and fusion without disruption of the posterior C1 arch while providing enough room for the bone graft to fuse. This study introduces a new technique for C1-C2 fusion and C1 double-door laminoplasty in patients with C1-C2 instability, canal stenosis, and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A 66-year-old man who had undergone C1-C2 fusion at a local clinic 2 years earlier visited our hospital due to progressive myelopathy. A preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan showed the tip of the odontoid process, extending into the spinal canal. On the axial view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, the tip of the odontoid process significantly compressed the spinal cord on the left side. The atlantodental interval was 7 mm on radiography; however, C1-C2 instability was not evident on flexion-extension X-rays due to the previous screw fixation. The patient underwent C1-C2 decompression and fusion surgery with our new surgical technique. The segmental screws were repositioned at C1 and C2, and we performed C1 double-door laminoplasty augmented with an allograft spacer and a titanium miniplate. A marked reduction was seen at postoperative radiograph and CT scan. Neurologic symptoms were relieved dramatically after surgery without any discomfort. No complications were noted. We introduced a new surgical technique that allows bone grafting, decompression, and fusion to be performed without disruption of the posterior C1 arch in the event of C1-C2 canal stenosis combined with instability. This technique may be indicated for other conditions that cause instability and stenosis at the C1-C2 area. PMID:26689563

  18. Transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells identifies PLEK2 and C1QB in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Luo

    Full Text Available Developing analytical methodologies to identify biomarkers in easily accessible body fluids is highly valuable for the early diagnosis and management of cancer patients. Peripheral whole blood is a "nucleic acid-rich" and "inflammatory cell-rich" information reservoir and represents systemic processes altered by the presence of cancer cells.We conducted transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells from melanoma patients. To overcome challenges associated with blood-based transcriptome analysis, we used a PAXgene™ tube and NuGEN Ovation™ globin reduction system. The combined use of these systems in microarray resulted in the identification of 78 unique genes differentially expressed in the blood of melanoma patients. Of these, 68 genes were further analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR using blood samples from 45 newly diagnosed melanoma patients (stage I to IV and 50 healthy control individuals. Thirty-nine genes were verified to be differentially expressed in blood samples from melanoma patients. A stepwise logit analysis selected eighteen 2-gene signatures that distinguish melanoma from healthy controls. Of these, a 2-gene signature consisting of PLEK2 and C1QB led to the best result that correctly classified 93.3% melanoma patients and 90% healthy controls. Both genes were upregulated in blood samples of melanoma patients from all stages. Further analysis using blood fractionation showed that CD45(- and CD45(+ populations were responsible for the altered expression levels of PLEK2 and C1QB, respectively.The current study provides the first analysis of whole blood-based transcriptome biomarkers for malignant melanoma. The expression of PLEK2, the strongest gene to classify melanoma patients, in CD45(- subsets illustrates the importance of analyzing whole blood cells for biomarker studies. The study suggests that transcriptome profiling of blood cells could be used for both early detection of melanoma and monitoring of patients

  19. Prophylaxe beim hereditären Angioödem (HAE) mit C1-Inhibitormangel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Jens; Strassen, Ulrich; Gorczyza, Marina; Dominas, Nina; Frahm, Uta-Marie; Mühlberg, Heike; Wiednig, Michaela; Zampeli, Vasiliki; Magerl, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Das hereditäre Angioödem (engl.: hereditary angioedema, HAE) ist eine seltene angeborene Erkrankung, die durch wiederkehrende Episoden subkutaner oder submuköser Ödeme charakterisiert ist. Kehlkopf-Manifestationen können lebensbedrohlich sein. In den meisten Fällen kann die Erkrankung mit einem On-Demand-Ansatz angemessen behandelt werden - in einigen Fällen ist jedoch eine Kurz- oder Langzeitprophylaxe angebracht. Attenuierte Androgene waren einmal das Standardmedikament; sie werden jedoch mit erheblichen Nebenwirkungen in Verbindung gebracht und sind in den deutschsprachigen Ländern der EU nicht mehr kommerziell erhältlich. Zurzeit werden sie von wirksameren und besser verträglichen Therapien wie C1-Esterase-Inhibitoren, dem Kallikrein-Inhibitor Ecallantid und dem B2-Rezeptorantagonisten Icatibant verdrängt, welche kürzlich auf dem Markt zugelassen wurden. Diese neuen Medikamente hatten einen erheblichen Einfluss, insbesondere auf die Indikationsstellung und das Vorgehen bei einer Langzeitprophylaxe. Nach den neuesten internationalen Konsenspapieren und unserer eigenen Erfahrung sind selbstverabreichte C1-Inhibitoren nun die erste Option bei der Langzeitprophylaxe. Die Entscheidung für eine Prophylaxe sollte nicht länger auf der Grundlage einzelner Parameter wie der Häufigkeit der Anfälle getroffen werden, sondern auf einer adäquaten allgemeinen Krankheitskontrolle, einschließlich der Lebensqualität. Zurzeit werden weitere Medikamente entwickelt, welche zu weiteren Veränderungen bei den Behandlungsalgorithmen des HAE führen könnten. PMID:26972190

  20. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids. PMID:27264676

  1. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the lateral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Darmoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs are rare and highly malignant embryonal central nervous system neoplasms, usually seen in very young children with rapid fatal outcome despite aggressive treatment. They are most commonly located in the posterior fossa. Intraventricular location is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 4 cases of lateral ventricle location were reported in the literature. We report the fifth case of lateral ventricle AT/RT in a 2-month-old male who presented with rapid increase of his head circumference. Brain computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous huge mass within the left lateral ventricle extending to the parieto-occipital parenchyma and markedly enhancing by contrast. The baby underwent left transparietal approach with complete removal of the tumor. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of AT/RT. An aggressive chemotherapy was administrated postoperatively. The outcome is good without neurological deficit or recurrence after 3 years and half of follow-up.

  2. Discoid lateral meniscus and its arthroscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Asik, Mehmet; Sen, Cengiz; Dikici, Fatih; Sozen, Yunus V.; Taser, Omer F.; Alturfan, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in patients with lateral discoid menisci of the knee. Methods: Lateral discoid menisci were documented in 274 patients, of whom 183 patients (110 males, 73 females; mean age 34.8 years; range 6-67 years) were clinically and arthroscopically found to be symptomatic and underwent total, subtotal, or partial meniscectomy. The most common complaints were pain, lurch, feeling of giving way, locking, limited extension, and marked ...

  3. Efferent pathways of the mouse lateral habenula

    OpenAIRE

    Quina, Lely A.; Tempest, Lynne; Ng, Lydia; Harris, Julie; Ferguson, Susan; Jhou, Thomas; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is part of the habenula complex of the dorsal thalamus. Recent studies of the LHb have focused on its projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which contain GABAergic neurons that mediate reward prediction error via inhibition of dopaminergic activity. However, older studies in the rat have also identified LHb outputs to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, median raphe, dorsal raphe, and dorsal tegmentum. Althoug...

  4. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  5. Moliere angular and lateral distributions with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moliere distribution for arbitrary linear combination between the deflection angle and the lateral displacement is improved to take into account ionization loss. The analytical results for lateral distribution derived through numerical integrations for dilogarithm function are compared with our detailed Monte Carlo results. Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distribution derived with Moliere parameters, is also confirmed to agree with our detailed Monte Carlo results. (author)

  6. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without co...

  7. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Pinto, Thatiana J P; Bastos, Francisco I; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia.......This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  8. Numerical Modeling of Laterally Loaded Piles

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Kok; B. B.k. Huat

    2008-01-01

    Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and piles response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the ca...

  9. Lateral phase separation of confined membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Mesfin

    2010-01-01

    We consider membranes interacting via short, intermediate and long stickers. The effects of the intermediate stickers on the lateral phase separation of the membranes are studied via mean-field approximation. The critical potential depth of the stickers increases in the presence of the intermediate sticker. The lateral phase separation of the membrane thus suppressed by the intermediate stickers. Considering membranes interacting with short and long stickers, the effect of confinement on the ...

  10. Social Determinants of Depression in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schaan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation thesis adds to the understanding of the social etiology of depression in later life from a theory based, empirical perspective. By means of three different research questions, the essays of this dissertation shed light on the social causes of depression from different angles: the associations between widowhood and depression as well as retirement and depression are used as examples for the impact of critical life events on mental health in later life. A third research que...

  11. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  12. Lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele : a rare anomaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty D

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele is a rare spinal developmental anomaly. In the case under report, the fat attached to the neural placode was blending with the gluteal fat externally. The cord was tethered at this level. Multiple bony anomalies and diastematomyelia were associated findings. A case of lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele with excellent imaging detail provided by the multiplanar magnetic resonance (MR scan is reported.

  13. Substrate specificity of the adenylation enzyme SgcC1 involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Lin, Shuangjun; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Kelleher, Neil L; Shen, Ben

    2006-10-01

    C-1027 is an enediyne antitumor antibiotic composed of a chromophore with four distinct chemical moieties, including an (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety that is derived from l-alpha-tyrosine. SgcC4, a novel aminomutase requiring no added co-factor that catalyzes the formation of the first intermediate (S)-beta-tyrosine and subsequently SgcC1 homologous to adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was identified as specific for the SgcC4 product and did not recognize any alpha-amino acids. To definitively establish the substrate for SgcC1, a full kinetic characterization of the enzyme was performed using amino acid-dependent ATP-[(32)P]PP(i) exchange assay to monitor amino acid activation and electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectroscopy to follow the loading of the activated beta-amino acid substrate to the peptidyl carrier protein SgcC2. The data establish (S)-beta-tyrosine as the preferred substrate, although SgcC1 shows promiscuous activity toward aromatic beta-amino acids such as beta-phenylalanine, 3-chloro-beta-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine, but all were <50-fold efficient. A putative active site mutant P571A adjacent to the invariant aspartic acid residue of all alpha-amino acid-specific adenylation domains known to date was prepared as a preliminary attempt to probe the substrate specificity of SgcC1; however the mutation resulted in a loss of activity with all substrates except (S)-beta-tyrosine, which was 142-fold less efficient relative to the wild-type enzyme. In total, SgcC1 is now confirmed to catalyze the second step in the biosynthesis of the (S)-3-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-beta-phenylalanine moiety of C-1027, presenting downstream enzymes with an (S)-beta-tyrosyl-S-SgcC2 thioester substrate, and represents the first beta-amino acid-specific adenylation enzyme characterized biochemically. PMID:16887797

  14. A hormone-responsive C1-domain-containing protein At5g17960 mediates stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindran Vijay Bhaskar

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play a critical role in mediating plant stress response. They employ a variety of proteins for coordinating such processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, some members of a Cys-rich protein family known as C1-clan proteins were involved in stress response, but the actual function of the protein family is largely unknown. We studied At5g17960, a C1-clan protein member that possesses three unique C1 signature domains viz. C1_2, C1_3 and ZZ/PHD type. Additionally, we identified 72 other proteins in A. thaliana that contain all three unique signature domains. Subsequently, the 73 proteins were phylogenetically classified into IX subgroups. Promoter motif analysis of the 73 genes identified the presence of hormone-responsive and stress-responsive putative cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, we observed that transcript levels of At5g17960 were induced in response to different hormones and stress treatments. At1g35610 and At3g13760, two other members of subgroup IV, also showed upregulation upon GA3, biotic and abiotic stress treatments. Moreover, seedlings of independent transgenic A. thaliana lines ectopically expressing or suppressing At5g17960 also showed differential regulation of several abiotic stress-responsive marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that C1-domain-containing proteins have a role to play in plant hormone-mediated stress responses, thereby assigning a putative function for the C1-clan protein family.

  15. Structure and function of complement protein C1q and its role in the development of autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Smykał-Jankowiak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement plays an important role in the immune system. Three different pathways of complement activation are known: the classical, alternative, and lectin dependent. They involve more than 30 serum peptides. C1q is the first subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement activation. It is composed of three types of chains, A, B, and C, which form a molecule containing 18 peptides. Each of the chains has a short amino-terminal region followed by a collagen-like region (playing a role in the activation of C1r2C1s2 and a carboxy-terminal head, which binds to immune complexes. Recent studies have shown a great number of ligands for C1q, including aggregated IgG, IgM, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I, gp21 peptide, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 gp21 peptide, β-amyloid, fragments of bacterial walls, apoptotic cells, and many others. However, the role of C1q is not only associated with complement activation. It also helps in the removal of immune complexes and necrotic cells, stimulates the production of some cytokines, and modulates the function of lymphocytes. Complete C1q deficiency is a rare genetic disorder. The C1q gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1. So far, only a few mutations in C1q gene have been reported. The presence of these mutations is strongly associated with recurrent bacterial infections and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Recent clinical studies point to the significance of anti-C1q antibodies in the diagnosis and assessment of lupus nephritis activity.

  16. Inclusive and exclusive measurements of B decays to χc1 and χc2 at Belle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Miyabayashi, K.; Panzenbock, E.; Trabelsi, K.; Frey, A.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, David M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, Anu; Bansal, Vikas; Barberio, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bracko, Marko; Browder, Thomas E.; Cervenkov, D.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, David A.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dolezal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, James E.; Ferber, T.; Frost, O.; Fulsom, Bryan G.; Gaur, Vipin; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, Sudeshna; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Glattaur, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Greenwald, D.; Haba, J.; Hamer, P.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W. S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, Igal; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kato, E.; Katrenko, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, Kay; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, N.; Kodys, P.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Krokovny, Pavel; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, R.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon , Y J; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Loos, Alyssa; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, Subhashree; Moll, A.; Moon, H K.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, Minakshi; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, Bilas K.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, Todd; Pestotnik, R.; Petric, M.; Piilonen, Leo E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Purohit, Milind M.; Rauch, J.; Ribezl, Eva; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, Himansu B.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, Saurabh; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, Vladimir; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, ME; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T. A.; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Singh, J. B.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Staric, M.; Stypula, J.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, Umberto; Tanida, K.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Yuji; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, Gary; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Wehle, S.; Won, Eun Il; Yamaoka, Jared AK; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yook, Youngmin; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2016-03-29

    We report inclusive and exclusive measurements for χc1 and χc2 production in B decays. We measure B(B → χc1X)= (3.03 ± 0.05(stat) ± 0.24(syst)) × 10−3 and B(B → χc2X)= (0.70 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.10(syst)) × 10−3 . For the first time, χc2 production in exclusive B decays in the modes B 0 → χc2π −K+ and B + → χc2π +π −K+ has been observed, along with first evidence for the B + → χc2π +K0 S decay mode. For χc1 production, we report the first observation in the B + → χc1π +π −K+, B 0 → χc1π +π −K0 S and B 0 → χc1π 0π −K+ decay modes. Using these decay modes, we observe a difference in the production mechanism of χc2 in comparison to χc1 in B decays. In addition, we report searches for X(3872) and χc1(2P) in the B + → (χc1π +π −)K+ decay 3 mode. The reported results use 772 × 106 BB events collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e +e − collider.

  17. Peptide inhibitor of complement C1 (PIC1, a novel suppressor of classical pathway activation: mechanistic studies and clinical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sharp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses as well as an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease (CAD, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH, is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema (HAE, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibit complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these Peptide Inhibitors of Complement C1 (PIC1 bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of fifteen amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro as well as inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR.

  18. A study on the lateral cephalometric tomography of TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Yoon, Jung Ho [Dept. of Dental Science, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author obtained individualizes lateral cephalometric tomograms form 23 young adults (46 of left and right normal TMJ) with normal occlusion and 20 patients (14 of patient asymptomatic TMJ and 26 of patient symptomatic TMJ) with clicking and painful TMJ after the analysis of submental vertex view. Individualized lateral cephalometric tomogram analysis and TMJ space analysis were performed after tracing each film. All data form these analysis was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. The results were obtained as follows: 1. In submental vertex view, the mean condylar angulation of Rt. side in normal group was 20.348 degrees {+-} 6.358 degrees, Lt. si de was 18.870 degrees {+-} 7.777 degrees and Rt. side in patient group was 19.350 degrees {+-} 7.576 degrees, Lt, side was 17.750 degrees {+-} 6.146 degrees respectively. The mean condylar angulation of Rt. side was larger than Lt, side in normal and patient group. 2. When the mandible was moved from centric occlusion to centric relation, condylar position relating to the glenoid fossa was placed posteriorly and superiorly in normal TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group. 3. In centric relation position, the proportion of anterior space to posterior space was 1.593 for normal TMJ group , 1.604 for patient asymptomatic TMJ group and 1.671 for patient symptomatic TMJ group. In centric occlusion position, 1.390 for normal TMJ group, 1.539 for patient asymptomatic TMJ group and 1.196 for patient asymptomatic group. 4. Normal TMJ group, patient asymptomatic TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group revealed significant difference in C2 measurement. (ANOVA-test, P<0.05) br> 5. Normal group and patient group revealed significant in Fh, C1 and C2 measurement. (T-test, P<0.05)>

  19. A study on the lateral cephalometric tomography of TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author obtained individualizes lateral cephalometric tomograms form 23 young adults (46 of left and right normal TMJ) with normal occlusion and 20 patients (14 of patient asymptomatic TMJ and 26 of patient symptomatic TMJ) with clicking and painful TMJ after the analysis of submental vertex view. Individualized lateral cephalometric tomogram analysis and TMJ space analysis were performed after tracing each film. All data form these analysis was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. The results were obtained as follows: 1. In submental vertex view, the mean condylar angulation of Rt. side in normal group was 20.348 degrees ± 6.358 degrees, Lt. si de was 18.870 degrees ± 7.777 degrees and Rt. side in patient group was 19.350 degrees ± 7.576 degrees, Lt, side was 17.750 degrees ± 6.146 degrees respectively. The mean condylar angulation of Rt. side was larger than Lt, side in normal and patient group. 2. When the mandible was moved from centric occlusion to centric relation, condylar position relating to the glenoid fossa was placed posteriorly and superiorly in normal TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group. 3. In centric relation position, the proportion of anterior space to posterior space was 1.593 for normal TMJ group , 1.604 for patient asymptomatic TMJ group and 1.671 for patient symptomatic TMJ group. In centric occlusion position, 1.390 for normal TMJ group, 1.539 for patient asymptomatic TMJ group and 1.196 for patient asymptomatic group. 4. Normal TMJ group, patient asymptomatic TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group and patient symptomatic TMJ group revealed significant difference in C2 measurement. (ANOVA-test, P 5. Normal group and patient group revealed significant in Fh, C1 and C2 measurement. (T-test, P

  20. Platelets in inflammation : Role of complement protein C1q, C-reactive proteinand toll-like receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are proven essential in haemostasis, however, they are now also increasingly recognized as cells with important immunomodulatory properties, e.g. through interaction with leukocytes and several species of bacteria and by release inflammatory mediators upon activation. Moreover, platelets express receptors involved in immunity and inflammation such as Fcγ‐receptor IIa, complement protein C1q‐receptors (gC1qR, cC1qR, CD93 and α2β1) and toll‐like receptors (TLR‐1, ‐2, ‐4, ‐6 and ‐9). C...

  1. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  2. Neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidence that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot provide the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations, two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single {beta}-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments using different techniques are being constructed, commissioned, or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of O(100) meV. The principal methods and these experiments are discussed in this short review. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Nonseptic and Septic Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanatha, B.; Thriveni, C. N.; Naseeruddin, Khaja

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis of the lateral sinus can be classified into nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis and septic lateral sinus thrombosis. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis differs from septic lateral sinus thrombosis in that it is not associated with ear or sinus infection. Etiologies of these conditions are different and hence the management of these conditions is different. Nonseptic lateral sinus thrombosis requires medical line of management and anticoagulant therapy, where as septic lateral sinus ...

  4. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  6. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  7. Search for Al-26 effects in the Allende FUN inclusion C1. [Fractionation and Unknown Nuclear anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esat, T. M.; Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mg isotopic composition of major and minor mineral phases in the Allende inclusion C1 is reported. The results are analyzed in order to establish whether the Mg isotopic composition is the same in different phases and whether Al-26 is present in a sample which exhibited fractionation and unknown nuclear (FUN) effects on other elements. It is found that a small Mg-26 excess exists in C1 and is correlated with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio, indicating that Al-26 was present in C1 together with the more general nuclear anomalies. The results also reveal that isotopic homogeneity of Mg in Mg-rich phases in C1 is evident in both bulk samples and single microscopic crystals.

  8. Extreme lateral transcondylar approach to the skull base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerji D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors present their experience of using extreme later transcondylar approach (ELTC for treating 7 patients with lesions in the anterolateral foramen magnum, upper cervical spine and cerebellopontine angle reaching upto jugular foramen. The tumours included meningiomas, neurofibromas (2 cases each, chondrosarcoma, epidermoid and aneurysmal bone cyst (one case each. The approach was used alone, in combination with retrolabyrinthine presigmoid approach in a patient with lower cranial nerve neurofibroma extending extracranially through the jugular foramen, or in combination with partial C1-C3 laminectomy in two patients with meningiomas situated anterolateral to the cord from the foramen magnum to C3. In two patients with extradural vertebral artery (VA entrapment by a chondrosarcoma and aneurysmal bone cyst respectively, the vertebral artery was ligated distal to the tumour. The tumours were totally excised in five cases and partially in two. There was no preoperative mortality. The major complications included cerebrospinal fluid leak from the wound (3 cases and increase in lower cranial nerve paresis (2 cases. At follow up, ranging from 6 months to 2 years, 5 patients showed no tumour recurrence. There was improvement in neurological status. One patient, with a partially excised aneurysmal bone cyst, showed no added deficits or increase in the tumour size. However, there was a massive regrowth in the patient with chondrosarcoma after 6 months. This technique provided a wide surgical exposure with direct visualization of the tumour-anterior cord interface, early proximal control of the VA and preservation of lower cranial nerves.

  9. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model. DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42]) of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer

  10. [Failed compression osteosynthesis of the dens axis treated by anterior C1-C2 transarticular stabilisation. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočiš, J; Kelbl, M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the case of an 80-year-old female patient who had undergone anterior C1-C2 transarticular stabilisation and was subsequently treated by the triple-screw method for failed compression osteosynthesis of a AO type III dens axis fracture. Key words: dens axis, upper cervical spine fracture, eldery, triple screw technique, anterior transarticular C1-C2 stabilisation. PMID:21729645

  11. GLOBAL C1 SOLUTION TO THE INITIAL-BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR DIAGONAL HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH LINEARLY DEGENERATE CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ta-tsien(李大潜); Peng Yue-Jun

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the C0 boundedness of solution impliesthe global existence and uniqueness of C1 solution to the initial-boundary value problem for linearly degenerate quasilinear hyperbolic systems of diagonal form with nonlinear boundary conditions. Thus, if the C1 solution to the initial-boundary value problem blows up in a finite time, then the solution itself must tend to the infinity at the starting point of singularity.

  12. Complement protein C1q directs macrophage polarization and limits inflammasome activity during the uptake of apoptotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Marie E; Clarke, Elizabeth V.; Morgado, Pedro; Fraser, Deborah A.; Tenner, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency in C1q, the recognition component of the classical complement cascade and a pattern recognition receptor involved in apoptotic cell clearance, leads to lupus-like auto-immune diseases characterized by auto-antibodies to self proteins and aberrant innate immune cell activation likely due to impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. Here, we developed an autologous system using primary human lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) to characterize the effect of C1q on macrop...

  13. Correlation of Serum Soluble Interleukin-7 Receptor and Anti-C1q Antibody in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibody have recently been identified as unique serological markers for lupus nephritis (LN in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q in SLE patients. Methods. Sera from 134 patients with SLE and 84 healthy cohorts were tested for levels of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies in terms of ELISA. Correlations of the sIL-7R and anti-C1q autoantibodies were evaluated. Results. The serum concentrations of sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were significantly higher in SLE patients and LN patients in comparison with healthy individuals/controls and SLE patients with non-LN, respectively. In addition, both sIL-7R and anti-C1q concentrations were found to significantly correlate with the SLE disease activity as evaluated by SLEDAI scores. Interestingly, the serum sIL-7R concentration was strongly correlated with the level of anti-C1q antibodies (r=0.2871, p=0.0008 but not statistically correlated with other serological markers, including the anti-dsDNA and complements C3 and C4 concentrations in SLE patients. Conclusion. Both serum sIL-7R and anti-C1q antibodies were strongly associated with disease activity and LN in SLE patients, suggesting that they may be reliable serological markers for identification of SLE patients with active diseases and LN.

  14. The prophylactic use of C1 inhibitor in hereditary angioedema patients undergoing invasive surgical procedures: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gavigan, Geneviève; Yang, William H; Santucci, Stephanie; Harrison, Rachel; Karsh, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Background Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by episodic angioedema, which may be triggered by invasive procedures and surgery. C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) was approved in the United States and Canada in 2009 and 2010, respectively, for the treatment of acute attacks. Most recently in April 2013, it was approved in Europe for short-term prophylaxis (STP), prior to medical, dental, or surgical procedures, to prevent HAE attacks in both children and adul...

  15. Optical Spectral Observations of a Flickering White-Light Kernel in a C1 Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Adam F; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 18 Aug 2011 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 \\AA\\ to 4550 \\AA\\ acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, $\\le$0''.5 ($10^{15}$ cm$^2$) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of h...

  16. Necroptosis in Niemann–Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  17. Impaired Autophagy in the Lipid-Storage Disorder Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovan Sarkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in misfolded protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in several diseases. Whether alterations in autophagy also contribute to the pathology of lipid-storage disorders is not clear. Here, we show defective autophagy in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 disease associated with cholesterol accumulation, where the maturation of autophagosomes is impaired because of defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery, whereas the lysosomal proteolytic function remains unaffected. Expression of functional NPC1 protein rescues this defect. Inhibition of autophagy also causes cholesterol accumulation. Compromised autophagy was seen in disease-affected organs of Npc1 mutant mice. Of potential therapeutic relevance is that HP-β-cyclodextrin, which is used for cholesterol-depletion treatment, impedes autophagy, whereas stimulating autophagy restores its function independent of amphisome formation. Our data suggest that a low dose of HP-β-cyclodextrin that does not perturb autophagy, coupled with an autophagy inducer, may provide a rational treatment strategy for NPC1 disease.

  18. Necroptosis in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  19. Crossing the c=1 barrier in 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Loll, R.

    2000-02-01

    In an extension of earlier work we investigate the behavior of two-dimensional (2D) Lorentzian quantum gravity under coupling to a conformal field theory with c>1. This is done by analyzing numerically a system of eight Ising models (corresponding to c=4) coupled to dynamically triangulated Lorentzian geometries. It is known that a single Ising model couples weakly to Lorentzian quantum gravity, in the sense that the Hausdorff dimension of the ensemble of two-geometries is two (as in pure Lorentzian quantum gravity) and the matter behavior is governed by the Onsager exponents. By increasing the amount of matter to eight Ising models, we find that the geometry of the combined system has undergone a phase transition. The new phase is characterized by an anomalous scaling of spatial length relative to proper time at large distances, and as a consequence the Hausdorff dimension is now three. In spite of this qualitative change in the geometric sector, and a very strong interaction between matter and geometry, the critical exponents of the Ising model retain their Onsager values. This provides evidence for the conjecture that the KPZ values of the critical exponents in 2D Euclidean quantum gravity are entirely due to the presence of baby universes. Lastly, we summarize the lessons learned so far from 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity.

  20. Ebola Viral Glycoprotein Bound to Its Endosomal Receptor Niemann-Pick C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Song, Jian; Qi, Jianxun; Lu, Guangwen; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-01-14

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg, cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates. Understanding how these viruses enter host cells could help to develop effective therapeutics. An endosomal protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), has been identified as a necessary entry receptor for this process, and priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) to a fusion-competent state is a prerequisite for NPC1 binding. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the primed GP (GPcl) of Ebola virus bound to domain C of NPC1 (NPC1-C) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. NPC1-C utilizes two protruding loops to engage a hydrophobic cavity on head of GPcl. Upon enzymatic cleavage and NPC1-C binding, conformational change in the GPcl further affects the state of the internal fusion loop, triggering membrane fusion. Our data therefore provide structural insights into filovirus entry in the late endosome and the molecular basis for design of therapeutic inhibitors of viral entry. PMID:26771495

  1. Assimilation of formaldehyde and other C1-compounds by Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fungi were isolated from soil which grew on 0.1--0.2% formaldehyde as the sole carbon source, and identified as Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti. Both the strains could grow on 5% methanol and 5% Na-formate, while the former could grow even on 7% methanol. Metabolic pathways were traced through two dimensional paper chromatography and autoradiographic techniques using 14C-formaldehyde, 14C-methanol or 14C-CO2 as substrates. The intracellular metabolites were persued and their quantitative variation with time was measured. Along with the fact that serine and malate appeared in the earlier time, then appeared organic acids and amino acids belonging to TCA cycle, and the fact that hydroxy-pyruvate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were much stronger in methanol culture than in ethanol culture, it was concluded that the two fungi followed the serine pathway in assimilating C1-compounds. Oxidation enzymes of methanol and formaldehyde were also studied, and an oxidizing system was found besides usual NAD linked methanol or formaldehyde dehydrogenases. (auth.)

  2. Sterol-modulated glycolipid sorting occurs in niemann-pick C1 late endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Dwyer, N K; Neufeld, E B; Love, D C; Cooney, A; Comly, M; Patel, S; Watari, H; Strauss, J F; Pentchev, P G; Hanover, J A; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    2001-02-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein and endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol were shown to enrich separate subsets of vesicles containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Localization of Rab7 in the NPC1-containing vesicles and enrichment of lysosomal hydrolases in the cholesterol-containing vesicles confirmed that these organelles were late endosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid marker of the late endosomal pathway, was found in the cholesterol-enriched lysosomes. Recruitment of NPC1 to Rab7 compartments was stimulated by cellular uptake of cholesterol. The NPC1 compartment was shown to be enriched in glycolipids, and internalization of GalNAcbeta1-4[NeuAcalpha2-3]Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'-ceramide (G(M2)) into endocytic vesicles depends on the presence of NPC1 protein. The glycolipid profiles of the NPC1 compartment could be modulated by LDL uptake and accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol. Expression in cells of biologically active NPC1 protein fused to green fluorescent protein revealed rapidly moving and flexible tubular extensions emanating from the NPC1-containing vesicles. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment is a dynamic, sterol-modulated sorting organelle involved in the trafficking of plasma membrane-derived glycolipids as well as plasma membrane and endocytosed LDL cholesterol. PMID:11032830

  3. EAS thermal neutron lateral and temporal distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V; Petrukhin, A A; Shchegolev, O B; Stepanov, V I; Volchenko, V I; Yashin, I I; Zadeba, E A

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of EAS array (PRISMA-32) has been constructed on the base of NEVOD-DECOR experiment (MEPhI,Moscow) and is now taking data. It consists of 32 specially designed scintillator en-detectors able to measure two main EAS components: hadrons (n) and electrons (e). First results on thermal neutron lateral as well as temporal distributions are presented. Obtained exponential neutron lateral distributions are consistent with that expected for normal hadron production with exponential transverse momentum distribution. As there are no other experimental data on thermal neutron distributions and so, to compare results with other measurements, we additionally obtained electron lateral distribution function (using the same detectors) and compared it with NKG - function. Recorded neutron temporal distributions are very close to that obtained with data of our previous prototypes.

  4. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco;

    2010-01-01

    generated by pedestrians during walking on an instrumented moving treadmill. The treadmill was driven sinusoidally in a lateral motion at various vibration frequencies and amplitudes. Visual observations made during the experiments and testimonies from the walkers, as well as subsequent analysis of video...... recordings, suggested that synchronisation is not as pronounced as generally believed. To confirm this, further analyses were undertaken on the walking patterns of 10 test subjects that were instrumented with waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometers. In this paper, the results from these tests are presented....... The tests reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the development of large amplitude lateral vibrations on footbridges, as walking frequencies and phase angles remain largely unaffected by lateral motion at most frequencies and amplitudes. Instead, large amplitude vibrations are the result...

  5. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. PMID:27321757

  6. Study on the nuchal ligament ossification on lateral cephalometric radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and radiographic characteristics of the nuchal ligament ossification on lateral cephalometric radiographs in Koreans. I review and interpreted the lateral cephalometric radiographs from 4,558 patients (1,857 males and 2,701 females, age range from 2 to 79 years) who visited the Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from January 1, 2008 to February 3, 2009. I grouped the shapes of nuchal ligament ossification as round, rod-like, and segmented shape. And localized the ossification as the involvement of anterior cervical vertebral body. The data were analyzed by using chi-squared test with two-tailed and at a 5% significance level. Among those who showed the nuchal ligament ossification, the mean age of the 143 males was 51.1 and that of the 97 females was 48.0 years. It was not observed completely below teens, and was observed 1% in twenties, 6.1% in thirties, 18.6% in forties, and 26.3% over fifties. It was significantly prevalent in older age group (P<0.01) and in males than females among the same age group (P<0.05). The shapes of nuchal ligament ossification were as follows in order of frequency : rod-like (49.2%), round (30.4%), and segmented (20.4%). The highest involvement of ossification was found at the level of C5 (67.9%), C4 (29.2%), C6 (22.9%), C3 (3.3%), C7 (2.9%), C2 (0.8%), and C1 (0.4%). The nuchal ligament ossifications on lateral cephalometric radiographs were showed as round, rodlike, or segmented shape. The nuchal ligament ossification is often observed after the age of 40 and is observed more frequently in males than females. The highest shape of nuchal ligament ossification was rod-like shape and the highest involvement of cervical spine was C5.

  7. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  8. Successful C1 inhibitor short-term prophylaxis during redo mitral valve replacement in a patient with hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Suzanne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is characterized by sudden episodes of nonpitting edema that cause discomfort and pain. Typically the extremities, genitalia, trunk, gastrointestinal tract, face, and larynx are affected by attacks of swelling. Laryngeal swelling carries significant risk for asphyxiation. The disease results from mutations in the C1 esterase inhibitor gene that cause C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency. Attacks of hereditary angioedema result from contact, complement, and fibrinolytic plasma cascade activation, where C1 esterase inhibitor irreversibly binds substrates. Patients with hereditary angioedema cannot replenish C1 esterase inhibitor levels on pace with its binding. When C1 esterase inhibitor is depleted in these patients, vasoactive plasma cascade products cause swelling attacks. Trauma is a known trigger for hereditary angioedema attacks, and patients have been denied surgical procedures because of this risk. However, uncomplicated surgeries have been reported. Appropriate prophylaxis can reduce peri-operative morbidity in these patients, despite proteolytic cascade and complement activation during surgical trauma. We report a case of successful short-term prophylaxis with C1 esterase inhibitor in a 51-year-old man with hereditary angioedema who underwent redo mitral valve reconstructive surgery.

  9. Clinical efficacy of responsibility segment laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in the treatment of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) combined with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)%责任节段椎板全切侧块螺钉内固定术治疗伴后纵韧带骨化症的多节段颈椎病疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华星; 杨圣; 芦健民; 李树强; 邱兴; 廉皓屹; 付大鹏

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨责任节段椎板全切侧块螺钉内固定术治疗伴后纵韧带骨化症的多节段颈椎病的临床疗效.[方法]回顾性分析2007年5月~ 2010年10月手术治疗的多节段颈椎病伴后纵韧带骨化症表现的患者61例,所选多节段病例中(≥3),3个节段50例,4个节段11例.分别采用前后路两种术式,都在显微镜辅助下操作,其中颈后路责任节段椎板全切除侧块螺钉内固定术47例(A组),颈前路椎体次全切钛网植骨融合钛板内固定术14例(B组),分别记录两组手术前后JOA评分及轴性症状VAS评分,加以评定两组术后神经功能改善率(RIS)情况,通过对比分析责任节段椎板全切侧块螺钉内固定术的临床疗效.[结果] 61例患者均获得随访,随访时间在6~38个月,平均16个月.A组的JOA和VAS评分术前分别为(7.2±1.5)、(6.8±2.1)分;术后1周分别为(13.2±2.4)、(2.5±1.4)分;末次随访分别为(13.7±1.8)、(2.3±2.0)分;RIS为(59.92±13.46)%.B组术前JOA和VAS评分分别为(7.5±1.3)、(7.1±2.4)分;术后1周分别为(13.8±2.1)、(2.3±1.5)分;末次随访分别为(14.1±1.6)、(2.2±1.8)分;RIS为(62.28±14.16)%.A组、B组术后1周、末次随访JOA和VAS评分与术前比较均有显著性差异(P<0.05),两组间的术前JOA、VAS评分及术后RIS无统计学差异(P>0.05).[结论]颈前、后路治疗伴后纵韧带骨化症的多节段颈椎病均取得良好的手术疗效,少节段局灶性后纵韧带骨化应以前路为主,对于多节段连续性后纵韧带骨化尤其椎管明显狭窄者,后路责任节段椎板全切侧块螺钉内固定术在有效改善神经功能、轴性症状的同时兼顾了良好的脊柱稳定性,是一种相对安全灵活、使用范围较广的术式.%[ Objective] To observe the clinical outcome of responsibility segment laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) combined with ossification of

  10. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    structure and ordering of society. These demographic changes favour what we call a (geronto)pedagogicalisation of ageing societies (Fristrup, 2012a). The neoliberal agenda of choice and agency unfolds as a transformation of the ways in which old age is being experienced by adults throughout the world. The...... phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile and...... entrepreneurial self (Cruikshank, 1999)....

  11. Hydraulic Analysis for Lateral Weir Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Cverle, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Increasing urbanization and the awareness of flood risk promote interest in floodplain mapping. When we are creating such maps we normally use different mathematical models that help us simulate different flood scenarios. When shaping flooded areas we need to pay attention to the spots where water starts flooding. Often we can define this kind of spots as a lateral flow. If we want to take this fact into account, it is necessary to model such spots as a lateral flow. In this work we analyzed ...

  12. Lateral distribution of electrons in air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the lateral distribution of electrons in extensive air showers generated by 105/109 GeV protons. It was found that the lateral distribution function in extensive air showers contains the same invariant part as the one in a pure electromagnetic cascade. This scaling property is poorly sensitive to the variation of basic parameters of the hadron-nucleus interactions model. We also report on some initial results obtained for the description of the transition effect of shower particles within scintillators of different thickness

  13. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument of...

  14. Realtime vision-based lateral drift correction

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, T; Pajarola, R.

    2009-01-01

    A major drawback in many robotics projects is the dependance on a specific environment and the otherwise uncertain behavior of the hardware. Simple navigation tasks like driving in a straight line can lead to a strong lateral drift over time in an unknown environment. In this paper we propose a fast and simple solution for the lateral drift problem for vision guided robots by real-time scene analysis. Without an environment-specific calibration of the robot’s drive system, we balance the ...

  15. Demonstration of the lateral casimir force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; Mohideen, U; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2002-03-11

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 to 0.3 microm using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. This demonstration opens new opportunities for the use of the Casimir effect for lateral translation in microelectromechanical systems. PMID:11909341

  16. Conservation as a ‘Later Addition’

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Peters

    2002-01-01

    This paper contends that conservation is not a neutral process and plays a part in the history of the object under treatment. As such, conservation always involves changes in the physical fabric of the object and/or in its cultural significance. These changes are referred to here as ‘later additions’, and discussed within the framework of some issues related to conservation practice and theory. It is argued that conservators should be reflexive in their analysis and treatment of ‘later additi...

  17. The determination of the complement components C1q, C4 and C3 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-competitive 2-site radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the determination of the complement proteins C1q, C4 and C3 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are described. The quantitative results of the RIAs were the same as those obtained by other assay methods: radial immunodiffusion and turbidimetry and, in the case of C4, the haemolytic assay. The ratios (concentration in CSF)/(concentration in serum) of the complement proteins correlated poorly with that of albumin. In contrast, the ratio of IgG was significantly correlated with that of albumin. The ratios of the complement proteins were higher than might be expected on the basis of their molecular masses. This suggests that these proteins may be synthesized within the normal central nervous system. (Auth.)

  18. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  19. Lateral distribution of radio emission and its dependence on air shower longitudinal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of radio emission from an extensive air shower is considered as the basic signature sensitive to the shower longitudinal development and, as a consequence, to the mass of a primary cosmic ray's particle that initiated a given shower. The peculiarities in the LDF's structure as well as their sensitivity to the height of shower maximum are investigated and explained

  20. Temporal variability, sources, and sinks of C1-C5 alkyl nitrates in coastal New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Sive

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven C1-C5 alkyl nitrates were measured both on the mainland and off the coast of New Hampshire using gas chromatographic techniques. Five separate data sets are presented to characterize the seasonal and diurnal trends and the major sources and loss processes of these compounds. Based on in situ measurements conducted at the University of New Hampshire (UNH Atmospheric Observing Station at Thompson Farm (TF located in southeast NH during winter (January–February 2002, summer (June–August 2002, summer (July–August 2004, and on daily canister samples collected at midday from January 2004–February 2008, the median total alkyl nitrate mixing ratio (ΣRONO2 was 23–25 pptv in winter and 14–16 pptv in summer. During summers 2002 and 2004, MeONO2 decreased overnight and reached minimum hourly average mixing ratios in the early morning. Comparison with wind speed and trace gas trends suggested that dry deposition contributed to the early morning MeONO2 minimum which is a previously unaccounted for removal mechanism. The mean dry deposition rate and velocity of MeONO2 was estimated to be −0.5 nmol m−2 hr−1 and 0.13 cm s−1, respectively. Results from ambient air and surface seawater measurements made onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Maine during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study and from ambient canister samples collected throughout the Great Bay estuary in August 2003 are also presented. Comparisons between the alkyl nitrate trends with anthropogenic and marine tracers suggest that a marine source of alkyl nitrates is not significant in coastal New England. Given the apparent prominence of a secondary source, comparisons between observed and predicted alkyl nitrate/parent hydrocarbon ratios were made which demonstrated that background mixing ratios have a continuous and prevalent influence on the alkyl nitrate distribution.

  1. OPTICAL SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF A FLICKERING WHITE-LIGHT KERNEL IN A C1 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cauzzi, Gianna [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy and National Solar Observatory, Sunspot NM (United States); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: adam.f.kowalski@nasa.gov [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-10

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 Å to 4550 Å acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, ≤0.''5 (10{sup 15} cm{sup 2}) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a ''blue continuum bump'' in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths.

  2. Fine analysis of spontaneous MAGE-C1/CT7-specific immunity in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuber, Natko; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Matter, Claudia; Soldini, Davide; Tiercy, Jean Marie; von Boehmer, Lotta; Moch, Holger; Dummer, Reinhard; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2010-08-24

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens represent prime candidates for immunotherapy in cancer patients, because their expression is restricted to cancer cells and germ cells of the testis. MAGE-C1/CT7 is a CT antigen that is highly expressed in several types of cancers. Spontaneous occurrence of CT7-specific antibodies was previously detected by SEREX screen in a melanoma patient. However, naturally occurring CT7-specific T-cell responses have thus far not been detected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 26 metastatic melanoma patients expressing CT7 in their tumor lesions (CT7(+)) were analyzed for CT7-specific T-cell responses using overlapping peptides. CT7-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses were detected in three patients (11.5%). These CT7-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses were detectable in melanoma patients' PBMCs exclusively from preexisting CD45RA(-) memory CD4(+) T-cell pool. Additional CT7-specific memory CD4(+) T-cell responses were detected in CT7(+) melanoma patients after depletion of CD4(+)CD25high Treg cells showing that Treg cells impact on CT7-specific CD4(+) T cells in melanoma patients. CT7-specific CD4(+) T-cell clones were generated and used to define minimal epitopes, restriction elements, and confirm the recognition of naturally processed antigen. Surprisingly, these clones were able to secrete perforin and exert cytotoxicity. This study shows that CT7 can induce specific cellular immunity in melanoma patients. Based on these findings, CT7 will be further explored as a potential vaccine for melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:20696919

  3. OPTICAL SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF A FLICKERING WHITE-LIGHT KERNEL IN A C1 SOLAR FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 Å to 4550 Å acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, ≤0.''5 (1015 cm2) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a ''blue continuum bump'' in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths

  4. Cloud effect on the radiation budget of the calculated with the ISCCP C1 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the cloud effect on the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere by use of the ISCCP daylight cloud data (C1) in combination with a Two-Stream-Model. Two tests are performed: the modelled narrowband filtered radiances are verified against the ISCCP satellite observation data (internal test) and the modelled broadband fluxes are compared against ERBE data (external tests). After both tests are succesfully concluded, the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for each of the 35 ISCCP cloud classes are determined. For better clarity we summarized the 35 cloud classes into 9 ones (3 top heights, 3 optical depths). Global monthly and annual means of the albedo and greenhouse effect of these 9 cloud types are given for one month of each season (April, July, October 1985, January 1986). For the global annual mean cloud radiative cooling of the earth in the shortwave spectral range dominates over cloud radiative warming in the longwave spectral range by a factor of 2. Seasonal variations of the net effect are mainly due to the changes in the shortwave cloud forcing component (-43.3 to -52.9 Wm-2 (shortwave), 22.5 to 25.1 Wm-2 (longwave)). The mean cloud sensitivity related to cloud amount changes from -29.4 to -47.7 Wm-2. This is mainly due to the difference between the mean surface albedo of northern and southern hemisphere. A comparison with the results of other studies are shown. The effects of the 9 different cloud types are analysed in detail. Cooling, warming, and radiatively neutral cloud types could be distinguished. (orig.)

  5. Far-lateral transcondylar approach for microsurgical trapping of an anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Justin M; Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Kim, Jennifer E; Luksik, Andrew; Liauw, Jason; Gottschalk, Allan; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior circulation remain challenging lesions given their proximity to the brainstem and cranial nerves. Many of these aneurysms may best be approached through a retrosigmoid-suboccipital craniectomy with a far-lateral transcondylar extension. In this narrated video illustration, we present the case of a 37-year-old man with an incidentally discovered right-sided anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Diagnostic studies included CT angiography and cerebral angiography. A suboccipital craniectomy and far-lateral transcondylar extension were performed for microsurgical trapping and excision of the AICA aneurysm. The techniques of the retrosigmoid craniectomy, C-1 laminectomy, condylectomy and microsurgical trapping of the aneurysm are reviewed. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/JiM3CXVwXnk. PMID:26132623

  6. Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michiel; Hesselman, M.C.; Beek, te T.A.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly quantifyi

  7. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  8. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines establish...

  9. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the rol

  10. Lateral Vortex Dynamics behind Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav

    Karlsruhe , 2010. s. 1-1. ISBN N. [GAMM annual meeting 2010 /81./. 22.03.2010-26.03.2010, Karlsruhe ] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : lateral vortex * dynamics * bluff body Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30. ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  12. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related and...

  13. Clinical Psychology and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnini, Francesco; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Banfi, Paolo; CORBO, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  14. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  15. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  16. Protein aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Anna M.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Koppers, Max; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in affected motor neurons. Recent studies have identified several new molecular constituents of ALS-linked cellular aggregates, including FUS, TDP-43, OPTN, UBQLN2 and the tr

  17. Expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1A in Fundulus heteroclitus during PAH-induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Camus, Alvin C. [Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Willett, Kristine L., E-mail: kwillett@olemiss.edu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1's expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6-8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13-15 dph for 6 h to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 h after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions 8 months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Haploinsufficiency for NR3C1, the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor, in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadali, Anouk; Hoghoughi, Neda; Duley, Samuel; Hajmirza, Azadeh; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, Francois-Loic; Bertrand, Philippe; Roumier, Christophe; Roggy, Anne; Suchaud-Martin, Céline; Chauvet, Martine; Bertrand, Sarah; Hamaidia, Sieme; Rousseaux, Sophie; Josserand, Véronique; Charles, Julie; Templier, Isabelle; Maeda, Takahiro; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel; Jacob, Marie-Christine; Bonnefoix, Thierry; Park, Sophie; Gressin, Remy; Tensen, Cornelis P; Mecucci, Cristina; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Leroux, Dominique; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Luquet, Isabelle; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefebvre, Christine; Garnache, Francine; Callanan, Mary B

    2016-06-16

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and highly aggressive leukemia for which knowledge on disease mechanisms and effective therapies are currently lacking. Only a handful of recurring genetic mutations have been identified and none is specific to BPDCN. In this study, through molecular cloning in an index case that presented a balanced t(3;5)(q21;q31) and molecular cytogenetic analyses in a further 46 cases, we identify monoallelic deletion of NR3C1 (5q31), encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), in 13 of 47 (28%) BPDCN patients. Targeted deep sequencing in 36 BPDCN cases, including 10 with NR3C1 deletion, did not reveal NR3C1 point mutations or indels. Haploinsufficiency for NR3C1 defined a subset of BPDCN with lowered GCR expression and extremely poor overall survival (P = .0006). Consistent with a role for GCR in tumor suppression, functional analyses coupled with gene expression profiling identified corticoresistance and loss-of-EZH2 function as major downstream consequences of NR3C1 deletion in BPDCN. Subsequently, more detailed analyses of the t(3;5)(q21;q31) revealed fusion of NR3C1 to a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) gene (lincRNA-3q) that encodes a novel, nuclear, noncoding RNA involved in the regulation of leukemia stem cell programs and G1/S transition, via E2F. Overexpression of lincRNA-3q was a consistent feature of malignant cells and could be abrogated by bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) protein inhibition. Taken together, this work points to NR3C1 as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in a subset of BPDCN and identifies BET inhibition, acting at least partially via lncRNA blockade, as a novel treatment option in BPDCN. PMID:27060168

  19. Hereditary angioedema in a Jordanian family with a novel missense mutation in the C1-inhibitor N-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Saied A; Caccia, Sonia; Rawashdeh, Rifaat; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Hawamdeh, Ali; Carzaniga, Thomas; Haddad, Hazem

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the SERPING1 gene. A Jordanian family, including 14 individuals with C1-INH-HAE clinical symptoms, was studied. In the propositus and his parents, SERPING1 had four mutations leading to amino acid substitutions. Two are known polymorphic variants (c.167T>C; p.Val34Ala and c.1438G>A; p.Val458Met), the others are newly described. One (c.203C>T; p.Thr46Ile) is located in the N-terminal domain of the C1-inhibitor protein and segregates with angioedema symptoms in the family. The other (c.800C>T; p.Ala245Val) belongs to the serpin domain, and derives from the unaffected father. DNA from additional 24 family members were screened for c.203C>T mutation in the target gene. All individuals heterozygous for the c.203C>T mutation had antigenic and functional plasma levels of C1-inhibitor below 50% of normal, confirming the diagnosis of type I C1-INH-HAE. Angioedema symptoms were present in 14 of 16 subjects carrier for the c.203T allele. Among these subjects, those carrying the c.800T variation had more severe and frequent symptoms than subjects without this mutation. This family-based study provides the first evidence that multiple amino acid substitutions in SERPING1 could influence C1-INH-HAE phenotype. PMID:26895475

  20. Acidic β-mannanase from Penicillium pinophilum C1: Cloning, characterization and assessment of its potential for animal feed application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongying; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-12-01

    The β-mannanase gene, man5C1, was cloned from Penicillium pinophilum C1, a strain isolated from the acidic wastewater of a tin mine in Yunnan, China, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The sequence analysis displayed the gene consists of a 1221-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 406 amino acids (Man5C1). The deduced amino acid sequence of Man5C1 showed the highest homology of 57.8% (identity) with a characterized β-mannanase from Aspergillus aculeatus belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The purified rMan5C1 had a high specific activity of 1035U mg(-1) towards locust bean gum (LBG) and showed highest activity at pH 4.0 and 70°C. rMan5C1 was adaptable to a wide range of acidity, retaining >60% of its maximum activity at pH 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (3.0 to 10.0) and exhibited good thermostability at 50°C. The K(m) and V(max) values were 5.6 and 4.8mgmL(-1), and 2785 and 1608μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, when LBG and konjac flour were used as substrates. The enzyme had strong resistance to most metal ions and proteases (pepsin and trypsin), and released 8.96mgg(-1) reducing sugars from LBG in the simulated gastric fluid. All these favorable properties make rMan5C1 a promising candidate for use in animal feed. PMID:22036533

  1. Complement factors C1q, C3 and C5 in brain and serum of mice with cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbok Raimund

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patho-mechanisms leading to brain damage due to cerebral malaria (CM are yet not fully understood. Immune-mediated and ischaemic mechanisms have been implicated. The role of complement factors C1q, C3 and C5 for the pathogenesis of CM were investigated in this study. Methods C57BL/6J mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA blood stages. The clinical severity of the disease was assessed by a battery of 40 standardized tests for evaluating neurological functions in mice. Brain homogenates and sera of mice with CM, infected animals without CM and non-infected control animals were analyzed for C1q, C3 and C5 up-regulation by Western blotting. Results Densitometric analysis of Western blots of brain homogenates yielded statistically significant differences in the levels of C1q and C5 in the analyzed groups. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant association of C1q and C5 levels with the clinical severity of the disease. More severely affected animals showed higher levels of C1q and C5. No differences in complement levels were observed between frontal and caudal parts of the brain. Densitometric analysis of Western blot of sera yielded statistically lower levels of C1q in infected animals without CM compared to animals of the control group. Conclusion The current study provides direct evidence for up-regulation of complement factors C1q and C5 in the brains of animals with CM. Local complement up-regulation is a possible mechanism for brain damage in experimental cerebral malaria.

  2. Expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1A in Fundulus heteroclitus during PAH-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1's expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6-8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13-15 dph for 6 h to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 h after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions 8 months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Hereditary and acquired angioedema: problems and progress: proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Angelo; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Binkley, Karen E; Blanch, Alvaro; Bork, Konrad; Bouillet, Laurence; Bucher, Christoph; Castaldo, Anthony J; Cicardi, Marco; Davis, Alvin E; De Carolis, Caterina; Drouet, Christian; Duponchel, Christiane; Farkas, Henriette; Fáy, Kálmán; Fekete, Béla; Fischer, Bettina; Fontana, Luigi; Füst, George; Giacomelli, Roberto; Gröner, Albrecht; Hack, C Erik; Harmat, George; Jakenfelds, John; Juers, Mathias; Kalmár, Lajos; Kaposi, Pál N; Karádi, István; Kitzinger, Arianna; Kollár, Tímea; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Lakatos, Peter; Longhurst, Hilary J; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Monnier, Nicole; Nagy, István; Németh, Eva; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Nuijens, Jan H; O'grady, Caroline; Pappalardo, Emanuela; Penna, Vincenzo; Perricone, Carlo; Perricone, Roberto; Rauch, Ursula; Roche, Olga; Rusicke, Eva; Späth, Peter J; Szendei, George; Takács, Edit; Tordai, Attila; Truedsson, Lennart; Varga, Lilian; Visy, Beáta; Williams, Kayla; Zanichelli, Andrea; Zingale, Lorenza

    2004-09-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare but life-threatening condition, manifests as acute attacks of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling or abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. Resulting from mutations affecting C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), inhibitor of the first complement system component, attacks are not histamine-mediated and do not respond to antihistamines or corticosteroids. Low awareness and resemblance to other disorders often delay diagnosis; despite availability of C1-INH replacement in some countries, no approved, safe acute attack therapy exists in the United States. The biennial C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency Workshops resulted from a European initiative for better knowledge and treatment of HAE and related diseases. This supplement contains work presented at the third workshop and expanded content toward a definitive picture of angioedema in the absence of allergy. Most notably, it includes cumulative genetic investigations; multinational laboratory diagnosis recommendations; current pathogenesis hypotheses; suggested prophylaxis and acute attack treatment, including home treatment; future treatment options; and analysis of patient subpopulations, including pediatric patients and patients whose angioedema worsened during pregnancy or hormone administration. Causes and management of acquired angioedema and a new type of angioedema with normal C1-INH are also discussed. Collaborative patient and physician efforts, crucial in rare diseases, are emphasized. This supplement seeks to raise awareness and aid diagnosis of HAE, optimize treatment for all patients, and provide a platform for further research in this rare, partially understood disorder. PMID:15356535

  4. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

  5. Lateral decubitus for treating pertrochanteric fractures using cephalomedullary nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton João Nunes de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic evaluation on the fracture reduction and implant position in the femoral head among patients with pertrochanteric fractures who had been treated using a cephalomedullary nail in lateral decubitus; and to assess factors that might interfere with the quality of the fracture reduction and with the implant position in using this technique. METHODS: Nineteen patients with a diagnosis of pertrochanteric fractures of the femur who had been treated using cephalomedullary nails in lateral decubitus were evaluated. For outpatient radiographic evaluations, we used the anteroposterior view of the pelvis and lateral view of the side affected. We measured the cervicodiaphyseal angle, tip-apex distance (TAD, spatial position of the cephalic element in relation to the head, and the bispinal diameter. To make an anthropometric assessment, we used the body mass index. Two groups of patients were created: one in which all the criteria were normal (TAD ≤25 mm, cervicodiaphyseal angle between 130° and 135° and cephalic implant position in the femoral head in the central-central quadrant; and another group presenting alterations in some of the criteria for best prognosis. RESULTS: Female patients predominated (57.9% and the mean age was 60 years. Seven patients presented a central-central cephalic implant position. One patient present a cervicodiaphyseal angle >135° and the maximum TAD was 32 mm; consequently, 12 patients presented some altered criteria (63.2%. None of the characteristics evaluated differed between the patients with all their criteria normal and those with some altered criteria, or showed any statistically significant association among them ( p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique described here enabled good reduction and good positioning of the implant, independent of the anthropometric indices and type of fracture.

  6. Myostatin as a therapeutic target in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Frank S; Rutkowski, Julia Lynn

    2012-11-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a devastating neurological disease that is inevitably fatal after 3-5years duration. Treatment options are minimal and as such new therapeutic modalities are required. In this review, we discuss the role of the myostatin pathway as a modulator of skeletal muscle mass and therapeutic approaches using biological based therapies. Both monoclonal antibodies to myostatin and a soluble receptor decoy to its high affinity receptor have been used in clinical trials of neuromuscular diseases and while there have been efficacy signals with the latter approach there have also been safety issues. Our approach is to target the high affinity receptor-binding site on myostatin and to develop a next generation set of therapeutic reagents built on a novel protein scaffold. This is the natural single domain VNAR found in sharks which is extremely versatile and has the ability to develop products with superior properties compared to existing therapeutics. PMID:22841860

  7. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CYP153C1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM12444

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of CYP153C1, an alkane-binding cytochrome P450 enzyme, are reported. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes constitute a large family of haemoproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a great variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds. In common with other members of the CYP153 family of alkane hydroxylases, CYP153C1 from the oligotrophic bacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 can bind linear alkanes such as heptane, octane and nonane. Here, the production, purification and crystallization of CYP153C1 and the collection of high-resolution diffraction data to 1.77 Å resolution are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.0, b = 96.3, c = 149.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis revealed that the asymmetric unit is most likely to contain two protein molecules

  9. Synthesis and deformation microstructure of Ti3SiAl0.2C1.8 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solution Ti3SiAl0.2C1.8 was synthesized by sintering powder compacts containing Ti, Si, Al, and C with a mole ratio of 3:1:0.2:1.8 at 1550 deg. C for 5 min in Ar. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the samples. The results show that nearly single solid solution was obtained except for the presence of a small amount of TiC. The observation from the fracture surface shows that delamination, kink band formation and crack deflection are prevalent features in the deformed Ti3SiAl0.2C1.8 grains. The crystal parameters for Ti3SiAl0.2C1.8 were analyzed and the multiple energy dissipation mechanisms were discussed

  10. Prenylated chalcones and flavanones as inducers of quinone reductase in mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C L; Aponso, G L; Stevens, J F; Deinzer, M L; Buhler, D R

    2000-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine if prenylchalcones (open C-ring flavonoids) and prenylflavanones from hops and beer are inducers of quinone reductase (QR) in the mouse hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. All the prenylchalcones and prenylflavanones tested were found to induce QR but not CYP1A1 in this cell line. In contrast, the synthetic chalcone, chalconaringenin, and the flavanone, naringenin, with no prenyl or geranyl groups, were ineffective in inducing QR. The hop chalcones, xanthohumol and dehydrocycloxanthohumol hydrate, also induced QR in the Ah-receptor-defective mutant cell line, Hepa 1c1c7 bp(r)c1. Thus, the prenylflavonoids represent a new class of monofunctional inducers of QR. PMID:10737704

  11. White matter alterations differ in primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Nobue K.; Kwan, Justin Y.; Danielian, Laura E.; Butman, John A.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Bayat, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between primary lateral sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains uncertain. To detect in vivo structural differences between the two disorders, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts was carried out in 19 patients with primary lateral sclerosis, 18 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 19 age-matched controls. Fibre tracking was used to reconstruct the intracranial portion of the corticospinal tract and three regions of the corpus callosum: the genu, splenium and callosal fibres connecting the motor cortices. Both patient groups had reduced fractional anisotropy, a measure associated with axonal organization, and increased mean diffusivity of the reconstructed corticospinal and callosal motor fibres compared with controls, without changes in the genu or splenium. Voxelwise comparison of the whole brain white matter using tract-based spatial statistics confirmed the differences between patients and controls in the diffusion properties of the corticospinal tracts and motor fibres of the callosum. This analysis further revealed differences in the regional distribution of white matter alterations between the patient groups. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the greatest reduction in fractional anisotropy occurred in the distal portions of the intracranial corticospinal tract, consistent with a distal axonal degeneration. In patients with primary lateral sclerosis, the greatest loss of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity occurred in the subcortical white matter underlying the motor cortex, with reduced volume, suggesting tissue loss. Clinical measures of upper motor neuron

  12. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina da Costa Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05. RESULTS: Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space.

  13. Lateralization of visual hemifield attention across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, N; Linz, T D; Hynd, G W; Connor, R T; Shapiro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Heilman and Valenstein (Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, Oxford University Press, New York) have hypothesized a right hemispheric mechanism which mediates attention bilaterally. Shapiro and Hynd ("The development of functional lateralization in visual hemifield attention." Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 1, pp 67-80, 1985) examined the developmental validity of this model and their findings did not provide evidence for a lateralized mechanism for visual hemifield attention in 9, 13, and 18 year olds. However, length of foreperiod and gender effects were noted. This study attempted to compare these groups with a group of normal adults (ages 25-35) using the same reaction time paradigm. The study demonstrated support for the length of foreperiod effect found by Shapiro and Hynd. Hand effects were also found. However, these results do not lend support to either the model proposed by Heilman and Valenstein (1979) or Shapiro and Hynd's (1985) notion of developmental differences across age groups with respect to right hemisphere dominance for mediating attention. PMID:14591140

  14. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  15. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  16. Conservation as a ‘Later Addition’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that conservation is not a neutral process and plays a part in the history of the object under treatment. As such, conservation always involves changes in the physical fabric of the object and/or in its cultural significance. These changes are referred to here as ‘later additions’, and discussed within the framework of some issues related to conservation practice and theory. It is argued that conservators should be reflexive in their analysis and treatment of ‘later additions’, by working out a balance between the cultural significance of the object, its physical fabric, interests of owners or users, any originating peoples,and museum professionals.

  17. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...... adjacent collagen fascicles in human tendons is small or negligible, suggesting that tendon fascicles largely act as independent structures and that force transmission principally takes place within the individual fascicles....

  18. C1 Inhibitor in Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection Nonresponsive to Conventional Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti, D; Gosset, C; Loupy, A; Deville, L; Verine, J; Zeevi, A; Glotz, D; Lefaucheur, C

    2016-05-01

    Complement inhibitors have not been thoroughly evaluated in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We performed a prospective, single-arm pilot study to investigate the potential effects and safety of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) Berinert added to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of acute ABMR that is nonresponsive to conventional therapy. Kidney recipients with nonresponsive active ABMR and acute allograft dysfunction were enrolled between April 2013 and July 2014 and received C1-INH and IVIG for 6 months (six patients). The primary end point was the change in eGFR at 6 months after inclusion (M+6). Secondary end points included the changes in histology and DSA characteristics and adverse events as evaluated at M+6. All patients showed an improvement in eGFR between inclusion and M+6: from 38.7 ± 17.9 to 45.2 ± 21.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.0277). There was no change in histological features, except a decrease in the C4d deposition rate from 5/6 to 1/6 (p = 0.0455). There was a change in DSA C1q status from 6/6 to 1/6 positive (p = 0.0253). One deep venous thrombosis was observed. In a secondary analysis, C1-INH patients were compared with a similar historical control group (21 patients). C1-INH added to IVIG is safe and may improve allograft function in kidney recipients with nonresponsive acute ABMR. PMID:26693703

  19. Metabolism and macromolecular covalent binding of [14C]-1-nitropyrene in isolated perfused and ventilated rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate l-nitropyrene (1-NP) metabolism and macromolecular covalent binding in the isolated perfused rat lung. Rat lungs were perfused with 2, 5, or 24 microM [14C]-1-NP for 90 min. Tidal volume and dynamic lung compliance were monitored throughout the perfusion to document the ventilatory pattern and the decay of tissue elasticity. Perfusate was sampled periodically throughout the experiment and analyzed for 1-NP metabolites with high-performance liquid chromatography. In all experiments, both dynamic lung compliance and tidal volume declined in a nearly linear manner and were approximately 60% of the initial value at the end of 90 min of perfusion. At all concentrations of [14C]-1-NP tested, less than 5 to 6% of the total amount of [14C]-1-NP added was metabolized in lungs from control and phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats. Lungs from control and PB- and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated rats metabolized [14C]-1-NP to oxidized, reduced, and conjugated metabolites. The major metabolites were 3-, 6-, and 8-hydroxynitropyrene. Treatment of rats with PB resulted in a 60% increase in the total metabolism of [14C]-1-NP, whereas treatment of rats with 3-MC resulted in a 10-fold increase in the rate of metabolism of [14C]-1-NP when compared to controls. Conjugate hydrolysis studies indicated that the water-soluble metabolites from lungs of control and PB- and 3-MC-treated rats consisted of hydroxynitropyrene glucuronides and hydroxynitropyrene sulfate conjugates. Quantities of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules after 90 min of perfusion from lungs of control and PB-treated rats were 0.06 to 0.21 nmol equivalents/g lung. However, in lungs from 3-MC-treated rats, there was a 20-fold increase in quantities of 14C covalently bound when compared to lungs from either control or PB-treated rats

  20. Inactivation of GDP-fucose transporter gene (Slc35c1) in CHO cells by ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR-Cas9 for production of fucose-free antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kah Fai; Shahreel, Wahyu; Wan, Corrine; Teo, Gavin; Hayati, Noor; Tay, Shi Jie; Tong, Wen Han; Yang, Yuansheng; Rudd, Pauline M; Zhang, Peiqing; Song, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Removal of core fucose from N-glycans attached to human IgG1 significantly enhances its affinity for the receptor FcγRIII and thereby dramatically improves its antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. While previous works have shown that inactivation of fucosyltransferase 8 results in mutants capable of producing fucose-free antibodies, we report here the use of genome editing techniques, namely ZFNs, TALENs and the CRISPR-Cas9, to inactivate the GDP-fucose transporter (SLC35C1) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A FACS approach coupled with a fucose-specific lectin was developed to rapidly isolate SLC35C1-deficient cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that both EPO-Fc produced in mutants arising from CHO-K1 and anti-Her2 antibody produced in mutants arising from a pre-existing antibody-producing CHO-HER line lacked core fucose. Lack of functional SLC35C1 in these cells does not affect cell growth or antibody productivity. Our data demonstrate that inactivating Slc35c1 gene represents an alternative approach to generate CHO cells for production of fucose-free antibodies. PMID:26471004

  1. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence. PMID:26802038

  2. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of...... Committee for Standardization), DNV (2004b) (Det Norske Veritas), CEN (2004) (European Committee for Standardization), ISO (2001) (International Organization for Standardization) and API (1993) (American Petroleum Institute)....

  3. Grey Literature in Energy: 5 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Deborah E. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2004-01-01

    At GL'99, the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE OSTI) presented a paper titled "Grey Literature in Energy: a Shifting Paradigm". Five years later, the paradigm continues to shift, less radically than the change from paper and microfiche to electronic, but with significant benefit to users worldwide. OSTI's efforts continue this shift, moving even further away from the connotation of "grey" as meaning "hard to get" literature. Along with its domestic an...

  4. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  5. The relationships of the later Miocene Hominoidea

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Metrical methods for describing the variance in extant hominoids are applied to phenetic groupings of later Miocene hominoids in order to produce palaeospecies whose variance is compatible with that seen in living hominoids. Enamel thickness measurements are presented for samples of living and fossil hominoids. An index of relative enamel thickness scaled for size has been developed and this defined four categories of relative enamel thickness metrically: Thin enamel (mea...

  6. Lateral distribution of electrons of air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakimori, K.; Maeda, T.; Kameda, T.; Mizushima, K.; Misaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The lateral distribution of electrons (LDE) of the air showers of size 10 to the 5th power to 10 to the 6th power was studied within one MU. It was found that the LDE of the air showers observed is well represented by NKG function except for vicinity of the core. It was also found that LDE measured by thin scintillators does not differ from that measured by thick ones of 50mm thickness.

  7. Somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cosi, V; Poloni, M.; Mazzini, L.; Callieco, R.

    1984-01-01

    Forty five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were investigated, by means of somatosensory evoked potentials, in order to detect the presence of subclinical sensory changes. Cervical SEPs from the median nerve and cortical SEPs from the median and tibial nerve were recorded, showing a delay of N13 and subsequent components; the latency of the first constant cortical potential was also increased in many patients. Only the SEPs from the tibial nerve showed a decrease of amplitude. Thes...

  8. Management of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Calvo; Paolo Ghiglione; Adriano Chiò

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons. We report a case of a 45-years-old patient with ALS to underline difficulties and challenges in ALS management. Even though ALS remains fatal, several advances have been made in improving the consequences of this disease: symptomatic treatments have an important role in controlling sialorrhea, bronchial secretions, pseudobulbar emotional lability, cramps, spastic...

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial ...

  10. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100. The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  11. Demonstration of the Lateral Casimir Force

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, F; Mohideen, U.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2002-01-01

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 $\\mu$m to 0.3 $\\mu$m using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. T...

  12. Lateral Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Dente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We will examine the waveguide mode losses in ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers. Our analysis illustrates how the low-loss mode for broad-ridge quantum cascade lasers (QCLs can be a higher-order lateral waveguide mode that maximizes the feedback from the sloped ridge-wall regions. The results are in excellent agreement with the near- and far-field data taken on broad-ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers processed with sloped ridge walls.

  13. Lateral dispersion of the saltating particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Keita, Ibrahima

    Pskov : PGPI, 2009, s. 13-15. ISBN 978-5-91116-096-5. [Mezhdunarodnajanauchnaja konferencija Matematicheskije metody v nauke i technologijach /22./. Pskov (RU), 25.05.2009-30.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : saltation * lateral dispersion * particle-bed collision Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie

    2009-02-01

    The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review current practice in the management of ALS including pharmacological treatment, nutritional management, respiratory care, and evolving strategies in the management of cognitive impairment.

  15. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel;

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  16. Scrotal masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider to determine if it may be testicular cancer. Prevention You can prevent scrotal masses caused by sexually ... 21095426 . U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Testicular Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern ...

  17. Cluster-C1 observations on the geometrical structure of linear magnetic holes in the solar wind at 1 AU

    OpenAIRE

    Reme, H.; Lucek, E.; Liu, Z.X.; Sun, W. J.; L. Xie; Z. Y. Pu; Zong, Q. G.; Li, L.; S. Y. Fu; Zhang, T. L.; Shi, Q. Q.; Xiao, T.

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary linear magnetic holes (LMHs) are structures in which the magnetic field magnitude decreases with little change in the field direction. They are a 10–30% subset of all interplanetary magnetic holes (MHs). Using magnetic field and plasma measurements obtained by Cluster-C1, we surveyed the LMHs in the solar wind at 1 AU. In total 567 interplanetary LMHs are identified from the magnetic field data when Cluster-C1 was in the solar wind from 2001 to 2004. We studied the relationship...

  18. Cluster-C1 observations on the geometrical structure of linear magnetic holes in the solar wind at 1 AU

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, T.; Shi, Q. Q.; Zhang, T. L.; S. Y. Fu; Li, L.; Zong, Q. G.; Z. Y. Pu; L. Xie; Sun, W. J.; Liu, Z.X.; Lucek, E.; Reme, H.

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary linear magnetic holes (LMHs) are structures in which the magnetic field magnitude decreases with little change in the field direction. They are a 10–30% subset of all interplanetary magnetic holes (MHs). Using magnetic field and plasma measurements obtained by Cluster-C1, we surveyed the LMHs in the solar wind at 1 AU. In total 567 interplanetary LMHs are identified from the magnetic field data when Cluster-C1 was in the solar wind from 2001 to 2004. We studie...

  19. An Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation of the Tracks Made by C+1-C+4 Bombardment on CR-39 Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵葵; 吴秀坤; 郭继宇; 隋丽; 梅俊平; 倪嵋楠; 包轶文

    2003-01-01

    Carbon micro-clusters are accelerated by an HI-13 tandem accelerator.The plastic nuclear track detectors CR-39are irradiated by C1-C4 beams from the HI-13 tandem accelerator and the tracks in CR-39 are studied using an atomic force microscope(AFM).The depths and diameters of C1-C4 tracks are measured for the first time in a nanometre scale.An enhancement of the energy loss is obtained for carbon clusters related to single carbon ions with the same velocity.The results show that the AFM observation is very useful in the quantitative analysis of clusters in the track detector CR-39.

  20. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V; Rajashankar, K. R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S V

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively...