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Sample records for c-terminal protein sequences

  1. Automation of C-terminal sequence analysis of 2D-PAGE separated proteins

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    P.P. Moerman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental assignment of the protein termini remains essential to define the functional protein structure. Here, we report on the improvement of a proteomic C-terminal sequence analysis method. The approach aims to discriminate the C-terminal peptide in a CNBr-digest where Met-Xxx peptide bonds are cleaved in internal peptides ending at a homoserine lactone (hsl-derivative. pH-dependent partial opening of the lactone ring results in the formation of doublets for all internal peptides. C-terminal peptides are distinguished as singlet peaks by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS is then used for their identification. We present a fully automated protocol established on a robotic liquid-handling station.

  2. C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 as non-specific anchors for tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Andrew J; Russell, Lance C; Chinkers, Michael

    2009-10-12

    Steroid-hormone-receptor maturation is a multi-step process that involves several TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) proteins that bind to the maturation complex via the C-termini of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) and hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90). We produced a random T7 peptide library to investigate the roles played by the C-termini of the two heat-shock proteins in the TPR-hsp interactions. Surprisingly, phages with the MEEVD sequence, found at the C-terminus of hsp90, were not recovered from our biopanning experiments. However, two groups of phages were isolated that bound relatively tightly to HsPP5 (Homo sapiens protein phosphatase 5) TPR. Multiple copies of phages with a C-terminal sequence of LFG were isolated. These phages bound specifically to the TPR domain of HsPP5, although mutation studies produced no evidence that they bound to the domain's hsp90-binding groove. However, the most abundant family obtained in the initial screen had an aspartate residue at the C-terminus. Two members of this family with a C-terminal sequence of VD appeared to bind with approximately the same affinity as the hsp90 C-12 control. A second generation pseudo-random phage library produced a large number of phages with an LD C-terminus. These sequences acted as hsp70 analogues and had relatively low affinities for hsp90-specific TPR domains. Unfortunately, we failed to identify residues near hsp90's C-terminus that impart binding specificity to individual hsp90-TPR interactions. The results suggest that the C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 act primarily as non-specific anchors for TPR proteins.

  3. Disulfide assignment of the C-terminal cysteine knot of agouti-related protein (AGRP) by direct sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Y; Zeni, L; Rosenfeld, R D; Stark, K L; Rohde, M F; Haniu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have assigned the disulfide structure of Md-65 agouti-related protein (Md65-AGRP) using differential reduction and alkylation followed by direct sequencing analysis. The mature human AGRP is a single polypeptide chain of 112 amino acid residues, consisting of an N-terminal acidic region and a unique C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. The C-terminal domain, a 48 amino acid peptide named Md65-AGRP, was expressed in Escherichia coil cells and refolded under different conditions from the mature recombinant protein. The disulfide bonds in the cystine knot structure of Md65-AGRP were partially reduced using tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) under acidic conditions, followed by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The procedure generated several isoforms with varying degrees of NEM alkylation. The multiple forms of Md65-AGRP generated by partial reduction and NEM modification were then completely reduced and carboxymethylated to identify unreactive disulfide bonds. Differentially labeled Md65-AGRP were directly sequenced and analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that Md65-AGRP contained the same disulfide structure as that of Md5-AGRP reported previously [Bures, E. J., Hui, J. O., Young, Y. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 12172-12177].

  4. Mass spectrometry-based sequencing of protein C-terminal peptide using α-carboxyl group-specific derivatization and COOH capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Chihiro; Kuyama, Hiroki; Tanaka, Koichi

    2012-09-15

    An approach to mass spectrometry (MS)-based sequence analysis of selectively enriched C-terminal peptide from protein is described. This approach employs a combination of the specific derivatization of α-carboxyl group (α-COOH), enzymatic proteolysis using endoproteinase GluC, and enrichment of C-terminal peptide through the use of COOH-capturing material. Highly selective derivatization of α-COOH was achieved by a combination of specific activation of α-COOH through oxazolone chemistry and amidation using 3-aminopropyltris-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP-propylamine). This amine component was used to simplify fragmentation in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurement, which facilitated manual sequence interpretation. The peptides produced after GluC digestion were then treated with a COOH scavenger to enrich the C-terminal peptide that is only devoid of COOH groups, and the obtained C-terminal peptide was readily sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS/MS due to the TMPP mass tag.

  5. 重组蛋白药物C末端不同长度氨基酸序列的质谱分析%Mass spectrometry analysis of recombinant protein drugs with C-terminal amino acid sequence of different lengths

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    李萍; 赵永强; 薛燕; 刘锋; 刘炳玉; 何昆; 王红霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:基于本实验室已建立的溴化氰裂解蛋白质C末端方法结合优化后的质谱检测技术,对C末端长度分别为2~37个氨基酸,相对分子质量在200~5000的8个重组蛋白药物进行检测.方法:(1)针对重组蛋白药物的不同状态(SDS-PAGE、干粉或溶液)分别进行C末端胶内或溶液裂解;(2)质谱检测,正离子方式,雾化气为氮气,碰撞气体为氩气.源温80℃,锥孔电压50 V,MCP检测器电压为2.15 kV.结果:8个重组蛋白药物的C末端全部成功检测出,且基本为基峰.结论:建立的重组蛋白药物C末端测序联用方法应用于实际药物的检测具有很高的实用价值和学术意义.%Objective : Based on the method established by cyanogen bromide cleavage of proteins C - terminal combined with the optimized mass spectrometry in our laboratory, detection of C - terminal lengths of 2 to 37 amino acids, relative molecular mass 200 -5000 of the 8 recombinant protein drugs. Methods : ( 1 ) For different states of recombinant protein drugs ( SDS - PAGE,dry powder or solution) to C terminal cleavage in gel or solution, respectively. (2) Mass spectrometry detection, positive ion mode,atomization gas was nitrogen, collision gas was argon,source temperature 80 ℃ ,cone voltage 50 V ,MCP detector voltage of 2. 15 kV. Results : All of C - terminal of the 8 recombinant protein drugs successfully detected as the base peak. Conclusions: The established C - terminal sequencing method of the recombinant protein was applied to the actual drugs testing , have high practical value and academic significance.

  6. Prokaryotic expression and purification of fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3 C-terminal domain proteins in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cai; Jing Yang; He Huang; Fang Li; Ganqiu Wu; Jing Yang; Xuegang Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3) is related to injury and regeneration of the nervous system. However, the expression and biological characteristics of these proteins remain poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To obtain FLRT3 C-terminal gene fragments, to effectively express and purify the target proteins.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study of cellular and molecular biology was performed at the laboratory of Histology and Embryology in Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University between October 2007 and June 2008.MATERIALS: Three Sprague Dawley adult rats were used to extract total RNA from rat brains. The pGEX4T3 and Escherichia coli (E. Coli) JM109 were purchased from Promega. E. Coil BL21 was provided by Novagen.METHODS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were amplified using RT-PCR technique from rat total RNA. The amplified products were cloned into the expression vector pGEX4T3. A recombinant expression vector was then constructed and introduced into E. Coli BL21. IsopropyI-D-thiogalactopyranoside was applied to induce expression of recombinant GST fusion proteins, followed by isolation, purification, and renaturation of inclusion bodies that comprised recombinant proteins. Finally, the purified recombinant protein was obtained.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of FLRT3 C-terminal DNA sequence; expression of target proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis; purified recombinant protein was identified with Western blot methods.RESULTS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were successfully harvested through RT-PCR amplification, and were then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T3. The results of the sequence were consistent with the known gene sequence. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that there was a specific protein band in the recombinant GST fusion proteins at a relative molecular mass

  7. A C-terminal PDZ domain binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Rickhag, Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar; Strandfelt, Kristine Nørgaard; Andresen, Bjørn; Gotfryd, Kamil; Madsen, Kenneth L; Vestergaard-Klewe, Ib; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Eriksen, Jacob; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gomeza, Jesus; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling DAT levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. DAT contains a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain binding sequence believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different DAT knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (DAT-AAA and DAT+Ala) are characterized by dr...

  8. Relevance of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 C-terminal fragments in pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    PETERS, HALEY L.; Tuli, Amit; Wang, Xiaojian; Liu, Cuiling; Pan, Zenggang; Ouellette, Michel M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; MacDonald, Richard G.; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    In some cellular systems, particularly neurons, amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), and its highly homologous family member amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been linked to cellular growth. APLP2 and APP undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis to produce C-terminal fragments. In this study, we found comprehensive expression of APLP2 C-terminal fragments in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines; however, APP C-terminal fragments were notably limited to the BxPC3 cell line. Exte...

  9. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

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    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  10. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

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    Austin, Ryan S; Provart, Nicholas J; Cutler, Sean R

    2007-01-01

    Background The carboxy termini of proteins are a frequent site of activity for a variety of biologically important functions, ranging from post-translational modification to protein targeting. Several short peptide motifs involved in protein sorting roles and dependent upon their proximity to the C-terminus for proper function have already been characterized. As a limited number of such motifs have been identified, the potential exists for genome-wide statistical analysis and comparative genomics to reveal novel peptide signatures functioning in a C-terminal dependent manner. We have applied a novel methodology to the prediction of C-terminal-anchored peptide motifs involving a simple z-statistic and several techniques for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Results We examined the statistical over-representation of position-specific C-terminal tripeptides in 7 eukaryotic proteomes. Sequence randomization models and simple-sequence masking were applied to the successful reduction of background noise. Similarly, as C-terminal homology among members of large protein families may artificially inflate tripeptide counts in an irrelevant and obfuscating manner, gene-family clustering was performed prior to the analysis in order to assess tripeptide over-representation across protein families as opposed to across all proteins. Finally, comparative genomics was used to identify tripeptides significantly occurring in multiple species. This approach has been able to predict, to our knowledge, all C-terminally anchored targeting motifs present in the literature. These include the PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal (SKL*), the ER-retention signal (K/HDEL*), the ER-retrieval signal for membrane bound proteins (KKxx*), the prenylation signal (CC*) and the CaaX box prenylation motif. In addition to a high statistical over-representation of these known motifs, a collection of significant tripeptides with a high propensity for biological function exists between species, among

  11. C-terminal fluorescent labeling impairs functionality of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

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    Angela Brieger

    Full Text Available The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2. Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency.

  12. Regulation of sorting and post-Golgi trafficking of rhodopsin by its C-terminal sequence QVS(A)PA

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    Deretic, Dusanka; Schmerl, Sonia; Hargrave, Paul A.; Arendt, Anatol; McDowell, J. Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Several mutations that cause severe forms of the human disease autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa cluster in the C-terminal region of rhodopsin. Recent studies have implicated the C-terminal domain of rhodopsin in its trafficking on specialized post-Golgi membranes to the rod outer segment of the photoreceptor cell. Here we used synthetic peptides as competitive inhibitors of rhodopsin trafficking in the frog retinal cell-free system to delineate the potential regulatory sequence within ...

  13. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

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    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified.

  14. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17, consisting of amino acids 371–553, has been crystallized. Diffraction data have been obtained to around 2.0 Å resolution from two different crystal forms. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress

  15. The C-Terminal Portion of the Nucleocapsid Protein Demonstrates SARS-CoV Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhen Liu; Bo You; Ye Yin; Shuting Li; Hao Wang; Yan Ren; Jia Ji; Xiaoqian Zhao; Yongqiao Sun; Xiaowei Zhang; Jianqiu Fang; Shaohui Hu; Jian Wang; Siqi Liu; Jun Yu; Heng Zhu; Huanming Yang; Yongwu Hu; Peng Chen; Jianning Yin; Jie Wen; Jingqiang Wang; Liang Lin; Jinxiu Liu

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop clinical diagnostic tools for rapid detection of SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) and to identify candidate proteins for vaccine development, the C-terminal portion of the nucleocapsid (NC)gene was amplified using RT-PCR from the SARS-CoV genome, cloned into a yeast expression vector (pEGH), and expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Hisx6 double-tagged fusion protein under the control of an inducible promoter.Western analysis on the purified protein confirmed the expression and purification of the NC fusion proteins from yeast. To determine its antigenicity, the fusion protein was challenged with serum samples from SARS patients and normal controls.The NC fusion protein demonstrated high antigenicity with high specificity, and therefore, it should have great potential in designing clinical diagnostic tools and provide useful information for vaccine development.

  16. The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Loper, John; Najarro, Kevin; Stone, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA. Telomerase holoenzyme proteins are required to fold telomerase RNA into its active conformation. In this study, the Stone laboratory employed a combination of single-molecule FRET and RNase protection mapping to demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 is essential for its RNA folding activity. RNase probin...

  17. Is the C-terminal insertional signal in Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins species-specific or not?

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    Paramasivam Nagarajan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane is composed of an asymmetric lipid bilayer of phopspholipids and lipopolysaccharides, and the transmembrane proteins that reside in this membrane are almost exclusively β-barrel proteins. These proteins are inserted into the membrane by a highly conserved and essential machinery, the BAM complex. It recognizes its substrates, unfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs, through a C-terminal motif that has been speculated to be species-specific, based on theoretical and experimental results from only two species, Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, where it was shown on the basis of individual sequences and motifs that OMPs from the one cannot easily be over expressed in the other, unless the C-terminal motif was adapted. In order to determine whether this species specificity is a general phenomenon, we undertook a large-scale bioinformatics study on all predicted OMPs from 437 fully sequenced proteobacterial strains. Results We were able to verify the incompatibility reported between Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, using clustering techniques based on the pairwise Hellinger distance between sequence spaces for the C-terminal motifs of individual organisms. We noticed that the amino acid position reported to be responsible for this incompatibility between Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis does not play a major role for determining species specificity of OMP recognition by the BAM complex. Instead, we found that the signal is more diffuse, and that for most organism pairs, the difference between the signals is hard to detect. Notable exceptions are the Neisseriales, and Helicobacter spp. For both of these organism groups, we describe the specific sequence requirements that are at the basis of the observed difference. Conclusions Based on the finding that the differences between the recognition motifs of almost all organisms are small, we assume that

  18. The C-terminal sequence of IFITM1 regulates its anti-HIV-1 activity.

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    Rui Jia

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3 is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117-125, which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117-125 mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117-125 to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117-125, mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization.

  19. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar;

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequenc...

  20. Combining protein identification and quantification: C-terminal isotope-coded tagging using sulfanilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Guillaume, Elisabeth; Affolter, Michael; Robert, Fabien; Moreillon, Philippe; Kussmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of differential isotopic coding of carboxylic groups have been developed to date. The first approach uses d0- or d3-methanol to convert carboxyl groups into the corresponding methyl esters. The second relies on the incorporation of two 18O atoms into the C-terminal carboxylic group during tryptic digestion of proteins in H(2)18O. However, both methods have limitations such as chromatographic separation of 1H and 2H derivatives or overlap of isotopic distributions of light and heavy forms due to small mass shifts. Here we present a new tagging approach based on the specific incorporation of sulfanilic acid into carboxylic groups. The reagent was synthesized in a heavy form (13C phenyl ring), showing no chromatographic shift and an optimal isotopic separation with a 6 Da mass shift. Moreover, sulfanilic acid allows for simplified fragmentation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) due the charge fixation of the sulfonate group at the C-terminus of the peptide. The derivatization is simple, specific and minimizes the number of sample treatment steps that can strongly alter the sample composition. The quantification is reproducible within an order of magnitude and can be analyzed either by electrospray ionization (ESI) or MALDI. Finally, the method is able to specifically identify the C-terminal peptide of a protein by using GluC as the proteolytic enzyme.

  1. C-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus core protein is essential for secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo-Ho Choi; Kyu-Jin Park; So-Yeon Kim; Dong-Hwa Choi; Jung-Min Park; Soon B. Hwang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is efficiently released into the culture medium in insect cells. The objective of this study is to characterize the HCV core secretion in insect cells.METHODS: We constructed recombinant baculoviruses expressing various-length of mutant core proteins, expressed these proteins in insect cells, and examined core protein secretion in insect cells.RESULTS: Only wild type core was efficiently released into the culture medium, although the protein expression level of wild type core was lower than those of other mutant core proteins. We found that the shorter form of the core construct expressed the higher level of protein. However, if more than 18 amino acids of the core were truncated at the C-terminus,core proteins were no longer seareted into the culture medium.Membrane flotation data show that the secreted core proteins are associated with the cellular membrane protein, indicating that HCV core is secreted as a membrane complex.CONCLUSION: The C-terminal 18 amino acids of HCV core were crucial for core secretion into the culture media.Since HCV replication occurs on lipid raft membrane structure,these results suggest that HCV may utilize a unique core release mechanism to escape immune surveillance, thereby potentially representing the feature of HCV morphogenesis.

  2. Protein C-terminal labeling and biotinylation using synthetic peptide and split-intein.

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    Gerrit Volkmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Site-specific protein labeling or modification can facilitate the characterization of proteins with respect to their structure, folding, and interaction with other proteins. However, current methods of site-specific protein labeling are few and with limitations, therefore new methods are needed to satisfy the increasing need and sophistications of protein labeling. METHODOLOGY: A method of protein C-terminal labeling was developed using a non-canonical split-intein, through an intein-catalyzed trans-splicing reaction between a protein and a small synthetic peptide carrying the desired labeling groups. As demonstrations of this method, three different proteins were efficiently labeled at their C-termini with two different labels (fluorescein and biotin either in solution or on a solid surface, and a transferrin receptor protein was labeled on the membrane surface of live mammalian cells. Protein biotinylation and immobilization on a streptavidin-coated surface were also achieved in a cell lysate without prior purification of the target protein. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced a method of site-specific labeling or modification at the C-termini of recombinant proteins. This method compares favorably with previous protein labeling methods and has several unique advantages. It is expected to have many potential applications in protein engineering and research, which include fluorescent labeling for monitoring protein folding, location, and trafficking in cells, and biotinylation for protein immobilization on streptavidin-coated surfaces including protein microchips. The types of chemical labeling may be limited only by the ability of chemical synthesis to produce the small C-intein peptide containing the desired chemical groups.

  3. Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation

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    Egidio Stigliano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants.

  4. Significance of the C-terminal domain of Erwinia uredovora ice nucleation-active protein (Ina U).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigami, Y; Abe, K; Obata, H; Arai, S

    1995-12-01

    Ice nucleation-active (Ina) proteins of bacterial origin comprise three distinct domains, i.e., N-terminal (N-), central repeat (R-), and C-terminal (C-) domains, among which the R-domain is essential, and its length may be correlated with the ice nucleation activity. In addition, the short C-terminal domain of about 50 amino acid residues is indispensable for the activity. Using the Ina U protein of Erwinia uredovora, we carried out precise mutational analyses of its C-terminus. The ice nucleation activity (T50) assay showed that the C-terminal 12 amino acids were not necessary, and a deletion mutant (delta C29) with a new C-terminal, Met29 (numbered from the first amino acid residue of the C-domain and corresponding to Met1022), exhibited almost the same activity as the wild-type Ina U protein did. However, deletion of the C-terminal 13 residues including Met29 resulted in almost complete loss of the activity. In the deletion mutant (delta C29), amino acid replacement of the C-terminus, Met29, showed that the activity was retained when Met29 was replaced with a neutral, aromatic, or basic amino acid (Gly, Phe, or Lys), but was lost on the replacement with an acidic amino acid (Asp or Glu). In addition, two other residues in the C-terminal region commonly present in all Ina proteins were examined as to their importance, and it was shown that one of these residues, Tyr27, is important for the activity, although it is not exclusively required; the activity was lost to a great extent when this residue was replaced with Gly or Ala, but to a lesser extent when it was replaced with Leu. These results suggest that significance of the secondary and/or tertiary structure of the C-terminal region of the Ina U protein for the ice nucleation activity. PMID:8720147

  5. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  6. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazehoski, Kristina O., E-mail: pazehosk@pitt.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg, Greensburg, PA 15601 (United States); Cobine, Paul A., E-mail: pac0006@auburn.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Rouse Life Science Building, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Winzor, Donald J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Dameron, Charles T., E-mail: cdameron@francis.edu [Department of Chemistry, Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA 15940 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  7. Yeast two-hybrid screening of proteins interacting with plasmin receptor subunit: C-terminal fragment of annexin A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun LI; Yves LAUMONNIER; Tatiana SYROVETS; Thomas SIMMET

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal fragment of annexin A2 (A21C),generated by plasmin cleavage of the plasmin receptor,a heterotetramer (AA2t) containing annexin A2.Methods:The gene that encodes the A21C fragment was obtained from PCR-amplifled cDNA isolated from human monocytes,and was ligated into the pBTM116 vector using a DNA ligation kit.The resultant plasmid (pBTM116-A21C) was sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.The expression of an A21C bait protein fused with a LexA-DNA binding domain (BD) was determined using Western blot analysis.The identification of proteins that interact with A21C and are encoded in a human monocyte cDNA library was performed using yeast two-hybrid screening.The DNA sequences of the relevant cDNAs were determined using an ABI PRISM BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit.Nucleotide sequence databases were searched for homologous sequences using BLAST search analysis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).Confirmation of the interaction between the protein LexA-A21C and each of cathepsin S and SNX17 was conducted using a small-scale yeast transformation and X-gal assay.Results:The yeast transformed with plasmids encoding the bait proteins were screened with a human monocyte cDNA library by reconstituting full-length transcription factors containing the GAL4-active domain (GAL4-AD) as the prey in a yeast two-hybrid approach.After screening 1×107 clones,23 independent β-Gal-positive clones were identified.Sequence analysis and a database search revealed that 15 of these positive clones matched eight different proteins (SNX17,ProCathepsin S,RPS2,ZBTB4,OGDH,CCDC32,PAPD4,and actin which was already known to interact with annexin A2).Conclusion:A21C A21C interacts with various proteins to form protein complexes,which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation induced by plasmin.The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient approach for investigating protein interactions.

  8. The C-terminal binding protein (CTBP-1) regulates dorsal SMD axonal morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A; Sherry, T J; Yücel, D; Llamosas, E; Nicholas, H R

    2015-12-17

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors which cooperate with a variety of transcription factors to repress gene expression. Caenorhabditis elegans CTBP-1 expression has been observed in the nervous system and hypodermis. In C. elegans, CTBP-1 regulates several processes including Acute Functional Tolerance to ethanol and functions in the nervous system to modulate both lifespan and expression of a lipase gene called lips-7. Incorrect structure and/or function of the nervous system can lead to behavioral changes. Here, we demonstrate reduced exploration behavior in ctbp-1 mutants. Our examination of a subset of neurons involved in regulating locomotion revealed that the axonal morphology of dorsal SMD (SMDD) neurons is altered in ctbp-1 mutants at the fourth larval (L4) stage. Expressing CTBP-1 under the control of the endogenous ctbp-1 promoter rescued both the exploration behavior phenotype and defective SMDD axon structure in ctbp-1 mutants at the L4 stage. Interestingly, the pre-synaptic marker RAB-3 was found to localize to the mispositioned portion of SMDD axons in a ctbp-1 mutant. Further analysis of SMDD axonal morphology at days 1, 3 and 5 of adulthood revealed that the number of ctbp-1 mutants showing an SMDD axonal morphology defect increases in early adulthood and the observed defect appears to be qualitatively more severe. CTBP-1 is prominently expressed in the nervous system with weak expression detected in the hypodermis. Surprisingly, solely expressing CTBP-1a in the nervous system or hypodermis did not restore correct SMDD axonal structure in a ctbp-1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a role for CTBP-1 in exploration behavior and the regulation of SMDD axonal morphology in C. elegans.

  9. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction.

  10. C-terminal Binding Proteins are Essential Pro-survival Factors that Undergo Caspase-dependent Downregulation during Neuronal Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stankiewicz, Trisha R.; Schroeder, Emily K.; Kelsey, Natalie A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors that are subject to proteasome-dependent downregulation during apoptosis. Alternative mechanisms that regulate CtBP expression are currently under investigation and the role of CtBPs in neuronal survival is largely unexplored. Here, we show that CtBPs are downregulated in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stressors. Moreover, antisense-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 is sufficie...

  11. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-residue α/β peptide, [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures, and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the β-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the β-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is...

  12. Purification and application of C-terminally truncated hepatitis C virus E1 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Li-Xin Zhu; Yu-Ying Kong; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 1 (E1) in Escherichia coli(E.coli)and to test the purified recombinant E1 proteins for clinical and research applications. METHODS: C-terminally trunczated E1 fragments were expressed in E. coli as hexa-histidine-tagged fusion proteins. The expression products were purified under denaturing conditions using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. Purified E1 proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit anti-sera thus obtained were reacted with both E. coli- and mammalian cell-expressed E1 glycoproteins as detected by Western blot.RESULTS: Full-length E1 protein proved difficult to express in E. coli. C-terminally truncated E1 was successfully expressed in E. coli as hexa-histidine-tagged recombinant fusion protein and was purified under denaturing conditions on Ni2+-NTA agarose. Rabbit anti-sera raised against purified recombinant E1 specifically reacted with mammalian cell-expressed E1 giycoproteins in Western blot. Furthermore, E. coli-derived E1 protein was able to detect animal antibodies elicited by E1-based DNA immunization.CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the prokaryotically expressed E1 proteins share identical epitopes with eukaryotically expressed E1 glycoprotein. The E. coli-derived E1 proteins and corresponding antisera can become useful tools in anti-HCV vaccine research.

  13. Thrombin cleavage of osteopontin disrupts a pro-chemotactic sequence for dendritic cells, which is compensated by the release of its pro-chemotactic C-terminal fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhifei; Morser, John; Leung, Lawrence L K

    2014-09-26

    Thrombin cleavage alters the function of osteopontin (OPN) by exposing an integrin binding site and releasing a chemotactic C-terminal fragment. Here, we examined thrombin cleavage of OPN in the context of dendritic cell (DC) migration to define its functional domains. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL), thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-R), thrombin- and carboxypeptidase B2-double-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-L), and C-terminal fragment (OPN-CTF) did not have intrinsic chemotactic activity, but all potentiated CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FL possessed the highest potency, whereas OPNRAA-FL had substantially less activity, indicating the importance of RGD. We identified a conserved (168)RSKSKKFRR(176) sequence on OPN-FL that spans the thrombin cleavage site, and it demonstrated potent pro-chemotactic effects on CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FLR168A had reduced activity, and the double mutant OPNRAA-FLR168A had even lower activity, indicating that these functional domains accounted for most of the pro-chemotactic activity of OPN-FL. OPN-CTF also possessed substantial pro-chemotactic activity, which was fully expressed upon thrombin cleavage and its release from the intact protein, because OPN-CTF was substantially more active than OPNRAA-FLR168A containing the OPN-CTF sequence within the intact protein. OPN-R and OPN-L possessed similar potency, indicating that the newly exposed C-terminal SVVYGLR sequence in OPN-R was not involved in the pro-chemotactic effect. OPN-FL and OPN-CTF did not directly bind to the CD44 standard form or CD44v6. In conclusion, thrombin cleavage of OPN disrupts a pro-chemotactic sequence in intact OPN, and its loss of pro-chemotactic activity is compensated by the release of OPN-CTF, which assumes a new conformation and possesses substantial activity in enhancing chemokine-induced migration of DCs. PMID:25112870

  14. Conformational effects of a common codon 751 polymorphism on the C-terminal domain of the xeroderma pigmentosum D protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Regina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD protein is a DNA helicase involved in the repair of DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair (NER and transcription-coupled repair (TCR. The C-terminal domain of XPD has been implicated in interactions with other components of the TFIIH complex, and it is also the site of a common genetic polymorphism in XPD at amino acid residue 751 (Lys->Gln. Some evidence suggests that this polymorphism may alter DNA repair capacity and increase cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects could be attributable to conformational changes in XPD induced by the polymorphism. Materials and Methods: Molecular dynamics techniques were used to predict the structure of the wild-type and polymorphic forms of the C-terminal domain of XPD and differences in structure produced by the polymorphic substitution were determined. Results: The results indicate that, although the general configuration of both proteins is similar, the substitution produces a significant conformational change immediately N-terminal to the site of the polymorphism. Conclusion: These results provide support for the hypothesis that this polymorphism in XPD could affect DNA repair capability, and hence cancer risk, by altering the structure of the C-terminal domain.

  15. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  16. Synapse associated protein 102 (SAP102 binds the C-terminal part of the scaffolding protein neurobeachin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Lauks

    Full Text Available Neurobeachin (Nbea is a multidomain scaffold protein abundant in the brain, where it is highly expressed during development. Nbea-null mice have severe defects in neuromuscular synaptic transmission resulting in lethal paralysis of the newborns. Recently, it became clear that Nbea is important also for the functioning of central synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in trafficking membrane proteins to both, the pre- and post-synaptic sites. So far, only few binding partners of Nbea have been found and the precise mechanism of their trafficking remains unclear. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify SAP102, a MAGUK protein implicated in trafficking of the ionotropic glutamate AMPA- and NMDA-type receptors during synaptogenesis, as a novel Nbea interacting protein in mouse brain. Experiments in heterologous cells confirmed this interaction and revealed that SAP102 binds to the C-terminal part of Nbea that contains the DUF, PH, BEACH and WD40 domains. Furthermore, we discovered that introducing a mutation in Nbea's PH domain, which disrupts its interaction with the BEACH domain, abolishes this binding, thereby creating an excellent starting point to further investigate Nbea-SAP102 function in the central nervous system.

  17. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  18. The C-terminal region of the transcriptional regulator THAP11 forms a parallel coiled-coil domain involved in protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Cyprian D; Maveyraud, Laurent; Saurel, Olivier; Guillet, Valérie; Milon, Alain; Gervais, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Thanatos associated protein 11 (THAP11) is a cell cycle and cell growth regulator differentially expressed in cancer cells. THAP11 belongs to a distinct family of transcription factors recognizing specific DNA sequences via an atypical zinc finger motif and regulating diverse cellular processes. Outside the extensively characterized DNA-binding domain, THAP proteins vary in size and predicted domains, for which structural data are still lacking. We report here the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of human THAP11 protein, providing the first 3D structure of a coiled-coil motif from a THAP family member. We further investigate the stability, dynamics and oligomeric properties of the determined structure combining molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments. Our results show that the C-ter region of THAP11 forms a left-handed parallel homo-dimeric coiled-coil structure possessing several unusual features. PMID:26975212

  19. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus. PMID:24386845

  20. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus.

  1. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y″, a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differ- ences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  2. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y", a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  3. α-Helical to β-Helical Conformation Change in the C-Terminal of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jesse; Whitford, Paul; Hayre, Natha; Cox, Daniel; Onuchic, José.

    2011-03-01

    We employ all-atom structure-based models with mixed basis contact maps to explore whether there are any significant geometric or energetic constraints limiting conjectured conformational transitions between the alpha-helical (α H) and the left handed beta helical (LHBH) conformations for the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. The LHBH structure has been proposed to describe infectious oligomers and one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self- templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Our results confirm that the kinetics of the conformation change are not strongely limited by large scale geometry modification and there exists an overall preference for the LHBH conformation.

  4. Protein and peptide alkoxyl radicals can give rise to C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    with larger peptides, amino acid homopolymers, and proteins. These observations suggest that alpha-carbon alkoxyl radicals may be key intermediates in the fragmentation of proteins in the presence of oxygen. The radicals released in these processes may react further to form O2.-, or redox cycle metal ions....... These reactions may be propagating processes during protein chain oxidation....

  5. NMR determines transient structure and dynamics in the disordered C-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Noam Y; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H

    2013-07-16

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIP(C), a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407-503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIP(C) and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR(13)C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, (15)N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446-456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468-478. The (13)C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIP(C) polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIP(C). Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIP(C) fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function.

  6. Sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2016-08-12

    We report a novel method for sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides, which combines carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion with on-line derivatization and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (OGCE-LIF). Various factors that may affect the C-terminal sequencing were investigated and optimized. High repeatability of on-line derivatization and the sequential OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=20) less than 1.5% and 3.2% for migration time and peak height, respectively. A total of 13 AAs was efficiently separated in the present study, indicating that the method can be used for sequencing of peptides consisting of the 13 AAs studied. Using two synthesized N-terminally blocked peptides as test examples, we show that the present method can on-line monitor the released AAs with a temporal resolution of 50s during the entire CPY digestion process. The rates of AA release as a function of digestion time were easily measured; thus, the AA sequence of the peptide was determined with just one OGCE assay. Our study indicates the present approach is an effective, reliable, and convenient method for rapid analysis of the C-terminal sequence of peptides, with potential application in peptide analysis and proteome research. PMID:27425760

  7. Essential C-Terminal region of the baculovirus minor capsid protein VP80 binds DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, M.; Merten, O.W.; Francis-Devaraj, F.; Oers, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) minor capsid protein VP80 has been recently shown to interact with the virus-triggered, nuclear F-actin cytoskeleton. A role for VP80 in virus morphogenesis has been proposed in the maturation of progeny nucleocapsids and

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  9. Dengue virus M protein C-terminal peptide (DVM-C) forms ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, A; Horan, C R; Gage, P W

    2005-03-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide consisting of the C-terminus of the M protein of the Dengue virus type 1 strain Singapore S275/90 (DVM-C) produced ion channel activity in artificial lipid bilayers. The channels had a variable conductance and were more permeable to sodium and potassium ions than to chloride ions and more permeable to chloride ions than to calcium ions. Hexamethylene amiloride (100 microM) and amantadine (10 microM), blocked channels formed by DVM-C. Ion channels may play an important role in the life cycle of many viruses and drugs that block these channels may prove to be useful antiviral agents.

  10. Functional roles of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Oliveira

    Full Text Available Biochemical studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replisome demonstrate that the mtDNA polymerase and the mtDNA helicase are stimulated by the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB. Unlike Escherichia coli SSB, bacteriophage T7 gp2.5 and bacteriophage T4 gp32, mtSSBs lack a long, negatively charged C-terminal tail. Furthermore, additional residues at the N-terminus (notwithstanding the mitochondrial presequence are present in the sequence of species across the animal kingdom. We sought to analyze the functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mtSSB in the context of mtDNA replication. We produced the mature wild-type human mtSSB and three terminal deletion variants, and examined their physical and biochemical properties. We demonstrate that the recombinant proteins adopt a tetrameric form, and bind single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. They also stimulate similarly the DNA unwinding activity of the human mtDNA helicase (up to 8-fold. Notably, we find that unlike the high level of stimulation that we observed previously in the Drosophila system, stimulation of DNA synthesis catalyzed by human mtDNA polymerase is only moderate, and occurs over a narrow range of salt concentrations. Interestingly, each of the deletion variants of human mtSSB stimulates DNA synthesis at a higher level than the wild-type protein, indicating that the termini modulate negatively functional interactions with the mitochondrial replicase. We discuss our findings in the context of species-specific components of the mtDNA replisome, and in comparison with various prokaryotic DNA replication machineries.

  11. Solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chu Kong; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2007-02-16

    The THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) domain is a recently discovered zinc-binding domain found in proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis and chromatin modification. It contains a single zinc atom ligated by cysteine and histidine residues within a Cys-X(2-4)-Cys-X(35-53)-Cys-X(2)-His consensus. We have determined the NMR solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) and show that it adopts a fold containing a treble clef motif, bearing similarity to the zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD) from Drosophila Grauzone. The CtBP THAP domain contains a large, positively charged surface patch and we demonstrate that this domain can bind to double-stranded DNA in an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. These data, together with existing reports, indicate that THAP domains might exhibit a functional diversity similar to that observed for classical and GATA-type zinc fingers. PMID:17174978

  12. C-terminal binding protein (CtBP activates the expression of E-box clock genes with CLOCK/CYCLE in Drosophila.

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    Taichi Q Itoh

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer (CLK/CYC is the primary activator of circadian clock genes that contain the E-box sequence in their promoter regions (hereafter referred to as "E-box clock genes". Although extensive studies have investigated the feedback regulation of clock genes, little is known regarding other factors acting with CLK/CYC. Here we show that Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP, a transcriptional co-factor, is involved in the regulation of the E-box clock genes. In vivo overexpression of dCtBP in clock cells lengthened or abolished circadian locomotor rhythm with up-regulation of a subset of the E-box clock genes, period (per, vrille (vri, and PAR domain protein 1ε (Pdp1ε. Co-expression of dCtBP with CLK in vitro also increased the promoter activity of per, vri, Pdp1ε and cwo depending on the amount of dCtBP expression, whereas no effect was observed without CLK. The activation of these clock genes in vitro was not observed when we used mutated dCtBP which carries amino acid substitutions in NAD+ domain. These results suggest that dCtBP generally acts as a putative co-activator of CLK/CYC through the E-box sequence.

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  14. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  15. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells.

  16. C-Terminal proline-rich sequence broadens the optimal temperature and pH ranges of recombinant xylanase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Ozer, Aysegul; Sapmaz, Merve Tuncel; Belduz, Ali Osman; Hasan, Fariha; Shah, Aamer Ali

    2016-09-01

    Efficient utilization of hemicellulose entails high catalytic capacity containing xylanases. In this study, proline rich sequence was fused together with a C-terminal of xylanase gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5 and designated as GthC5ProXyl. Both GthC5Xyl and GthC5ProXyl were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 host in order to determine effect of this modification. The C-terminal oligopeptide had noteworthy effects and instantaneously extended the optimal temperature and pH ranges and progressed the specific activity of GthC5Xyl. Compared with GthC5Xyl, GthC5ProXyl revealed improved specific activity, a higher temperature (70°C versus 60°C) and pH (8 versus 6) optimum, with broad ranges of temperature and pH (60-80°C and 6.0-9.0 versus 40-60°C and 5.0-8.0, respectively). The modified enzyme retained more than 80% activity after incubating in xylan for 3h at 80°C as compared to wild -type with only 45% residual activity. Our study demonstrated that proper introduction of proline residues on C-terminal surface of xylanase family might be very effective in improvement of enzyme thermostability. Moreover, this study reveals an engineering strategy to improve the catalytic performance of enzymes. PMID:27444327

  17. A constitutive effector region on the C-terminal side of switch I of the Ras protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, J; Shirouzu, M; Ito, Y; Hattori, S; Furuyama, S; Nishimura, S; Yokoyama, S

    1995-03-01

    The "switch I" region (Asp30-Asp38) of the Ras protein takes remarkably different conformations between the GDP- and GTP-bound forms and coincides with the so-called "effector region." As for a region on the C-terminal side of switch I, the V45E and G48C mutants of Ras failed to promote neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells (Fujita-Yoshigaki, J., Shirouzu, M., Koide, H., Nishimura, S., and Yokoyama, S. (1991) FEBS Lett. 294, 187-190). In the present study, we performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis within the region Lys42-Ile55 of Ras and found that the K42A, I46A, G48A, E49A, and L53A mutations significantly reduced the neurite-inducing activity. This is an effector region by definition, but its conformation is known to be unaffected by GDP-->GTP exchange. So, this region is referred to as a "constitutive" effector (Ec) region, distinguished from switch I, a "switch" effector (Es) region. The Ec region mutants exhibiting no neurite-inducing activity were found to be correlatably unable to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in PC12 cells. Therefore, the Ec region is essential for the MAP kinase activation in PC12 cells, whereas mutations in this region only negligibly affect the binding of Ras to Raf-1 (Shirouzu, M., Koide, H., Fujita-Yoshigaki, J., Oshio, H., Toyama, Y., Yamasaki, K., Fuhrman, S. A., Villafranca, E., Kaziro, Y., and Yokoyama, S. (1994) Oncogene 9, 2153-2157).

  18. Solution and crystal structures of a C-terminal fragment of the neuronal isoform of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (nPTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Joshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB serves primarily as a regulator of alternative splicing of messenger RNA, but is also co-opted to other roles such as RNA localisation and translation initiation from internal ribosome entry sites. The neuronal paralogue of PTB (nPTB is 75% identical in amino acid sequence with PTB. Although the two proteins have broadly similar RNA binding specificities and effects on RNA splicing, differential expression of PTB and nPTB can lead to the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. RNA binding by PTB and nPTB is mediated by four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs. We present here the crystal and solution structures of the C-terminal domain of nPTB (nPTB34 which contains RRMs 3 and 4. As expected the structures are similar to each other and to the solution structure of the equivalent fragment from PTB (PTB34. The result confirms that, as found for PTB, RRMs 3 and 4 of nPTB interact with one another to form a stable unit that presents the RNA-binding surfaces of the component RRMs on opposite sides that face away from each other. The major differences between PTB34 and nPTB34 arise from amino acid side chain substitutions on the exposed β-sheet surfaces and adjoining loops of each RRM, which are likely to modulate interactions with RNA.

  19. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  20. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-residue α/β peptide, [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures, and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the β-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the β-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47 – Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle α-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K), and forms an α-helix-like structure at 305 K and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305 and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (β-hairpin) and the N-terminal (α-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Koliński [Kmiecik, S.; Kolinski, A. Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736], based on Monte Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  1. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin-binding protein G from Streptococcus. IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanislaw; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-05-01

    A 34-residue alpha/beta peptide [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the beta-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the beta-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47-Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle alpha-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K) and forms an alpha-helix-like structure at 305 K, and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305, and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (beta-hairpin) and the N-terminal (alpha-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Kolinski (Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736), based on Monte-Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  2. C-TERMINAL FRAGMENT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA-INDUCED PROTEIN (TGFBIp) IS REQUIRED FOR APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN OSTEOSARCOMA CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Zamilpa, Rogelio; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Phelix, Clyde F.; Somaraki-Cormier, Maria; Haskins, William; Asmis, Reto; LeBaron, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp), is secreted into the extracellular space. When fragmentation of C-terminal portions is blocked, apoptosis is low, even when the protein is overexpressed. If fragmentation occurs, apoptosis is observed. Whether full-length TGFBIp or integrin-binding fragments released from its C-terminus is necessary for apoptosis remains equivocal. More importantly, the exact portion of the C-terminus that conveys the pro-apoptotic property of TGFBIp i...

  3. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the Salmonella type III secretion system export apparatus protein InvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Liam J; Vuckovic, Marija; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2010-05-01

    InvA is a prominent inner-membrane component of the Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS) apparatus, which is responsible for regulating virulence protein export in pathogenic bacteria. InvA is made up of an N-terminal integral membrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain that is proposed to form part of a docking platform for the soluble export apparatus proteins notably the T3SS ATPase InvC. Here, we report the novel crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Salmonella InvA which shows a compact structure composed of four subdomains. The overall structure is unique although the first and second subdomains exhibit structural similarity to the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPase and a ring building motif found in other T3SS proteins respectively.

  4. C-terminal extension of calmodulin-like 3 protein from Oryza sativa L.: interaction with a high mobility group target protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinpongpanich, Aumnart; Phean-O-Pas, Srivilai; Thongchuang, Mayura; Qu, Li-Jia; Buaboocha, Teerapong

    2015-11-01

    A large number of calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are present in plants, but there is little detailed information on the functions of these proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, the CML3 protein from rice (OsCML3) and its truncated form lacking the C-terminal extension (OsCML3m) were found to exhibit a Ca2+-binding property and subsequent conformational change, but the ability to bind the CaM kinase II peptide was only observed for OsCML3m. Changes in their secondary structure upon Ca2+-binding measured by circular dichroism revealed that OsCML3m had a higher helical content than OsCML3. Moreover, OsCML3 was mainly localized in the plasma membrane, whereas OsCML3m was found in the nucleus. The rice high mobility group B1 (OsHMGB1) protein was identified as one of the putative OsCML3 target proteins. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that OsHMGB1 bound OsCML3, OsCML3m or OsCML3s (cysteine to serine mutation at the prenylation site) in the nucleus presumably through the methionine and phenylalanine-rich hydrophobic patches, confirming that OsHMGB1 is a target protein in planta. The effect of OsCML3 or OsCML3m on the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. OsCML3m decreased the level of OsHMGB1 binding to pUC19 double-stranded DNA whereas OsCML3 did not. Taken together, OsCML3 probably provides a mechanism for manipulating the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 in the nucleus and its C-terminal extension provides an intracellular Ca2+ regulatory switch.

  5. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 25 residues of phage MS2 coded lysis protein dissipates the protonmotive force in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles by generating hydrophilic pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, Wil H.F.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Wilschut, Jan; Duin, Jan van

    1988-01-01

    The RNA phage MS2 encodes a protein, 75 amino acids long, that is necessary and sufficient for lysis of the host cell. DNA deletion analysis has shown that the lytic activity is confined to the C-terminal half of the protein. We have examined the effects of a synthetic peptide, covering the C-termin

  6. Location and Flexibility of the Unique C-Terminal Tail of Aquifex aeolicus Co-Chaperonin Protein 10 as Derived by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Biophysical Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dong-Hua; Luke, Kathryn; Zhang, Junjie; Chiu, Wah; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-01-01

    Co-chaperonin protein 10 (cpn10, GroES in Escherichia coli) is a ring-shaped heptameric protein that facilitates substrate folding when in complex with cpn60 (GroEL in E. coli). The cpn10 from the hyperthermophilic, ancient bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aacpn10) has a 25-residue C-terminal extension in each monomer not found in any other cpn10 protein. Earlier in vitro work has shown that this tail is not needed for heptamer assembly or protein function. Without the tail, however, the heptamers...

  7. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  8. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri M L Morgan

    Full Text Available Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation, R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE of TOMM20.

  9. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhodri M L; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20. PMID:23300914

  10. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhodri M L; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20.

  11. Active and accurate trans-translation requires distinct determinants in the C-terminal tail of SmpB protein and the mRNA-like domain of transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenares, Devin; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Svetlanov, Anton; Karzai, A Wali

    2013-10-18

    Unproductive ribosome stalling in eubacteria is resolved by the actions of SmpB protein and transfer messenger (tm) RNA. We examined the functional significance of conserved regions of SmpB and tmRNA to the trans-translation process. Our investigations reveal that the N-terminal 20 residues of SmpB, which are located near the ribosomal decoding center, are dispensable for all known SmpB activities. In contrast, a set of conserved residues that reside at the junction between the tmRNA-binding core and the C-terminal tail of SmpB play an important role in tmRNA accommodation. Our data suggest that the highly conserved glycine 132 acts as a flexible hinge that enables movement of the C-terminal tail, thus permitting proper positioning and establishment of the tmRNA open reading frame (ORF) as the surrogate template. To gain further insights into the function of the SmpB C-terminal tail, we examined the tagging activity of hybrid variants of tmRNA and the SmpB protein, in which the tmRNA ORF or the SmpB C-terminal tail was substituted with the equivalent but highly divergent sequences from Francisella tularensis. We observed that the hybrid tmRNA was active but resulted in less accurate selection of the resume codon. Cognate hybrid SmpB was necessary to restore activity. Furthermore, accurate tagging was observed when the identity of the resume codon was reverted from GGC to GCA. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of the tmRNA ORF and the selection of the correct translation resumption point are distinct activities that are influenced by independent tmRNA and SmpB determinants.

  12. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of β-hairpin structure

    OpenAIRE

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal β-hairpin (residues 46–61), [IG(46–61)], of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG(46–61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from bo...

  13. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.;

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H(+)-AT...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase....

  14. Identification of a degrading enzyme in human serum that hydrolyzes a C-terminal core sequence of neuromedin U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kentaro; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU), an anorexigenic peptide, has attracted attention as a candidate for development of drugs against obesity. We recently developed several potent hexapeptidic agonists derived from NMU that share a common Pro-Arg-Asn-NH2 (PRN) sequence at their C-termini and found that the amide bond between Arg and Asn is rapidly degraded in serum. In this study, we determined that the key enzyme responsible for this biodegradation was thrombin. Both irreversible and reversible thrombin inhibitors (PPACK and argatroban, respectively) enhanced the serum stability of both hexapeptidic agonists and human NMU itself as an inherent ligand. In addition, rapid degradation did not occur in citrated human plasma because thrombin was not activated under these conditions. Furthermore, we found that an N-terminal 2-thienylacetyl group in hexapeptidic agonists enhanced recognition by thrombin. These findings will be valuable for future investigations of the biological functions of NMU in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 440-445, 2016. PMID:26567043

  15. The Crystal Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Salmonella enterica PduO Protein: An Old Fold with a New Heme-Binding Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Hickey, Neal; Hensel, Michael; Klare, Johann P; Geremia, Silvano; Tiufiakova, Tatiana; Torda, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    The two-domain protein PduO, involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization in the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica is an ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase, but this is a function of the N-terminal domain alone. The role of its C-terminal domain (PduOC) is, however, unknown. In this study, comparative growth assays with a set of Salmonella mutant strains showed that this domain is necessary for effective in vivo catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. It was also shown that isolated, recombinantly-expressed PduOC binds heme in vivo. The structure of PduOC co-crystallized with heme was solved (1.9 Å resolution) showing an octameric assembly with four heme moieities. The four heme groups are highly solvent-exposed and the heme iron is hexa-coordinated with bis-His ligation by histidines from different monomers. Static light scattering confirmed the octameric assembly in solution, but a mutation of the heme-coordinating histidine caused dissociation into dimers. Isothermal titration calorimetry using the PduOC apoprotein showed strong heme binding (K d = 1.6 × 10(-7) M). Biochemical experiments showed that the absence of the C-terminal domain in PduO did not affect adenosyltransferase activity in vitro. The evidence suggests that PduOC:heme plays an important role in the set of cobalamin transformations required for effective catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. Salmonella PduO is one of the rare proteins which binds the redox-active metabolites heme and cobalamin, and the heme-binding mode of the C-terminal domain differs from that in other members of this protein family. PMID:27446048

  16. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  17. Conformational Changes and Association of Membrane-Interacting Peptides in Myelin Membrane Models: A Case of the C-Terminal Peptide of Proteolipid Protein and the Antimicrobial Peptide Melittin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadu, Ashtina; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; DeBruin, Lillian

    2015-11-25

    Model membranes composed of various lipid mixtures can segregate into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. In this study, lipid vesicles composed of mainly Lo or Ld phases as well as complex lipid systems representing the cytosolic leaflet of the myelin membrane were characterized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a donor/acceptor pair that preferentially partitioned into Lo or Ld phases, respectively. The fluidity of the lipid systems containing >30% cholesterol was modulated in the presence of the amphipathic peptide melittin. With all the studied lipid systems, melittin attained an α-helical conformation as determined by CD spectroscopy and attained varying degrees of membrane association and penetration as determined by intrinsic Trp fluorescence. The other protein domain utilized was a putative amphipathic helical peptide derived from the cytosolic C-terminal sequence of proteolipid protein (PLP) which is the most abundant protein in the myelin membrane. The C-terminal PLP peptide transitioned from a random coil to an α-helix in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Upon interacting with each of lipid vesicle system, the PLP peptide also folded into a helix; however, at high concentrations of the peptide with fluid lipid systems, associated helices transmuted into a β-sheet conformer. The membrane-associated aggregation of the cytosolic C-termini could be a mechanism by which the transmembrane PLP multimerizes in the myelin membrane. PMID:26561987

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal domain of the human spliceosomal DExD/H-box protein hPrp22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the C-terminal domain of human hPrp22 are reported. This communication also contains data for the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The Homo sapiens DExD/H-box protein hPrp22 is a crucial component of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Within the splicing cycle, it is involved in the ligation of exons and generation of the lariat and it additionally catalyzes the release of mature mRNA from the spliceosomal U5 snRNP. The yeast homologue of this protein, yPrp22, shows ATP-dependent RNA-helicase activity and is capable of unwinding RNA/RNA duplex molecules. A truncated construct coding for residues 950–1183 of human Prp22, comprising the structurally and functionally uncharacterized C-terminal domain, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein was subsequently overproduced, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution, belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.2, c = 88.4 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  19. C-Terminal Charge-Reversal Derivatization and Parallel Use of Multiple Proteases Facilitates Identification of Protein C-Termini by C-Terminomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Prasath; Koudelka, Tomas; Linke, Dennis; Tholey, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The identification of protein C-termini in complex proteomes is challenging due to the poor ionization efficiency of the carboxyl group. Amidating the negatively charged C-termini with ethanolamine (EA) has been suggested to improve the detection of C-terminal peptides and allows for a directed depletion of internal peptides after proteolysis using carboxyl reactive polymers. In the present study, the derivatization with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMEDA) and (4-aminobutyl)guanidine (AG) leading to a positively charged C-terminus was investigated. C-terminal charge-reversed peptides showed improved coverage of b- and y-ion series in the MS/MS spectra compared to their noncharged counterparts. DMEDA-derivatized peptides resulted in many peptides with charge states of 3+, which benefited from ETD fragmentation. This makes the charge-reversal strategy particularly useful for the analysis of protein C-termini, which may also be post-translationally modified. The labeling strategy and the indirect enrichment of C-termini worked with similar efficiency for both DMEDA and EA, and their applicability was demonstrated on an E. coli proteome. Utilizing two proteases and different MS/MS activation mechanisms allowed for the identification of >400 C-termini, encompassing both canonical and truncated C-termini. PMID:26939532

  20. Yeast Ty retrotransposons assemble into virus-like particles whose T-numbers depend on the C-terminal length of the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Khayat, H A; Bhella, D; Kenney, J M; Roth, J F; Kingsman, A J; Martin-Rendon, E; Saibil, H R

    1999-09-10

    The virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by the yeast Ty retrotransposons are structurally and functionally related to retroviral cores. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, we have examined the structures of VLPs assembled from full-length and truncated forms of the capsid structural protein. The VLPs are highly polydisperse in their radius distribution. We have found that the length of the C-terminal region of the capsid structural protein dictates the T -number, and thus the size, of the assembled particles. Each construct studied appears to assemble into at least two or three size classes, with shorter C termini giving rise to smaller particles. This assembly property provides a model for understanding the variable assembly of retroviral core proteins. The particles are assembled from trimer-clustered units and there are holes in the capsid shells. PMID:10493857

  1. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  2. Structure of a C-terminal fragment of its Vps53 subunit suggests similarity of Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex to a family of tethering complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, Neil; Hutagalung, Alex; Novick, Peter; Reinisch, Karin M. (Yale); (UCLJ)

    2010-08-13

    The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is a membrane-tethering complex that functions in traffic from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Here we present the structure of a C-terminal fragment of the Vps53 subunit, important for binding endosome-derived vesicles, at a resolution of 2.9 {angstrom}. We show that the C terminus consists of two {alpha}-helical bundles arranged in tandem, and we identify a highly conserved surface patch, which may play a role in vesicle recognition. Mutations of the surface result in defects in membrane traffic. The fold of the Vps53 C terminus is strongly reminiscent of proteins that belong to three other tethering complexes - Dsl1, conserved oligomeric Golgi, and the exocyst - thought to share a common evolutionary origin. Thus, the structure of the Vps53 C terminus suggests that GARP belongs to this family of complexes.

  3. A C-terminal Hydrophobic, Solvent-protected Core and a Flexible N-terminus are Potentially Required for Human Papillomavirus 18 E7 Protein Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.; Tian, Y; Greenaway, F; Sun, M

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) relies on the expression of genes specifying the E7 and E6 proteins. To investigate further the variation in oligomeric structure that has been reported for different E7 proteins, an HPV-18 E7 cloned from a Hispanic woman with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was purified to homogeneity most probably as a stable monomeric protein in aqueous solution. We determined that one zinc ion is present per HPV-18 E7 monomer by amino acid and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic results indicate that the zinc ion is important for the correct folding and thermal stability of HPV-18 E7. Hydroxyl radical mediated protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry and other biochemical and biophysical data indicate that near the C-terminus, the four cysteines of the two Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys motifs that are coordinated to the zinc ion form a solvent inaccessible core. The N-terminal LXCXE pRb binding motif region is hydroxyl radical accessible and conformationally flexible. Both factors, the relative flexibility of the pRb binding motif at the N-terminus and the C-terminal metal-binding hydrophobic solvent-protected core, combine together and facilitate the biological functions of HPV-18 E7.

  4. A C-terminal segment of the V{sub 1}R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Mahmood, Syed Saad; Stanley, Nithianantham; Xu, Zhen; Wu, Nan [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Thibonnier, Marc [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Shoham, Menachem, E-mail: mxs10@case.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V{sub 1} vascular vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1}R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V{sub 1}R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V{sub 1}R.

  5. Bound or free: interaction of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) with the tetrameric core of SSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xun-Cheng; Wang, Yao; Yagi, Hiromasa; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Mason, Claire E; Smith, Paul J; Vandevenne, Marylène; Dixon, Nicholas E; Otting, Gottfried

    2014-04-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB) protects ssDNA from degradation and recruits other proteins for DNA replication and repair. Escherichia coli SSB is the prototypical eubacterial SSB in a family of tetrameric SSBs. It consists of a structurally well-defined ssDNA binding domain (OB-domain) and a disordered C-terminal domain (C-domain). The eight-residue C-terminal segment of SSB (C-peptide) mediates the binding of SSB to many different SSB-binding proteins. Previously published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data of the monomeric state at pH 3.4 showed that the C-peptide binds to the OB-domain at a site that overlaps with the ssDNA binding site, but investigating the protein at neutral pH is difficult because of the high molecular mass and limited solubility of the tetramer. Here we show that the C-domain is highly mobile in the SSB tetramer at neutral pH and that binding of the C-peptide to the OB-domain is so weak that most of the C-peptides are unbound even in the absence of ssDNA. We address the problem of determining intramolecular binding affinities in the situation of fast exchange between two states, one of which cannot be observed by NMR and cannot be fully populated. The results were confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. The C-peptide-OB-domain interaction is shown to be driven primarily by electrostatic interactions, so that binding of 1 equiv of (dT)35 releases practically all C-peptides from the OB-domain tetramer. The interaction is much more sensitive to NaCl than to potassium glutamate, which is the usual osmolyte in E. coli. As the C-peptide is predominantly in the unbound state irrespective of the presence of ssDNA, long-range electrostatic effects from the C-peptide may contribute more to regulating the activity of SSB than any engagement of the C-peptide by the OB-domain.

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 phosphorylates s/t-p sites in the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain and is incorporated into viral capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludgate, Laurie; Ning, Xiaojun; Nguyen, David H; Adams, Christina; Mentzer, Laura; Hu, Jianming

    2012-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) is important for viral RNA packaging, reverse transcription, and subcellular localization. Hepadnavirus capsids also package a cellular kinase. The identity of the host kinase that phosphorylates the core CTD or gets packaged remains to be resolved. In particular, both the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core CTDs harbor several conserved serine/threonine-proline (S/T-P) sites whose phosphorylation state is known to regulate CTD functions. We report here that the endogenous kinase in the HBV capsids was blocked by chemical inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), in particular, CDK2 inhibitors. The kinase phosphorylated the HBV CTD at the serine-proline (S-P) sites. Furthermore, we were able to detect CDK2 in purified HBV capsids by immunoblotting. Purified CDK2 phosphorylated the S/T-P sites of the HBV and DHBV CTD in vitro. Inhibitors of CDKs, of CDK2 in particular, decreased both HBV and DHBV CTD phosphorylation in vivo. Moreover, CDK2 inhibitors blocked DHBV CTD phosphorylation, specifically at the S/T-P sites, in a mammalian cell lysate. These results indicate that cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids.

  7. Comparison of Peritoneal Low-Molecular-Weight-Protein-Removal in CCPD and CAPD Patients Based on C-Terminal Agrin Fragment Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Steubl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study compares the peritoneal elimination of the low-molecular-weight-protein (LMWP C-terminal agrin fragment (tCAF, size 22 kDa, a promising biomarker for kidney function, in continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Methods: 103 sets of serum, 24h-urine and dialysate samples were obtained in 15 CCPD (63 sets and 11 CAPD (40 sets patients. Total, renal and peritoneal substrate removals/clearances were measured/calculated for tCAF, creatinine, blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN, cystatin C and albumin and correlated with the peritoneal transport type. Results: Serum und urine concentrations of all biomarkers did not differ between both groups, urinary substrate removal was higher in CAPD patients for all biomarkers due to better residual renal function. Peritoneal substrate removal of tCAF and albumin were significantly higher in CAPD (tCAF: 35.3 vs. 19.3 µg/d, p2 body-surface-area, pConclusions: CAPD was superior to CCPD concerning peritoneal tCAF removal. This finding was pronounced in high-transporters and CAPD patients using icodextrin twice daily.

  8. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of beta-hairpin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2009-06-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain (residues 46-61), [IG(46-61)] of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG (46-61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from both the C- and the N-terminus. To determine the structure and stability of two resulting 12- and 14-amino acid-residue peptides, IG(48-59) and IG(47-60), respectively, we carried out circular dichroism, NMR, and calorimetric studies of these peptides in pure water. Our results show that IG(48-59) possesses organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50-Phe57 and Trp48-Val59) at T = 283 and 305 K. At T = 313 K, the structure breaks down because of increased chain entropy, but the turn region is preserved in the same position observed for the structure of the whole protein. The breakdown of structure occurs near the melting temperature of this peptide (T(m) = 310 K) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The melting temperature of IG(47-60) determined by DSC is T(m) = 330 K and its structure is similar to that of the native beta-hairpin at all (lower) temperatures examined (283-313 K). Both of these truncated sequences are conserved in all known amino acid sequences of the B domains of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from bacteria. Thus, this study contributes to an understanding of the mechanism of folding of this whole family of proteins, and provides information about the mechanism of formation and stabilization of a beta-hairpin structural element. PMID:19089955

  9. Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to nucleolin and fibrillarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melén Krister

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is a virulence factor, which is targeted into the cell cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus. NS1 is a multi-functional protein that inhibits host cell pre-mRNA processing and counteracts host cell antiviral responses. Previously, we have shown that the NS1 protein of the H3N2 subtype influenza viruses possesses a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS that also functions as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS and targets the protein into the nucleolus. Results Here, we show that the NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus subtype interacts in vitro primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via its N-terminal NLS1 with the nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and fibrillarin. Using chimeric green fluorescence protein (GFP-NS1 fusion constructs, we show that the nucleolar retention of the NS1 protein is determined by its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS in vivo. Confocal laser microscopy analysis shows that the NS1 protein colocalizes with nucleolin in nucleoplasm and nucleolus and with B23 and fibrillarin in the nucleolus of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus-infected A549 cells. Since some viral proteins contain NoLSs, it is likely that viruses have evolved specific nucleolar functions. Conclusion NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus interacts primarily via the C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via the N-terminal NLS1 with the main nucleolar proteins, nucleolin, B23 and fibrillarin.

  10. Interaction of a C-terminal Truncated Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein with Plasmid DNA Vaccine Leads to in vitro Assembly of Heterogeneous Virus-like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Acosta-Rivero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that HCV core proteins (HCcAg with C-terminal deletions assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs in the presence of structured RNA molecules. Results presented in this work showed that a truncated HCcAg variant covering the first 120 aa (HCcAg.120 with a 32 aa N-terminal fusion peptide (6xHistag-XpressTMepitope interacts with plasmid DNA vaccine. Interestingly, the buoyant density of VLPs containing HCcAg.120 in CsCl gradients changed from 1.15-1,17 g mLˉ1 to 1.30-1.34 g mLˉ1 after addition of plasmid DNA to assembly reactions. In addition, a delay in electrophoretic mobility of HCcAg.120-plasmid samples on agarose gels was observed indicating a direct interaction between VLPs and nucleic acids. Remarkably, addition of either plasmid DNA or tRNA to assembly reactions leaded to heterogeneous and larger VLPs formation than those observed in HCcAg.120 assembly reactions. VLPs containing HCcAg.120 induced a specific IgG antibodies in mice that reacted with hepatocytes from HCV-infected patients. VLPs obtained in this work would be important to elucidate the mechanisms behind the ability of HCcAg to assemble into a nucleocapsid structure. Besides, the capacity of particles containing HCcAg.120 to interact with nucleic acids could be used in the development of DNA vaccines and viral vectors based on these particles.

  11. Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase opens intracellular C-terminal water pathway leading to third Na+-binding site in molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Nissen, Poul; Mouritsen, Ole G.;

    2012-01-01

    a C-terminal hydrated pathway leading to D926, a transmembrane residue proposed to form part of the third sodium ion-binding site (4). Simulations of a S936E mutant form, for which only subtle effects are observed when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with electrophysiology, does not mimic...

  12. C-terminal KDEL-modified cystatin C is retained in transfected CHO cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Teit Eliot; Vogel, Charlotte Katrine; Schwartz, Thue W.

    1990-01-01

    The significance of a C-terminal tetrapeptide, Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), as a retention signal for the endoplasmatic reticulum was studied using cystatin C, a general thiol protease inhibitor, as the reporter protein. Clones of CHO cells were analyzed after stable transfection with eukaryotic...... expression vectors encoding either cystatin C, KDEL extended cystatin C, or cystatin C extended with a control sequence. It is concluded that cystatin C with the KDEL tetrapeptide as a C-terminal extension is retained intracellularly without apparent accumulation of the molecule....

  13. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.;

    1997-01-01

    -terminal folding domain binds to alpha2MR/LRP, it remains uncertain whether it binds to heparin and to HSPG. To identify segments important for binding to alpha2MR/LRP and to clarify possible binding to heparin, we produced constructs of the human C-terminal folding domain, LpL-(313-448), and of the fragment Lp....../LRP was essentially abolished following deletion of residues 404-430, and pretreatment of CHO cells with the peptide comprising aa 402-423 inhibited the binding of LpL-(313-448). We conclude that the C-terminal folding domain of human LpL has a site for binding to heparin and to HSPG, presumably involving amino acids...... within residues 404-430. Two segments of the domain are necessary for efficient binding to alpha2MR/LRP, one comprising residues 380-384 and another overlapping the segment important for binding to heparin....

  14. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part II. Interplay of local backbone conformational dynamics and long-range hydrophobic interactions in hairpin formation

    OpenAIRE

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Żmudzińska, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    Two peptides, corresponding to the turn region of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, consisting of residues 51–56 [IG(51–56)] and 50–57 [IG(50–57)], respectively, were studied by CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that the part of the sequence corresponding to the β-turn in the native structure (DDATKT) of the B3 domain forms bent conformations similar to ...

  15. Human heart cell proteins interacting with a C-terminally truncated 2A protein of coxsackie B3 virus: identification by the yeast two-hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiansheng; Huang, Xiaotian; Xia, Yanhua

    2016-04-01

    Protein 2A is a non-structural protein of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), an important human pathogen that can cause a variety of human diseases. Protein 2A not only participates in viral life cycle, but also regulates host cell functions; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of CVB3 2A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CVB3 2A interactive proteins in the human heart cDNA library. Full-length 2A shows strong transcriptional activity in yeast cells, which interferes with the application of Y2H system; therefore, a series of 2A deletion mutants were constructed. Analysis of transcriptional self-activation revealed that 2A lost its transcriptional activity after truncation of 60 amino acids (aa) at the N-terminus or deletion of 17 aa at the C-terminus. Choosing the 2A mutant with 17 aa deletion at the C-terminus as the bait protein, four interactive cellular proteins were identified, including TIMP4, MYL2, COX7C, and ENO1. These proteins are mostly related to protein degradation and metabolism. Although the interactions detected by the Y2H system should be considered as preliminary results, the finding of proteins translated from a human heart cDNA library that interacts with the CVB3 2A will stimulate experiments testing the reactivity of a translational mixture derived from that library with full-length 2A protein, followed by co-immunoprecipitation studies.

  16. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  17. Molecular basis of cannabinoid CB1 receptor coupling to the G protein heterotrimer Gαiβγ: identification of key CB1 contacts with the C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Ahn, Kwang H; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-11-01

    The cannabinoid (CB1) receptor is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The human CB1 receptor, which is among the most expressed receptors in the brain, has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. Different classes of CB1 agonists evoke signaling pathways through the activation of specific subtypes of G proteins. The molecular basis of CB1 receptor coupling to its cognate G protein is unknown. As a first step toward understanding CB1 receptor-mediated G protein signaling, we have constructed a ternary complex structural model of the CB1 receptor and Gi heterotrimer (CB1-Gi), guided by the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in complex with Gs (β2AR-Gs), through 824-ns duration molecular dynamics simulations in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer environment. We identified a group of residues at the juxtamembrane regions of the intracellular loops 2 and 3 (IC2 and IC3) of the CB1 receptor, including Ile-218(3.54), Tyr-224(IC2), Asp-338(6.30), Arg-340(6.32), Leu-341(6.33), and Thr-344(6.36), as potential key contacts with the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. Ala mutations of these residues at the receptor-Gi interface resulted in little G protein coupling activity, consistent with the present model of the CB1-Gi complex, which suggests tight interactions between CB1 and the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. The model also suggests that unique conformational changes in the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gα play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated G protein activation.

  18. Hepatitis B virus DNA-negative dane particles lack core protein but contain a 22-kDa precore protein without C-terminal arginine-rich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Ohno, Shinichi; Maki, Noboru

    2005-06-10

    DNA-negative Dane particles have been observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected sera. The capsids of the empty particles are thought to be composed of core protein but have not been studied in detail. In the present study, the protein composition of the particles was examined using new enzyme immunoassays for the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and for the HBV precore/core proteins (core-related antigens, HBcrAg). HBcrAg were abundant in fractions slightly less dense than HBcAg and HBV DNA. Three times more Dane-like particles were observed in the HBcrAg-rich fraction than in the HBV DNA-rich fraction by electron microscopy. Western blots and mass spectrometry identified the HBcrAg as a 22-kDa precore protein (p22cr) containing the uncleaved signal peptide and lacking the arginine-rich domain that is involved in binding the RNA pregenome or the DNA genome. In sera from 30 HBV-infected patients, HBcAg represented only a median 10.5% of the precore/core proteins in enveloped particles. These data suggest that most of the Dane particles lack viral DNA and core capsid but contain p22cr. This study provides a model for the formation of the DNA-negative Dane particles. The precore proteins, which lack the arginine-rich nucleotide-binding domain, form viral RNA/DNA-negative capsid-like particles and are enveloped and released as empty particles.

  19. Recognition of DNA Termini by the C-Terminal Region of the Ku80 and the DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Derek S.; Catherine R Sears; Turchi, John J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be generated by endogenous cellular processes or exogenous agents in mammalian cells. These breaks are highly variable with respect to DNA sequence and structure and all are recognized in some context by the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). DNA-PK is a critical component necessary for the recognition and repair of DSBs via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Previously studies have shown that DNA-PK responds differentially to variations in DSB structur...

  20. Conversion of green fluorescent protein into a toxic, aggregation-prone protein by C-terminal addition of a short peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Christopher D; Fonte, Virginia; Hiester, Brian; Yerg, John; Ferguson, Jmil; Csontos, Susan; Silverman, Michael A; Stein, Gretchen H

    2006-01-20

    A non-natural 16-residue "degron" peptide has been reported to convey proteasome-dependent degradation when fused to proteins expressed in yeast (Gilon, T., Chomsky, O., and Kulka, R. (2000) Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 7214-7219) or when fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed in mammalian cells (Bence, N. F., Sampat, R. M., and Kopito, R. R. (2001) Science 292, 1552-1555). We find that expression of the GFP::degron in Caenorhabditis elegans muscle or neurons results in the formation of stable perinuclear deposits. Similar perinuclear deposition of GFP::degron was also observed upon transfection of primary rat hippocampal neurons or mouse Neuro2A cells. The generality of this observation was supported by transfection of HEK 293 cells with both GFP::degron and DsRed(monomer)::degron constructs. GFP::degron expressed in C. elegans is less soluble than unmodified GFP and induces the small chaperone protein HSP-16, which co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with GFP::degron deposits. Induction of GFP::degron in C. elegans muscle leads to rapid paralysis, demonstrating the in vivo toxicity of this aggregating variant. This paralysis is suppressed by co-expression of HSP-16, which dramatically alters the subcellular distribution of GFP::degron. Our results suggest that in C. elegans, and perhaps in mammalian cells, the degron peptide is not a specific proteasome-targeting signal but acts instead by altering GFP secondary or tertiary structure, resulting in an aggregation-prone form recognized by the chaperone system. This altered form of GFP can form toxic aggregates if its expression level exceeds the capacity of chaperone-based degradation pathways. GFP::degron may serve as an instructive "generic" aggregating control protein for studies of disease-associated aggregating proteins, such as huntingtin, alpha-synuclein, and the beta-amyloid peptide. PMID:16239215

  1. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka [Department of Genetics, Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef [Department of Biochemistry, Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomaska, Lubomir, E-mail: tomaska@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Genetics, Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  2. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1+ gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1pΔC) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1pΔC forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1pΔC is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1+ RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1+ mRNA.

  3. LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL1) binds to the C-terminal domain of ATM-interacting protein (ATMIN/ASCIZ) and regulates its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapali, Peter [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Garcia-Mayoral, Maria Flor [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Moreno, Monica [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Tarnok, Krisztian; Schlett, Katalin [Dept. Physiology and Neurobiology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Albar, Juan Pablo [Proteomics Facility, CNB, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Bruix, Marta [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Nyitray, Laszlo, E-mail: nyitray@elte.hu [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Rodriguez-Crespo, Ignacio, E-mail: nacho@bbm1.ucm.es [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have screened a human library with dynein light chain DYNLL1 (DLC8) as bait. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynein light chain DYNLL1 binds to ATM-kinase interacting protein (ATMIN). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATMIN has 17 SQ/TQ motifs, a motif frequently found in DYNLL1-binding partners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two proteins interact in vitro, with ATMIN displaying at least five binding sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of ATMIN and DYNNL1 in transfected cells can also be observed. -- Abstract: LC8 dynein light chain (now termed DYNLL1 and DYNLL2 in mammals), a dimeric 89 amino acid protein, is a component of the dynein multi-protein complex. However a substantial amount of DYNLL1 is not associated to microtubules and it can thus interact with dozens of cellular and viral proteins that display well-defined, short linear motifs. Using DYNLL1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart library we identified ATMIN, an ATM kinase-interacting protein, as a DYNLL1-binding partner. Interestingly, ATMIN displays at least 18 SQ/TQ motifs in its sequence and DYNLL1 is known to bind to proteins with KXTQT motifs. Using pepscan and yeast two-hybrid techniques we show that DYNLL1 binds to multiple SQ/TQ motifs present in the carboxy-terminal domain of ATMIN. Recombinant expression and purification of the DYNLL1-binding region of ATMIN allowed us to obtain a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass in gel filtration close to 400 kDa that could bind to DYNLL1 in vitro. The NMR data-driven modelled complexes of DYNLL1 with two selected ATMIN peptides revealed a similar mode of binding to that observed between DYNLL1 and other peptide targets. Remarkably, co-expression of mCherry-DYNLL1 and GFP-ATMIN mutually affected intracellular protein localization. In GFP-ATMIN expressing-cells DNA damage induced efficiently nuclear foci formation, which was partly impeded by the presence of mCherry-DYNLL1

  4. Photosynthetic control of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Vallisneria leaves. II. Presence of putative isogenes and a protein equipped with a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Akiko; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Shingo

    2002-04-01

    In vitro treatment with trypsin of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from the leaves of Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, an aquatic monocot, produced a marked decrease in the Km for ATP and an increase in the Vmax of H+-transporting activity. Concomitantly, the removal of 8 kDa of the C-terminal domain from the 94-kDa PM H+-ATPase was confirmed by immunoblotting using different kinds of polyclonal antibody. Three partial clones of putative PM H+-ATPase genes (Vga1, 2, and 3) were isolated from leaves by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the expression level of Vga3 was high and that of the other two genes was much lower. The H+-transporting activity of PM vesicles was substantially suppressed in the presence of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has been supposed to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of the PM H+-ATPase, coincident with an increase in the Km for ATP and a decrease in the Vmax. After treatment of the isolated PM vesicles with trypsin, the inhibitory effect of Pi was no longer evident. This result indicates that Pi inhibited the activity through the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the PM H+-ATPase. Furthermore, Pi increased the Km for ATP of the H+-transporting activity in the PM vesicles isolated from both dark-adapted and red-light-irradiated leaves. The results suggest that regulation of the Km for ATP through the operation of photosynthesis is independent of regulation through the cytoplasmic level of Pi. PMID:11941463

  5. Structure discrimination for the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR measurements can give important information on solution structure, without the necessity for a full-scale solution structure determination. The C-terminal protein binding domain of the ribosome-associated chaperone protein trigger factor is composed of non-contiguous parts of the polypeptide chain, with an interpolated prolyl isomerase domain. A construct of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor containing residues 113-149 and 247-432, joined by a Gly-Ser-Gly-Ser linker, is well folded and gives excellent NMR spectra in solution. We have used NMR measurements on this construct, and on a longer construct that includes the prolyl isomerase domain, to distinguish between two possible structures for the C-terminal domain of trigger factor, and to assess the behavior of the trigger factor C-terminal domain in solution. Two X-ray crystal structures, of intact trigger factor from E. coli (Ferbitz et al., Nature 431:590-596, 2004), and of a truncated trigger factor from Vibrio cholerae (Ludlam et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:13436-13441, 2004) showed significant differences in the structure of the C-terminal domain, such that the two structures could not be superimposed. We show using NMR chemical shifts and long range nuclear Overhauser effects that the secondary and tertiary structure of the E. coli C-terminal domain in solution is consistent with the crystal structure of the E. coli trigger factor and not with the V. cholerae protein. Given the similarity of the amino acid sequences of the E. coli and V. cholerae proteins, it appears likely that the structure of the V. cholerae protein has been distorted as a result of truncation of a 44-amino acid segment at the C-terminus. Analysis of residual dipolar coupling measurements shows that the overall topology of the solution structure is completely inconsistent with both structures. Dynamics analysis of the C-terminal domain using T1, T2 and heteronuclear NOE parameters show that the protein is

  6. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The ...

  7. Monoclonal Antibody 16D10 to the C-Terminal Domain of the Feto-Acinar Pancreatic Protein Binds to Membrane of Human Pancreatic Tumoral SOJ-6 Cells and Inhibits the Growth of Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Panicot-Dubois

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Feto-acinar pancreatic protein (FAPP characterized by mAbJ28 reactivity is a specific component associated with ontogenesis and behaves as an oncodevelopment-associated antigen. We attempted to determine whether pancreatic tumoral SOJ-6 cells are expressed at their surface FAPP antigens and to examine if specific antibodies directed against these FAPP epitopes could decrease the growth of pancreatic tumors in a mice model. For this purpose, we used specific antibodies against either the whole FAPP, the O-glycosylated C-terminal domain, or the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our results indicate that SOJ-6 cells expressed at their surface a 32-kDa peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of the FAPP. Furthermore, we show, by using endoproteinase Lys-C or geldanamycin, a drug able to impair the FAPP secretion, that this 32-kDa peptide expressed on the SOJ-6 cell surface comes from the degradation of the FAPP. Finally, an in vivo prospective study using a preventative tumor model in nude mice indicates that targeting this peptide by the use of mAb16D10 inhibits the growth of SOJ-6 xenografts. The specificity of mAb16D10 for pancreatic tumors and the possibility to obtain recombinant structures of mucin-like peptides recognized by mAb16D10 and mAbJ28 are promising tools in immunologic approaches to cure pancreatic cancers.

  8. Interaction of the C-terminal peptide of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B with a bicellar lipid mixture containing anionic lipid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sylvester

    Full Text Available The hydrophobic lung surfactant SP-B is essential for respiration. SP-B promotes spreading and adsorption of surfactant at the alveolar air-water interface and may facilitate connections between the surface layer and underlying lamellar reservoirs of surfactant material. SP-B63-78 is a cationic and amphipathic helical peptide containing the C-terminal helix of SP-B. (2H NMR has been used to examine the effect of SP-B63-78 on the phase behavior and dynamics of bicellar lipid dispersions containing the longer chain phospholipids DMPC-d 54 and DMPG and the shorter chain lipid DHPC mixed with a 3∶1∶1 molar ratio. Below the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature of the longer chain components, bicellar mixtures form small, rapidly reorienting disk-like particles with shorter chain lipid components predominantly found around the highly curved particle edges. With increasing temperature, the particles coalesce into larger magnetically-oriented structures and then into more extended lamellar phases. The susceptibility of bicellar particles to coalescence and large scale reorganization makes them an interesting platform in which to study peptide-induced interactions between lipid assemblies. SP-B63-78 is found to lower the temperature at which the orientable phase transforms to the more extended lamellar phase. The peptide also changes the spectrum of motions contributing to quadrupole echo decay in the lamellar phase. The way in which the peptide alters interactions between bilayered micelle structures may provide some insight into some aspects of the role of full-length SP-B in maintaining a functional surfactant layer in lungs.

  9. Interaction of the C-terminal peptide of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) with a bicellar lipid mixture containing anionic lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Alexander; MacEachern, Lauren; Booth, Valerie; Morrow, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The hydrophobic lung surfactant SP-B is essential for respiration. SP-B promotes spreading and adsorption of surfactant at the alveolar air-water interface and may facilitate connections between the surface layer and underlying lamellar reservoirs of surfactant material. SP-B63-78 is a cationic and amphipathic helical peptide containing the C-terminal helix of SP-B. (2)H NMR has been used to examine the effect of SP-B63-78 on the phase behavior and dynamics of bicellar lipid dispersions containing the longer chain phospholipids DMPC-d 54 and DMPG and the shorter chain lipid DHPC mixed with a 3∶1∶1 molar ratio. Below the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature of the longer chain components, bicellar mixtures form small, rapidly reorienting disk-like particles with shorter chain lipid components predominantly found around the highly curved particle edges. With increasing temperature, the particles coalesce into larger magnetically-oriented structures and then into more extended lamellar phases. The susceptibility of bicellar particles to coalescence and large scale reorganization makes them an interesting platform in which to study peptide-induced interactions between lipid assemblies. SP-B63-78 is found to lower the temperature at which the orientable phase transforms to the more extended lamellar phase. The peptide also changes the spectrum of motions contributing to quadrupole echo decay in the lamellar phase. The way in which the peptide alters interactions between bilayered micelle structures may provide some insight into some aspects of the role of full-length SP-B in maintaining a functional surfactant layer in lungs.

  10. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102, only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803 or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120 prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41% to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known

  11. Identification of a novel pentatricopeptide repeat subfamily with a C-terminal domain of bacterial origin acquired via ancient horizontal gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Sam; Barth, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins involved in organelle RNA metabolism. Very little is known about the origin and evolution of these proteins, particularly outside of plants. Here, we report the identification of a novel subfamily of PPR proteins not found in plants and explore their evolution. Results We identified a novel subfamily of PPR proteins, which all contain a C-terminal tRNA guanine methyltransferase (TGM...

  12. The C-terminal region of thermophilic tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) stabilizes the dimer structure and enhances fidelity of methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, Chie; Ochi, Anna; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-15

    Transfer RNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase catalyzes methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N(7) atom of the semi-conserved G46 base in tRNA. Aquifex aeolicus is a hyper thermophilic eubacterium that grows at close to 95 degrees C. A. aeolicus tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase [TrmB] has an elongated C-terminal region as compared with mesophilic counterparts. In this study, the authors focused on the functions of this C-terminal region. Analytic gel filtration chromatography and amino acid sequencing reveled that the start point (Glu202) of the C-terminal region is often cleaved by proteases during purification steps and the C-terminal region tightly binds to another subunit even in the presence of 6M urea. Because the C-terminal region contains abundant basic amino acid residues, the authors assumed that some of these residues might be involved in tRNA binding. To address this idea, the authors prepared eight alanine substitution mutant proteins. However, measurements of initial velocities of these mutant proteins suggested that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal region are not involved in tRNA binding. The authors investigated effects of the deletion of the C-terminal region. Deletion mutant protein of the C-terminal region (the core protein) was precipitated by incubation at 85 degrees C, while the wild type protein was soluble at that temperature, demonstrating that the C-terminal region contributes to the protein stability at high temperatures. The core protein had a methyl-transfer activity to yeast tRNA(Phe) transcript. Furthermore, the core protein slowly methylated tRNA transcripts, which did not contain G46 base. Moreover, the modified base was identified as m(7)G by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Thus, the deletion of the C-terminal region causes nonspecific methylation of N(7) atom of guanine base(s) in tRNA transcripts.

  13. The C-terminal domain of the bacterial SSB protein acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosome replication forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    Full Text Available We have investigated in vivo the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of the Bacillus subtilis Single-Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSB(Cter as a recruitment platform at active chromosomal forks for many proteins of the genome maintenance machineries. We probed this SSB(Cter interactome using GFP fusions and by Tap-tag and biochemical analysis. It includes at least 12 proteins. The interactome was previously shown to include PriA, RecG, and RecQ and extended in this study by addition of DnaE, SbcC, RarA, RecJ, RecO, XseA, Ung, YpbB, and YrrC. Targeting of YpbB to active forks appears to depend on RecS, a RecQ paralogue, with which it forms a stable complex. Most of these SSB partners are conserved in bacteria, while others, such as the essential DNA polymerase DnaE, YrrC, and the YpbB/RecS complex, appear to be specific to B. subtilis. SSB(Cter deletion has a moderate impact on B. subtilis cell growth. However, it markedly affects the efficiency of repair of damaged genomic DNA and arrested replication forks. ssbΔCter mutant cells appear deficient in RecA loading on ssDNA, explaining their inefficiency in triggering the SOS response upon exposure to genotoxic agents. Together, our findings show that the bacterial SSB(Cter acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosomal forks that secures their propagation along the genome.

  14. The C-terminal domain of the bacterial SSB protein acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosome replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Audrey; Lecointe, François; McGovern, Stephen; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Polard, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated in vivo the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of the Bacillus subtilis Single-Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSB(Cter)) as a recruitment platform at active chromosomal forks for many proteins of the genome maintenance machineries. We probed this SSB(Cter) interactome using GFP fusions and by Tap-tag and biochemical analysis. It includes at least 12 proteins. The interactome was previously shown to include PriA, RecG, and RecQ and extended in this study by addition of DnaE, SbcC, RarA, RecJ, RecO, XseA, Ung, YpbB, and YrrC. Targeting of YpbB to active forks appears to depend on RecS, a RecQ paralogue, with which it forms a stable complex. Most of these SSB partners are conserved in bacteria, while others, such as the essential DNA polymerase DnaE, YrrC, and the YpbB/RecS complex, appear to be specific to B. subtilis. SSB(Cter) deletion has a moderate impact on B. subtilis cell growth. However, it markedly affects the efficiency of repair of damaged genomic DNA and arrested replication forks. ssbΔCter mutant cells appear deficient in RecA loading on ssDNA, explaining their inefficiency in triggering the SOS response upon exposure to genotoxic agents. Together, our findings show that the bacterial SSB(Cter) acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosomal forks that secures their propagation along the genome. PMID:21170359

  15. Retromer in Osteoblasts Interacts With Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulator Subunit 14C, Terminates Parathyroid Hormone's Signaling, and Promotes Its Catabolic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lei; Xia, Wen-Fang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays critical, but distinct, roles in bone remodeling, including bone formation (anabolic response) and resorption (catabolic response). Although its signaling and function have been extensively investigated, it just began to be understood how distinct functions are induced by PTH activating a common receptor, the PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R), and how PTH1R signaling is terminated. Here, we provide evidence for vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35), a major component of retromer, in regulating PTH1R trafficking, turning off PTH signaling, and promoting its catabolic function. VPS35 is expressed in osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells. VPS35-deficiency in OBs impaired PTH(1-34)-promoted PTH1R translocation to the trans-Golgi network, enhanced PTH(1-34)-driven signaling, and reduced PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in culture and in mice. Further mechanical studies revealed that VPS35 interacts with not only PTH1R, but also protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14C (PPP1R14C), an inhibitory subunit of PP1 phosphatase. PPP1R14C also interacts with PTH1R, which is necessary for the increased endosomal PTH1R signaling and decreased PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in VPS35-deficient OB-lineage cells. Taken together, these results suggest that VPS35 deregulates PTH1R-signaling likely by its interaction with PTH1R and PPP1R14C. This event is critical for the control of PTH(1-34)-signaling dynamics, which may underlie PTH-induced catabolic response and adequate bone remodeling. PMID:27333042

  16. A novel C-terminal homologue of Aha1 co-chaperone binds to heat shock protein 90 and stimulates its ATPase activity in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meetali; Shah, Varun; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-04-17

    Cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to be essential for many infectious pathogens and is considered a potential target for drug development. In this study, we have carried out biochemical characterization of Hsp90 from a poorly studied protozoan parasite of clinical importance, Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that Entamoeba Hsp90 can bind to both ATP and its pharmacological inhibitor, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), with Kd values of 365.2 and 10.77 μM, respectively, and it has a weak ATPase activity with a catalytic efficiency of 4.12×10(-4) min(-1) μM(-1). Using inhibitor 17-AAG, we have shown dependence of Entamoeba on Hsp90 for its growth and survival. Hsp90 function is regulated by various co-chaperones. Previous studies suggest a lack of several important co-chaperones in E. histolytica. In this study, we describe the presence of a novel homologue of co-chaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase), EhAha1c, lacking a canonical Aha1 N-terminal domain. We also show that EhAha1c is capable of binding and stimulating ATPase activity of EhHsp90. In addition to highlighting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs against amoebiasis, our study highlights the importance of E. histolytica in understanding the evolution of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone repertoire.

  17. Structure of the C-terminal fragment 300-320 of the rat angiotensin II AT1A receptor and its relevance with respect to G-protein coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, L; Nicastro, G; Pertinhez, T A; Tatò, M; Nakaie, C R; Paiva, A C; Schreier, S; Spisni, A

    1997-04-11

    Angiotensin II AT1A receptor is coupled to G-protein, and the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is still unclear. The solution conformation of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 300-320 of the rat AT1A receptor, located in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail and indicated by mutagenesis work to be critical for the G-protein coupling, has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The CD data indicate that, in acidic water, at concentration below 0.8 mM, the peptide exists in a predominantly coil structure while at higher concentration it can form helical aggregates; addition of small amounts of trifluoroethanol induces a secondary structure, mostly due to the presence of helical elements. Using NMR-derived constraints, an ensemble of conformers for the peptide has been determined by restrained molecular dynamics calculations. Analysis of the converged three-dimensional structures indicates that a significant population of them adopts an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation that, depending upon experimental conditions, presents a variable extension in the stretch Leu6-Tyr20. An equilibrium with nonhelical structured conformers is also observed. We suggest that the capability of the peptide to modulate its secondary structure as a function of the medium dielectric constant, as well as its ability to form helical aggregates by means of intermolecular hydrophobic interactions, can play a significant role for G-protein activation.

  18. Conserved C-terminal nascent peptide binding domain of HYPK facilitates its chaperone-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swasti Raychaudhuri; Rachana Banerjee; Subhasish Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P Bhattacharyya

    2014-09-01

    Human HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast-two-hybrid Protein K) is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. HYPK is also known to be a part of ribosome-associated protein complex and present in polysomes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the evolutionary influence on HYPK primary structure and its impact on the protein’s function. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. C-terminal part of HYPK was found to be particularly conserved and to contain nascent polypeptide-associated alpha subunit (NPAA) domain. This region experiences highest selection pressure, signifying its importance in the structural and functional evolution. NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a conformational point of view having higher content of -helices than the rest. Cell biology studies indicate that overexpressed C-terminal human HYPK can interact with nascent proteins, co-localizes with huntingtin, increases cell viability and decreases caspase activities in Huntington’s disease (HD) cell culture model. This domain is found to be required for the chaperone-like activity of HYPK in vivo. Our study suggested that by virtue of its flexibility and nascent peptide binding activity, HYPK may play an important role in assisting protein (re)folding.

  19. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  20. Mining protein sequences for motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Giri; Bu, Changsong; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xuning; Xu, Ning; Mathee, Kalai

    2002-01-01

    We use methods from Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery to design an algorithm for detecting motifs in protein sequences. The algorithm assumes that a motif is constituted by the presence of a "good" combination of residues in appropriate locations of the motif. The algorithm attempts to compile such good combinations into a "pattern dictionary" by processing an aligned training set of protein sequences. The dictionary is subsequently used to detect motifs in new protein sequences. Statistical significance of the detection results are ensured by statistically determining the various parameters of the algorithm. Based on this approach, we have implemented a program called GYM. The Helix-Turn-Helix motif was used as a model system on which to test our program. The program was also extended to detect Homeodomain motifs. The detection results for the two motifs compare favorably with existing programs. In addition, the GYM program provides a lot of useful information about a given protein sequence. PMID:12487759

  1. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  2. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a β-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283 – 313 K). Our results show that IG(42–61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ··· Phe57 and Trp48 ··· Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ··· Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of β-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  3. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-02-15

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42-61), derived from the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07 mM), which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a beta-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283-313 K). Our results show that IG (42-61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ... Phe57 and Trp48 ... Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ... Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of beta-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  4. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  5. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B H; Taylor, Carmel T; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeff J; Hall, Roy A

    2015-06-08

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  6. Apical localization of ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells involves the oligomerization domain CR1, the PDZ domains, and the C-terminal portion of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trotha, Jakob W; Campos-Ortega, José A; Reugels, Alexander M

    2006-04-01

    Neurulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos is characterized by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. Mitoses in the neural plate and neural tube are planar, but in the neural keel/rod stage, the mitotic spindle rotates by 90 degrees, causing cell divisions to occur perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium. The mechanisms and molecules that establish cellular polarity and cause the stereotypic orientation of the mitotic spindle during neurulation are largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, the PAR/aPKC complex has been shown to be involved in both establishment of cellular polarity and spindle orientation. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal oligomerization domain (CR1) and the PDZ domains of ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP are involved in its localization to the apical membrane in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. We further show that the C-terminal part of ASIP/PAR-3 contributes to proper localization and that the apical localization signals in ASIP/PAR-3 prevent the basolateral localization of a Numb:PAR-3 fusion protein. The parallel orientation of the mitotic spindle in the neural tube, however, is only weakly impaired upon overexpression of various ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP constructs.

  7. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  8. 儿童淋巴瘤患者EBV-LMP1基因C末端30bp缺失突变检测%Detection of C-terminal 30 bp-deletion mutation of latent membrane protein 1 of EBV in childhood lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正德; 周春菊; 王琳; 申昆玲

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study C-terminal 30 bp-deletion mutation of latent membrane protein 1 of the virus from childhood lymphoma. Methods Nested-PCR was used to amplify C-terminal of EBV-LMP1 from childhood lymphoma and non-lymphoma associated to EBV,including Hodgkin lymphoma (HL),non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)and reactive hyperplasia of lymph node (RL). Sequence analysis was performed on the positive PCR product.Results LMP1 with 30 bp deletion in C-terminal was detected in 11/25 HL,3/8 NHL and 5/15 RL cases respectively .There were no significant differences among HL,NHL and RL (P = 0.793 ). Sequence analysis showed that LMP1 detected in this study belongs to the following three subgroups: B95.8,China1 and China2. Conclusion LMP1 with 30 bp deletion in C-terminal widely existed in childhood HL,NHL and RL.There was no correlation between special types of LMP1 and the diseases. There were 3 LMP1 subgroups of EBV in children's lymphoma in the cases studied,including B95.8,Chinal and China 2.%目的 研究儿童淋巴瘤来源的EBV-LMP1基因C末端30 bp缺失突变情况并分析其意义.方法 应用巢式聚合酶链反应技术(Nested-PCR)扩增免疫组化检测EBV-LMP1或原位杂交检测EBV.EBERS阳性的霍奇金淋巴瘤、非霍奇金淋巴瘤和淋巴结反应性增生病理标本中EBV-LMP1基因,并进行序列分析.结果 EBV-LMP1羧基端30 bp缺失的del-LMP1的检出率在霍奇金淋巴瘤、非霍奇金淋巴瘤和淋巴结反应性增生分别为11/25、3/8和5/15,三组间差异无统计学意义(P=0.793,X2=0.463).经序列分析发现,所扩增的EBV-LmP1基因型可分为三个亚型:B95.8、China1和China2.结论 EBV羧基端30 bp缺失的del-LMP1基因型广泛存在EBV阳性的儿童霍奇金淋巴瘤、非霍奇金淋巴瘤和淋巴结反应性增生病例中,与疾病本身没有关系.儿童来源的EBV-LMP1基因型主要可分为B95.8、China1和China2三个亚型.

  9. Structure of the MutL C-terminal domain: a model of intact MutL and its roles in mismatch repair

    OpenAIRE

    Guarné, Alba; Ramon-Maiques, Santiago; Wolff, Erika M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hu, Xiaojian; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Yang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    MutL assists the mismatch recognition protein MutS to initiate and coordinate mismatch repair in species ranging from bacteria to humans. The MutL N-terminal ATPase domain is highly conserved, but the C-terminal region shares little sequence similarity among MutL homologs. We report here the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli MutL C-terminal dimerization domain and the likelihood of its conservation among MutL homologs. A 100-residue proline-rich linker between the ATPase and dimerizat...

  10. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  11. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Williams

    Full Text Available Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X, a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80 and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2.

  12. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2.

  13. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L; Sataric, Bogdan M; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N; Sataric, Miljko V

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process. PMID:27475079

  16. Designing a Long Acting Erythropoietin by Fusing Three Carboxyl-Terminal Peptides of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β Subunit to the N-Terminal and C-Terminal Coding Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analog of EPO was designed by fusing one and two CTPs to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of EPO (EPO-(CTP3, respectively. This analog was expressed and secreted efficiently in CHO cells. The in vitro test shows that the activity of EPO-(CTP3 in TFI-1 cell proliferation assay is similar to that of EPO-WT and commercial rHEPO. However, in vivo studies indicated that treatment once a week with EPO-(CTP3 (15 μg/kg dramatically increased (~8 folds haematocrit as it was compared to rHuEPO. Moreover, it was found that EPO-(CTP3 is more effective than rHuEPO and Aranesp in increasing reticulocyte number in mice blood. The detected circulatory half-lives of rHuEPO, Aranesp, and EPO-(CTP3 following IV injection of 20 IU were 4.4, 10.8, and 13.1 h, respectively. These data established the rational for using this chimera as a long-acting EPO analog in clinics. The therapeutic efficacy of EPO-CTP analog needs to be established in higher animals and in human clinical trials.

  17. Comparative evaluation of recombinant HSP70 (N & C-terminal) fragments in the detection of equine trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, A; Yadav, S C

    2016-06-15

    Trypanosomosis (Surra) is an economically important disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi which is an extracellular parasite present in the plasma, tissues and other body fluids of a wide range of hosts including domesticated animals. Currently, serological reports are based on detection of antibodies by ELISA using whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen, which has a limitation of persistence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies after successful treatment of the disease. Moreover, it has some ethical issues also like requirement of mice for in vivo maintenance of parasite for preparing the antigen. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro production of recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) for detection of antibodies in experimentally infected ponies. The amino acid sequence analysis of HSP70 revealed that N-terminal region of the protein was highly conserved while the C-terminal region was most divergent. The four different regions of HSP70 protein viz. HSP-1, HSP-2, HSP-3 and HSP-4 were cloned and expressed, among which HSP-1 (N-terminal region) & HSP-2 (C-terminal region) were truncated while HSP-3 & HSP-4 were complete C-terminal proteins. The recombinant fragments were probed with sequentially pooled experimental serum samples where antibodies were detected in these fragments from 10(th) day post infection till the termination of the experiment. Further, these recombinant fragments were also comparatively evaluated with WCL antigen in ELISA using experimental as well as field serum samples. It was observed that after successful treatment of infected ponies, there was a sharp fall in antibodies (within 90 days) when tested with recombinant HSP's fragments, while antibodies persisted even after 469 days when tested against WCL antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of all HSP70 fragments were also estimated from field serum samples with reference to WCL antigen ELISA. The HSP-1 showed minimum sensitivity (41.03%) among all the

  18. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  19. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debasree; Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Abhirupa; Saha, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs), often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME) were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs). These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI modulators. PMID

  20. Discover protein sequence signatures from protein-protein interaction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haasl Ryan J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput technologies such as yeast two-hybrid systems and mass spectrometry technologies has made it possible to generate large protein-protein interaction (PPI datasets. Mining these datasets for underlying biological knowledge has, however, remained a challenge. Results A total of 3108 sequence signatures were found, each of which was shared by a set of guest proteins interacting with one of 944 host proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Approximately 94% of these sequence signatures matched entries in InterPro member databases. We identified 84 distinct sequence signatures from the remaining 172 unknown signatures. The signature sharing information was then applied in predicting sub-cellular localization of yeast proteins and the novel signatures were used in identifying possible interacting sites. Conclusion We reported a method of PPI data mining that facilitated the discovery of novel sequence signatures using a large PPI dataset from S. cerevisiae genome as input. The fact that 94% of discovered signatures were known validated the ability of the approach to identify large numbers of signatures from PPI data. The significance of these discovered signatures was demonstrated by their application in predicting sub-cellular localizations and identifying potential interaction binding sites of yeast proteins.

  1. Role of the C-terminal YG repeats of the primer-dependent streptococcal glucosyltransferase, GtfJ, in binding to dextran and mutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Kim B; Allen, Donna M; Jacques, Nicholas A

    2002-02-01

    The recombinant primer-dependent glucosyltransferase GtfJ of Streptococcus salivarius possesses a C-terminal glucan-binding domain composed of eighteen 21 aa YG repeats. By engineering a series of C-terminal truncated proteins, the position at which truncation prevented further mutan synthesis was defined to a region of 43 aa, confirming that not all of the YG motifs were required for the formation of mutan by GtfJ. The role of the YG repeats in glucan binding was investigated in detail. Three proteins consisting of 3.8, 7.2 or 11.0 C-terminal YG repeats were expressed in Escherichia coli. Each of the three purified proteins bound to both the 1,6-alpha-linked glucose residues of dextran and the 1,3-alpha-linked glucose residues of mutan, indicating that a protein consisting of nothing but 3.8 YG repeats could attach to either substrate. Secondary structure predictions of the primary amino acid sequence suggested that 37% of the amino acids were capable of forming a structure such that five regions of beta-sheet were separated by regions capable of forming beta-turns and random coils. CD spectral analysis showed that the purified 3.8 YG protein possessed an unordered secondary structure with some evidence of possible beta-sheet formation and that the protein maintained this relatively unordered structure on binding to dextran. PMID:11832518

  2. A substrate specificity-determining unit of three Lin12-Notch repeat modules is formed in trans within the pappalysin-1 dimer and requires a sequence stretch C-terminal to the third module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Boldt, Henning Bünsow; Poulsen, Christine Bruun;

    2007-01-01

    Members of the pappalysin family of metzincin metalloproteinases, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, pappalysin-1) and PAPP-A2 (pappalysin-2), regulate the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by specific proteolytic inactivation of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). PAPP...

  3. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Holm, A;

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  4. Novel algorithms for protein sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Each protein is characterized by its unique sequential order of amino acids, the so-called protein sequence. Biology”s paradigm is that this order of amino acids determines the protein”s architecture and function. In this thesis, we introduce novel algorithms to analyze protein sequences. Chapter 1

  5. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  6. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

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    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  7. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

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    Emma L Meczes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro

  8. Nimble Protein Sequence Alignment in Grid (NPSAG

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    K. Somasundaram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bio-Informatics application, the analysis of protein sequence is a kind of computation driven science which has rapidly and quickly growing biological data. Also databases used in these applications are heterogeneous in nature and alignment of protein sequence using physical techniques is expensive, slow and results are not always guaranteed/accurate. So this application requires cross-platform, cost-effective and more computing power algorithm for sequence matching and searching a sequence in database. Grid is one of the most emerging technologies of cost effective computing paradigm for large class of data and compute intensive application which enables large-scale aggregation and sharing of computational data and other resources across institutional boundaries. We proposed the Grid architecture for searching of distributed, heterogeneous genomic databases which contained protein sequences to speed up the analysis of large scale sequence data and performed sequence alignment for residues match.

  9. Bacteriophage endolysin Lyt μ1/6: characterization of the C-terminal binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišáková, Lenka; Vidová, Barbora; Farkašovská, Jarmila; Godány, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The gene product of orf50 from actinophage μ1/6 of Streptomyces aureofaciens is a putative endolysin, Lyt μ1/6. It has a two-domain modular structure, consisting of an N-terminal catalytic and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Comparative analysis of Streptomyces phage endolysins revealed that they all have a modular structure and contain functional C-terminal domains with conserved amino acids, probably associated with their binding function. A blast analysis of Lyt μ1/6 in conjunction with secondary and tertiary structure prediction disclosed the presence of a PG_binding_1 domain within the CBD. The sequence of the C-terminal domain of lyt μ1/6 and truncated forms of it were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ability of these CBD variants fused to GFP to bind to the surface of S. aureofaciens NMU was shown by specific binding assays.

  10. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4N326L) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4N326L in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4N326L. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4N326L might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the nuclear localization of N

  11. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  12. Inferring interaction partners from protein sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Colwell, Lucy J; Wingreen, Ned S

    2016-01-01

    Specific protein-protein interactions are crucial in the cell, both to ensure the formation and stability of multi-protein complexes, and to enable signal transduction in various pathways. Functional interactions between proteins result in coevolution between the interaction partners. Hence, the sequences of interacting partners are correlated. Here we exploit these correlations to accurately identify which proteins are specific interaction partners from sequence data alone. Our general approach, which employs a pairwise maximum entropy model to infer direct couplings between residues, has been successfully used to predict the three-dimensional structures of proteins from sequences. Building on this approach, we introduce an iterative algorithm to predict specific interaction partners from among the members of two protein families. We assess the algorithm's performance on histidine kinases and response regulators from bacterial two-component signaling systems. The algorithm proves successful without any a pri...

  13. C-terminal substitution of MDM2 interacting peptides modulates binding affinity by distinctive mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available The complex between the proteins MDM2 and p53 is a promising drug target for cancer therapy. The residues 19-26 of p53 have been biochemically and structurally demonstrated to be a most critical region to maintain the association of MDM2 and p53. Variation of the amino acid sequence in this range obviously alters the binding affinity. Surprisingly, suitable substitutions contiguous to this region of the p53 peptides can yield tightly binding peptides. The peptide variants may differ by a single residue that vary little in their structural conformations and yet are characterized by large differences in their binding affinities. In this study a systematic analysis into the role of single C-terminal mutations of a 12 residue fragment of the p53 transactivation domain (TD and an equivalent phage optimized peptide (12/1 were undertaken to elucidate their mechanistic and thermodynamic differences in interacting with the N-terminal of MDM2. The experimental results together with atomistically detailed dynamics simulations provide insight into the principles that govern peptide design protocols with regard to protein-protein interactions and peptidomimetic design.

  14. Isolation, characterization, sequencing and crystal structure of charybdin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Charybdis maritima agg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Gessmann, Renate; Kavelaki, Kalliopi; Christofakis, Emmanuil; Petratos, Kyriacos; Ghanotakis, Demetrios F

    2006-06-01

    A novel, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein designated charybdin was isolated from bulbs of Charybdis maritima agg. The protein, consisting of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 29 kDa, inhibited translation in rabbit reticulocytes with an IC50 of 27.2 nm. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the bulb was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequence of the protein from dissolved crystals. The complete mature protein sequence was derived by partial DNA sequencing and terminal protein sequencing, and was confirmed by high-resolution crystal structure analysis. The protein contains Val at position 79 instead of the conserved Tyr residue of the ribosome-inactivating proteins known to date. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a natural substitution of a catalytic residue at the active site of a natural ribosome-inactivating protein. This substitution in the active site may be responsible for the relatively low in vitro translation inhibitory effect compared with other ribosome-inactivating proteins. Single crystals were grown in the cold room from PEG6000 solutions. Diffraction data collected to 1.6 A resolution were used to determine the protein structure by the molecular replacement method. The fold of the protein comprises two structural domains: an alpha + beta N-terminal domain (residues 4-190) and a mainly alpha-helical C-terminal domain (residues 191-257). The active site is located in the interface between the two domains and comprises residues Val79, Tyr117, Glu167 and Arg170.

  15. Sequence analysis corresponding to the PPE and PE proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swathi Adindla; Lalitha Guruprasad

    2003-03-01

    Amino acid sequence analysis corresponding to the PPE proteins in H37Rv and CDC1551 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes resulted in the identification of a previously uncharacterized 225 amino acidresidue common region in 22 proteins. The pairwise sequence identities were as low as 18%. Conservation of amino acid residues was observed at fifteen positions that were distributed over the whole length of the region. The secondary structure corresponding to this region is predicted to be a mixture of -helices and -strands. Although the function is not known, proteins with this region specific to mycobacterial species may be associated with a common function. We further observed another group of 20 PPE proteins corresponding to the conserved C-terminal region comprising 44 amino acid residues with GFxGT and PxxPxxW sequence motifs. This region is preceded by a hydrophobic region, comprising 40–100 amino acid residues, that is flanked by charged amino acid residues. Identification of conserved regions described above may be useful to detect related proteins from other genomes and assist the design of suitable experiments to test their corresponding functions. Amino acid sequence analysis corresponding to the PE proteins resulted in the identification of tandem repeats comprising 41–43 amino acid residues in the C-terminal variable regions in two PE proteins (Rv0978 and Rv0980). These correspond to the AB repeats that were first identified in some proteins of the Methanosarcina mazei genome, and were demonstrated as surface antigens. We observed the AB repeats also in several other proteins of hitherto uncharacterized function in Archaea and Bacteria genomes. Some of these proteins are also associated with another repeat called the C-repeat or the PKD-domain comprising 85 amino acid residues. The secondary structure corresponding to the AB repeat is predicted mainly as 4 -strands. We suggest that proteins with AB repeats in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and

  16. C-terminal interactors of the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit Shisa9.

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    Anna R Karataeva

    Full Text Available Shisa9 (initially named CKAMP44 has been identified as auxiliary subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and was shown to modulate its physiological properties. Shisa9 is a type-I transmembrane protein and contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that potentially interacts with cytosolic proteins. In this study, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that yielded eight PDZ domain-containing interactors of Shisa9, which were independently validated. The identified interactors are known scaffolding proteins residing in the neuronal postsynaptic density. To test whether C-terminal scaffolding interactions of Shisa9 affect synaptic AMPA receptor function in the hippocampus, we disrupted these interactions using a Shisa9 C-terminal mimetic peptide. In the absence of scaffolding interactions of Shisa9, glutamatergic AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the lateral perforant path of the mouse hippocampus had a faster decay time, and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced. Furthermore, disruption of the PDZ interactions between Shisa9 and its binding partners affected hippocampal network activity. Taken together, our data identifies novel interaction partners of Shisa9, and shows that the C-terminal interactions of Shisa9 through its PDZ domain interaction motif are important for AMPA receptor synaptic and network functions.

  17. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raats Jos MH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL. However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers.

  18. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Paul; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-03-01

    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that composes a given protein one can determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through protein structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Mass spectrometry is the current technique of choice for de novo sequencing, but because some amino acids have the same mass the sequence cannot be completely determined in many cases. In this paper we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel, similar to that proposed in for DNA sequencing. Indeed, we find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique's potential for de novo protein sequencing.

  19. Biochemical analysis of the interactions of IQGAP1 C-terminal domain with CDC42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; F; Elliott; George; Allen; David; J; Timson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To understand the interaction of human IQGAP1 and CDC42,especially the effects of phosphorylation and a cancer-associated mutation. METHODS:Recombinant CDC42 and a novel C-termi- nal fragment of IQGAP1 were expressed in,and puri- fied from,Escherichia coli.Site directed mutagenesis was used to create coding sequences for three phos- phomimicking variants(S1441E,S1443D and S1441E/ S1443D)and to recapitulate a cancer-associated mu- tation(M1231I).These variant proteins were also ex- pressed and purified.Protein-protein crosslinking using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide was used to investigate interactions between the C-terminal fragment and CDC42.These interactions were quanti- fied using surface plasmon resonance measurements.Molecular modelling was employed to make predictions about changes to the structure and flexibility of the protein which occur in the cancer-associated variant. RESULTS:The novel,C-terminal region of human IQGAP1 (residues 877-1558)is soluble following expression and purification.It is also capable of binding to CDC42,as judged by crosslinking experiments.Interaction appears to be strongest in the presence of added GTP.The three phosphomimicking mutants had different affini- ties for CDC42.S1441E had an approximately 200-fold reduction in affinity compared to wild type.This was caused largely by a dramatic reduction in the associa- tion rate constant.In contrast,both S1443D and the double variant S1441E/S1443D had similar affinities to the wild type.The cancer-associated variant,M1231I, also had a similar affinity to wild type.However,in the case of this variant,both the association and dis- sociation rate constants were reduced approximately 10-fold.Molecular modelling of the M1231I variant, based on the published crystal structure of part of the C-terminal region,revealed no gross structural changes compared to wild type(root mean square deviation of 0.564over 5556 equivalent atoms).However,pre- dictions of the

  20. A Region Near the C-Terminal End of Escherichia coli DNA Helicase II Is Required for Single-Stranded DNA Binding

    OpenAIRE

    MECHANIC, LEAH E.; Latta, Marcy E.; Matson, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the C terminus of Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (UvrD), a region outside the conserved helicase motifs, was investigated by using three mutants: UvrDΔ107C (deletion of the last 107 C-terminal amino acids), UvrDΔ102C, and UvrDΔ40C. This region, which lacks sequence similarity with other helicases, may function to tailor UvrD for its specific in vivo roles. Genetic complementation assays demonstrated that mutant proteins UvrDΔ107C and UvrDΔ102C failed to substitute for the wild-t...

  1. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future.

  2. Sequence-structure-function relations of the mosquito leucine-rich repeat immune proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povelones Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery and characterisation of factors governing innate immune responses in insects has driven the elucidation of many immune system components in mammals and other organisms. Focusing on the immune system responses of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, has uncovered an array of components and mechanisms involved in defence against pathogen infections. Two of these immune factors are LRIM1 and APL1C, which are leucine-rich repeat (LRR containing proteins that activate complement-like defence responses against malaria parasites. In addition to their LRR domains, these leucine-rich repeat immune (LRIM proteins share several structural features including signal peptides, patterns of cysteine residues, and coiled-coil domains. Results The identification and characterisation of genes related to LRIM1 and APL1C revealed putatively novel innate immune factors and furthered the understanding of their likely molecular functions. Genomic scans using the shared features of LRIM1 and APL1C identified more than 20 LRIM-like genes exhibiting all or most of their sequence features in each of three disease-vector mosquitoes with sequenced genomes: An. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that this family of mosquito LRIM-like genes is characterised by a variable number of 6 to 14 LRRs of different lengths. The "Long" LRIM subfamily, with 10 or more LRRs, and the "Short" LRIMs, with 6 or 7 LRRs, also share the signal peptide, cysteine residue patterning, and coiled-coil sequence features of LRIM1 and APL1C. The "TM" LRIMs have a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region, and the "Coil-less" LRIMs exhibit the characteristic LRIM sequence signatures but lack the C-terminal coiled-coil domains. Conclusions The evolutionary plasticity of the LRIM LRR domains may provide templates for diverse recognition properties, while their coiled-coil domains could be involved in the formation

  3. Protein sequence classification using feature hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2012-06-21

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have resulted in an exponential increase in the rate at which protein sequence data are being acquired. The k-gram feature representation, commonly used for protein sequence classification, usually results in prohibitively high dimensional input spaces, for large values of k. Applying data mining algorithms to these input spaces may be intractable due to the large number of dimensions. Hence, using dimensionality reduction techniques can be crucial for the performance and the complexity of the learning algorithms. In this paper, we study the applicability of feature hashing to protein sequence classification, where the original high-dimensional space is "reduced" by hashing the features into a low-dimensional space, using a hash function, i.e., by mapping features into hash keys, where multiple features can be mapped (at random) to the same hash key, and "aggregating" their counts. We compare feature hashing with the "bag of k-grams" approach. Our results show that feature hashing is an effective approach to reducing dimensionality on protein sequence classification tasks.

  4. Function of C-terminal hydrophobic region in fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzes oxidation of D-fructose into 2-keto-D-fructose and is one of the enzymes allowing a direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis. FDH is a heterotrimeric membrane-bound enzyme (subunit I, II, and III) and subunit II has a C terminal hydrophobic region (CHR), which was expected to play a role in anchoring to membranes from the amino acid sequence. We have constructed a mutated FDH lacking of CHR (ΔchrFDH). Contrary to the expected function of CHR, ΔchrFDH is expressed in the membrane fraction, and subunit I/III subcomplex (ΔcFDH) is also expressed in a similar activity level but in the soluble fraction. In addition, the enzyme activity of the purified ΔchrFDH is about one twentieth of the native FDH. These results indicate that CHR is concerned with the binding between subunit I(/III) and subunit II and then with the enzyme activity. ΔchrFDH has clear DET activity that is larger than that expected from the solution activity, and the characteristics of the catalytic wave of ΔchrFDH are very similar to those of FDH. The deletion of CHR seems to increase the amounts of the enzyme with the proper orientation for the DET reaction at electrode surfaces. Gel filtration chromatography coupled with urea treatment shows that the binding in ΔchrFDH is stronger than that in FDH. It can be considered that the rigid binding between subunit I(/III) and II without CHR results in a conformation different from the native one, which leads to the decrease in the enzyme activity in solution

  5. Replacement of the C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317 to 314SSSM317) in interferon regulatory factor-2 alters its N-terminal DNA-binding activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna Prakash; Pramod C Rath

    2010-12-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2) is an important transcription factor involved in cell growth regulation, immune response and cancer. IRF-2 can function as a transcriptional repressor and activator depending on its DNA-binding activity and protein–protein interactions. We compared the amino acid sequences of IRF-2 and found a C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317) of mouse IRF-2 to be different (314SSSM317) from human IRF-2. Recombinant GST-IRF-2 with 314PAPV317 (wild type) and 314SSSM317 (mutant) expressed in Escherichia coli were assessed for DNA-binding activity with 32P-(GAAAGT)4 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Wild type- and mutant GST-IRF-2 showed similar expression patterns and immunoreactivities but different DNA-binding activities. Mutant (mt) IRF-2 formed higher-molecular-mass, more and stronger DNA–protein complexes in comparison to wild type (wt) IRF-2. Anti-IRF-2 antibody stabilized the DNA–protein complexes formed by both wt IRF-2 and mt IRF-2, resolving the differences. This suggests that PAPV and SSSM sequences at 314-317 in the C-terminal region of mouse and human IRF-2 contribute to conformation of IRF-2 and influence DNA-binding activity of the N-terminal region, indicating intramolecular interactions. Thus, evolution of IRF-2 from murine to human genome has resulted in subtle differences in C-terminal amino acid motifs, which may contribute to qualitative changes in IRF-2-dependent DNA-binding activity and gene expression.

  6. Spike protein assembly into the coronavirion: exploring the limits of its sequence requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coronavirus spike (S) protein, required for receptor binding and membrane fusion, is incorporated into the assembling virion by interactions with the viral membrane (M) protein. Earlier we showed that the ectodomain of the S protein is not involved in this process. Here we further defined the requirements of the S protein for virion incorporation. We show that the cytoplasmic domain, not the transmembrane domain, determines the association with the M protein and suffices to effect the incorporation into viral particles of chimeric spikes as well as of foreign viral glycoproteins. The essential sequence was mapped to the membrane-proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain, which is also known to be of critical importance for the fusion function of the S protein. Consistently, only short C-terminal truncations of the S protein were tolerated when introduced into the virus by targeted recombination. The important role of the about 38-residues cytoplasmic domain in the assembly of and membrane fusion by this approximately 1300 amino acids long protein is discussed

  7. Antibodies against the C-terminal peptide of rabbit oviductin inhibit mouse early embryo development to pass 2-cell stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full-length rabbit oviductin cDNA(1909bp) was cloned. It consists of a 5'-UTR of 52bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1374bp and a 3'-UTR of 483bp and has more than 80% homology with that of other mammal oviductins. N-terminal peptide (NTP) (384 residues) and C-terminal peptide (CTP)(73 residues) of deduced protein precursor has about 80% and 50% identity with that of other mammals respectively. Fusion proteins GST-NTP 368(1R-368N)and GST-CTP73 (369F-441A) were expressed and purified. NH2-terminal of CTP sequencing reveals that the purified protein is consistent with the deduced one. In order to study the function of NTP and CTP the mouse anti-NTP and rabbit anti-CTP antisera were prepared. Tissue-specific (skeleton muscle, oviduct, uterus, ovary, liver, heart and brain) analysis indicated that rabbit oviductin was only found in oviduct. The conditioned medium derived from the rabbit oviduct mucosa epithelial cells has a function of overcoming the early embryonic development block of Kunming mouse cultured in vitro. Anti-CTP antiserum could totally inhibit the early embryo development at 2-cell stage cultured in the conditioned culture medium, but anti-NTP antiserum couldn't. There was a positive relationship between the ratio of early embryos at development block and the dosage of anti-CTP antiserum added in the conditioned culture medium. These results suggest that oviductin has a function not only on fertilization, but also on the release of early embryonic development block, and the later function domain of rabbit oviductin may be situate in its C-terminal.

  8. Potential use of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying the C-terminal portion of the P97 adhesin protein as a vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamba, Faust René; Arella, Maximilien; Music, Nedzad; Jia, Jian Jun; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Carl A

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was slightly improved in the rAdP97c vaccinated pigs (0.672 + or - 0.068 kg/day) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (0.568 + or - 0.104 kg/day). A bacterin-based commercial vaccine (Suvaxyn MH-one) was more efficient to induce a protective immune response than rAdP97c even if it did not evoke a P97 specific immune response. These results suggest that immunodominant antigens other than P97 adhesin are also important in the induction of a protective immune response and should be taken into account in the future development of M. hyopneumoniae subunit vaccines. PMID:20472025

  9. Naturally Acquired Antibody Responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1 C-Terminal 19 kDa Domains in an Area of Unstable Malaria Transmission in Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding naturally acquired immunity to infections caused by Plasmodia in different malaria endemicity settings is needed for better vaccine designs and for exploring antibody responses as a proxy marker of malaria transmission intensity. This study investigated the sero-epidemiology of malaria along the international border between China and Myanmar, where malaria elimination action plans are in place. This study recruited 233 P. vivax and 156 P. falciparum infected subjects with acute malaria at the malaria clinics and hospitals. In addition, 93 and 67 healthy individuals from the same endemic region or from non-endemic region, respectively, were used as controls. Acute malaria infections were identified by microscopy. Anti-recombinant PfMSP119 and PvMSP119 antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Antibody responses to respective MSP119 were detected in 50.9% and 78.2% patients with acute P. vivax and P. falciparum infections, respectively. There were cross-reacting antibodies in Plasmodium patients against these two recombinant proteins, though we could not exclude the possibility of submicroscopic mixed-species infections. IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 were the major subclasses. Interestingly, 43.2% of the healthy endemic population also had antibodies against PfMSP119, whereas only 3.9% of this population had antibodies against PvMSP119. Higher antibody levels were correlated with age and parasite density, but not with season, gender or malaria history. Both total IgG and individual IgG subclasses underwent substantial declines during the convalescent period in three months. This study demonstrated that individuals in a hypoendemic area with coexistence of P. vivax and P. falciparum can mount rapid antibody responses against both PfMSP119 and PvMSP119. The significantly higher proportion of responders to PfMSP119 in the healthy endemic population indicates higher prevalence of P. falciparum in the recent past. Specific antibodies against PvMSP119

  10. Cloning of C-Terminal of Opioid μ-Receptor and Construction of Its Expression Plasmid for Yeast Two Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANHui; GONGZe-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To obtain the C-terminal DNA and construct the expression plasmid in yeast two-hybrid. Methods: About 177bp DNA fragment was amplified from the complete sequence of ( receptor by PCR. After being sequenced, the C-terminal fragment was ligased into EcoR I-BamH I site of pGBKT7 vector to form recombinants. The recombinant plasmid

  11. The crystal structures of the synthetic C-terminal octa- and dodecapeptides of trichovirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, R; Benos, P; Brückner, H; Kokkinidis, M

    1999-02-01

    The structures of two synthetic peptides with sequences corresponding to the C-terminal region of the naturally occurring 14-residue peptaibol trichovirin have been determined. The crystal structures of 8- and 12-residue segments are presented and are compared with the structures of the tetrapeptide and of the 9-residue segment, which have been reported earlier. A comparison between these segments leads to the hypothesis that the three-dimensional structure of trichovirin is to a large extent determined by the properties of a periodically repeating -Aib-Pro- pattern in the sequence of the peptide.

  12. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  13. Development of a cysteine-deprived and C-terminally truncated GLP-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Garibay, Patrick W.;

    2013-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C-terminally trun......The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C......, Cys458 and Cys462 are not. Extensive deletions were made in the C-terminal tail of GLP-1R in order to determine the limit for truncation. As for other family B GPCRs, we observed a direct correlation between the length of the C-terminal tail and specific binding of 125I-GLP-1, indicating...

  14. Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and the CaV2.2 Distal C-terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona K Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available . Evidence that synaptic vesicles (SVs can be gated by a single voltage sensitive calcium channel (CaV2.2 predict a molecular linking mechanism or ‘tether’[Stanley 1993]. Recent studies have proposed that the SV binds to the distal C-terminal on the CaV2.2 calcium channel [Kaeser et al. 2011;Wong, Li, and Stanley 2013] while genetic analysis proposed a double tether mechanism via RIM: directly to the C terminus PDZ ligand domain or indirectly via a more proximal proline rich site [Kaeser et al. 2011]. Using a novel in vitro SV-PD binding assay, we reported that SVs bind to a fusion protein comprising the C-terminal distal third (C3, aa 2137-2357 [Wong, Li, and Stanley 2013]. Here we limit the binding site further to the last 58 aa, beyond the proline rich site, by the absence of SV capture by a truncated C3 fusion protein (aa 2137-2299. To test PDZ-dependent binding we generated two C terminus-mutant C3 fusion proteins and a mimetic blocking peptide (H-WC, aa 2349-2357 and validated these by elimination of MINT-1 or RIM binding. Persistence of SV capture with all three fusion proteins or with the full length C3 protein but in the presence of the blocking peptide, demonstrated that SVs can bind to the distal C-terminal via a PDZ-independent mechanism. These results were supported in situ by normal SV turnover in H-WC-loaded synaptosomes, as assayed by a novel peptide cryoloading method. Thus, SVs tether to the CaV2.2 C-terminal within a 49 aa region immediately prior to the terminus PDZ ligand domain. Long tethers that could reflect extended C termini were imaged by electron microscopy of synaptosome ghosts. To fully account for SV tethering we propose a model where SVs are initially captured, or ‘grabbed’, from the cytoplasm by a binding site on the distal region of the channel C-terminal and are then retracted to be ‘locked’ close to the channel by a second attachment mechanism in preparation for single channel domain gating.

  15. A symmetry-related sequence-structure relation of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ruizhen; LI Mingfen; CHEN Hanlin; HUANG Yanzhao; XIAO Yi

    2005-01-01

    Proteins have regular tertiary structures but irregular amino acid sequences. This made it very difficult to decode the structural information in the protein sequences. Here we demonstrate that many small αprotein domains have hidden sequence symmetries characteristic of their pseudo-symmetric tertiary structures. We also present a modified method of recurrent plot to reveal this kind of the hidden sequence symmetry. The results may enable us to understand part of the relations between protein sequences and their tertiary structures.

  16. Effects of C-terminal truncations on trafficking of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A Brett; Allen, Kenneth E; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2006-08-18

    Within the large family of P-type cation-transporting ATPases, members differ in the number of C-terminal transmembrane helices, ranging from two in Cu2+-ATPases to six in H+-, Na+,K+-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+-ATPases. In this study, yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase has served as a model to examine the role of the C-terminal membrane domain in ATPase stability and targeting to the plasma membrane. Successive truncations were constructed from the middle of the major cytoplasmic loop to the middle of the extended cytoplasmic tail, adding back the C-terminal membrane-spanning helices one at a time. When the resulting constructs were expressed transiently in yeast, there was a steady increase in half-life from 70 min in Pma1 delta452 to 348 min in Pma1 delta901, but even the longest construct was considerably less stable than wild-type ATPase (t(1/2) = 11 h). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that 11 of 12 constructs were arrested in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded in the proteasome. The only truncated ATPase that escaped the ER, Pma1 delta901, traveled slowly to the plasma membrane, where it hydrolyzed ATP and supported growth. Limited trypsinolysis showed Pma1 delta901 to be misfolded, however, resulting in premature delivery to the vacuole for degradation. As model substrates, this series of truncations affirms the importance of the entire C-terminal domain to yeast H+-ATPase biogenesis and defines a sequence element of 20 amino acids in the carboxyl tail that is critical to ER escape and trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  17. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K;

    1991-01-01

    Mutant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (obtained by substitution of one, two or three C-terminal autophosphorylable tyrosine residues with phenylalanine residues or by deletion of the C-terminal 19 amino acids, including the distal tyrosine) were expressed in mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast clones...... a positive role in the regulation of transmembrane signalling at the EGF receptor. The stepwise decrease in signal generation observed in single, double and triple point mutants suggest that the role of phosphotyrosine residues is not in the participation in specific amino acid sequences, but rather...

  18. Sequence Motifs in MADS Transcription Factors Responsible for Specificity and Diversification of Protein-Protein Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.D.J.; Morabito, G.; Fiers, M.A.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Angenent, G.C.; Immink, R.G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein famil

  19. 非洲爪蟾驱动蛋白样蛋白2靶蛋白C'末端SBP-3×Flag标记的HCT116结直肠癌细胞模型的建立%Establishment of A Targeting Protein for Xenopus Kinesin-like Protein 2 C' Terminal SBP-3 × Flag Tagged HCT 116 Colorectal Cancer Cell Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽彬; 张泽延; 张晓东; 缪时英; 王琳芳; 杜润蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) C terminal SBP-3 x Flag-tagged HCT116 cell model. Methods Homologous arms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) , and then the adeno-associated virus (AAV) -targeting vector of TPX2 was constructed. HCT 116 cells were targeted after the viruses were packaged. Positive cell clones with neomycin resistance gene were obtained by G418 and PCR screening. Finally, the neomycin gene cassette was excised after the targeted clones were infected with adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase, and the TPX2 C terminal SBP and 3 X Flag endogenous double-tagged HCT 116 cells were obtained by PCR screening. Results Two positive cell clones with neomycinresistance gene were obtained by PCR screening. The positive clones with neomycin resistance gene excised were obtained by Cre adenovirus infection, and the knock-in of SBP-3 x Flag gene was verified by Western blot analysis. Conclusion The TPX2 C terminal SBP-3 x Flag tagged HCT 116 cell model was successfully established.%目的 建立非洲爪蟾驱动蛋白样蛋白2靶蛋白(TPX2)C'末端SBP-3×Flag标记的HCT 116结直肠癌细胞模型.方法 PCR扩增同源臂,构建TPX2的腺相关病毒打靶载体,包装病毒后打靶HCT 116结直肠癌细胞,G418和PCR筛选获得含有新霉素抗性基因的阳性细胞株,最后通过Cre病毒感染去除抗性基因,并用PCR方法筛选获得TPX2C'末端SBP和3×Flag内源性双标签的HCT 116结直肠癌细胞株.结果 筛选获得2个含有新霉素抗性基因的细胞株,随后经Cre病毒感染得到去除新霉素抗性基因的阳性细胞克隆,并经Western blot检测验证了SBP-3×Flag基因的敲入.结论 成功建立了TPX2 C'末端SBP-3×Flag标记的HCT 116结直肠癌细胞模型.

  20. Mechanisms of protein sequence divergence and incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Wellner

    Full Text Available Alignments of orthologous protein sequences convey a complex picture. Some positions are utterly conserved whilst others have diverged to variable degrees. Amongst the latter, many are non-exchangeable between extant sequences. How do functionally critical and highly conserved residues diverge? Why and how did these exchanges become incompatible within contemporary sequences? Our model is phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, where lysine 219 is an essential active-site residue completely conserved throughout Eukaryota and Bacteria, and serine is found only in archaeal PGKs. Contemporary sequences tested exhibited complete loss of function upon exchanges at 219. However, a directed evolution experiment revealed that two mutations were sufficient for human PGK to become functional with serine at position 219. These two mutations made position 219 permissive not only for serine and lysine, but also to a range of other amino acids seen in archaeal PGKs. The identified trajectories that enabled exchanges at 219 show marked sign epistasis - a relatively small loss of function with respect to one amino acid (lysine versus a large gain with another (serine, and other amino acids. Our findings support the view that, as theoretically described, the trajectories underlining the divergence of critical positions are dominated by sign epistatic interactions. Such trajectories are an outcome of rare mutational combinations. Nonetheless, as suggested by the laboratory enabled K219S exchange, given enough time and variability in selection levels, even utterly conserved and functionally essential residues may change.

  1. 傅里叶显微红外研究C-末端酸性蛋白对α-硫素原核表达过程的影响%Study on the Effect of C-Terminal Acidic Protein on the Prokaryotic Expression of α-Thionin by FTIR Microspectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 冯娟; 陶栋梁; 翁诗甫; 任正隆

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of C-terminal acidic protein on the secondary structure of wheat α-thionin in the absence of signal peptide during the prokaryotic expression process. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the presence of acidic protein gave rise to the formation of inclusion body, however, the absence of acidic protein greatly enhanced the solubility of the heterogenous protein expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) with the induction of 1 containing S and Sc, which corresponds to the absence and presence of C-terminal acidic proteins, respectively. The second de-rivative of the difference spectra measured 2 h after induction showed one principal component at ~1 630 cm~(-1) , while no signifi-cant peak appeared at the same peak position when the spectra before induction were compared. Combined with SD~PAGE of recombinant protein, the authors presumed that the peak absorption at ~1 630 cm~(-1) is most likey to be assigned to protein ag-gregate within inclusion body. Gaussian curve-fitting was done on the Fourier self-deconvolution spectra within amide I region of intact cells containing S and Sc. The experimental data revealed that the relative content of aggregate absorption at (1 629 ± 1) cm~(-1) gradually increased with induction time, which is consistent with the results of SDS-PAGE. Simutaneously, the formation of aggregate gave rise to the increase of a-helix, as well as the decrease of fl-turn and random coil in the ease of Sc. It was not the case for S, however, where random coil experienced the increase in the relative average fractions, while β-turn and β-sheet at (1 629±1) cm~(-1) behaved in different ways. The above mentioned phenomenon indicated that fl-sheet and random coil are most likely to transform into aggregate and α-helix with the introduction of C-terminal acidic protein.%采用傅里叶变换显微红外手段研究了在信号肽缺失的情况下,C-末端酸性蛋白的

  2. Expression of the C-terminal Polypeptide of Planarian Heat Shock Protein 70 and Preparation of Its Polyclonal Antibody%日本三角涡虫热休克蛋白70(DjHSP70)C-端多肽表达及其抗血清制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克学; 娄昊; 陈广文; 刘德增

    2011-01-01

    首先运用在线生物学软件对日本三角涡虫(Degusia japonica)热休克蛋白70(DjHSP70)氨基酸序列进行亲水区分析,发现该蛋白C-端含有较多亲水性氨基酸,然后以该段多肽序列为基础构建原核表达载体.采用PCR方法扩增450 bp cDNA片段,编码DjHSP70 C-端150个氨基酸多肽.将双酶切的cDNA片段与pET-28a载体连接后导入BL21受体菌,在IPTG诱导下表达出21 ku融合蛋白,分子量与预期相符.该融合蛋白采用Ni2+ -NTA agarose树脂进行纯化,纯化结果电泳检测后经灰度扫描分析显示纯度在95%以上.融合蛋白免疫新西兰大白兔获得高效价的抗血清,Western blot检测显示该抗血清不仅具有很强的特异性,而且还识别小鼠HSP70.此项工作为进一步研究淡水涡虫抗逆性奠定了基础.%In this paper, hydrophilic domain of DjHSP70 was predicted by using intemet biosoftware. The DjHSP70 C-terminal contains numerous hydrophilic amino acids. Based on this hydrophilic domain of DjHSP70, the prokaryotic expression vector was constructed. PCR method was used to amplify 450 bp cDNA fragment encoding DjHSP70 C-terminal 150 amino acid polypeptides. After digested by Hind Ⅲ/Xho Ⅰ , this eDNA fragment was ligated to pET-28a expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coii BL21 and a 21 ku fusion protein was expressed after the induction with IPTG, which was in agreement with the expected molecular weight. This fusion protein was purified using Ni2+ -NTA agarose and detected by SDSPAGE electrophoresis. Grayscale scanning showed that the purity of the purified protein was over 95%. The fusion protein was used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits to prepare the polyclonal antibody. The results showed that this anti-serum was not only very specific to DjHSP70, but also recognized mouse HSP70. This work has laid the foundation for further investigating stress responses in freshwater planarians.

  3. Design and synthesis of peptide YY analogues with c-terminal backbone amide-to-ester modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Louise; Andersen, J.J.; Paulsson, J.F.;

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone that activates the G protein-coupled neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors, and because of its appetite reducing actions, it is evaluated as an antiobesity drug candidate. The C-terminal tail of PYY is crucial for activation of the NPY receptors. Here, we describe...... the design and preparation of a series of PYY(3-36) depsipeptide analogues, in which backbone amide-to-ester modifications were systematically introduced in the C-terminal. Functional NPY receptor assays and circular dichroism revealed that the ψ(CONH) bonds at positions 30-31 and 33-34 are particularly...

  4. Specific recognition of the C-terminal end of A beta 42 by a high affinity monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, T.V.; Holm, A.; Birkelund, S.;

    2009-01-01

    The neurotoxic peptide A beta(42) is derived from the amyloid precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and is deposited in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we generate a high affinity monoclonal antibody that targets the C-terminal end of A beta(42) with...

  5. Structure determination of Murine Norovirus NS6 proteases with C-terminal extensions designed to probe protease–substrate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. They encode an NS6 protease that cleaves a viral polyprotein at specific sites to produce mature viral proteins. In an earlier study we obtained crystals of murine norovirus (MNV NS6 protease in which crystal contacts were mediated by specific insertion of the C-terminus of one protein (which contains residues P5-P1 of the NS6-7 cleavage junction into the peptide binding site of an adjacent molecule, forming an adventitious protease-product complex. We sought to reproduce this crystal form to investigate protease–substrate complexes by extending the C-terminus of NS6 construct to include residues on the C-terminal (P′ side of the cleavage junction. We report the crystallization and crystal structure determination of inactive mutants of murine norovirus NS6 protease with C-terminal extensions of one, two and four residues from the N-terminus of the adjacent NS7 protein (NS6 1′, NS6 2′, NS6 4′. We also determined the structure of a chimeric extended NS6 protease in which the P4-P4′ sequence of the NS6-7 cleavage site was replaced with the corresponding sequence from the NS2-3 cleavage junction (NS6 4′ 2|3.The constructs NS6 1′ and NS6 2′ yielded crystals that diffracted anisotropically. We found that, although the uncorrected data could be phased by molecular replacement, refinement of the structures stalled unless the data were ellipsoidally truncated and corrected with anisotropic B-factors. These corrections significantly improved phasing by molecular replacement and subsequent refinement.The refined structures of all four extended NS6 proteases are very similar in structure to the mature MNV NS6—and in one case reveal additional details of a surface loop. Although the packing arrangement observed showed some similarities to those observed in the adventitious protease-product crystals reported previously, in no case were specific protease–substrate interactions

  6. The Low pH Unfolded State of the C-terminal Domain of the Ribosomal Protein L9 Contains Significant Secondary Structure in the Absence of Denaturant but is No More Compact than the Low pH Urea Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies, and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58 to 149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92 residue globular α, β protein. The low pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than low pH urea unfolded state but it is not a molten globule. Backbone (1H, 13C and 15N) NMR assignments as well as side chain 13Cβ and 1Hβ assignments and 15N R2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference to adopt helical φ, ψ angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107 to 124 to preferentially populate helical φ, ψ values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as Rh or Rg are very poor indicators of “random coil” behavior. PMID:18707127

  7. The low-pH unfolded state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 contains significant secondary structure in the absence of denaturant but is no more compact than the low-pH urea unfolded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2008-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58-149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92-residue globular alpha, beta protein. The low-pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than the low-pH urea unfolded state, but it is not a molten globule. Backbone ( (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N) NMR assignments as well as side chain (13)C beta and (1)H beta assignments and (15)N R 2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference for adopting helical phi and psi angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107-124 to preferentially populate helical phi and psi values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as R h or R g are very poor indicators of "random coil" behavior.

  8. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  9. The Hepatitis B Virus Core Variants that Expose Foreign C-Terminal Insertions on the Outer Surface of Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishlers, Andris; Skrastina, Dace; Renhofa, Regina; Petrovskis, Ivars; Ose, Velta; Lieknina, Ilva; Jansons, Juris; Pumpens, Paul; Sominskaya, Irina

    2015-12-01

    The major immunodominant region (MIR) and N-terminus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) protein were used to expose foreign insertions on the outer surface of HBc virus-like particles (VLPs). The additions to the HBc positively charged arginine-rich C-terminal (CT) domain are usually not exposed on the VLP surface. Here, we constructed a set of recombinant HBcG vectors in which CT arginine stretches were substituted by glycine residues. In contrast to natural HBc VLPs and recombinant HBc VLP variants carrying native CT domain, the HBcG VLPs demonstrated a lowered capability to pack bacterial RNA during expression in Escherichia coli cells. The C-terminal addition of a model foreign epitope from the HBV preS1 sequence to the HBcG vectors resulted in the exposure of the inserted epitope on the VLP surface, whereas the same preS1 sequences added to the native CT of the natural HBc protein remained buried within the HBc VLPs. Based on the immunisation of mice, the preS1 epitope added to the HBcG vectors as a part of preS1(20-47) and preS1phil sequences demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity. The same epitope added to the original C-terminus of the HBc protein did not induce a notable level of anti-preS1 antibodies. HBcG vectors may contribute to the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26446016

  10. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  11. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan James P; Yankiwski Victor; Neff Norma F

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of ...

  12. Regulation of Escherichia coli RelA Requires Oligomerization of the C-Terminal Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Michal; Strausz, Yael; Gross, Miriam; Glaser, Gad

    2001-01-01

    The E. coli RelA protein is a ribosome-dependent (p)ppGpp synthetase that is activated in response to amino acid starvation. RelA can be dissected both functionally and physically into two domains: The N-terminal domain (NTD) (amino acids [aa] 1 to 455) contains the catalytic domain of RelA, and the C-terminal domain (CTD) (aa 455 to 744) is involved in regulating RelA activity. We used mutational analysis to localize sites important for RelA activity and control in these two domains. We inse...

  13. Drosophila DBT Autophosphorylation of Its C-Terminal Domain Antagonized by SPAG and Involved in UV-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-Yuan; Means, John C; Bjes, Edward S; Price, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Drosophila DBT and vertebrate CKIε/δ phosphorylate the period protein (PER) to produce circadian rhythms. While the C termini of these orthologs are not conserved in amino acid sequence, they inhibit activity and become autophosphorylated in the fly and vertebrate kinases. Here, sites of C-terminal autophosphorylation were identified by mass spectrometry and analysis of DBT truncations. Mutation of 6 serines and threonines in the C terminus (DBT(C/ala)) prevented autophosphorylation-dependent DBT turnover and electrophoretic mobility shifts in S2 cells. Unlike the effect of autophosphorylation on CKIδ, DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells did not reduce its in vitro activity. Moreover, overexpression of DBT(C/ala) did not affect circadian behavior differently from wild-type DBT (DBT(WT)), and neither exhibited daily electrophoretic mobility shifts, suggesting that DBT autophosphorylation is not required for clock function. While DBT(WT) protected S2 cells and larvae from UV-induced apoptosis and was phosphorylated and degraded by the proteasome, DBT(C/ala) did not protect and was not degraded. Finally, we show that the HSP-90 cochaperone spaghetti protein (SPAG) antagonizes DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells. These results suggest that DBT autophosphorylation regulates cell death and suggest a potential mechanism by which the circadian clock might affect apoptosis.

  14. Analysis of the piggyBac transposase reveals a functional nuclear targeting signal in the 94 c-terminal residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Tresa S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The piggyBac transposable element is a popular tool for germ-line transgenesis of eukaryotes. Despite this, little is known about the mechanism of transposition or the transposase (TPase itself. A thorough understanding of just how piggyBac works may lead to more effective use of this important mobile element. A PSORTII analysis of the TPase amino acid sequence predicts a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS near the c-terminus, just upstream of a putative ZnF (ZnF. Results We fused the piggyBac TPase upstream of and in-frame with the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP in the Drosophila melanogaster inducible metallothionein protein. Using Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2 cells and the deep red fluorescent nuclear stain Draq5, we were able to track the pattern of piggyBac localization with a scanning confocal microscope 48 hours after induction with copper sulphate. Conclusion Through n and c-terminal truncations, targeted internal deletions, and specific amino acid mutations of the piggyBac TPase open reading frame, we found that not only is the PSORTII-predicted NLS required for the TPase to enter the nucleus of S2 cells, but there are additional requirements for negatively charged amino acids a short length upstream of this region for nuclear localization.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing for Binary Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eSuter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system exploits host cell genetics in order to display binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs via defined and selectable phenotypes. Numerous improvements have been made to this method, adapting the screening principle for diverse applications, including drug discovery and the scale-up for proteome wide interaction screens in human and other organisms. Here we discuss a systematic workflow and analysis scheme for screening data generated by Y2H and related assays that includes high-throughput selection procedures, readout of comprehensive results via next-generation sequencing (NGS, and the interpretation of interaction data via quantitative statistics. The novel assays and tools will serve the broader scientific community to harness the power of NGS technology to address PPI networks in health and disease. We discuss examples of how this next-generation platform can be applied to address specific questions in diverse fields of biology and medicine.

  16. Nonlinear Correlations of Protein Sequences and Symmetries of Their Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-Feng; HUANG Yan-Zhao; XIAO Yi

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the nonlinear correlations of protein sequences by using the nonlinear prediction method developed in nonlinear dynamical theory.It is found that a lot of protein sequences show strong nonlinear correlations and have deterministic structures.Further investigations show that the strong nonlinear correlations of these protein sequences are due to the symmetries of their tertiary structures.Furthermore, the correlation lengths of the sequences are related to the degrees of the symmetries.These results support the duplication mechanism of protein evolution and also reveal one aspect how amino acid sequences encode their spatial structures.

  17. Occurrence of C-terminal residue exclusion in peptide fragmentation by ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (b(n-1) + H(2)O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H(2)O and NH(3)) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment

  18. The C-terminal region of E1A: a molecular tool for cellular cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Ahmed F; Fonseca, Gregory J; Cohen, Michael J; Mymryk, Joe S

    2012-04-01

    The adenovirus E1A proteins function via protein-protein interactions. By making many connections with the cellular protein network, individual modules of this virally encoded hub reprogram numerous aspects of cell function and behavior. Although many of these interactions have been thoroughly studied, those mediated by the C-terminal region of E1A are less well understood. This review focuses on how this region of E1A affects cell cycle progression, apoptosis, senescence, transformation, and conversion of cells to an epithelial state through interactions with CTBP1/2, DYRK1A/B, FOXK1/2, and importin-α. Furthermore, novel potential pathways that the C-terminus of E1A influences through these connections with the cellular interaction network are discussed.

  19. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of a C-terminal domain of human CHD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Silva, Ana P G; Mackay, Joel P; Ryan, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    Chromatin remodelling proteins are an essential family of eukaryotic proteins. They harness the energy from ATP hydrolysis and apply it to alter chromatin structure in order to regulate all aspects of genome biology. Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 1 (CHD1) is one such remodelling protein that has specialised nucleosome organising abilities and is conserved across eukaryotes. CHD1 possesses a pair of tandem chromodomains that directly precede the core catalytic Snf2 helicase-like domain, and a C-terminal SANT-SLIDE DNA-binding domain. We have identified an additional conserved domain in the C-terminal region of CHD1. Here, we report the backbone and side chain resonance assignments for this domain from human CHD1 at pH 6.5 and 25 °C (BMRB No. 25638). PMID:26286320

  20. Rosetta stone method for detecting protein function and protein-protein interactions from genome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Marcotte, Edward M.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Thompson, Michael J.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2002-10-15

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  1. C-terminal methylation of truncated neuropeptides: an enzyme-assisted extraction artifact involving methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Barton, Elizabeth E; Esonu, Onyinyechi K; Polasky, Daniel A; Onderko, Laura L; Bergeron, Audrey B; Christie, Andrew E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2013-08-01

    Neuropeptides are the largest class of signaling molecules used by nervous systems. Today, neuropeptide discovery commonly involves chemical extraction from a tissue source followed by mass spectrometric characterization. Ideally, the extraction procedure accurately preserves the sequence and any inherent modifications of the native peptides. Here, we present data showing that this is not always true. Specifically, we present evidence showing that, in the lobster Homarus americanus, the orcokinin family members, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe and SSEDMDRLGFG-OMe, are non-native peptides generated from full-length orcokinin precursors as the result of a highly selective peptide modification (peptide truncation with C-terminal methylation) that occurs during extraction. These peptides were observed by MALDI-FTMS and LC-Q-TOFMS analyses when eyestalk ganglia were extracted in a methanolic solvent, but not when tissues were dissected, co-crystallized with matrix, and analyzed directly with methanol excluded from the sample preparation. The identity of NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe was established using MALDI-FTMS/SORI-CID, LC-Q-TOFMS/MS, and comparison with a peptide standard. Extraction substituting deuterated methanol for methanol confirmed that the latter is the source of the C-terminal methyl group, and MS/MS confirmed the C-terminal localization of the added CD3. Surprisingly, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe is not produced via a chemical acid-catalyzed esterification. Instead, the methylated peptide appears to result from proteolytic truncation in the presence of methanol, as evidenced by a reduction in conversion with the addition of a protease-inhibitor cocktail; heat effectively eliminated the conversion. This unusual and highly specific extraction-derived peptide conversion exemplifies the need to consider both chemical and biochemical processes that may modify the structure of endogenous neuropeptides.

  2. Visualizing and Clustering Protein Similarity Networks: Sequences, Structures, and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Te-Lun; Hu, Geng-Ming; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Research in the recent decade has demonstrated the usefulness of protein network knowledge in furthering the study of molecular evolution of proteins, understanding the robustness of cells to perturbation, and annotating new protein functions. In this study, we aimed to provide a general clustering approach to visualize the sequence-structure-function relationship of protein networks, and investigate possible causes for inconsistency in the protein classifications based on sequences, structures, and functions. Such visualization of protein networks could facilitate our understanding of the overall relationship among proteins and help researchers comprehend various protein databases. As a demonstration, we clustered 1437 enzymes by their sequences and structures using the minimum span clustering (MSC) method. The general structure of this protein network was delineated at two clustering resolutions, and the second level MSC clustering was found to be highly similar to existing enzyme classifications. The clustering of these enzymes based on sequence, structure, and function information is consistent with each other. For proteases, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient is 0.86 between sequence and function classifications, 0.82 between sequence and structure classifications, and 0.78 between structure and function classifications. From our clustering results, we discussed possible examples of divergent evolution and convergent evolution of enzymes. Our clustering approach provides a panoramic view of the sequence-structure-function network of proteins, helps visualize the relation between related proteins intuitively, and is useful in predicting the structure and function of newly determined protein sequences. PMID:27267620

  3. Amino acid selective unlabeling for sequence specific resonance assignments in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnarjuna, B.; Jaipuria, Garima; Thakur, Anushikha [Indian Institute of Science, NMR Research Centre (India); D' Silva, Patrick, E-mail: patrick@biochem.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Biochemistry (India); Atreya, Hanudatta S., E-mail: hsatreya@sif.iisc.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Science, NMR Research Centre (India)

    2011-01-15

    Sequence specific resonance assignment constitutes an important step towards high-resolution structure determination of proteins by NMR and is aided by selective identification and assignment of amino acid types. The traditional approach to selective labeling yields only the chemical shifts of the particular amino acid being selected and does not help in establishing a link between adjacent residues along the polypeptide chain, which is important for sequential assignments. An alternative approach is the method of amino acid selective 'unlabeling' or reverse labeling, which involves selective unlabeling of specific amino acid types against a uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N labeled background. Based on this method, we present a novel approach for sequential assignments in proteins. The method involves a new NMR experiment named, {l_brace}{sup 12}CO{sub i}-{sup 15}N{sub i+1}{r_brace}-filtered HSQC, which aids in linking the {sup 1}H{sup N}/{sup 15}N resonances of the selectively unlabeled residue, i, and its C-terminal neighbor, i + 1, in HN-detected double and triple resonance spectra. This leads to the assignment of a tri-peptide segment from the knowledge of the amino acid types of residues: i - 1, i and i + 1, thereby speeding up the sequential assignment process. The method has the advantage of being relatively inexpensive, applicable to {sup 2}H labeled protein and can be coupled with cell-free synthesis and/or automated assignment approaches. A detailed survey involving unlabeling of different amino acid types individually or in pairs reveals that the proposed approach is also robust to misincorporation of {sup 14}N at undesired sites. Taken together, this study represents the first application of selective unlabeling for sequence specific resonance assignments and opens up new avenues to using this methodology in protein structural studies.

  4. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  5. Simple sequence proteins in prokaryotic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural and functional features associated with Simple Sequence Proteins (SSPs are non-globularity, disease states, signaling and post-translational modification. SSPs are also an important source of genetic and possibly phenotypic variation. Analysis of 249 prokaryotic proteomes offers a new opportunity to examine the genomic properties of SSPs. Results SSPs are a minority but they grow with proteome size. This relationship is exhibited across species varying in genomic GC, mutational bias, life style, and pathogenicity. Their proportion in each proteome is strongly influenced by genomic base compositional bias. In most species simple duplications is favoured, but in a few cases such as Mycobacteria, large families of duplications occur. Amino acid preference in SSPs exhibits a trend towards low cost of biosynthesis. In SSPs and in non-SSPs, Alanine, Glycine, Leucine, and Valine are abundant in species widely varying in genomic GC whereas Isoleucine and Lysine are rich only in organisms with low genomic GC. Arginine is abundant in SSPs of two species and in the non-SSPs of Xanthomonas oryzae. Asparagine is abundant only in SSPs of low GC species. Aspartic acid is abundant only in the non-SSPs of Halobacterium sp NRC1. The abundance of Serine in SSPs of 62 species extends over a broader range compared to that of non-SSPs. Threonine(T is abundant only in SSPs of a couple of species. SSPs exhibit preferential association with Cell surface, Cell membrane and Transport functions and a negative association with Metabolism. Mesophiles and Thermophiles display similar ranges in the content of SSPs. Conclusion Although SSPs are a minority, the genomic forces of base compositional bias and duplications influence their growth and pattern in each species. The preferences and abundance of amino acids are governed by low biosynthetic cost, evolutionary age and base composition of codons. Abundance of charged amino acids Arginine

  6. Folding and Stabilization of Native-Sequence-Reversed Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhao; Weber, Jeffrey K; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-04-26

    Though the problem of sequence-reversed protein folding is largely unexplored, one might speculate that reversed native protein sequences should be significantly more foldable than purely random heteropolymer sequences. In this article, we investigate how the reverse-sequences of native proteins might fold by examining a series of small proteins of increasing structural complexity (α-helix, β-hairpin, α-helix bundle, and α/β-protein). Employing a tandem protein structure prediction algorithmic and molecular dynamics simulation approach, we find that the ability of reverse sequences to adopt native-like folds is strongly influenced by protein size and the flexibility of the native hydrophobic core. For β-hairpins with reverse-sequences that fail to fold, we employ a simple mutational strategy for guiding stable hairpin formation that involves the insertion of amino acids into the β-turn region. This systematic look at reverse sequence duality sheds new light on the problem of protein sequence-structure mapping and may serve to inspire new protein design and protein structure prediction protocols.

  7. Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Protein B (LigB) Binds to Both the C-Terminal 23 Amino Acids of Fibrinogen αC Domain and Factor XIII: Insight into the Mechanism of LigB-Mediated Blockage of Fibrinogen α Chain Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Chang, Eric; Tseng, Andrew; Ptak, Christopher; Wu, Li-Chen; Su, Chun-Li; McDonough, Sean P; Lin, Yi-Pin; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The coagulation system provides a primitive but effective defense against hemorrhage. Soluble fibrinogen (Fg) monomers, composed of α, β and γ chains, are recruited to provide structural support for the formation of a hemostatic plug. Fg binds to platelets and is processed into a cross-linked fibrin polymer by the enzymatic clotting factors, thrombin and Factor XIII (FXIII). The newly formed fibrin-platelet clot can act as barrier to protect against pathogens from entering the bloodstream. Further, injuries caused by bacterial infections can be confined to the initial wound site. Many pathogenic bacteria have Fg-binding adhesins that can circumvent the coagulation pathway and allow the bacteria to sidestep containment. Fg expression is upregulated during lung infection providing an attachment surface for bacteria with the ability to produce Fg-binding adhesins. Fg binding by leptospira might play a crucial factor in Leptospira-associated pulmonary hemorrhage, the main factor contributing to lethality in severe cases of leptospirosis. The 12th domain of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB12), a leptospiral adhesin, interacts with the C-terminus of FgαC (FgαCC). In this study, the binding site for LigB12 was mapped to the final 23 amino acids at the C-terminal end of FgαCC (FgαCC8). The association of FgαCC8 with LigB12 (ELISA, KD = 0.76 μM; SPR, KD = 0.96 μM) was reduced by mutations of both charged residues (R608, R611 and H614 from FgαCC8; D1061 from LigB12) and hydrophobic residues (I613 from FgαCC8; F1054 and A1065 from LigB12). Additionally, LigB12 bound strongly to FXIII and also inhibited fibrin formation, suggesting that LigB can disrupt coagulation by suppressing FXIII activity. Here, the detailed binding mechanism of a leptospiral adhesin to a host hemostatic factor is characterized for the first time and should provide better insight into the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. PMID:27622634

  8. The solution structure of the C-terminal domain of NfeD reveals a novel membrane-anchored OB-fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yohta; Ohno, Ayako; Morii, Taichi; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Ikuo; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-11-01

    Nodulation formation efficiency D (NfeD) is a member of a class of membrane-anchored ClpP-class proteases. There is a second class of NfeD homologs that lack the ClpP domain. The genes of both NfeD classes usually are part of an operon that also contains a gene for a prokaryotic homolog of stomatin. (Stomatin is a major integral-membrane protein of mammalian erythrocytes.) Such NfeD/stomatin homolog gene pairs are present in more than 290 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and their protein products may be part of the machinery used for quality control of membrane proteins. Herein, we report the structure of the isolated C-terminal domain of PH0471, a Pyrococcus horikoshii NfeD homolog, which lacks the ClpP domain. This C-terminal domain (termed NfeDC) contains a five-strand beta-barrel, which is structurally very similar to the OB-fold (oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding fold) domain. However, there is little sequence similarity between it and previously characterized OB-fold domains. The NfeDC domain lacks the conserved surface residues that are necessary for the binding of an OB-fold domain to DNA/RNA, an ion. Instead, its surface is composed of residues that are uniquely conserved in NfeD homologs and that form the structurally conserved surface turns and beta-bulges. There is also a conserved tryptophan present on the surface. We propose that, in general, NfeDC domains may interact with other spatially proximal membrane proteins and thereby regulate their activities. PMID:18687870

  9. Influence of C-terminal tail deletion on structure and stability of hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Chu, Wen-Ting; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-06-01

    The C-terminus tail (G144-T149) of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI) plays an important role in this protein's hyperstabilization and may therefore be a good protein stability tag. Detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic effects of C-terminus tail deletion is required for gaining insights into the thermal stability mechanism of Sto-RNase HI. Focused on Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI (Sto-RNase HI) and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI) (PDB codes: 2EHG and 3ALY), we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (300, 375, 475, and 500 K) to examine the effect of the C-terminal tail on the hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and to investigate the unfolding process of Sto-RNase HI and ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI. The simulations suggest that the C-terminal tail has significant impact in hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and the unfolding of these two proteins evolves along dissimilar pathways. Essential dynamics analysis indicates that the essential subspaces of the two proteins at different temperatures are non-overlapping within the trajectories and they exhibit different directions of motion. Our work can give important information to understand the three-state folding mechanism of Sto-RNase HI and to offer alternative strategies to improve the protein stability.

  10. The Parallel Maximal Cliques Algorithm for Protein Sequence Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Jaber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Protein sequence clustering is a method used to discover relations between proteins. This method groups the proteins based on their common features. It is a core process in protein sequence classification. Graph theory has been used in protein sequence clustering as a means of partitioning the data into groups, where each group constitutes a cluster. Mohseni-Zadeh introduced a maximal cliques algorithm for protein clustering. Approach: In this study we adapted the maximal cliques algorithm of Mohseni-Zadeh to find cliques in protein sequences and we then parallelized the algorithm to improve computation times and allowed large protein databases to be processed. We used the N-Gram Hirschberg approach proposed by Abdul Rashid to calculate the distance between protein sequences. The task farming parallel program model was used to parallelize the enhanced cliques algorithm. Results: Our parallel maximal cliques algorithm was implemented on the stealth cluster using the C programming language and a hybrid approach that includes both the Message Passing Interface (MPI library and POSIX threads (PThread to accelerate protein sequence clustering. Conclusion: Our results showed a good speedup over sequential algorithms for cliques in protein sequences.

  11. An enhanced algorithm for multiple sequence alignment of protein sequences using genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    One of the most fundamental operations in biological sequence analysis is multiple sequence alignment (MSA). The basic of multiple sequence alignment problems is to determine the most biologically plausible alignments of protein or DNA sequences. In this paper, an alignment method using genetic algorithm for multiple sequence alignment has been proposed. Two different genetic operators mainly crossover and mutation were defined and implemented with the proposed method in order to know the pop...

  12. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Ersbøll, Bjarne;

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor sequ...

  13. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails - Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, A.; Sondergaard, B.P.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor sequ...

  14. Application of Data Mining in Protein Sequence Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprativ Saha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence classification involves feature selection for accurate classification. Popular protein sequence classification techniques involve extraction of specific features from the sequences. Researchers apply some well-known classification techniques like neural networks, Genetic algorithm, Fuzzy ARTMAP,Rough Set Classifier etc for accurate classification. This paper presents a review is with three different classification models such as neural network model, fuzzy ARTMAP model and Rough set classifier model.This is followed by a new technique for classifying protein sequences. The proposed model is typicallyimplemented with an own designed tool and tries to reduce the computational overheads encountered by earlier approaches and increase the accuracy of classification.

  15. An algorithm to find all palindromic sequences in proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Prasanth; M Kirti Vaishnavi; K Sekar

    2013-03-01

    A palindrome is a set of characters that reads the same forwards and backwards. Since the discovery of palindromic peptide sequences two decades ago, little effort has been made to understand its structural, functional and evolutionary significance. Therefore, in view of this, an algorithm has been developed to identify all perfect palindromes (excluding the palindromic subset and tandem repeats) in a single protein sequence. The proposed algorithm does not impose any restriction on the number of residues to be given in the input sequence. This avant-garde algorithm will aid in the identification of palindromic peptide sequences of varying lengths in a single protein sequence.

  16. Fold Recognition Using Sequence Fingerprints of Protein Local Substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtafovych, A A; Hvidsten, T; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-06-04

    A protein local substructure (descriptor) is a set of several short non-overlapping fragments of the polypeptide chain. Each descriptor describes local environment of a particular residue and includes only those segments that are located in the proximity of this residue. Similar descriptors from the representative set of proteins were analyzed to reveal links between the substructures and sequences of their segments. Using detected sequence-based fingerprints specific geometrical conformations are assigned to new sequences. The ability of the approach to recognize correct SCOP folds was tested on 273 sequences from the 49 most popular folds. Good predictions were obtained in 85% of cases. No performance drop was observed with decreasing sequence similarity between target sequences and sequences from the training set of proteins.

  17. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport in nanochannels

    CERN Document Server

    Boynton, P

    2015-01-01

    {\\it De novo} protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms and all post-translational events and other sequence modifications that occur after a protein has been constructed from its corresponding DNA code. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that composes a given protein one can then determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Mass spectrometry is the current technique of choice for {\\it de novo} sequencing. However, because some amino acids have the same mass the sequence cannot be completely determined in many cases. Here, we propose a new technique for {\\it de novo} protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting {\\it perpendicular} nanochannel. To calculate the transverse ionic curre...

  18. Effect of blocking toxicity pathways of C-terminal Fragment of Amyloid Precursor Protein on ADF/Cofilin in rat primary neuronal culture cells%阻断淀粉样前体蛋白-C 端片段毒性通路对 Cofilin 磷酸化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 许妍姬

    2015-01-01

    目的:本研究欲探讨阻断淀粉样前体蛋白-C 端片段(Amyloid Precursor Protein C Terminal Fragments, APP-CTFs)毒性通路对 Cofilin 磷酸化的影响方法大鼠胚鼠大脑皮层神经元细胞培养,采取3种方法阻断 APP-CTFs 毒性通路。①APP-695转染后γ-内切酶抑制剂 DAPT 处理②利用 YENPTY 段删除的 pEGFP-APP C99,C57转染至大鼠神经元细胞③GSK-3β抑制剂 LiCl 处理,3种方法阻断后,均采用蛋白印迹方法检测 Ph-cofilin 蛋白水平。结果 DAPT 处理组与未处理组比较 Ph-cofilin 蛋白表达水平降低(P <0.05)。转染 YENPTY 段删除的 pEGFP-APP CTFs 组未能明显增强磷酸化 Cofilin 的蛋白表达水平(P >0.05),虽然转染 APP-CT99,57-pEGFP 组与空载体对照组相比较,Ph-Cofilin 蛋白表达水平明显增加(P <0.05)。LiCl 处理组与非处理组相比,Ph-Cofilin 蛋白表达无明显改变(P >0.05)。结论提示 APP-CTFs 诱导的 Cofilin 磷酸化过程与 APP-CTFs 核转移毒性通路有关,但与其诱导的 GSK-3β-Tau 毒性通路无关。%Objective In this study,we aim to eluciate the effects of blocking toxicity pathways of APP-CTFs on co-filin phosphorylationMethods rat primary neuronal cells were cultured and choosed three different blocking toxicity pathways of APP-CTFs.①transfected with APP-695 Full length cDNA,and treated with an inhibitor of γ-secretase, DAPT②transfected with deletion of YENPTY domain of APP-CTFs.③treated with an inhibitor of GSK-3β,LiCl.Re-sults As an inhibitor ofγ-secretase,DAPT treatment decreased the phospho-cofilin (Ph-cofilin)protein levels in the transfected group with a full length of APP-695.When transfected with the deletion of the YENPTY domain of muta-ted APP-CTFs,Ph-cofilin did not have any significant increase.As an inhibitor of GSK-3β,LiCl treatment did not block the APP-CTFs that induced cofilin phosphorylation.Conclusion Indicating that this may be

  19. Sequencing proteins with transverse ionic transport in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Paul; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    De novo protein sequencing is essential for understanding cellular processes that govern the function of living organisms and all sequence modifications that occur after a protein has been constructed from its corresponding DNA code. By obtaining the order of the amino acids that compose a given protein one can then determine both its secondary and tertiary structures through structure prediction, which is used to create models for protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease. Here, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a polypeptide through a synthetic nanochannel and measuring the ionic current of each amino acid through an intersecting perpendicular nanochannel. We find that the distribution of ionic currents for each of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids encoded by eukaryotic genes is statistically distinct, showing this technique’s potential for de novo protein sequencing.

  20. Improving accuracy of protein-protein interaction prediction by considering the converse problem for sequence representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of genome-sequencing technologies, protein sequences are readily obtained by translating the measured mRNAs. Therefore predicting protein-protein interactions from the sequences is of great demand. The reason lies in the fact that identifying protein-protein interactions is becoming a bottleneck for eventually understanding the functions of proteins, especially for those organisms barely characterized. Although a few methods have been proposed, the converse problem, if the features used extract sufficient and unbiased information from protein sequences, is almost untouched. Results In this study, we interrogate this problem theoretically by an optimization scheme. Motivated by the theoretical investigation, we find novel encoding methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. Our new methods exploit sufficiently the information of protein sequences and reduce artificial bias and computational cost. Thus, it significantly outperforms the available methods regarding sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall with cross-validation evaluation and reaches ~80% and ~90% accuracy in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. Our findings here hold important implication for other sequence-based prediction tasks because representation of biological sequence is always the first step in computational biology. Conclusions By considering the converse problem, we propose new representation methods for both protein sequences and protein pairs. The results show that our method significantly improves the accuracy of protein-protein interaction predictions.

  1. Protein Sequence Classification with Improved Extreme Learning Machine Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuwen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precisely classifying a protein sequence from a large biological protein sequences database plays an important role for developing competitive pharmacological products. Comparing the unseen sequence with all the identified protein sequences and returning the category index with the highest similarity scored protein, conventional methods are usually time-consuming. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to build an efficient protein sequence classification system. In this paper, we study the performance of protein sequence classification using SLFNs. The recent efficient extreme learning machine (ELM and its invariants are utilized as the training algorithms. The optimal pruned ELM is first employed for protein sequence classification in this paper. To further enhance the performance, the ensemble based SLFNs structure is constructed where multiple SLFNs with the same number of hidden nodes and the same activation function are used as ensembles. For each ensemble, the same training algorithm is adopted. The final category index is derived using the majority voting method. Two approaches, namely, the basic ELM and the OP-ELM, are adopted for the ensemble based SLFNs. The performance is analyzed and compared with several existing methods using datasets obtained from the Protein Information Resource center. The experimental results show the priority of the proposed algorithms.

  2. Determinants of the rate of protein sequence evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Yang, Jian-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The rate and mechanism of protein sequence evolution have been central questions in evolutionary biology since the 1960s. Although the rate of protein sequence evolution depends primarily on the level of functional constraint, exactly what constitutes functional constraint has remained unclear. The increasing availability of genomic data has allowed for much needed empirical examinations on the nature of functional constraint. These studies found that the evolutionary rate of a protein is pre...

  3. Nonlinear analysis of sequence repeats of multi-domain proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many multi-domain proteins have repetitive three-dimensional structures but nearly-random amino acid sequences. In the present paper, by using a modified recurrence plot proposed by us previously, we show that these amino acid sequences have hidden repetitions in fact. These results indicate that the repetitive domain structures are encoded by the repetitive sequences. This also gives a method to detect the repetitive domain structures directly from amino acid sequences

  4. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Selmo F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  5. Chaos game representation walk model for the protein sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jie; Jiang Li-Li; Xu Zhen-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A new chaos game representation of protein sequences based on the detailed hydrophobic-hydrophilic(HP)model has been proposed by Yu et al(Physica A 337(2004)171). A CGR-walk model is proposed based on the new CGR coordinates for the protein sequences from complete genomes in the present paper. The new CGR coordinates based on the detailed HP model are converted into a time series, and a long-memory ARFIMA(p, d, q)model is introduced into the protein sequence analysis. This model is applied to simulating real CGR-walk sequence data of twelve protein sequences. Remarkably long-range correlations are uncovered in the data and the results obtained from these models are reasonably coneistent with those available from the ARFIMA(p, d, q)model.

  6. A new graphical representation of protein sequences and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenbing; Pan, Qiuhui; He, Mingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sequence analysis is one of the foundations in bioinformatics for the abundant information hidden in the sequences. It is helpful for scientists' study on the function of DNA, proteins and cells. In this paper, we outline a novel method for protein sequences similarity analysis based on the physical-chemical properties of amino acids. We consider the protein sequence as a rigid-body with mass. Then we introduce the moment of inertia to the calculation of similarity of sequences and the sequences are transformed into vectors by the tensor for moment of inertia. The Euclidean distance is employed as a measurement of the similarities. At last, the comparison with other references' results shows our approach is reasonable and effective.

  7. Discriminating Microbial Species Using Protein Sequence Properties and Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahib, Ali Al-; Gilbert, David; Breitling, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done to identify species-specific proteins in sequenced genomes and hence to determine their function. We assumed that such proteins have specific physico-chemical properties that will discriminate them from proteins in other species. In this paper, we examine the validity of this

  8. Effects of C-terminal fragment of parathyroid hormone-related protein on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats%甲状旁腺激素相关蛋白羧基端片段对去卵巢大鼠骨代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进; 荣海钦; 季虹; 王东; 刘春艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究甲状旁腺激素相关蛋白(PTHrP)羧基端107-139(PTHrP107-139)对去卵巢大鼠骨代谢的影响.方法 4月龄健康雌性未孕Wistar大鼠40只,随机分为四组.假手术组(Sham组)和卵巢切除+安慰剂组(Placebo组)给予生理盐水0.2 ml/只;卵巢切除PTHrPC治疗组给予PTHrP107-139 40μg/Kg;卵巢切除+鲑鱼降钙素治疗组(CT组),给予鲑鱼降钙素15 U/kg.术后5周给药,隔日注射.治疗3个月,比较股骨、腰椎骨密度(BMD)、骨生物力学参数及骨组织形态计量学指标.结果 ①PTHrPC组和CT组大鼠股骨、腰椎BMD及骨生物力学性能明显高于Placebo组(P<0.05).②与Placebo组相比,PTHrPC和CT组的平均骨体积(TBV/TTV)明显升高,骨重建时间明显延长,而骨小梁类骨质表面(TOS)、平均类骨质宽度(MOSW)、成骨细胞表面(ObS)、骨吸收表面(OcS)、四环素单标记线占骨小梁表面的百分比(STS)、四环素双标记线占骨小梁表面的百分比(DTS)、纠正骨矿化沉积率(iMAR)较Placebo组明显下降.结论 PTHrP羧基端107-139片段主要通过降低OVX大鼠骨转换,抑制骨吸收,增加OVX大鼠的骨量,提高骨强度.%Objective To investigate the effects of C-terminal fragment of parathyroid hormonerelated protein (PTHrP107-139) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometry and biomechanical properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and its effect on bone metabolism is also explored. Methods Forty 4-month old female Wistar rats in which 30 were ovariectomized and then divided into 3 groups: the placebo, the PTHrPC and the CT groups, the other 10 rats were Sham-operated as the control group (Sham). Five weeks later, the rats of PTHrPC and CT groups were subcutaneously injected with PTHrP107-139 (40 μg/kg) and Salmon Calcitonin (15 U/kg) respectively once every other day. The rats of the placebo and sham groups were injected with 0.2 ml saline once every other day. After treatment of 12 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and all

  9. Protein folds and families: sequence and structure alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, L; Sander, C

    1999-01-01

    Dali and HSSP are derived databases organizing protein space in the structurally known regions. We use an automatic structure alignment program (Dali) for the classification of all known 3D structures based on all-against-all comparison of 3D structures in the Protein Data Bank. The HSSP database associates 1D sequences with known 3D structures using a position-weighted dynamic programming method for sequence profile alignment (MaxHom). As a result, the HSSP database not only provides aligned sequence families, but also implies secondary and tertiary structures covering 36% of all sequences in Swiss-Prot. The structure classification by Dali and the sequence families in HSSP can be browsed jointly from a web interface providing a rich network of links between neighbours in fold space, between domains and proteins, and between structures and sequences. In particular, this results in a database of explicit multiple alignments of protein families in the twilight zone of sequence similarity. The organization of protein structures and families provides a map of the currently known regions of the protein universe that is useful for the analysis of folding principles, for the evolutionary unification of protein families and for maximizing the information return from experimental structure determination. The databases are available from http://www.embl-ebi.ac.uk/dali/

  10. Folding and Stabilization of Native-Sequence-Reversed Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanzhao; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Though the problem of sequence-reversed protein folding is largely unexplored, one might speculate that reversed native protein sequences should be significantly more foldable than purely random heteropolymer sequences. In this article, we investigate how the reverse-sequences of native proteins might fold by examining a series of small proteins of increasing structural complexity ({\\alpha}-helix, \\b{eta}-hairpin, {\\alpha}-helix bundle, and {\\alpha}/\\b{eta}-protein). Employing a tandem protein structure prediction algorithmic and molecular dynamics simulation approach, we find that the ability of reverse sequences to adopt native-like folds is strongly in influenced by protein size and the flexibility of the native hydrophobic core. For \\b{eta}-hairpins with reverse-sequences that fail to fold, we employ a simple mutational strategy for guiding stable hairpin formation that involves the insertion of amino acids into the \\b{eta}-turn region. This systematic look at reverse sequence duality sheds new light on t...

  11. Nucleation Process of a Fibril Precursor in the C-Terminal Segment of Amyloid-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Pietrucci, Fabio; Biarnés, Xevi; Laio, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    By extended atomistic simulations in explicit solvent and bias-exchange metadynamics, we study the aggregation process of 18 chains of the C-terminal segment of amyloid-β, an intrinsically disordered protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease and prone to form fibrils. Starting from a disordered aggregate, we are able to observe the formation of an ordered nucleus rich in beta sheets. The rate limiting step in the nucleation pathway involves crossing a barrier of approximately 40kcal/mol and is associated with the formation of a very specific interdigitation of the side chains belonging to different sheets. This structural pattern is different from the one observed experimentally in a microcrystal of the same system, indicating that the structure of a “nascent” fibril may differ from the one of an “extended” fibril.

  12. Identification of protein superfamily from structure- based sequence motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structure-based sequence motif of the distant proteins in evolution, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) Ⅰ and Ⅱ superfamilies, as an example, has been defined by the structural comparison, structure-based sequence alignment and analyses on substitution patterns of residues in common sequence conserved regions. And the phosphatases Ⅰ and Ⅱ can be correctly identified together by the structure-based PTP sequence motif from SWISS-PROT and TrEBML databases. The results show that the correct rates of identification are over 98%. This is the first time to identify PTP Ⅰ and Ⅱ together by this motif.

  13. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  14. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I' band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D₂O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  15. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  16. The Contribution of the C-Terminal Tails of Microtubules in Altering the Force Production Specifications of Multiple Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizabadi, Mitra Shojania

    2016-09-01

    The extent to which beta tubulin isotypes contribute to the function of microtubules and the microtubule-driven transport of molecular motors is poorly understood. The major differences in these isotypes are associated with the structure of their C-terminal tails. Recent studies have revealed a few aspects of the C-terminal tails' regulatory role on the activities of some of the motor proteins on a single-molecule level. However, little attention is given to the degree to which the function of a team of motor proteins can be altered by the microtubule's tail. In a set of parallel experiments, we investigated this open question by studying the force production of several kinesin-1 (kinesin) molecular motors along two groups of microtubules: regular ones and those microtubules whose C-terminals are cleaved by subtilisin digestion. The results indicate that the difference between the average of the force production of motors along two types of microtubules is statistically significant. The underlying mechanism of such production is substantially different as well. As compared to untreated microtubules, the magnitude of the binding time of several kinesin-1 is almost three times greater along subtilisin-treated microtubules. Also, the velocity of the group of kinesin molecules shows a higher sensitivity to external loads and reduces significantly under higher loads along subtilisin-treated microtubules. Together, this work shows the capacity of the tails in fine-tuning the force production characteristics of several kinesin molecules. PMID:27503105

  17. Signatures of protein biophysics in coding sequence evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2010-01-01

    Since the early days of molecular evolution, the conventional wisdom has been that the evolution of protein-coding genes is primarily determined by functional constraints. Yet recent evidence indicates that the evolution of these genes is strongly shaped by the biophysical processes of protein synthesis, protein folding, and specific as well as non-specific protein–protein interactions. Selection pressures related to these biophysical processes affect primarily the amino-acid sequence of gene...

  18. What Makes a Protein Sequence a Prion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabate, Raimon; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Typical amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's were thought to exclusively result from de novo aggregation, but recently it was shown that amyloids formed in one cell can cross-seed aggregation in other cells, following a prion-like mechanism. Despite the large experimental effort devoted to understanding the phenomenon of prion transmissibility, it is still poorly understood how this property is encoded in the primary sequence. In many cases, prion structural conversion is driven by the presence of relatively large glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) enriched segments. Several studies suggest that it is the amino acid composition of these regions rather than their specific sequence that accounts for their priogenicity. However, our analysis indicates that it is instead the presence and potency of specific short amyloid-prone sequences that occur within intrinsically disordered Q/N-rich regions that determine their prion behaviour, modulated by the structural and compositional context. This provides a basis for the accurate identification and evaluation of prion candidate sequences in proteomes in the context of a unified framework for amyloid formation and prion propagation. PMID:25569335

  19. Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase by a C-terminal domain-specific monoclonal antibody*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel George

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To further our understanding of the structure and function of HIV-1 integrase (IN we developed and characterized a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against this protein. One of these antibodies, mAb33, which is specific for the C-terminal domain, was found to inhibit HIV-1 IN processing activity in vitro; a corresponding Fv fragment was able to inhibit HIV-1 integration in vivo. Our subsequent studies, using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified six solvent accessible residues on the surface of the C-terminal domain that were immobilized upon binding of the antibody, which were proposed to comprise the epitope. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring the affinity of mAb33 to HIV-1 proteins that contain Ala substitutions in each of these positions. To gain additional insight into the mode of inhibition we also measured the DNA binding capacity and enzymatic activities of the Ala substituted proteins. Results We found that Ala substitution of any one of five of the putative epitope residues, F223, R224, Y226, I267, and I268, caused a decrease in the affinity of the mAb33 for HIV-1 IN, confirming the prediction from NMR data. Although IN derivatives with Ala substitutions in or near the mAb33 epitope exhibited decreased enzymatic activity, none of the epitope substitutions compromised DNA binding to full length HIV-1 IN, as measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Two of these derivatives, IN (I276A and IN (I267A/I268A, exhibited both increased DNA binding affinity and uncharacteristic dissociation kinetics; these proteins also exhibited non-specific nuclease activity. Results from these investigations are discussed in the context of current models for how the C-terminal domain interacts with substrate DNA. Conclusion It is unlikely that inhibition of HIV-1 IN activity by mAb33 is caused by direct interaction with residues that are essential for substrate binding. Rather

  20. Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M Santiveri

    Full Text Available Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3 shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM. Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402 of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p, very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role.

  1. C-terminal Src kinase-mediated EPIYA phosphorylation of Pragmin creates a feed-forward C-terminal Src kinase activation loop that promotes cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Yoshie; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    Pragmin is one of the few mammalian proteins containing the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) tyrosine-phosphorylation motif that was originally discovered in the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Following delivery into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs, CagA serves as an oncogenic scaffold/adaptor that promiscuously interacts with SH2 domain-containing mammalian proteins such as the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Like CagA, Pragmin also forms a physical complex with Csk. In the present study, we found that Pragmin directly binds to Csk by the tyrosine-phosphorylated EPIYA motif. The complex formation potentiates kinase activity of Csk, which in turn phosphorylates Pragmin on tyrosine-238 (Y238), Y343, and Y391. As Y391 of Pragmin comprises the EPIYA motif, Pragmin-Csk interaction creates a feed-forward regulatory loop of Csk activation. Together with the finding that Pragmin and Csk are colocalized to focal adhesions, these observations indicate that the Pragmin-Csk interaction, triggered by Pragmin EPIYA phosphorylation, robustly stimulates the kinase activity of Csk at focal adhesions, which direct cell-matrix adhesion that regulates cell morphology and cell motility. As a consequence, expression of Pragmin and/or Csk in epithelial cells induces an elongated cell shape with elevated cell scattering in a manner that is mutually dependent on Pragmin and Csk. Deregulation of the Pragmin-Csk axis may therefore induce aberrant cell migration that contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:27116701

  2. Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, L; Bailey, J; Manoil, C

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor (Tsr) is a protein with a simple topology consisting of two membrane-spanning sequences (TM1 and TM2) separating a large periplasmic domain from N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. We analyzed the contributions of several sequence elements to the cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain by using chemoreceptor-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. The principal findings were as follows. (i) The cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain depended on TM2 but was quite tolerant of mutations partially deleting or introducing charged residues into the sequence. (ii) The basal level of C-terminal domain export was significantly higher in proteins with the wild-type periplasmic domain than in derivatives with a shortened periplasmic domain, suggesting that the large size of the wild-type domain promotes partial membrane misinsertion. (iii) The membrane insertion of deletion derivatives with a single spanning segment (TM1 or TM2) could be controlled by either an adjacent positively charged sequence or an adjacent amphipathic sequence. The results provide evidence that the generation of the Tsr membrane topology is an overdetermined process directed by an interplay of sequences promoting and opposing establishment of the normal structure. PMID:7730259

  3. Recombinant expression of two bacteriophage proteins that lyse clostridium perfringens and share identical sequences in the C-terminal cell wall binding domain of the molecules but are dissimilar in their N-terminal domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins that are responsible for disease symptoms and pathogenesis in a variety of animals, humans and poultry. The organism is the third leading cause of human food-borne bacterial disease a...

  4. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  5. Evaluating the protein coding potential of exonized transposable element sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodovsky Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable element (TE sequences, once thought to be merely selfish or parasitic members of the genomic community, have been shown to contribute a wide variety of functional sequences to their host genomes. Analysis of complete genome sequences have turned up numerous cases where TE sequences have been incorporated as exons into mRNAs, and it is widely assumed that such 'exonized' TEs encode protein sequences. However, the extent to which TE-derived sequences actually encode proteins is unknown and a matter of some controversy. We have tried to address this outstanding issue from two perspectives: i-by evaluating ascertainment biases related to the search methods used to uncover TE-derived protein coding sequences (CDS and ii-through a probabilistic codon-frequency based analysis of the protein coding potential of TE-derived exons. Results We compared the ability of three classes of sequence similarity search methods to detect TE-derived sequences among data sets of experimentally characterized proteins: 1-a profile-based hidden Markov model (HMM approach, 2-BLAST methods and 3-RepeatMasker. Profile based methods are more sensitive and more selective than the other methods evaluated. However, the application of profile-based search methods to the detection of TE-derived sequences among well-curated experimentally characterized protein data sets did not turn up many more cases than had been previously detected and nowhere near as many cases as recent genome-wide searches have. We observed that the different search methods used were complementary in the sense that they yielded largely non-overlapping sets of hits and differed in their ability to recover known cases of TE-derived CDS. The probabilistic analysis of TE-derived exon sequences indicates that these sequences have low protein coding potential on average. In particular, non-autonomous TEs that do not encode protein sequences, such as Alu elements, are frequently

  6. Protein Function Prediction Based on Sequence and Structure Information

    KAUST Repository

    Smaili, Fatima Z.

    2016-05-25

    The number of available protein sequences in public databases is increasing exponentially. However, a significant fraction of these sequences lack functional annotation which is essential to our understanding of how biological systems and processes operate. In this master thesis project, we worked on inferring protein functions based on the primary protein sequence. In the approach we follow, 3D models are first constructed using I-TASSER. Functions are then deduced by structurally matching these predicted models, using global and local similarities, through three independent enzyme commission (EC) and gene ontology (GO) function libraries. The method was tested on 250 “hard” proteins, which lack homologous templates in both structure and function libraries. The results show that this method outperforms the conventional prediction methods based on sequence similarity or threading. Additionally, our method could be improved even further by incorporating protein-protein interaction information. Overall, the method we use provides an efficient approach for automated functional annotation of non-homologous proteins, starting from their sequence.

  7. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  8. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unpro

  9. Protein 3D structure computed from evolutionary sequence variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora S Marks

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trajectory of a protein through sequence space is constrained by its function. Collections of sequence homologs record the outcomes of millions of evolutionary experiments in which the protein evolves according to these constraints. Deciphering the evolutionary record held in these sequences and exploiting it for predictive and engineering purposes presents a formidable challenge. The potential benefit of solving this challenge is amplified by the advent of inexpensive high-throughput genomic sequencing.In this paper we ask whether we can infer evolutionary constraints from a set of sequence homologs of a protein. The challenge is to distinguish true co-evolution couplings from the noisy set of observed correlations. We address this challenge using a maximum entropy model of the protein sequence, constrained by the statistics of the multiple sequence alignment, to infer residue pair couplings. Surprisingly, we find that the strength of these inferred couplings is an excellent predictor of residue-residue proximity in folded structures. Indeed, the top-scoring residue couplings are sufficiently accurate and well-distributed to define the 3D protein fold with remarkable accuracy.We quantify this observation by computing, from sequence alone, all-atom 3D structures of fifteen test proteins from different fold classes, ranging in size from 50 to 260 residues, including a G-protein coupled receptor. These blinded inferences are de novo, i.e., they do not use homology modeling or sequence-similar fragments from known structures. The co-evolution signals provide sufficient information to determine accurate 3D protein structure to 2.7-4.8 Å C(α-RMSD error relative to the observed structure, over at least two-thirds of the protein (method called EVfold, details at http://EVfold.org. This discovery provides insight into essential interactions constraining protein evolution and will facilitate a comprehensive survey of the universe of

  10. An enhanced algorithm for multiple sequence alignment of protein sequences using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    One of the most fundamental operations in biological sequence analysis is multiple sequence alignment (MSA). The basic of multiple sequence alignment problems is to determine the most biologically plausible alignments of protein or DNA sequences. In this paper, an alignment method using genetic algorithm for multiple sequence alignment has been proposed. Two different genetic operators mainly crossover and mutation were defined and implemented with the proposed method in order to know the population evolution and quality of the sequence aligned. The proposed method is assessed with protein benchmark dataset, e.g., BALIBASE, by comparing the obtained results to those obtained with other alignment algorithms, e.g., SAGA, RBT-GA, PRRP, HMMT, SB-PIMA, CLUSTALX, CLUSTAL W, DIALIGN and PILEUP8 etc. Experiments on a wide range of data have shown that the proposed algorithm is much better (it terms of score) than previously proposed algorithms in its ability to achieve high alignment quality. PMID:27065770

  11. Interaction of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase of Soybean Root Nodules with the C-terminal Domain of the Symbiosome Membrane Nodulin 26 Aquaglyceroporin*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Masalkar, Pintu; Wallace, Ian S.; Hwang, Jin Ha; Roberts, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nodulin 26 (nod26) is a major intrinsic protein that constitutes the major protein component on the symbiosome membrane (SM) of N2-fixing soybean nodules. Functionally, nod26 forms a low energy transport pathway for water, osmolytes, and NH3 across the SM. Besides their transport functions, emerging evidence suggests that high concentrations of major intrinsic proteins on membranes provide interaction and docking targets for various cytosolic proteins. Here it is shown that the C-terminal dom...

  12. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R.; Kolluru D Srikanth; Praveen Anand; Javed Naikoo; Srilatha, N. S.; Rao, Desirazu N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been ...

  13. A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Daniel P.; Oygar, D. Deren; Lin, Fujun; Oygar, P. Derin; Khan, Nadia; Connor, Thomas M.F.; Lapsley, Marta; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Neild, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hereditary microscopic haematuria often segregates with mutations of COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 but in half of families a gene is not identified. We investigated a Cypriot family with autosomal dominant microscopic haematuria with renal failure and kidney cysts. Methods We used genome-wide linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Results We identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.4611_4612insG:p.T1537fs, in exon 49 of COL4A1. This mutation predicts truncation of the protein with disruption of the C-terminal part of the NC1 domain. We confirmed its presence in 20 family members, 17 with confirmed haematuria, 5 of whom also had stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease. Eleven family members exhibited kidney cysts (55% of those with the mutation), but muscle cramps or cerebral aneurysms were not observed and serum creatine kinase was normal in all individuals tested. Conclusions Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in humans. PMID:27190376

  14. Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Hall, Shaun; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa;

    2016-01-01

    Proteins persist longer in the fossil record than DNA, but the longevity, survival mechanisms and substrates remain contested. Here, we demonstrate the role of mineral binding in preserving the protein sequence in ostrich (Struthionidae) eggshell, including from the palaeontological sites of Laet...

  15. Protein Sequence Matching Using Parametric Spectral Estimate Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ting Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Putative protein sequences decoded from the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA sequences are composed of twenty amino acids with different physical-chemical properties, such as hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity (uncharged, positively charged or negatively charged amino acids. In this paper, the power spectral estimate (PSE technique for random processes is applied to the protein sequence matching framework. First, the twenty kinds of amino acids are classified based on their hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Then each amino acid in the protein sequence is mapped to a corresponding complex value. Consider the various Hidden Markov chain orders in the complex valued sequences. The PSE method can explore the implicit statistical relations among protein sequences. The mean squared error between the power spectra of two sequences is determined and then used to measure their similarity. The experimental results verify that the proposed PSE method provides the consistent similarity measurement with the well-known ClustalW and BLASTp schemes. Moreover, the proposed PSE can show better similarity relevance than ClustalW and BLASTp schemes.

  16. Fast Quantum Search Algorithms in Protein Sequence Comparison - Quantum Biocomputing

    CERN Document Server

    Hollenberg, L C L

    2000-01-01

    Quantum search algorithms are considered in the context of protein sequencecomparison in biocomputing. Given a sample protein sequence of length m (i.e mresidues), the problem considered is to find an optimal match in a largedatabase containing N residues. Initially, Grover's quantum search algorithm isapplied to a simple illustrative case - namely where the database forms acomplete set of states over the 2^m basis states of a m qubit register, andthus is known to contain the exact sequence of interest. This exampledemonstrates explicitly the typical O(sqrt{N}) speedup on the classical O(N)requirements. An algorithm is then presented for the (more realistic) casewhere the database may contain repeat sequences, and may not necessarilycontain an exact match to the sample sequence. In terms of minimizing theHamming distance between the sample sequence and the database subsequences thealgorithm finds an optimal alignment, in O(sqrt{N}) steps, by employing anextension of Grover's algorithm, due to Boyer, Brassard,...

  17. Representation of protein-sequence information by amino acid subalphabets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.A.F.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Within computational biology, algorithms are constructed with the aim of extracting knowledge from biological data, in particular, data generated by the large genome projects, where gene and protein sequences are produced in high volume. In this article, we explore new ways of representing protein......-sequence information, using machine learning strategies, where the primary goal is the discovery of novel powerful representations for use in AI techniques. In the case of proteins and the 20 different amino acids they typically contain, it is also a secondary goal to discover how the current selection of amino acids...

  18. Prediction of protein motions from amino acid sequence and its application to protein-protein interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural flexibility is an important characteristic of proteins because it is often associated with their function. The movement of a polypeptide segment in a protein can be broken down into two types of motions: internal and external ones. The former is deformation of the segment itself, but the latter involves only rotational and translational motions as a rigid body. Normal Model Analysis (NMA can derive these two motions, but its application remains limited because it necessitates the gathering of complete structural information. Results In this work, we present a novel method for predicting two kinds of protein motions in ordered structures. The prediction uses only information from the amino acid sequence. We prepared a dataset of the internal and external motions of segments in many proteins by application of NMA. Subsequently, we analyzed the relation between thermal motion assessed from X-ray crystallographic B-factor and internal/external motions calculated by NMA. Results show that attributes of amino acids related to the internal motion have different features from those related to the B-factors, although those related to the external motion are correlated strongly with the B-factors. Next, we developed a method to predict internal and external motions from amino acid sequences based on the Random Forest algorithm. The proposed method uses information associated with adjacent amino acid residues and secondary structures predicted from the amino acid sequence. The proposed method exhibited moderate correlation between predicted internal and external motions with those calculated by NMA. It has the highest prediction accuracy compared to a naïve model and three published predictors. Conclusions Finally, we applied the proposed method predicting the internal motion to a set of 20 proteins that undergo large conformational change upon protein-protein interaction. Results show significant overlaps between the

  19. Increasing Sequence Diversity with Flexible Backbone Protein Design: The Complete Redesign of a Protein Hydrophobic Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Grant S.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Miley, Michael J.; Machius, Mischa; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian (UNC); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Protein design tests our understanding of protein stability and structure. Successful design methods should allow the exploration of sequence space not found in nature. However, when redesigning naturally occurring protein structures, most fixed backbone design algorithms return amino acid sequences that share strong sequence identity with wild-type sequences, especially in the protein core. This behavior places a restriction on functional space that can be explored and is not consistent with observations from nature, where sequences of low identity have similar structures. Here, we allow backbone flexibility during design to mutate every position in the core (38 residues) of a four-helix bundle protein. Only small perturbations to the backbone, 12 {angstrom}, were needed to entirely mutate the core. The redesigned protein, DRNN, is exceptionally stable (melting point >140C). An NMR and X-ray crystal structure show that the side chains and backbone were accurately modeled (all-atom RMSD = 1.3 {angstrom}).

  20. High-resolution mapping of protein sequence-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Douglas M; Araya, Carlos L; Fleishman, Sarel J; Kellogg, Elizabeth H; Stephany, Jason J; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    We present a large-scale approach to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variation in a protein. The approach entails the display of hundreds of thousands of protein variants, moderate selection for activity and high-throughput DNA sequencing to quantify the performance of each variant. Using this strategy, we tracked the performance of >600,000 variants of a human WW domain after three and six rounds of selection by phage display for binding to its peptide ligand. Binding properties of these variants defined a high-resolution map of mutational preference across the WW domain; each position had unique features that could not be captured by a few representative mutations. Our approach could be applied to many in vitro or in vivo protein assays, providing a general means for understanding how protein function relates to sequence.

  1. Protein sequences bound to mineral surfaces persist into deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Hall, Shaun; Roncal-Herrero, Teresa; Freeman, Colin L; Woolley, Jos; Crisp, Molly K; Wilson, Julie; Fotakis, Anna; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Rosa; Olsen, Jesper V; Haile, James; Thomas, Jessica; Marean, Curtis W; Parkington, John; Presslee, Samantha; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Ditchfield, Peter; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Ward, Martyn W; Wang, Chunting Michelle; Shaw, Marvin D; Harrison, Terry; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; MacPhee, Ross DE; Kwekason, Amandus; Ecker, Michaela; Kolska Horwitz, Liora; Chazan, Michael; Kröger, Roland; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Harding, John H; Cappellini, Enrico; Penkman, Kirsty; Collins, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Proteins persist longer in the fossil record than DNA, but the longevity, survival mechanisms and substrates remain contested. Here, we demonstrate the role of mineral binding in preserving the protein sequence in ostrich (Struthionidae) eggshell, including from the palaeontological sites of Laetoli (3.8 Ma) and Olduvai Gorge (1.3 Ma) in Tanzania. By tracking protein diagenesis back in time we find consistent patterns of preservation, demonstrating authenticity of the surviving sequences. Molecular dynamics simulations of struthiocalcin-1 and -2, the dominant proteins within the eggshell, reveal that distinct domains bind to the mineral surface. It is the domain with the strongest calculated binding energy to the calcite surface that is selectively preserved. Thermal age calculations demonstrate that the Laetoli and Olduvai peptides are 50 times older than any previously authenticated sequence (equivalent to ~16 Ma at a constant 10°C). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17092.001 PMID:27668515

  2. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Ebersole

    Full Text Available We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC, a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443 of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R.

  3. A Lys49 Phospholipase A2, Isolated from Bothrops asper Snake Venom, Induces Lipid Droplet Formation in Macrophages Which Depends on Distinct Signaling Pathways and the C-Terminal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cristina Giannotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT-II, a Lys49PLA2 homologue devoid of catalytic activity from B. asper venom, stimulates inflammatory events in macrophages. We investigated the ability of MT-II to induce formation of lipid droplets (LDs, key elements of inflammatory responses, in isolated macrophages and participation of protein kinases and intracellular PLA2s in this effect. Influence of MT-II on PLIN2 recruitment and expression was assessed, and the effects of some synthetic peptides on LD formation were further evaluated. At noncytotoxic concentrations, MT-II directly activated macrophages to form LDs. This effect was reproduced by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence 115–129 of MT-II, evidencing the critical role of C-terminus for MT-II-induced effect. Moreover, MT-II induced expression and recruitment of PLIN2. Pharmacological interventions with specific inhibitors showed that PKC, PI3K, ERK1/2, and iPLA2, but not P38MAPK or cPLA2, signaling pathways are involved in LD formation induced by MT-II. This sPLA2 homologue also induced synthesis of PGE2 that colocalized to LDs. In conclusion, MT-II is able to induce formation of LDs committed to PGE2 formation in a process dependent on C-terminal loop engagement and regulated by distinct protein kinases and iPLA2. LDs may constitute an important inflammatory mechanism triggered by MT-II in macrophages.

  4. A Lys49 Phospholipase A2, Isolated from Bothrops asper Snake Venom, Induces Lipid Droplet Formation in Macrophages Which Depends on Distinct Signaling Pathways and the C-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Giannotti, Karina; Leiguez, Elbio; Moreira, Vanessa; Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Lopes de Melo, Robson; Teixeira, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    MT-II, a Lys49PLA2 homologue devoid of catalytic activity from B. asper venom, stimulates inflammatory events in macrophages. We investigated the ability of MT-II to induce formation of lipid droplets (LDs), key elements of inflammatory responses, in isolated macrophages and participation of protein kinases and intracellular PLA2s in this effect. Influence of MT-II on PLIN2 recruitment and expression was assessed, and the effects of some synthetic peptides on LD formation were further evaluated. At noncytotoxic concentrations, MT-II directly activated macrophages to form LDs. This effect was reproduced by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence 115–129 of MT-II, evidencing the critical role of C-terminus for MT-II-induced effect. Moreover, MT-II induced expression and recruitment of PLIN2. Pharmacological interventions with specific inhibitors showed that PKC, PI3K, ERK1/2, and iPLA2, but not P38MAPK or cPLA2, signaling pathways are involved in LD formation induced by MT-II. This sPLA2 homologue also induced synthesis of PGE2 that colocalized to LDs. In conclusion, MT-II is able to induce formation of LDs committed to PGE2 formation in a process dependent on C-terminal loop engagement and regulated by distinct protein kinases and iPLA2. LDs may constitute an important inflammatory mechanism triggered by MT-II in macrophages. PMID:23509782

  5. Correlated mutations in protein sequences: Phylogenetic and structural effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapedes, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Giraud, B.G. [C.E.N. Saclay, Gif/Yvette (France). Service Physique Theorique; Liu, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.; Stormo, G.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

    1998-12-01

    Covariation analysis of sets of aligned sequences for RNA molecules is relatively successful in elucidating RNA secondary structure, as well as some aspects of tertiary structure. Covariation analysis of sets of aligned sequences for protein molecules is successful in certain instances in elucidating certain structural and functional links, but in general, pairs of sites displaying highly covarying mutations in protein sequences do not necessarily correspond to sites that are spatially close in the protein structure. In this paper the authors identify two reasons why naive use of covariation analysis for protein sequences fails to reliably indicate sequence positions that are spatially proximate. The first reason involves the bias introduced in calculation of covariation measures due to the fact that biological sequences are generally related by a non-trivial phylogenetic tree. The authors present a null-model approach to solve this problem. The second reason involves linked chains of covariation which can result in pairs of sites displaying significant covariation even though they are not spatially proximate. They present a maximum entropy solution to this classic problem of causation versus correlation. The methodologies are validated in simulation.

  6. Semi-Supervised Learning for Classification of Protein Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. King

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence data continue to become available at an exponential rate. Annotation of functional and structural attributes of these data lags far behind, with only a small fraction of the data understood and labeled by experimental methods. Classification methods that are based on semi-supervised learning can increase the overall accuracy of classifying partly labeled data in many domains, but very few methods exist that have shown their effect on protein sequence classification. We show how proven methods from text classification can be applied to protein sequence data, as we consider both existing and novel extensions to the basic methods, and demonstrate restrictions and differences that must be considered. We demonstrate comparative results against the transductive support vector machine, and show superior results on the most difficult classification problems. Our results show that large repositories of unlabeled protein sequence data can indeed be used to improve predictive performance, particularly in situations where there are fewer labeled protein sequences available, and/or the data are highly unbalanced in nature.

  7. Single-molecule protein sequencing through fingerprinting: computational assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Docter, Margreet; van Ginkel, Jetty; de Ridder, Dick; Joo, Chirlmin

    2015-10-01

    Proteins are vital in all biological systems as they constitute the main structural and functional components of cells. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have brought the promise of complete proteomics by helping draft the human proteome. Yet, this commonly used protein sequencing technique has fundamental limitations in sensitivity. Here we propose a method for single-molecule (SM) protein sequencing. A major challenge lies in the fact that proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids, which demands 20 molecular reporters. We computationally demonstrate that it suffices to measure only two types of amino acids to identify proteins and suggest an experimental scheme using SM fluorescence. When achieved, this highly sensitive approach will result in a paradigm shift in proteomics, with major impact in the biological and medical sciences.

  8. Sequence and structural features of binding site residues in protein-protein complexes: comparison with protein-nucleic acid complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj S; Jayaram B; Saranya N; Gromiha M; Fukui Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are important for several cellular processes. Understanding the mechanism of protein-protein recognition and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes are long standing goals in molecular and computational biology. Methods We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding site residues in protein–protein complexes. The binding site residues have been analyzed with sequence and structure based parameters such...

  9. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke De Bock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury.

  10. Molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, S; Mocarski, E S; Schachtel, G A

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. These are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). In the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide re...

  11. Role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 in antipolyspermy defense of mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Liskova, Lucie; Toralova, Tereza; Pavlok, Antonin; Pivonkova, Katerina; Karabinova, Pavla; Lopatarova, Miloslava; Sutovsky, Peter; Kubelka, Michal

    2010-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates many cellular processes through rapid proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is one of the most abundant proteins in mammalian oocytes. It has weak hydrolytic activity as a monomer and acts as a ubiquitin ligase in its dimeric or oligomeric form. Recently published data show that insufficiency in UCHL1 activity coincides with polyspermic fertilization; however, the mechanism by which UCHL1 contributes to this process remains unclear. Using UCHL1-specific inhibitors, we induced a high rate of polyspermy in bovine zygotes after in vitro fertilization. We also detected decreased levels in the monomeric ubiquitin and polyubiquitin pool. The presence of UCHL1 inhibitors in maturation medium enhanced formation of presumptive UCHL1 oligomers and subsequently increased abundance of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains in oocytes. We analyzed the dynamics of cortical granules (CGs) in UCHL1-inhibited oocytes; both migration of CGs toward the cortex during oocyte maturation and fertilization-induced extrusion of CGs were impaired. These alterations in CG dynamics coincided with high polyspermy incidence in in vitro-produced UCHL1-inhibited zygotes. These data indicate that antipolyspermy defense in bovine oocytes may rely on UCHL1-controlled functioning of CGs.

  12. C-terminal engineering of CXCL12 and CCL5 chemokines: functional characterization by electrophysiological recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Picciocchi

    Full Text Available Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines comprised of 70-100 amino acids. The chemokines CXCL12 and CCL5 are the endogenous ligands of the CXCR4 and CCR5 G protein-coupled receptors that are also HIV co-receptors. Biochemical, structural and functional studies of receptors are ligand-consuming and the cost of commercial chemokines hinders their use in such studies. Here, we describe methods for the expression, refolding, purification, and functional characterization of CXCL12 and CCL5 constructs incorporating C-terminal epitope tags. The model tags used were hexahistidines and Strep-Tag for affinity purification, and the double lanthanoid binding tag for fluorescence imaging and crystal structure resolution. The ability of modified and purified chemokines to bind and activate CXCR4 and CCR5 receptors was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing the receptors, together with a Kir3 G-protein activated K(+ channel that served as a reporter of receptor activation. Results demonstrate that tags greatly influence the biochemical properties of the recombinant chemokines. Besides, despite the absence of any evidence for CXCL12 or CCL5 C-terminus involvement in receptor binding and activation, we demonstrated unpredictable effects of tag insertion on the ligand apparent affinity and efficacy or on the ligand dissociation. These tagged chemokines should constitute useful tools for the selective purification of properly-folded chemokines receptors and the study of their native quaternary structures.

  13. TMAO promotes fibrillization and microtubule assembly activity in the C-terminal repeat region of tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Francesca; Peterson, Dylan W; Farmer, Patrick; Gerig, J T; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2006-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease most closely correlates with the appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intracellular fibrous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Under native conditions, tau is an unstructured protein, and its physical characterization has revealed no clues about the three-dimensional structural determinants essential for aggregation or microtubule binding. We have found that the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) induces secondary structure in a C-terminal fragment of tau (tau(187)) and greatly promotes both self-aggregation and microtubule (MT) assembly activity. These processes could be distinguished, however, by a single-amino acid substitution (Tyr(310) --> Ala), which severely inhibited aggregation but had no effect on MT assembly activity. The inability of this mutant to aggregate could be completely reversed by TMAO. We propose a model in which TMAO induces partial order in tau(187), resulting in conformers that may correspond to on-pathway intermediates of either aggregation or tau-dependent MT assembly or both. These studies set the stage for future high-resolution structural characterization of these intermediates and the basis by which Tyr(310) may direct pathologic versus normal tau function. PMID:16533051

  14. The Chaotic Structure of Bacterial Virulence Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdanur Genc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence proteins, which have been class ified on structure of virulence, causes several diseases. For instance, Adhesins play an important role in th e host cells. They are inserted DNA sequences for a variety of virulence properties. Several important methods conducted for the prediction of bacterial virulence proteins for finding new drugs or vaccines. In this study, we propose a method for feature sele ction about classification of bacterial virulence protein. The features are constituted dir ectly from the amino acid sequence of a given protein. Amino acids form proteins, which are criti cal to life, and have many important functions in living cells. They occurring with diff erent physicochemical properties by a vector of 20 numerical values, and collected in AAIndex datab ases of known 544 indices. For all that, this approach have two steps. Firstly , the amino acid sequence of a given protein analysed with Lyapunov Exponents that they have a chaotic structure in accordance wi th the chaos theory. After that, if the results show chara cterization over the complete distribution in the phase space from the point of deterministic sys tem, it means related protein will show a chaotic structure. Empirical results revealed that generated feature v ectors give the best performance with chaotic structure of physicochemical features of amino acid s with Adhesins and non-Adhesins data sets.

  15. Interplay of positive and negative effectors in function of the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Kornberg, R D

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II lacking a C-terminal domain (CTD) was active in transcription with purified proteins from yeast but failed to support transcription in a yeast extract. CTD dependence could be reconstituted in the purified system by addition of two fractions from the extract. An inhibitory fraction abolished transcription by both wild-type and CTD-less RNA polymerases; a stimulatory fraction restored activity of the wild-type polymerase but had a much lesser effect on the CTD-less enzyme. Pa...

  16. Structural of the class II enzyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: combined cDNA and protein sequence determination of the π subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The class II enzyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase was isolated, carboxymethylated, and cleaved with CNBr and proteolytic enzymes. Sequence analysis of peptides established structures corresponding to the π subunit. Two segments from the C-terminal region unique to π were selected for synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes to screen a human liver cDNA library constructed in plasmid pT4. Sequence analysis of two identical hybridization-positive clones with cDNA inserts of about 2000 nucleotides gave the entire coding region of the π subunit, a 61-nucleotide 5' noncoding region and a 741-nucleotide 3' noncoding region containing four possible polyadenylation sites. Translation of the coding region yields a 391-residue polypeptide, which in all regions except the C-terminal segment corresponds to the protein structure as determined directly by peptide analysis. With the class I numbering system, the exception concerns a residue exchange at position 368, the actual C-terminus which is Phe-374 by peptide data but a 12 residue extension by cDNA data, and possibly two further residue exchanges at positions 303 and 312. The size difference might indicate the existence of posttranslational modifications of the mature protein or, in combination with the residue exchanges, the existence of polymorphism at the locus for class II subunits. The π subunit analyzed directly results in a 379-residue polypeptide and is the only class II size thus far known to occur in the mature protein. Comparison of the π structure with those of the class I subunits (α, β, and γ) reveals a homology with extensive differences. Large variations in segments affecting relationships at the active site and the area of subunit interactions account for the significant alterations of enzymatic specificities and other properties that differentiate class II from class I enzymes

  17. Hinge Atlas: relating protein sequence to sites of structural flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Julie; Lu Long J; Flores Samuel C; Carriero Nicholas; Gerstein Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Relating features of protein sequences to structural hinges is important for identifying domain boundaries, understanding structure-function relationships, and designing flexibility into proteins. Efforts in this field have been hampered by the lack of a proper dataset for studying characteristics of hinges. Results Using the Molecular Motions Database we have created a Hinge Atlas of manually annotated hinges and a statistical formalism for calculating the enrichment of v...

  18. Structure of a C-terminal AHNAK peptide in a 1:2:2 complex with S100A10 and an acetylated N-terminal peptide of annexin A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozorowski, Gabriel [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Milton, Saskia [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Structure of a 20-amino-acid peptide of AHNAK bound asymmetrically to the AnxA2–S100A10A heterotetramer (1:2:2 symmetry) provides insights into the atomic level interactions that govern this membrane-repair scaffolding complex. AHNAK, a large 629 kDa protein, has been implicated in membrane repair, and the annexin A2–S100A10 heterotetramer [(p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2})] has high affinity for several regions of its 1002-amino-acid C-terminal domain. (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} is often localized near the plasma membrane, and this C2-symmetric platform is proposed to be involved in the bridging of membrane vesicles and trafficking of proteins to the plasma membrane. All three proteins co-localize at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner. The binding of AHNAK to (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} has been studied previously, and a minimal binding motif has been mapped to a 20-amino-acid peptide corresponding to residues 5654–5673 of the AHNAK C-terminal domain. Here, the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of this 20-amino-acid peptide of AHNAK bound to the AnxA2–S100A10 heterotetramer (1:2:2 symmetry) is presented, which confirms the asymmetric arrangement first described by Rezvanpour and coworkers and explains why the binding motif has high affinity for (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2}. Binding of AHNAK to the surface of (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} is governed by several hydrophobic interactions between side chains of AHNAK and pockets on S100A10. The pockets are large enough to accommodate a variety of hydrophobic side chains, allowing the consensus sequence to be more general. Additionally, the various hydrogen bonds formed between the AHNAK peptide and (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} most often involve backbone atoms of AHNAK; as a result, the side chains, particularly those that point away from S100A10/AnxA2 towards the solvent, are largely interchangeable. While the structure-based consensus sequence allows interactions with various

  19. Site-directed mutations in the C-terminal extension of human alphaB-crystallin affect chaperone function and block amyloid fibril formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Treweek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with inappropriate protein deposition and ordered amyloid fibril assembly. Molecular chaperones, including alphaB-crystallin, play a role in the prevention of protein deposition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of site-directed mutants of the human molecular chaperone, alphaB-crystallin, were constructed which focused on the flexible C-terminal extension of the protein. We investigated the structural role of this region as well as its role in the chaperone function of alphaB-crystallin under different types of protein aggregation, i.e. disordered amorphous aggregation and ordered amyloid fibril assembly. It was found that mutation of lysine and glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal extension of alphaB-crystallin resulted in proteins that had improved chaperone activity against amyloid fibril forming target proteins compared to the wild-type protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our results highlight the important role of the C-terminal region of alphaB-crystallin in regulating its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure and conferring thermostability to the protein. The capacity to genetically modify alphaB-crystallin for improved ability to block amyloid fibril formation provides a platform for the future use of such engineered molecules in treatment of diseases caused by amyloid fibril formation.

  20. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin David M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST libraries are used in various biological studies, from microarray experiments to proteomic and genetic screens. These libraries usually contain many uncharacterized ESTs that are typically ignored since they cannot be mapped to known genes. Consequently, new discoveries are possibly overlooked. Results We describe a system (EST2Prot that uses multiple elements to map EST sequences to their corresponding protein products. EST2Prot uses UniGene clusters, substring analysis, information about protein coding regions in existing DNA sequences and protein database searches to detect protein products related to a query EST sequence. Gene Ontology terms, Swiss-Prot keywords, and protein similarity data are used to map the ESTs to functional descriptors. Conclusion EST2Prot extends and significantly enriches the popular UniGene mapping by utilizing multiple relations between known biological entities. It produces a mapping between ESTs and proteins in real-time through a simple web-interface. The system is part of the Biozon database and is accessible at http://biozon.org/tools/est/.

  1. Down-regulation of the Tumor Suppressor C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk)-binding Protein (Cbp)/PAG1 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Histone Modifications via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Pathway*

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kei; Oneyama, Chitose; Kimura, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane adaptor protein Cbp (or PAG1) functions as a suppressor of Src-mediated tumor progression by promoting the inactivation of Src. The expression of Cbp is down-regulated in Src-transformed cells and in various human cancer cells, suggesting a potential role for Cbp as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanisms underlying the down-regulation of Cbp remain unknown. The present study shows that Cbp expression is down-regulated by epigenetic histone modifications via the MAPK/PI3...

  2. HomPPI: a class of sequence homology based protein-protein interface prediction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs Drena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although homology-based methods are among the most widely used methods for predicting the structure and function of proteins, the question as to whether interface sequence conservation can be effectively exploited in predicting protein-protein interfaces has been a subject of debate. Results We studied more than 300,000 pair-wise alignments of protein sequences from structurally characterized protein complexes, including both obligate and transient complexes. We identified sequence similarity criteria required for accurate homology-based inference of interface residues in a query protein sequence. Based on these analyses, we developed HomPPI, a class of sequence homology-based methods for predicting protein-protein interface residues. We present two variants of HomPPI: (i NPS-HomPPI (Non partner-specific HomPPI, which can be used to predict interface residues of a query protein in the absence of knowledge of the interaction partner; and (ii PS-HomPPI (Partner-specific HomPPI, which can be used to predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target protein. Our experiments on a benchmark dataset of obligate homodimeric complexes show that NPS-HomPPI can reliably predict protein-protein interface residues in a given protein, with an average correlation coefficient (CC of 0.76, sensitivity of 0.83, and specificity of 0.78, when sequence homologs of the query protein can be reliably identified. NPS-HomPPI also reliably predicts the interface residues of intrinsically disordered proteins. Our experiments suggest that NPS-HomPPI is competitive with several state-of-the-art interface prediction servers including those that exploit the structure of the query proteins. The partner-specific classifier, PS-HomPPI can, on a large dataset of transient complexes, predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target, with a CC of 0.65, sensitivity of 0.69, and specificity of 0.70, when homologs of

  3. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Hansmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2, a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  4. Biophysical and structural considerations for protein sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnen Johan A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequence evolution is constrained by the biophysics of folding and function, causing interdependence between interacting sites in the sequence. However, current site-independent models of sequence evolutions do not take this into account. Recent attempts to integrate the influence of structure and biophysics into phylogenetic models via statistical/informational approaches have not resulted in expected improvements in model performance. This suggests that further innovations are needed for progress in this field. Results Here we develop a coarse-grained physics-based model of protein folding and binding function, and compare it to a popular informational model. We find that both models violate the assumption of the native sequence being close to a thermodynamic optimum, causing directional selection away from the native state. Sampling and simulation show that the physics-based model is more specific for fold-defining interactions that vary less among residue type. The informational model diffuses further in sequence space with fewer barriers and tends to provide less support for an invariant sites model, although amino acid substitutions are generally conservative. Both approaches produce sequences with natural features like dN/dS Conclusions Simple coarse-grained models of protein folding can describe some natural features of evolving proteins but are currently not accurate enough to use in evolutionary inference. This is partly due to improper packing of the hydrophobic core. We suggest possible improvements on the representation of structure, folding energy, and binding function, as regards both native and non-native conformations, and describe a large number of possible applications for such a model.

  5. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  6. Plasma membrane CFTR regulates RANTES expression via its C-terminal PDZ-interacting motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, Kim; Braunstein, Gavin; Tucker, Torry; Varga, Karoly; Collawn, James F; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2003-01-01

    Despite the identification of 1,000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene product CFTR, there remains discordance between CFTR genotype and lung disease phenotype. The study of CFTR, therefore, has expanded beyond its chloride channel activity into other possible functions, such as its role as a regulator of gene expression. Findings indicate that CFTR plays a role in the expression of RANTES in airway epithelia. RANTES is a chemokine that has been implicated in the regulation of mucosal immunity and the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. Results demonstrate that CFTR triggers RANTES expression via a mechanism that is independent of CFTR's chloride channel activity. Neither pharmacological inhibition of CFTR nor activation of alternative chloride channels, including hClC-2, modulated RANTES expression. Through the use of CFTR disease-associated and truncation mutants, experiments suggest that CFTR-mediated transcription factor activation and RANTES expression require (i) insertion of CFTR into the plasma membrane and (ii) an intact CFTR C-terminal PDZ-interacting domain. Expression of constructs encoding wild-type or dominant-negative forms of the PDZ-binding protein EBP50 suggests that EBP50 may be involved in CFTR-dependent RANTES expression. Together, these data suggest that CFTR modulates gene expression in airway epithelial cells while located in a macromolecular signaling complex at the plasma membrane. PMID:12509457

  7. Sequence motifs in MADS transcription factors responsible for specificity and diversification of protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D J van Dijk

    Full Text Available Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein families with high sequence similarity, such as the plant MADS domain transcription factor family. In comparison to the situation in mammalian species, this important family of transcription regulators has expanded enormously in plant species and contains over 100 members in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that determine protein-protein interaction specificity for the Arabidopsis MADS domain transcription factor family, using an integrated computational and experimental approach. Plant MADS proteins have highly similar amino acid sequences, but their dimerization patterns vary substantially. Our computational analysis uncovered small sequence regions that explain observed differences in dimerization patterns with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, we show the usefulness of the method for prediction of MADS domain transcription factor interaction networks in other plant species. Introduction of mutations in the predicted interaction motifs demonstrated that single amino acid mutations can have a large effect and lead to loss or gain of specific interactions. In addition, various performed bioinformatics analyses shed light on the way evolution has shaped MADS domain transcription factor interaction specificity. Identified protein-protein interaction motifs appeared to be strongly conserved among orthologs, indicating their evolutionary importance. We also provide evidence that mutations in these motifs can be a source for sub- or neo-functionalization. The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and

  8. Cladistic analysis of iridoviruses based on protein and DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Deng, R Q; Wang, X Z; Huang, Y S; Xing, K; Feng, J H; He, J G; Long, Q X

    2003-11-01

    Cladograms of iridoviruses were inferred from bootstrap analysis of molecular data sets comprising all published protein and DNA sequences of the major capsid protein, ATPase and DNA polymerase genes of members of the Iridoviridae family Iridovirus. All data sets yielded cladograms supporting the separation of the Iridovirus, Ranavirus and Lymphocystivirus genera, and the cladogram based on data derived from major capsid proteins further divided both the Iridovirus and Ranavirus genera into two groups. Tests of alternative hypotheses of topological constraints were also performed to further investigate relationships between infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), an unclassified fish iridovirus for which the complete genome sequence data is available, and other iridoviruses. Cladograms inferred and results of Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests indicated that ISKNV is more closely related to the Ranavirus genus than it is to the other genera of the family.

  9. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome

  10. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B., E-mail: tolya@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  11. The X-ray structures of two mutant crystallin domains shed light on the evolution of multi-domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norledge, B V; Mayr, E M; Glockshuber, R; Bateman, O A; Slingsby, C; Jaenicke, R; Driessen, H P

    1996-03-01

    We use protein engineering and crystallography to simulate aspects of the early evolution of beta gamma-crystallins by observing how a single domain oligomerizes in response to changes in a sequence extension. The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of gamma beta-crystallin with its four-residue C-terminal extension shows that the domain does not form a symmetric homodimer analogous to the two-domain pairing in beta gamma-crystallins. Instead the C-terminal extension now forms heterologous interactions with other domains leading to the solvent exposure of the natural hydrophobic interface with a consequent loss in protein solubility. However, this domain truncated by just the C-terminal tyrosine forms a symmetric homodimer of domains in the crystal lattice. PMID:8605629

  12. Alamethicin-like behaviour of new 18-residue peptaibols, trichorzins PA. Role of the C-terminal amino-alcohol in the ion channel forming activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, D; Cosette, P; Rebuffat, S; Duclohier, H; Bodo, B; Molle, G

    1998-03-01

    The influences of peptide length, absence of a Glx (Gln/Glu) residue and the C-terminal amino alcohol on liposome permeabilization and ion-channel characteristics in planar lipid bilayers were examined with two 18-residue peptaibols, PA V and PA IX. As compared to the 20-residue alamethicin, both peptides belonging to the newly isolated trichorzin family, lack a proline in the N-terminal part and one of the two Gln/Glu residues in the C-terminal part of the sequence. The two analogues studied here differ among themselves in their C-terminal amino alcohol (tryptophanol for PA V and phenylalaninol for PA IX). These alpha-helical peptaibols modify to a similar extent the permeability of liposomes, as measured by leakage of a previously entrapped fluorescent probe. Monitoring tryptophanol fluorescence, a greater embedment of the peptide PA V is observed in cholesterol-free bilayers. Macroscopic conductance studies for PA V and PA IX display alamethicin-like current-voltage curves, with a similar voltage dependence, but a smaller mean number of monomers per conducting aggregate is estimated for the tryptophanol analogue, PA V. Single-channel recordings indicate faster current fluctuations for PA IX, while amplitude histograms show lower conductance levels for PA V. Apart from underlining the role of the mismatch between helix length and bilayer hydrophobic thickness, these results stress that the C-terminal tryptophanol favours a stabilization of the conducting aggregates. PMID:9518665

  13. A Model for Protein Sequence Evolution Based on Selective Pressure for Protein Stability: Application to Hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Marsh

    2009-01-01

    Negative selection against protein instability is a central influence on evolution of proteins. Protein stability is maintained over evolution despite changes in underlying sequences. An empirical all-site stability-based model of evolution was developed to focus on the selection of residues arising from their contributions to protein stability. In this model, site rates could vary. A structure-based method was used to predict stationary frequencies of hemoglobin residues based on their prope...

  14. Ultra-fast evaluation of protein energies directly from sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevorg Grigoryan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure, function, stability, and many other properties of a protein in a fixed environment are fully specified by its sequence, but in a manner that is difficult to discern. We present a general approach for rapidly mapping sequences directly to their energies on a pre-specified rigid backbone, an important sub-problem in computational protein design and in some methods for protein structure prediction. The cluster expansion (CE method that we employ can, in principle, be extended to model any computable or measurable protein property directly as a function of sequence. Here we show how CE can be applied to the problem of computational protein design, and use it to derive excellent approximations of physical potentials. The approach provides several attractive advantages. First, following a one-time derivation of a CE expansion, the amount of time necessary to evaluate the energy of a sequence adopting a specified backbone conformation is reduced by a factor of 10(7 compared to standard full-atom methods for the same task. Second, the agreement between two full-atom methods that we tested and their CE sequence-based expressions is very high (root mean square deviation 1.1-4.7 kcal/mol, R2 = 0.7-1.0. Third, the functional form of the CE energy expression is such that individual terms of the expansion have clear physical interpretations. We derived expressions for the energies of three classic protein design targets-a coiled coil, a zinc finger, and a WW domain-as functions of sequence, and examined the most significant terms. Single-residue and residue-pair interactions are sufficient to accurately capture the energetics of the dimeric coiled coil, whereas higher-order contributions are important for the two more globular folds. For the task of designing novel zinc-finger sequences, a CE-derived energy function provides significantly better solutions than a standard design protocol, in comparable computation time. Given these advantages

  15. Protein sequence for clustering DNA based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal. F. Elhadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. Clustering is a process that groups a set of objects into clusters so that the similarity among objects in the same cluster is high, while that among the objects in different clusters is low. In this paper, we proposed an approach for clustering DNA sequences using Self-Organizing Map (SOM algorithm and Protein Sequence. The main objective is to analyze biological data and to bunch DNA to many clusters more easily and efficiently. We use the proposed approach to analyze both large and small amount of input DNA sequences. The results show that the similarity of the sequences does not depend on the amount of input sequences. Our approach depends on evaluating the degree of the DNA sequences similarity using the hierarchal representation Dendrogram. Representing large amount of data using hierarchal tree gives the ability to compare large sequences efficiently

  16. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendradhar R Dwivedi

    Full Text Available DNA processing protein A (DprA plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA and double stranded DNA (dsDNA. Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed.

  17. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R; Srikanth, Kolluru D; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N S; Rao, Desirazu N

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  18. Chaperone-like effect of the linker on the isolated C-terminal domain of rabbit muscle creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Xia, Mengdie; He, Hua-Wei; Wang, Sha; Liu, Huihui; Gong, Haipeng; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Intramolecular chaperones (IMCs), which are specific domains/segments encoded in the primary structure of proteins, exhibit chaperone-like activity against the aggregation of the other domains in the same molecule. In this research, we found that the truncation of the linker greatly promoted the thermal aggregation of the isolated C-terminal domain (CTD) of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (RMCK). Either the existence of the linker covalently linked to CTD or the supply of the synthetic linker peptide additionally could successfully protect the CTD of RMCK against aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Truncated fragments of the linker also behaved as a chaperone-like effect with lower efficiency, revealing the importance of its C-terminal half in the IMC function of the linker. The aggregation sites in the CTD of RMCK were identified by molecular dynamics simulations. Mutational analysis of the three key hydrophobic residues resulted in opposing effects on the thermal aggregation between the CTD with intact or partial linker, confirming the role of linker as a lid to protect the hydrophobic residues against exposure to solvent. These observations suggested that the linkers in multidomain proteins could act as IMCs to facilitate the correct folding of the aggregation-prone domains. Furthermore, the intactness of the IMC linker after proteolysis modulates the production of off-pathway aggregates, which may be important to the onset of some diseases caused by the toxic effects of aggregated proteolytic fragments.

  19. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hurst-Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5 is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis.

  20. The C-terminal domain of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii is an autoinhibitory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsak, Thanawat; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Oonanant, Worrapoj; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Svasti, Jisnuson; Ballou, David P; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2012-07-27

    p-Hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii consists of a reductase component (C(1)) and an oxygenase component (C(2)). C(1) catalyzes the reduction of FMN by NADH to provide FMNH(-) as a substrate for C(2). The rate of reduction of flavin is enhanced ∼20-fold by binding HPA. The N-terminal domain of C(1) is homologous to other flavin reductases, whereas the C-terminal domain (residues 192-315) is similar to MarR, a repressor protein involved in bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this study, three forms of truncated C(1) variants and single site mutation variants of residues Arg-21, Phe-216, Arg-217, Ile-246, and Arg-247 were constructed to investigate the role of the C-terminal domain in regulating C(1). In the absence of HPA, the C(1) variant in which residues 179-315 were removed (t178C(1)) was reduced by NADH and released FMNH(-) at the same rates as wild-type enzyme carries out these functions in the presence of HPA. In contrast, variants with residues 231-315 removed behaved similarly to the wild-type enzyme. Thus, residues 179-230 are involved in repressing the production of FMNH(-) in the absence of HPA. These results are consistent with the C-terminal domain in the wild-type enzyme being an autoinhibitory domain that upon binding the effector HPA undergoes conformational changes to allow faster flavin reduction and release. Most of the single site variants investigated had catalytic properties similar to those of the wild-type enzyme except for the F216A variant, which had a rate of reduction that was not stimulated by HPA. F216A could be involved with HPA binding or in the required conformational change for stimulation of flavin reduction by HPA. PMID:22661720

  1. Predicting the tolerated sequences for proteins and protein interfaces using RosettaBackrub flexible backbone design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Smith

    Full Text Available Predicting the set of sequences that are tolerated by a protein or protein interface, while maintaining a desired function, is useful for characterizing protein interaction specificity and for computationally designing sequence libraries to engineer proteins with new functions. Here we provide a general method, a detailed set of protocols, and several benchmarks and analyses for estimating tolerated sequences using flexible backbone protein design implemented in the Rosetta molecular modeling software suite. The input to the method is at least one experimentally determined three-dimensional protein structure or high-quality model. The starting structure(s are expanded or refined into a conformational ensemble using Monte Carlo simulations consisting of backrub backbone and side chain moves in Rosetta. The method then uses a combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm optimization methods to enrich for low-energy sequences for the individual members of the ensemble. To emphasize certain functional requirements (e.g. forming a binding interface, interactions between and within parts of the structure (e.g. domains can be reweighted in the scoring function. Results from each backbone structure are merged together to create a single estimate for the tolerated sequence space. We provide an extensive description of the protocol and its parameters, all source code, example analysis scripts and three tests applying this method to finding sequences predicted to stabilize proteins or protein interfaces. The generality of this method makes many other applications possible, for example stabilizing interactions with small molecules, DNA, or RNA. Through the use of within-domain reweighting and/or multistate design, it may also be possible to use this method to find sequences that stabilize particular protein conformations or binding interactions over others.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend;

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  3. Sequence analysis and structural implications of rotavirus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbhoo, N; Dewar, J B; Gildenhuys, S

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the major cause of severe virus-associated gastroenteritis worldwide in children aged 5 and younger. Many children lose their lives annually due to this infection and the impact is particularly pronounced in developing countries. The mature rotavirus is a non-enveloped triple-layered nucleocapsid containing 11 double stranded RNA segments. Here a global view on the sequence and structure of the three main capsid proteins, VP2, VP6 and VP7 is shown by generating a consensus sequence for each of these rotavirus proteins, for each species obtained from published data of representative rotavirus genotypes from across the world and across species. Degree of conservation between species was represented on homology models for each of the proteins. VP7 shows the highest level of variation with 14-45 amino acids showing conservation of less than 60%. These changes are localised to the outer surface alluding to a possible mechanism in evading the immune system. The middle layer, VP6 shows lower variability with only 14-32 sites having lower than 70% conservation. The inner structural layer made up of VP2 showed the lowest variability with only 1-16 sites having less than 70% conservation across species. The results correlate with each protein's multiple structural roles in the infection cycle. Thus, although the nucleotide sequences vary due to the error-prone nature of replication and lack of proof reading, the corresponding amino acid sequence of VP2, 6 and 7 remain relatively conserved. Benefits of this knowledge about the conservation include the ability to target proteins at sites that cannot undergo mutational changes without influencing viral fitness; as well as possibility to study systems that are highly evolved for structure and function in order to determine how to generate and manipulate such systems for use in various biotechnological applications. PMID:27640436

  4. Diverse nucleotide compositions and sequence fluctuation in Rubisco protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Todd; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Bienaime, R.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2011-10-01

    The Rubisco protein-enzyme is arguably the most abundance protein on Earth. The biology dogma of transcription and translation necessitates the study of the Rubisco genes and Rubisco-like genes in various species. Stronger correlation of fractal dimension of the atomic number fluctuation along a DNA sequence with Shannon entropy has been observed in the studied Rubisco-like gene sequences, suggesting a more diverse evolutionary pressure and constraints in the Rubisco sequences. The strategy of using metal for structural stabilization appears to be an ancient mechanism, with data from the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in Capsaspora owczarzaki and Monosiga brevicollis. Using the chi-square distance probability, our analysis supports the conjecture that the more ancient Rubisco-like sequence in Microcystis aeruginosa would have experienced very different evolutionary pressure and bio-chemical constraint as compared to Bordetella bronchiseptica, the two microbes occupying either end of the correlation graph. Our exploratory study would indicate that high fractal dimension Rubisco sequence would support high carbon dioxide rate via the Michaelis- Menten coefficient; with implication for the control of the whooping cough pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica, a microbe containing a high fractal dimension Rubisco-like sequence (2.07). Using the internal comparison of chi-square distance probability for 16S rRNA (~ E-22) versus radiation repair Rec-A gene (~ E-05) in high GC content Deinococcus radiodurans, our analysis supports the conjecture that high GC content microbes containing Rubisco-like sequence are likely to include an extra-terrestrial origin, relative to Deinococcus radiodurans. Similar photosynthesis process that could utilize host star radiation would not compete with radiation resistant process from the biology dogma perspective in environments such as Mars and exoplanets.

  5. The C-terminal regions of YidC from Rhodopirellula baltica and Oceanicaulis alexandrii bind to ribosomes and partially substitute for SRP receptor function in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitl, Ines; Wickles, Stephan; Beckmann, Roland; Kuhn, Andreas; Kiefer, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    The marine Gram-negative bacteria Rhodopirellula baltica and Oceanicaulis alexandrii have, in contrast to Escherichia coli, membrane insertases with extended positively charged C-terminal regions similar to the YidC homologues in mitochondria and Gram-positive bacteria. We have found that chimeric forms of E. coli YidC fused to the C-terminal YidC regions from the marine bacteria mediate binding of YidC to ribosomes and therefore may have a functional role for targeting a nascent protein to the membrane. Here, we show in E. coli that an extended C-terminal region of YidC can compensate for a loss of SRP-receptor function in vivo. Furthermore, the enhanced affinity of the ribosome to the chimeric YidC allows the isolation of a ribosome nascent chain complex together with the C-terminally elongated YidC chimera. This complex was visualized at 8.6 Å by cryo-electron microscopy and shows a close contact of the ribosome and a YidC monomer. PMID:24261830

  6. Activity of the HMGB1-Derived Immunostimulatory Peptide Hp91 Resides in the Helical C-terminal Portion and is Enhanced by Dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, R.; Messmer, B.; Futalan, D.; Tor, Y.; Larsson, M.; Daniels, G.; Esener, S.; Messmer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that an 18 amino acid long peptide, named Hp91, whose sequence corresponds to a region within the endogenous protein HMGB1, activates dendritic cells (DCs) and acts as adjuvant in vivo by potentiating Th1-type antigen-specific immune responses. We analyzed the structure-function relationship of the Hp91 peptide to investigate the amino acids and structure responsible for immune responses. We found that the cysteine at position 16 of Hp91 enabled formation of reversible peptide dimmers, monomer and dimmer were compared for DC binding and activation. Stable monomers and dimers were generated using a maleimide conjugation reaction. The dimer showed enhanced ability to bind to and activate DCs. Furthermore, the C-terminal 9 amino acids of Hp91, named UC1018 were sufficient for DC binding and Circular dichroism showed that UC1018 assumes an alpha-helical structure. The ninemer peptide UC1018 induced more potent antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo as compared to Hp91 and it protected mice from tumor development when used in a prophylactic vaccine setting. We have identified a short alpha helical peptide that acts as potent adjuvant inducing protective immune responses in vivo. PMID:24172222

  7. Analysis of the SIP3 protein identified in a two-hybrid screen for interaction with the SNF1 protein kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Lesage, P.; X. Yang; Carlson, M

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIP3 gene was identified in a two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact in vivo with the SNF1 protein kinase, which is necessary for release of glucose repression. We showed that the C-terminal part of SIP3, recovered through its ability to interact with SNF1, strongly activates transcription when tethered to DNA. We have cloned and sequenced the entire SIP3 gene. The predicted 142-kD SIP3 protein contains a putative leucine zipper motif located in its C termin...

  8. Determining and comparing protein function in Bacterial genome sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla

    predictions were made in about 60% of the cases. This project has highlighted the difficulties and challenges in functional annotation and computational analysis of sequence data. It has provided possible solutions for creating reproducible pipelines for comparative genomics as well as constructed a number......In November 2013, there was around 21.000 different prokaryotic genomes sequenced and publicly available, and the number is growing daily with another 20.000 or more genomes expected to be sequenced and deposited by the end of 2014. An important part of the analysis of this data is the functional...... annotation of genes – the descriptions assigned to genes that describe the likely function of the encoded proteins. This process is limited by several factors, including the definition of a function which can be more or less specific as well as how many genes can actually be assigned a function based...

  9. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Sun, Chengqun; Sturgeon, Timothy J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    The C-terminal tail (CTT) of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env) protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE) of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  10. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available The C-terminal tail (CTT of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  11. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPPn 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hudson

    Full Text Available Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPPn in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPPn motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I, four in α2(I and three in α1(II, all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPPn domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human, up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPPn motif were found in α1(I and four in α2(I, with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPPn site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species.

  12. Quantifying sequence and structural features of protein-RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songling; Yamashita, Kazuo; Amada, Karlou Mar; Standley, Daron M

    2014-09-01

    Increasing awareness of the importance of protein-RNA interactions has motivated many approaches to predict residue-level RNA binding sites in proteins based on sequence or structural characteristics. Sequence-based predictors are usually high in sensitivity but low in specificity; conversely structure-based predictors tend to have high specificity, but lower sensitivity. Here we quantified the contribution of both sequence- and structure-based features as indicators of RNA-binding propensity using a machine-learning approach. In order to capture structural information for proteins without a known structure, we used homology modeling to extract the relevant structural features. Several novel and modified features enhanced the accuracy of residue-level RNA-binding propensity beyond what has been reported previously, including by meta-prediction servers. These features include: hidden Markov model-based evolutionary conservation, surface deformations based on the Laplacian norm formalism, and relative solvent accessibility partitioned into backbone and side chain contributions. We constructed a web server called aaRNA that implements the proposed method and demonstrate its use in identifying putative RNA binding sites. PMID:25063293

  13. C-Terminal to Intact Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Ratio in Relation to Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bożentowicz-Wikarek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An analytical equivalence between intact fibroblasts growth factor(iFGF23 and C-terminal(cFGF23 assays is logically expected, however, numerous studies demonstrate lack of a strong association between them. Previously, we have demonstrated the increase in cFGF23 slightly precedes the increase of iFGF23 with the impairment of kidney excretory function; without actually analyzing the ratio between both assays, which are postulated to be affected by declining kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the ratio between C and iFGF23 in relation to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in an elderly population. Methods: We analysed the variability of c/iFGF23 ratio in the population of 3264 elderly PolSenior study participants (≥ 65years in the relation to eGFR calculated according full Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, serum levels of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and iron. Results: The log10(c/i FGF23 ratio increased in the subsequent CKD stages. Serum iron and CRP levels reduced the log10 and increased it with age in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions: Our results suggest impairment in the cleavage of the C-terminal FGF23 fragments with the deterioration of kidney excretory function and age in the elderly population. Inflammation and low serum iron level seems to diminish degradation capacity of FGF23 fragments.

  14. Structural Basis for the Sequence-specific Recognition of Human ISG15 by the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Guan; L Ma; P Leonard; B Amer; H Sridharan; C Zhao; R Krug; G Montelione

    2011-12-31

    Interferon-induced ISG15 conjugation plays an important antiviral role against several viruses, including influenza viruses. The NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B) specifically binds only human and nonhuman primate ISG15s and inhibits their conjugation. To elucidate the structural basis for the sequence-specific recognition of human ISG15, we determined the crystal structure of the complex formed between human ISG15 and the N-terminal region of NS1B (NS1B-NTR). The NS1B-NTR homodimer interacts with two ISG15 molecules in the crystal and also in solution. The two ISG15-binding sites on the NS1B-NTR dimer are composed of residues from both chains, namely residues in the RNA-binding domain (RBD) from one chain, and residues in the linker between the RBD and the effector domain from the other chain. The primary contact region of NS1B-NTR on ISG15 is composed of residues at the junction of the N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and the short linker region between the two Ubl domains, explaining why the sequence of the short linker in human and nonhuman primate ISG15s is essential for the species-specific binding of these ISG15s. In addition, the crystal structure identifies NS1B-NTR binding sites in the N-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15, and shows that there are essentially no contacts with the C-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15. Consequently, NS1B-NTR binding to ISG15 would not occlude access of the C-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15 to its conjugating enzymes. Nonetheless, transfection assays show that NS1B-NTR binding of ISG15 is responsible for the inhibition of interferon-induced ISG15 conjugation in cells.

  15. Sequence and structural features of binding site residues in protein-protein complexes: comparison with protein-nucleic acid complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are important for several cellular processes. Understanding the mechanism of protein-protein recognition and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes are long standing goals in molecular and computational biology. Methods We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding site residues in protein–protein complexes. The binding site residues have been analyzed with sequence and structure based parameters such as binding propensity, neighboring residues in the vicinity of binding sites, conservation score and conformational switching. Results We observed that the binding propensities of amino acid residues are specific for protein-protein complexes. Further, typical dipeptides and tripeptides showed high preference for binding, which is unique to protein-protein complexes. Most of the binding site residues are highly conserved among homologous sequences. Our analysis showed that 7% of residues changed their conformations upon protein-protein complex formation and it is 9.2% and 6.6% in the binding and non-binding sites, respectively. Specifically, the residues Glu, Lys, Leu and Ser changed their conformation from coil to helix/strand and from helix to coil/strand. Leu, Ser, Thr and Val prefer to change their conformation from strand to coil/helix. Conclusions The results obtained in this study will be helpful for understanding and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes.

  16. A C-terminal truncated mutation of spr-3 gene extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Ruilin Sun; Minghui Yao; Weidong Chen; Zhugang Wang; Jian Fei

    2013-01-01

    The lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is determined by various genetic and environmental factors.In this paper,spr-3,a C.elegans homologous gene of the mammalian neural restrictive silencing factor (NRSF/REST),is reported to be an important gene regulating lifespan of C.elegans.A deletion mutation ofspr-3,spr-3(ok2525),or RNAi inhibition of spr-3 expression led to the short lifespan phenotype in C.elegans.However,a nonsense mutation of spr-3,spr3(by108),increased the lifespan by 26% when compared with that of wild-type nematode.The spr-3(by108) also showed increased resistance to environmental stress.The spr-3(by108) mutated gene encodes a C-terminal truncated protein with a structure comparable with the REST4,a splice variant of the NRSF/REST in mammalian.The long lifespan phenotype of spr-3(by108) mutant is confirmed as a gain of function and dependent on normal functions of daf16 and glp-1.The lifespan of the spr-3(by108) can be synergistically enhanced by inducing a mutation in daf-2.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the expression of daf-16 as well as its target gene sod-3,mtl1,and sip-1 was up-regulated in the spr-3(by108) mutant.These results would be helpful to further understand the complex function of NRSF/REST gene in mammalian,especially in the aging process and longevity determination.

  17. The structure of the RNA m5C methyltransferase YebU from Escherichia coli reveals a C-terminal RNA-recruiting PUA domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, B Martin; Ericsson, Ulrika B; Johnson, Kenneth A; Andersen, Niels Møller; Douthwaite, Stephen; Nordlund, Pär; Beuscher, Albert E; Erlandsen, Heidi

    2006-07-21

    Nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification in bacteria, and are introduced post-transcriptionally by a wide variety of site-specific enzymes. Three 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) bases are found in the rRNAs of Escherichia coli and one of these, at nucleotide 1407 in 16 S rRNA, is the modification product of the methyltransferase (MTase) YebU (also called RsmF). YebU requires S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and methylates C1407 within assembled 30 S subunits, but not in naked 16 S rRNA or within tight-couple 70 S ribosomes. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of YebU determined by X-ray crystallography, and we present a molecular model for how YebU specifically recognizes, binds and methylates its ribosomal substrate. The YebU protein has an N-terminal SAM-binding catalytic domain with structural similarity to the equivalent domains in several other m(5)C RNA MTases including RsmB and PH1374. The C-terminal one-third of YebU contains a domain similar to that in pseudouridine synthases and archaeosine-specific transglycosylases (PUA-domain), which was not predicted by sequence alignments. Furthermore, YebU is predicted to contain extended regions of positive electrostatic potential that differ from other RNA-MTase structures, suggesting that YebU interacts with its RNA target in a different manner. Docking of YebU onto the 30 S subunit indicates that the PUA and MTase domains make several contacts with 16 S rRNA as well as with the ribosomal protein S12. The ribosomal protein interactions would explain why the assembled 30 S subunit, and not naked 16 S rRNA, is the preferred substrate for YebU.

  18. A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Hofbaur, Stefan; Loell, Eva; Rieder, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection. In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct. The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions. PMID:27766167

  19. Identification of a Chemical Probe for Bromo and Extra C-Terminal Bromodomain Inhibition through Optimization of a Fragment-Derived Hit

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Paul V.; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Bish, Gerwyn; Brennan, Paul E.; Bunnage, Mark E.; Cook, Andrew S.; Federov, Oleg; Gerstenberger, Brian S.; Jones, Hannah; Knapp, Stefan; Marsden, Brian; Nocka, Karl; Owen, Dafydd R.; Philpott, Martin; Picaud, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of chromatin through acetylation at selected histone lysine residues is governed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The significance of this subset of the epigenetic code is interrogated and interpreted by an acetyllysine-specific protein–protein interaction with bromodomain reader modules. Selective inhibition of the bromo and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomains with a small molecule is feasible, and this...

  20. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Michael Morin; Coady, Michael J.; Rikard Blunck; Jean-Yves Lapointe

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on ...

  1. Detecting pore-lining regions in transmembrane protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-helical transmembrane channel and transporter proteins play vital roles in a diverse range of essential biological processes and are crucial in facilitating the passage of ions and molecules across the lipid bilayer. However, the experimental difficulties associated with obtaining high quality crystals has led to their significant under-representation in structural databases. Computational methods that can identify structural features from sequence alone are therefore of high importance. Results We present a method capable of automatically identifying pore-lining regions in transmembrane proteins from sequence information alone, which can then be used to determine the pore stoichiometry. By labelling pore-lining residues in crystal structures using geometric criteria, we have trained a support vector machine classifier to predict the likelihood of a transmembrane helix being involved in pore formation. Results from testing this approach under stringent cross-validation indicate that prediction accuracy of 72% is possible, while a support vector regression model is able to predict the number of subunits participating in the pore with 62% accuracy. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first tool capable of identifying pore-lining regions in proteins and we present the results of applying it to a data set of sequences with available crystal structures. Our method provides a way to characterise pores in transmembrane proteins and may even provide a starting point for discovering novel routes of therapeutic intervention in a number of important diseases. This software is freely available as source code from: http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/downloads/memsat-svm/.

  2. Modular prediction of protein structural classes from sequences of twilight-zone identity with predicting sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurgan Lukasz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of structural class is used by numerous methods for identification of structural/functional characteristics of proteins and could be used for the detection of remote homologues, particularly for chains that share twilight-zone similarity. In contrast to existing sequence-based structural class predictors, which target four major classes and which are designed for high identity sequences, we predict seven classes from sequences that share twilight-zone identity with the training sequences. Results The proposed MODular Approach to Structural class prediction (MODAS method is unique as it allows for selection of any subset of the classes. MODAS is also the first to utilize a novel, custom-built feature-based sequence representation that combines evolutionary profiles and predicted secondary structure. The features quantify information relevant to the definition of the classes including conservation of residues and arrangement and number of helix/strand segments. Our comprehensive design considers 8 feature selection methods and 4 classifiers to develop Support Vector Machine-based classifiers that are tailored for each of the seven classes. Tests on 5 twilight-zone and 1 high-similarity benchmark datasets and comparison with over two dozens of modern competing predictors show that MODAS provides the best overall accuracy that ranges between 80% and 96.7% (83.5% for the twilight-zone datasets, depending on the dataset. This translates into 19% and 8% error rate reduction when compared against the best performing competing method on two largest datasets. The proposed predictor provides accurate predictions at 58% accuracy for membrane proteins class, which is not considered by majority of existing methods, in spite that this class accounts for only 2% of the data. Our predictive model is analyzed to demonstrate how and why the input features are associated with the corresponding classes. Conclusions The improved

  3. Hinge Atlas: relating protein sequence to sites of structural flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Julie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating features of protein sequences to structural hinges is important for identifying domain boundaries, understanding structure-function relationships, and designing flexibility into proteins. Efforts in this field have been hampered by the lack of a proper dataset for studying characteristics of hinges. Results Using the Molecular Motions Database we have created a Hinge Atlas of manually annotated hinges and a statistical formalism for calculating the enrichment of various types of residues in these hinges. Conclusion We found various correlations between hinges and sequence features. Some of these are expected; for instance, we found that hinges tend to occur on the surface and in coils and turns and to be enriched with small and hydrophilic residues. Others are less obvious and intuitive. In particular, we found that hinges tend to coincide with active sites, but unlike the latter they are not at all conserved in evolution. We evaluate the potential for hinge prediction based on sequence. Motions play an important role in catalysis and protein-ligand interactions. Hinge bending motions comprise the largest class of known motions. Therefore it is important to relate the hinge location to sequence features such as residue type, physicochemical class, secondary structure, solvent exposure, evolutionary conservation, and proximity to active sites. To do this, we first generated the Hinge Atlas, a set of protein motions with the hinge locations manually annotated, and then studied the coincidence of these features with the hinge location. We found that all of the features have bearing on the hinge location. Most interestingly, we found that hinges tend to occur at or near active sites and yet unlike the latter are not conserved. Less surprisingly, we found that hinge residues tend to be small, not hydrophobic or aliphatic, and occur in turns and random coils on the surface. A functional sequence based hinge predictor was

  4. Cell wall sorting signals in surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Schneewind, O; Mihaylova-Petkov, D; Model, P

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is anchored to the cell wall, a unique cellular compartment of Gram-positive bacteria. The sorting signal sufficient for cell wall anchoring consists of an LPXTG motif, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain and a charged tail. Homologous sequences are found in many surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria and we explored the universality of these sequences to serve as cell wall sorting signals. We show that several signals are able to anchor fusion proteins to the staphyl...

  5. A potent antimicrobial protein from onion seeds showing sequence homology to plant lipid transfer proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cammue, Bruno; Thevissen, Karin; Hendriks, M.; Eggermont, Kristel; Goderis, I. J.; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Jozef; Osborn, R W; Guerbette, F.; Kader, J. C.; Broekaert, Willem

    1995-01-01

    An antimicrobial protein of about 10 kD, called Ace-AMP1, was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. Based on the near-complete amino acid sequence of this protein, oligonucleotides were designed for polymerase chain reaction-based cloning of the corresponding cDNA. The mature protein is homologous to plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), but it shares only 76% of the residues that are conserved among all known plant nsLTPs and is unusually rich in arginine. Ace-AMP1 inhibi...

  6. Mutant Mice Lacking the p53 C-Terminal Domain Model Telomere Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, I.; Jaber, S.; Draskovic, I.; Bardot, B.; Fang, M.; Bouarich-Bourimi, R.; Lejour, V.; Charbonnier, L.; Soudais, C.; Bourdon, J.C.; Huerre, M.; Londono-Vallejo, A.; Toledo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53(Delta31), a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis,

  7. Role of N-terminal extension of Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 and C-terminal extension of Thermotoga maritima RNase H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanasari, Etin-Diah; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2013-10-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 (BstRNH2) and Thermotoga maritima RNase H2 (TmaRNH2) have N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, respectively, as compared with Aquifex aeolicus RNase H2 (AaeRNH2). To analyze the role of these extensions, BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 without these extensions were constructed, and their biochemical properties were compared with those of their intact partners and AaeRNH2. The far-UV CD spectra of all proteins were similar, suggesting that the protein structure is not significantly altered by removal of these extensions. However, both the junction ribonuclease and RNase H activities of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, as well as their substrate-binding affinities, were considerably decreased by removal of these extensions. The stability of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 was also decreased by removal of these extensions. The activity, substrate binding affinity and stability of TmaRNH2 without the C-terminal 46 residues were partly restored by the attachment of the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2. These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2 functions as a substrate-binding domain and stabilizes the RNase H domain. Because the C-terminal extension of TmaRNH2 assumes a helix hairpin structure and does not make direct contact with the substrate, this extension is probably required to make the conformation of the substrate-binding site functional. AaeRNH2 showed comparable junction ribonuclease activity to those of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, and was more stable than these proteins, indicating that bacterial RNases H2 do not always require an N-terminal or C-terminal extension to increase activity, substrate-binding affinity, and/or stability. PMID:23937561

  8. PDNAsite: Identification of DNA-binding Site from Protein Sequence by Incorporating Spatial and Sequence Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiyun; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Hongpeng; Kong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space. Subsequently, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was applied to remove the redundancies in the feature space. Finally, a predictor (PDNAsite) was developed through the integration of the support vector machines (SVM) classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA-62 and the PDNA-224 datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein-DNA recognition and their binding ability. The comparison between our proposed PDNAsite method and the existing methods indicate that PDNAsite outperforms most of the existing methods and is a useful tool for DNA-binding site identification. A web-server of our predictor (http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn:8080/PDNAsite/) is made available for free public accessible to the biological research community. PMID:27282833

  9. Sequence and recombination analyses of the geminivirus replication initiator protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Vadivukarasi; K R Girish; R Usha

    2007-01-01

    The sequence motifs present in the replication initiator protein (Rep) of geminiviruses have been compared with those present in all known rolling circle replication initiators. The predicted secondary structures of Rep representing each group of organisms have been compared and found to be conserved. Regions of recombination in the Rep gene and the adjoining 5′ intergenic region (IR) of representative species of Geminiviridae have been identified using Recombination Detection Programs. The possible implications of such recombinations on the increasing host range of geminivirus infections are discussed.

  10. Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal and speckle-targeting sequence of tuftelin-interacting protein 11, a splicing factor involved in spliceosome disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannukit, Sissada [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Crabb, Tara L.; Hertel, Klemens J. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025 (United States); Wen, Xin [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Jans, David A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Paine, Michael L., E-mail: paine@usc.edu [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11) is a protein component of the spliceosome complex that promotes the release of the lariat-intron during late-stage splicing through a direct recruitment and interaction with DHX15/PRP43. Expression of TFIP11 is essential for cell and organismal survival. TFIP11 contains a G-patch domain, a signature motif of RNA-processing proteins that is responsible for TFIP11-DHX15 interactions. No other functional domains within TFIP11 have been described. TFIP11 is localized to distinct speckled regions within the cell nucleus, although excluded from the nucleolus. In this study sequential C-terminal deletions and mutational analyses have identified two novel protein elements in mouse TFIP11. The first domain covers amino acids 701-706 (VKDKFN) and is an atypical nuclear localization signal (NLS). The second domain is contained within amino acids 711-735 and defines TFIP11's distinct speckled nuclear localization. The identification of a novel TFIP11 nuclear speckle-targeting sequence (TFIP11-STS) suggests that this domain directly interacts with additional spliceosomal components. These data help define the mechanism of nuclear/nuclear speckle localization of the splicing factor TFIP11, with implications for it's function.

  11. Solution structure of the calmodulin-like C-terminal domain of Entamoeba α-actinin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Göran; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Hedenström, Mattias; Backman, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Cell motility is dependent on a dynamic meshwork of actin filaments that is remodelled continuously. A large number of associated proteins that are severs, cross-links, or caps the filament ends have been identified and the actin cross-linker α-actinin has been implied in several important cellular processes. In Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of human amoebiasis, α-actinin is believed to be required for infection. To better understand the role of α-actinin in the infectious process we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain using NMR. The final structure ensemble of the apo form shows two lobes, that both resemble other pairs of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, connected with a mobile linker. PMID:26800385

  12. Interaction of p190RhoGAP with C-terminal domain of p120-catenin modulates endothelial cytoskeleton and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebda, Noureddine; Tian, Yufeng; Tian, Xinyong; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Higginbotham, Katherine; Reynolds, Albert B; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2013-06-21

    p120-catenin is a multidomain intracellular protein, which mediates a number of cellular functions, including stabilization of cell-cell transmembrane cadherin complexes as well as regulation of actin dynamics associated with barrier function, lamellipodia formation, and cell migration via modulation of the activities of small GTPAses. One mechanism involves p120 catenin interaction with Rho GTPase activating protein (p190RhoGAP), leading to p190RhoGAP recruitment to cell periphery and local inhibition of Rho activity. In this study, we have identified a stretch of 23 amino acids within the C-terminal domain of p120 catenin as the minimal sequence responsible for the recruitment of p190RhoGAP (herein referred to as CRAD; catenin-RhoGAP association domain). Expression of the p120-catenin truncated mutant lacking the CRAD in endothelial cells attenuated effects of barrier protective oxidized phospholipid, OxPAPC. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of membrane translocation of p190RhoGAP, increased Rho signaling, as well as suppressed activation of Rac1 and its cytoskeletal effectors PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) and cortactin. Expression of p120 catenin-truncated mutant lacking CRAD also delayed the recovery process after thrombin-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Concomitantly, RhoA activation and downstream signaling were sustained for a longer period of time, whereas Rac signaling was inhibited. These data demonstrate a critical role for p120-catenin (amino acids 820-843) domain in the p120-catenin·p190RhoGAP signaling complex assembly, membrane targeting, and stimulation of p190RhoGAP activity toward inhibition of the Rho pathway and reciprocal up-regulation of Rac signaling critical for endothelial barrier regulation. PMID:23653363

  13. Multifunctionality and mechanism of ligand binding in a mosquito antiinflammatory protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Eric; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.; (NIH)

    2009-04-07

    The mosquito D7 salivary proteins are encoded by a multigene family related to the arthropod odorant-binding protein (OBP) superfamily. Forms having either one or two OBP domains are found in mosquito saliva. Four single-domain and one two-domain D7 proteins from Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (AeD7), respectively, were shown to bind biogenic amines with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one ligand per protein molecule. Sequence comparisons indicated that only the C-terminal domain of AeD7 is homologous to the single-domain proteins from A. gambiae, suggesting that the N-terminal domain may bind a different class of ligands. Here, we describe the 3D structure of AeD7 and examine the ligand-binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminal domains. Isothermal titration calorimetry and ligand complex crystal structures show that the N-terminal domain binds cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) with high affinities (50-60 nM) whereas the C-terminal domain binds biogenic amines. The lipid chain of the cysLT binds in a hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain, whereas binding of norepinephrine leads to an ordering of the C-terminal portion of the C-terminal domain into an alpha-helix that, along with rotations of Arg-176 and Glu-268 side chains, acts to bury the bound ligand.

  14. Sequence analysis of a Molluscum contagiosum virus DNA region which includes the gene encoding protein kinase 2 and other genes with unique organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallardo, A; Moratilla, M; Funes, J M; Agromayor, M; Nuñez, A; Varas, A J; Collado, M; Valencia, A; Lopez-Estebaranz, J L; Esteban, M

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a near left-terminal region from the genome of Molluscum contagiosum virus subtype I (MCVI) was determined. This region was contained within three adjacent BamHI fragments, designated L (2.4 kilobases (kb)), M (1.8 kb), and N (1.6 kb). BamHI cleavage of MCVI DNA produced another 1.6-kb fragment (N'), which had been mapped 30-50 kb from the L,M region. The MCVI restriction fragments were cloned and end-sequenced. The N fragment that maps at the L,M region was identified by the polymerase chain reaction, using primers devised from the sequence of each fragment. The results from this analysis led to establish the relative position of these fragments within the MCVI genome. The analysis of 3.6 kb of DNA sequence revealed the presence of ten open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of the amino acid sequence of these ORFs to the amino acid sequence of vaccinia virus (VAC) proteins revealed that two complete MCVI ORFs, termed N1L and L1L, showed high degree of homology with VAC F9 and F10 genes, respectively. The F10 gene encodes a 52-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase (protein kinase 2), an essential protein involved in virus morphogenesis. The MCVI homologue (L1L) encoded a putative polypeptide of 443 aa, with a calculated molecular mass of 53 kDa, and 60.5/30.2% sequence identity/similarity to VAC F10. The MCV N1L (213 aa, 24 kDa) showed 42.6/40.6% amino acid sequence identity/similarity to VAC F9, a gene of unknown function encoding a 24-kDa protein with a hydrophobic C-terminal domain, which was conserved in MCVI. The genomic arrangement of MCVI N1L and L1L was equivalent to that of the vaccinia and variola virus homologues. However, the ORFs contained within MCVI fragment M (leftward) showed no homology, neither similarity in genetic organization, to the genes encoded by the corresponding regions of vaccinia and variola viruses.

  15. Training set reduction methods for protein secondary structure prediction in single-sequence condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Zafer; AYDIN, Zafer; Altunbaşak, Yücel; Altunbasak, Yucel; Pakatcı, Kemal İsa; Pakatci, Kemal Isa; Erdoğan, Hakan; Erdogan, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Orphan proteins are characterized by the lack of significant sequence similarity to database proteins. To infer the functional properties of the orphans, more elaborate techniques that utilize structural information are required. In this regard, the protein structure prediction gains considerable importance. Secondary structure prediction algorithms designed for orphan proteins (also known as single-sequence algorithms) cannot utilize multiple alignments or alignment prof...

  16. The bioinformatics of nucleotide sequence coding for proteins requiring metal coenzymes and proteins embedded with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Sullivan, R.; Nguyen, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    All metallo-proteins need post-translation metal incorporation. In fact, the isotope ratio of Fe, Cu, and Zn in physiology and oncology have emerged as an important tool. The nickel containing F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase which catalyzes the release of methane in the final step of methano-genesis, a prime energy metabolism candidate for life exploration space mission in the solar system. The 3.5 Gyr early life sulfite reductase as a life switch energy metabolism had Fe-Mo clusters. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation 3 billion years ago had Mo. The early life arsenite oxidase needed for anoxygenic photosynthesis energy metabolism 2.8 billion years ago had Mo and Fe. The selection pressure in metal incorporation inside a protein would be quantifiable in terms of the related nucleotide sequence complexity with fractal dimension and entropy values. Simulation model showed that the studied metal-required energy metabolism sequences had at least ten times more selection pressure relatively in comparison to the horizontal transferred sequences in Mealybug, guided by the outcome histogram of the correlation R-sq values. The metal energy metabolism sequence group was compared to the circadian clock KaiC sequence group using magnesium atomic level bond shifting mechanism in the protein, and the simulation model would suggest a much higher selection pressure for the energy life switch sequence group. The possibility of using Kepler 444 as an example of ancient life in Galaxy with the associated exoplanets has been proposed and is further discussed in this report. Examples of arsenic metal bonding shift probed by Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy data and Zn controlled FOXP2 regulated pathways in human and chimp brain studied tissue samples are studied in relationship to the sequence bioinformatics. The analysis results suggest that relatively large metal bonding shift amount is associated with low probability correlation R

  17. Solution structure of N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav and the recognition site for Grb2 C-terminal SH3 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain (residues 583-660) of murine Vav, which contains a tetra-proline sequence (Pro 607-Pro 610), was determined by NMR. The solution structure of the SH3 domain shows a typical SH3 fold, but it exists in two conformations due to cis-trans isomerization at the Gly614-Pro615 bond. The NMR structure of the P615G mutant, where Pro615 is replaced by glycine, reveals that the tetra-proline region is inserted into the RT-loop and binds to its own SH3 structure. The C-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 specifically binds to the trans form of the N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav. The surface of Vav N-terminal SH3 which binds to Grb2 C-terminal SH3 was elucidated by chemical shift mapping experiments using NMR. The surface does not involve the tetra-proline region but involves the region comprising the n-src loop, the N-terminal and the C-terminal regions. This surface is located opposite to the tetra-proline containing region, consistent with that of our previous mutagenesis studies

  18. Dual N- and C-terminal helices are required for endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet association of alcohol acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Liang Lin

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two alcohol acetyltransferases (AATases, Atf1 and Atf2, condense short chain alcohols with acetyl-CoA to produce volatile acetate esters. Such esters are, in large part, responsible for the distinctive flavors and aromas of fermented beverages including beer, wine, and sake. Atf1 and Atf2 localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Atf1 is known to localize to lipid droplets (LDs. The mechanism and function of these localizations are unknown. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms of Atf1 and Atf2 membrane association. Segments of the N- and C-terminal domains of Atf1 (residues 24-41 and 508-525, respectively are predicted to be amphipathic helices. Truncations of these helices revealed that the terminal domains are essential for ER and LD association. Moreover, mutations of the basic or hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix and hydrophobic residues in the C-terminal helix disrupted ER association and subsequent sorting from the ER to LDs. Similar amphipathic helices are found at both ends of Atf2, enabling ER and LD association. As was the case with Atf1, mutations to the N- and C-terminal helices of Atf2 prevented membrane association. Sequence comparison of the AATases from Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeast (K. lactis and P. anomala and fruits species (C. melo and S. lycopersicum showed that only AATases from Saccharomyces evolved terminal amphipathic helices. Heterologous expression of these orthologs in S. cerevisiae revealed that the absence of terminal amphipathic helices eliminates LD association. Combined, the results of this study suggest a common mechanism of membrane association for AATases via dual N- and C-terminal amphipathic helices.

  19. Protein evolution analysis of S-hydroxynitrile lyase by complete sequence design utilizing the INTMSAlign software

    OpenAIRE

    Shogo Nakano; Yasuhisa Asano

    2015-01-01

    Development of software and methods for design of complete sequences of functional proteins could contribute to studies of protein engineering and protein evolution. To this end, we developed the INTMSAlign software, and used it to design functional proteins and evaluate their usefulness. The software could assign both consensus and correlation residues of target proteins. We generated three protein sequences with S-selective hydroxynitrile lyase (S-HNL) activity, which we call designed S-HNL...

  20. Expression patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-delta in epilepsy-associated lesional pathologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Martinian; K. Boer; J. Middeldorp; E.M. Hol; S.M. Sisodiya; W. Squier; E.M.A. Aronica; M. Thom

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-delta is a novel isoform that differs in its C-terminal sequence from other GFAP isoforms. Previous studies suggest restriction of expression to the subpial layer, subventricular zone and the subgranular zone astrocytes, with an absence in pathological co

  1. Modulation of voltage-gated potassium Kv2.1 via the cytoplasmic C terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Jin; Peiyuan Lu

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels comprise 12 subtypes (Kv1-Kv12). Kv2.1, which is expressed in most mammalian central neurons, provides the majority of delayed-rectifier K current in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and plays an especially prominent role in repolarizing membrane potential, as well as in facilitation of exocytosis. Kv2.1-encoded K efflux is essential for neuronal apoptosis programming. The human form of the Kv2.1 potassium channel contains large intracellular regions. The cytoplasmic C-terminal plays a key role in modulating Kv2.1 gating. The present manuscript summarized Kv2.1 structure and modulation in neurons and analyzed the roles of the cytoplasmic C-terminal.

  2. 157 nm Photodissociation of a Complete Set of Dipeptide Ions Containing C-Terminal Arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Webber, Nathaniel; Reilly, James P.

    2013-05-01

    Twenty singly-charged dipeptide ions with C-terminal arginine were photodissociated with 157 nm light and their tandem mass spectra recorded. Many of the small product ions that were observed are standard peptide fragments that have been commonly seen in VUV photodissociation studies. However, the study of a library of dipeptides containing all 20 N-terminal amino acids enabled the recognition of trends associated with the occurrence of w-, v-, and immonium ions, the observation of competition between forming N- and C-terminal fragments in dipeptide RR, and the identification of some unusual fragment ions appearing at masses of 183, 187, 196, and 197 Da. A highly accurate internal calibration of the photodissociation TOF-TOF data enabled molecular formulae for these four product ions to be derived. Their proposed structures reflect the rather high-energy nature of this fragmentation phenomenon.

  3. C-Terminally modified peptides via cleavage of the HMBA linker by O-, i>N>- or S-nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of C-terminally modified peptides was obtained by nucleophilic cleavage of the ester bond in solid phase linked peptide esters of 4-hydroxymethyl benzamide (HMBA). The developed methods provided peptides, C-terminally functionalized as esters, amides and thioesters, with high puri...

  4. C-Terminal Region of Sulfite Reductase Is Important to Localize to Chloroplast Nucleoids in Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Otani, Takuto; Ishibashi, Kota; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is compacted into cpDNA-protein complexes, called cp nucleoids. An abundant and extensively studied component of cp nucleoids is the bifunctional protein sulfite reductase (SiR). The preconceived role of SiR as the core cp nucleoid protein, however, is becoming less likely because of the recent findings that SiRs do not associate with cp nucleoids in some plant species, such as Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana To address this discrepancy, we have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of SiRs, which shows that cp nucleoid-type SiRs share conserved C-terminally encoded peptides (CEPs). The CEPs are likely to form a bacterial ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif, implying a potential role in attaching SiRs onto cp nucleoids. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted by fusing the nonnucleoid-type SiR from A. thaliana (AtSiR) with the CEP from the cp nucleoid-type SiR of Phaseolus vulgaris The addition of the CEP drastically altered the intra-cp localization of AtSiR to cp nucleoids. Our analysis supports the possible functions of CEPs in determining the localization of SiRs to cp nucleoids and illuminates a possible evolutionary scenario for SiR as a cp nucleoid protein. PMID:27189994

  5. NMR-based homology model for the solution structure of the C-terminal globular domain of EMILIN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdone, Giuliana [Istituto Biochimico Italiano ' G. Lorenzini' (Italy); Corazza, Alessandra [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy); Colebrooke, Simon A. [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Cicero, Daniel; Eliseo, Tommaso [Universita di Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Boyd, Jonathan [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Doliana, Roberto [Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano, Divisione di Oncologia Sperimentale 2 (Italy); Fogolari, Federico; Viglino, Paolo; Colombatti, Alfonso [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy); Campbell, Iain D. [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Esposito, Gennaro [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy)], E-mail: gesposito@mail.dstb.uniud.it

    2009-02-15

    EMILIN1 is a glycoprotein of elastic tissues that has been recently linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The protein is formed by different independently folded structural domains whose role has been partially elucidated. In this paper the solution structure, inferred from NMR-based homology modelling of the C-terminal trimeric globular C1q domain (gC1q) of EMILIN1, is reported. The high molecular weight and the homotrimeric structure of the protein required the combined use of highly deuterated {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C-labelled samples and TROSY experiments. Starting from a homology model, the protein structure was refined using heteronuclear residual dipolar couplings, chemical shift patterns, NOEs and H-exchange data. Analysis of the gC1q domain structure of EMILIN1 shows that each protomer of the trimer adopts a nine-stranded {beta} sandwich folding topology which is related to the conformation observed for other proteins of the family. Distinguishing features, however, include a missing edge-strand and an unstructured 19-residue loop. Although the current data do not allow this loop to be precisely defined, the available evidence is consistent with a flexible segment that protrudes from each subunit of the globular trimeric assembly and plays a key role in inter-molecular interactions between the EMILIN1 gC1q homotrimer and its integrin receptor {alpha}4{beta}1.

  6. NMR-based homology model for the solution structure of the C-terminal globular domain of EMILIN1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EMILIN1 is a glycoprotein of elastic tissues that has been recently linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The protein is formed by different independently folded structural domains whose role has been partially elucidated. In this paper the solution structure, inferred from NMR-based homology modelling of the C-terminal trimeric globular C1q domain (gC1q) of EMILIN1, is reported. The high molecular weight and the homotrimeric structure of the protein required the combined use of highly deuterated 15N, 13C-labelled samples and TROSY experiments. Starting from a homology model, the protein structure was refined using heteronuclear residual dipolar couplings, chemical shift patterns, NOEs and H-exchange data. Analysis of the gC1q domain structure of EMILIN1 shows that each protomer of the trimer adopts a nine-stranded β sandwich folding topology which is related to the conformation observed for other proteins of the family. Distinguishing features, however, include a missing edge-strand and an unstructured 19-residue loop. Although the current data do not allow this loop to be precisely defined, the available evidence is consistent with a flexible segment that protrudes from each subunit of the globular trimeric assembly and plays a key role in inter-molecular interactions between the EMILIN1 gC1q homotrimer and its integrin receptor α4β1

  7. Design of Protein Multi-specificity Using an Independent Sequence Search Reduces the Barrier to Low Energy Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Sevy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational protein design has found great success in engineering proteins for thermodynamic stability, binding specificity, or enzymatic activity in a 'single state' design (SSD paradigm. Multi-specificity design (MSD, on the other hand, involves considering the stability of multiple protein states simultaneously. We have developed a novel MSD algorithm, which we refer to as REstrained CONvergence in multi-specificity design (RECON. The algorithm allows each state to adopt its own sequence throughout the design process rather than enforcing a single sequence on all states. Convergence to a single sequence is encouraged through an incrementally increasing convergence restraint for corresponding positions. Compared to MSD algorithms that enforce (constrain an identical sequence on all states the energy landscape is simplified, which accelerates the search drastically. As a result, RECON can readily be used in simulations with a flexible protein backbone. We have benchmarked RECON on two design tasks. First, we designed antibodies derived from a common germline gene against their diverse targets to assess recovery of the germline, polyspecific sequence. Second, we design "promiscuous", polyspecific proteins against all binding partners and measure recovery of the native sequence. We show that RECON is able to efficiently recover native-like, biologically relevant sequences in this diverse set of protein complexes.

  8. Activation of human acid sphingomyelinase through modification or deletion of C-terminal cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huawei; Edmunds, Tim; Baker-Malcolm, Jennifer; Karey, Kenneth P; Estes, Scott; Schwarz, Cordula; Hughes, Heather; Van Patten, Scott M

    2003-08-29

    One form of Niemann-Pick disease is caused by a deficiency in the enzymatic activity of acid sphingomyelinase. During efforts to develop an enzyme replacement therapy based on a recombinant form of human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), purified preparations of the recombinant enzyme were found to have substantially increased specific activity if cell harvest media were stored for several weeks at -20 degrees C prior to purification. This increase in activity was found to correlate with the loss of the single free thiol on rhASM, suggesting the involvement of a cysteine residue. It was demonstrated that a variety of chemical modifications of the free cysteine on rhASM all result in substantial activation of the enzyme, and the modified cysteine responsible for this activation was shown to be the C-terminal residue (Cys629). Activation was also achieved by copper-promoted dimerization of rhASM (via cysteine) and by C-terminal truncation using carboxypeptidase Y. The role of the C-terminal cysteine in activation was confirmed by creating mutant forms of rhASM in which this residue was either deleted or replaced by a serine, with both forms having substantially higher specific activity than wild-type rhASM. These results indicate that purified rhASM can be activated in vitro by loss of the free thiol on the C-terminal cysteine via chemical modification, dimerization, or deletion of this amino acid residue. This method of activation is similar to the cysteine switch mechanism described previously for matrix metalloproteinases and could represent a means of posttranslational regulation of ASM activity in vivo.

  9. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; Liu, Patricia; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that Indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and SIRs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  11. Species-specific protein sequence and fold optimizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalickova Katerina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organism's ability to adapt to its particular environmental niche is of fundamental importance to its survival and proliferation. In the largest study of its kind, we sought to identify and exploit the amino-acid signatures that make species-specific protein adaptation possible across 100 complete genomes. Results Environmental niche was determined to be a significant factor in variability from correspondence analysis using the amino acid composition of over 360,000 predicted open reading frames (ORFs from 17 archae, 76 bacteria and 7 eukaryote complete genomes. Additionally, we found clusters of phylogenetically unrelated archae and bacteria that share similar environments by amino acid composition clustering. Composition analyses of conservative, domain-based homology modeling suggested an enrichment of small hydrophobic residues Ala, Gly, Val and charged residues Asp, Glu, His and Arg across all genomes. However, larger aromatic residues Phe, Trp and Tyr are reduced in folds, and these results were not affected by low complexity biases. We derived two simple log-odds scoring functions from ORFs (CG and folds (CF for each of the complete genomes. CF achieved an average cross-validation success rate of 85 ± 8% whereas the CG detected 73 ± 9% species-specific sequences when competing against all other non-redundant CG. Continuously updated results are available at http://genome.mshri.on.ca. Conclusion Our analysis of amino acid compositions from the complete genomes provides stronger evidence for species-specific and environmental residue preferences in genomic sequences as well as in folds. Scoring functions derived from this work will be useful in future protein engineering experiments and possibly in identifying horizontal transfer events.

  12. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  13. C-terminal residues of plant glutamate decarboxylase are required for oligomerization of a high-molecular weight complex and for activation by calcium/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, Moriyah; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Fromm, Hillel

    2006-05-01

    Bacterial glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a homohexameric enzyme of about 330 kDa. Plant GAD differs from the bacterial enzyme in having a C-terminal extension of 33 amino acids within which resides a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain. In order to assess the role of the C-terminal extension in the formation of GAD complexes and in activation by Ca2+/CaM, we examined complexes formed with the purified full-length recombinant petunia GAD expressed in E. coli, and with a 9 amino acid C-terminal deletion mutant (GADDeltaC9). Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the full-length GAD formed complexes of about 580 kDa and 300 kDa in the absence of Ca2+/CaM, whereas in the presence of Ca2+/CaM all complexes shifted to approximately 680 kDa. With deletion of 9 amino acids from the C-terminus (KKKKTNRVC(500)), the ability to bind CaM in the presence of Ca2+, and to purify it by CaM-affinity chromatography was retained, but the formation of GAD complexes larger than 340 kDa and enzyme activation by Ca2+/CaM were completely abolished. Hence, responsiveness to Ca2+/CaM is associated with the formation of protein complexes of 680 kDa, and requires some or all of the nine C-terminal amino acid residues. We suggest that evolution of plant GAD from a bacterial ancestral enzyme involved the formation of higher molecular weight complexes required for activation by Ca2+/CaM.

  14. Detecting Protein-Protein Interactions with a Novel Matrix-Based Protein Sequence Representation and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Hong You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins and their interactions lie at the heart of most underlying biological processes. Consequently, correct detection of protein-protein interactions (PPIs is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanisms in biological systems. Although the convenience brought by high-throughput experiment in technological advances makes it possible to detect a large amount of PPIs, the data generated through these methods is unreliable and may not be completely inclusive of all possible PPIs. Targeting at this problem, this study develops a novel computational approach to effectively detect the protein interactions. This approach is proposed based on a novel matrix-based representation of protein sequence combined with the algorithm of support vector machine (SVM, which fully considers the sequence order and dipeptide information of the protein primary sequence. When performed on yeast PPIs datasets, the proposed method can reach 90.06% prediction accuracy with 94.37% specificity at the sensitivity of 85.74%, indicating that this predictor is a useful tool to predict PPIs. Achieved results also demonstrate that our approach can be a helpful supplement for the interactions that have been detected experimentally.

  15. Sequence-based prediction of protein-protein interaction sites with L1-logreg classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhole, Kaustubh; Singh, Gurdeep; Pai, Priyadarshini P; Mondal, Sukanta

    2014-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions are of central importance for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about the interaction sites in proteins improves our understanding of disease mechanisms and can provide the basis for new therapeutic approaches. Since a multitude of unique residue-residue contacts facilitate the interactions, protein-protein interaction sites prediction has become one of the most important and challenging problems of computational biology. Although much progress in this field has been reported, this problem is yet to be satisfactorily solved. Here, a novel method (LORIS: L1-regularized LOgistic Regression based protein-protein Interaction Sites predictor) is proposed, that identifies interaction residues, using sequence features and is implemented via the L1-logreg classifier. Results show that LORIS is not only quite effective, but also, performs better than existing state-of-the art methods. LORIS, available as standalone package, can be useful for facilitating drug-design and targeted mutation related studies, which require a deeper knowledge of protein interactions sites. PMID:24486250

  16. The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Monfoort, Cornelis H.; Rozijn, Thomas H.; Gevers Leuven, Jan A.; Schiphof, R.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.; Braunitzer, Gerhard; Schrank, Barbara; Ruhfus, Annette

    1972-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa has been established. The sequence was partially deduced by characterization of peptides isolated from thermolysine and chymotryptic digests of the reduced and S-aminoethylated protein. The complete sequence of the fir

  17. Feature Selection and the Class Imbalance Problem in Predicting Protein Function from Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Shahib, A.; Breitling, R.; Gilbert, D.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: When the standard approach to predict protein function by sequence homology fails, other alternative methods can be used that require only the amino acid sequence for predicting function. One such approach uses machine learning to predict protein function directly from amino acid sequence

  18. Analysis of cDNA sequence, protein structure and expression of parotid secretory protein in pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Haifang; FAN Baoliang; ZHAO Zhihui; LIU Zhaoliang; FEI Jing; LI Ning

    2003-01-01

    Parotid secretory protein (PSP) secreted abundantly in saliva, whose function is related with the anti-bacterial effect. The PSP cDNA has been isolated from pig parotid glands by 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE),based on the conserved signal peptide region among the known mammalian PSP. Theresult of homologous comparison shows that pig PSP and human PSP shares the high identity at the level of the primary, secondary and tertiary protein structure. A search for functionally significant protein motifs revealed a unique amino acid sequence pattern consisting of the residues Leu-X(6)-Leu-X(6)-Leu- X(7)-Leu-X(6)-Leu-X(6)-Leu near the amino-terminal portion of the protein, which is important to its function. RT-PCR, Dot blot and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that PSP was strongly expressed in parotid glands, but not in other tissues.

  19. Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based phylogenetic trees of homologous proteins: Inferences on protein evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balaji; N Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Several studies based on the known three-dimensional (3-D) structures of proteins show that two homologous proteins with insignificant sequence similarity could adopt a common fold and may perform same or similar biochemical functions. Hence, it is appropriate to use similarities in 3-D structure of proteins rather than the amino acid sequence similarities in modelling evolution of distantly related proteins. Here we present an assessment of using 3-D structures in modelling evolution of homologous proteins. Using a dataset of 108 protein domain families of known structures with at least 10 members per family we present a comparison of extent of structural and sequence dissimilarities among pairs of proteins which are inputs into the construction of phylogenetic trees. We find that correlation between the structure-based dissimilarity measures and the sequence-based dissimilarity measures is usually good if the sequence similarity among the homologues is about 30% or more. For protein families with low sequence similarity among the members, the correlation coefficient between the sequence-based and the structure-based dissimilarities are poor. In these cases the structure-based dendrogram clusters proteins with most similar biochemical functional properties better than the sequence-similarity based dendrogram. In multi-domain protein families and disulphide-rich protein families the correlation coefficient for the match of sequence-based and structure-based dissimilarity (SDM) measures can be poor though the sequence identity could be higher than 30%. Hence it is suggested that protein evolution is best modelled using 3-D structures if the sequence similarities (SSM) of the homologues are very low.

  20. The role of N-terminal and C-terminal Arg residues from BK on interaction with kinin B2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli-Silva, Rafael; Martin, Renan P; Rodrigues, Eliete S; Nakaie, Clovis R; Oliveira, Laerte; Pesquero, João B; Shimuta, Suma I

    2016-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a nonapeptide important for several physiological processes such as vasodilatation, increase in vascular permeability and release of inflammatory mediators. BK performs its actions by coupling to and activating the B2 receptor, a family A G-protein coupled receptor. Using a strategy which allows systematical monitoring of BK R1 and R9 residues and B2 receptor acidic residues Glu5.35(226) and Asp6.58(298), our study aims at clarifying the BK interaction profile with the B2 receptor [receptor residue numbers are normalized according to Ballesteros and Weinstein, Methods Neurosci. 25 (1995), pp. 366-428) followed by receptor sequence numbering in brackets]. N- and C-terminal analogs of BK (-A1, -G1, -K1, -E1 and BK-A9) were tested against wild type B2, Glu5.35(226)Ala and Asp6.58(298)Ala B2 mutant receptors for their affinity and capability to elicit responses by mechanical recordings of isolated mice stomach fundus, measuring intracellular calcium mobilization, and competitive fluorimetric binding assays. BK showed 2- and 15-fold decreased potency for Glu5.35(226) and Asp6.58(298) B2 mutant receptors, respectively. In B2-Glu5.35(226)Ala BK analogs showed milder reduction in evaluated parameters. On the other hand, in the B2-Asp6.58(298)Ala mutant, no N-terminal analog was able to elicit any response. However, the BK-A9 analog presented higher affinity parameters than BK in the latter mutant. These findings provide enough support for defining a novel interaction role of BK-R9 and Asp6.58(298) receptor residues. PMID:26584354

  1. Prion protein NMR structure and species barrier for prion diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Billeter, Martin; Riek, Roland; Wider, Gerhard; Hornemann, Simone; Glockshuber, Rudi; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    The structural basis of species specificity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or “mad cow disease” and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, has been investigated using the refined NMR structure of the C-terminal domain of the mouse prion protein with residues 121–231. A database search for mammalian prion proteins yielded 23 different sequences for the fragment 124–226, which display a high degree of sequence identity and show relevant amin...

  2. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  3. The disordered C-terminal domain of human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 contributes to its stability via intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hegde, Pavana M; Holthauzen, Luis Marcelo F; Li, Jing; Oezguen, Numan; Hilser, Vincent J; Tainer, John A; Mitra, Sankar

    2013-07-10

    NEIL1 [Nei (endonuclease VIII)-like protein 1], one of the five mammalian DNA glycosylases that excise oxidized DNA base lesions in the human genome to initiate base excision repair, contains an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD; ~100 residues), not conserved in its Escherichia coli prototype Nei. Although dispensable for NEIL1's lesion excision and AP lyase activities, this segment is required for efficient in vivo enzymatic activity and may provide an interaction interface for many of NEIL1's interactions with other base excision repair proteins. Here, we show that the CTD interacts with the folded domain in native NEIL1 containing 389 residues. The CTD is poised for local folding in an ordered structure that is induced in the purified fragment by osmolytes. Furthermore, deletion of the disordered tail lacking both Tyr and Trp residues causes a red shift in NEIL1's intrinsic Trp-specific fluorescence, indicating a more solvent-exposed environment for the Trp residues in the truncated protein, which also exhibits reduced stability compared to the native enzyme. These observations are consistent with stabilization of the native NEIL1 structure via intramolecular, mostly electrostatic, interactions that were disrupted by mutating a positively charged (Lys-rich) cluster of residues (amino acids 355-360) near the C-terminus. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis confirms the flexibility and dynamic nature of NEIL1's CTD, a feature that may be critical to providing specificity for NEIL1's multiple, functional interactions.

  4. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  5. The binding of lupus-derived autoantibodies to the C-terminal peptide (83-119) of the major SmD1 autoantigen can be mediated by double-stranded DNA and nucleosomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, J.W.C.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Riemekasten, G.; Berden, J.H.M.; Vlag, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the binding of lupus-derived autoantibodies, double-stranded DNA and nucleosomes to the positively charged C-terminal SmD1(residues 83-119) peptide and the full-length SmD protein. METHODS: The binding of lupus-derived monoclonal antibodies, sera from patients with systemic l

  6. Identification and characterization of multiple Spidroin 1 genes encoding major ampullate silk proteins in Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, W A; Marcotte, W R

    2008-09-01

    Spider dragline silk is primarily composed of proteins called major ampullate spidroins (MaSps) that consist of a large repeat array flanked by nonrepetitive N- and C-terminal domains. Until recently, there has been little evidence for more than one gene encoding each of the two major spidroin silk proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2. Here, we report the deduced N-terminal domain sequences for two distinct MaSp1 genes from Nephila clavipes (MaSp1A and MaSp1B) and for MaSp2. All three MaSp genes are co-expressed in the major ampullate gland. A search of the GenBank database also revealed two distinct MaSp1 C-terminal domain sequences. Sequencing confirmed that both MaSp1 genes are present in all seven Nephila clavipes spiders examined. The presence of nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes confirmed that MaSp1A and MaSp1B are distinct genetic loci and not merely alleles of the same gene. We experimentally determined the transcription start sites for all three MaSp genes and established preliminary pairing between the two MaSp1 N- and C-terminal domains. Phylogenetic analysis of these new sequences and other published MaSp N- and C-terminal domain sequences illustrated that duplications of MaSp genes may be widespread among spider species.

  7. C-terminal mutations destabilize SIL1/BAP and can cause Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Jennifer; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Feige, Matthias J; Hendershot, Linda M

    2012-03-01

    Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, multisystem disorder characterized by severe phenotypes developing in infancy. Recently, mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated co-chaperone SIL1/BAP were identified to be the major cause of MSS. SIL1 acts as a nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, the ER Hsp70 orthologue, which plays an essential role in the folding and assembly of nascent polypeptide chains in the ER. SIL1 facilitates the release of BiP from unfolded protein substrates, enabling the subsequent folding and transport of the protein. Although most mutations leading to MSS result in deletion of the majority of the protein, three separate mutations have been identified that disrupt only the last five or six amino acids of the protein, which were assumed to encode a divergent ER retention motif. This study presents an in depth analysis of two of these mutants and reveals that the phenotype in the affected individuals is not likely to be due to depletion of SIL1 from the ER via secretion. Instead, our analyses show that the mutant proteins are particularly unstable and either form large aggregates in the ER or are rapidly degraded via the proteasome. In agreement with our findings, homology modeling suggests that the very C-terminal residues of SIL1 play a role in its structural integrity rather than its localization. These new insights might be a first step toward a possible pharmacological treatment of certain types of MSS by specifically stabilizing the mutant SIL1 protein.

  8. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Kevin R; Miller, Jennifer K; Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S; Bomar, Martha G; Galande, Amit K; Shearer, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  9. The N-terminal and C-terminal portions of NifV are encoded by two different genes in Clostridium pasteurianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Z; Dean, D R; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L

    1991-05-01

    The nifV gene products from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a high level of primary sequence identity and are proposed to catalyze the synthesis of homocitrate. While searching for potential nif (nitrogen fixation) genes within the genomic region located downstream from the nifN-B gene of Clostridium pasteurianum, we observed two open reading frames (ORFs) whose deduced amino acid sequences exhibit nonoverlapping sequence identity to different portions of the nifV gene products from A. vinelandii and K. pneumoniae. Conserved regions were located between the C-terminal 195 amino acid residues of the first ORF and the C-terminal portion of the nifV gene product and between the entire sequence of the second ORF (269 amino acid residues) and the N-terminal portion of the nifV gene product. We therefore designated the first ORF nifV omega and the second ORF nifV alpha. The deduced amino acid sequences of nifV omega and nifV alpha were also found to have sequence similarity when compared with the primary sequence of the leuA gene product from Salmonella typhimurium, which encodes alpha-isopropylmalate synthase. Marker rescue experiments were performed by recombining nifV omega and nifV alpha from C. pasteurianum, singly and in combination, into the genome of an A. vinelandii mutant strain which has an insertion and a deletion mutation located within its nifV gene. A NifV+ phenotype was obtained only when both the C. pasteurianum nifV omega and nifV alpha genes were introduced into the chromosome of this mutant strain. These results suggest that the nifV omega and nifV alpha genes encode separate domains, both of which are required for homocitrate synthesis in C. pasteurianum. PMID:2022611

  10. The novel C-terminal KCNQ1 mutation M520R alters protein trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine; Nielsen, Nathalie Hélix;

    2007-01-01

    immunopositive labeling of the plasma membrane. For M520R no plasma membrane staining was visible, instead a strong signal in the ER was observed. These results indicate that the LQT1 mutation M520R leads to ER-retention and dysfunctional trafficking of the mutant channel resulting in haploinsufficiency...

  11. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado-Moran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residues ASH1051, ASN740, ASP1052, and ARG1055 should be critical in the binding of Ethambutol to C-terminal domain EmbC.

  12. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. III. Exon sequences confirm most dendrograms based on protein sequences: calmodulin dendrograms show significant lack of parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    In the first report in this series we presented dendrograms based on 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand family. In the second we used sequences from 228 proteins, containing 835 domains, and showed that eight of the 29 subfamilies are congruent and that the EF-hand domains of the remaining 21 subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories. In this study we have computed dendrograms within and among the EF-hand subfamilies using the encoding DNA sequences. In most instances the dendrograms based on protein and on DNA sequences are very similar. Significant differences between protein and DNA trees for calmodulin remain unexplained. In our fourth report we evaluate the sequences and the distribution of introns within the EF-hand family and conclude that exon shuffling did not play a significant role in its evolution.

  13. A functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site in MAVS participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne Paz; Rongtuan Lin; John Hiscott; Myriam Vilasco; Steven J Werden; Meztli Arguello; Deshanthe Joseph-Pillai; Tiejun Zhao; Thi Lien-Anh Nguyen; Qiang Sun; Eliane F Meurs

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-Ⅰ (RIG-Ⅰ) results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type Ⅰ interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters,kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). We previously demonstrated that the serine/threonine kinase IKKε is recruited to the C-terminal region of MAVS following Sendal or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection,mediated by Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500,resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling (Paz et al,Mol Cell Biol,2009). In this study,we demonstrate that C-terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3-binding site in the aa450-468 region of MAVS. A consensus TRAF-interacting motif (TIM),455-PEENEY-460,within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes,whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response. Reconstitution of MAVS-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM-mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication,whereas wild-type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication. Furthermore,recruitment of IKKε to an adjacent C-terminal site (aa 468-540) in MAVS via Lys500 ubiquitination decreased TRAF3 binding and protein stability,thus contributing to IKKε-mediated shutdown of the IFN response. This study demonstrates that MAVS harbors a functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site that participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

  14. Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, Cα, Cβ triples, and for 80% of further side-chain resonances for these spin systems. We describe the procedures and protocols devised, and discuss possibilities and limitations of the assignment of this largest protein assigned today by solid-state NMR, and for which no solution-state NMR shifts were available. A comparison of the NMR chemical shifts with crystallographic data reveals that regions with high crystallographic B-factors are particularly difficult to assign. While the secondary structure elements derived from the chemical shift data correspond mainly to those present in the X-ray crystal structure, we detect an additional helical element and structural variability in the protein crystal, most probably originating from the different molecules in the asymmetric unit, with the observation of doubled resonances in several parts, including entire stretches, of the protein. Our results provide the point of departure towards an atomic-resolution structural analysis of the C-terminal Ure2p domain in the context of the full-length prion fibrils.

  15. N- and C-terminal domains determine differential nucleosomal binding geometry and affinity of linker histone isotypes H1(0) and H1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Payal; Brown, David T

    2012-04-01

    Eukaryotic linker or H1 histones modulate DNA compaction and gene expression in vivo. In mammals, these proteins exist as multiple isotypes with distinct properties, suggesting a functional significance to the heterogeneity. Linker histones typically have a tripartite structure composed of a conserved central globular domain flanked by a highly variable short N-terminal domain and a longer highly basic C-terminal domain. We hypothesized that the variable terminal domains of individual subtypes contribute to their functional heterogeneity by influencing chromatin binding interactions. We developed a novel dual color fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay system in which two H1 proteins fused to spectrally separable fluorescent proteins can be co-expressed and their independent binding kinetics simultaneously monitored in a single cell. This approach was combined with domain swap and point mutagenesis to determine the roles of the terminal domains in the differential binding characteristics of the linker histone isotypes, mouse H1(0) and H1c. Exchanging the N-terminal domains between H1(0) and H1c changed their overall binding affinity to that of the other variant. In contrast, switching the C-terminal domains altered the chromatin interaction surface of the globular domain. These results indicate that linker histone subtypes bind to chromatin in an intrinsically specific manner and that the highly variable terminal domains contribute to differences between subtypes. The methods developed in this study will have broad applications in studying dynamic properties of additional histone subtypes and other mobile proteins.

  16. Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenstein, Birgit [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France); Wasmer, Christian [Harvard Medical School (United States); Bousset, Luc; Sourigues, Yannick [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Schuetz, Anne [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Loquet, Antoine [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Melki, Ronald, E-mail: melki@lebs.cnrs-gif.fr [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Boeckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France)

    2011-11-15

    We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, C{alpha}, C{beta} triples, and for 80% of further side-chain resonances for these spin systems. We describe the procedures and protocols devised, and discuss possibilities and limitations of the assignment of this largest protein assigned today by solid-state NMR, and for which no solution-state NMR shifts were available. A comparison of the NMR chemical shifts with crystallographic data reveals that regions with high crystallographic B-factors are particularly difficult to assign. While the secondary structure elements derived from the chemical shift data correspond mainly to those present in the X-ray crystal structure, we detect an additional helical element and structural variability in the protein crystal, most probably originating from the different molecules in the asymmetric unit, with the observation of doubled resonances in several parts, including entire stretches, of the protein. Our results provide the point of departure towards an atomic-resolution structural analysis of the C-terminal Ure2p domain in the context of the full-length prion fibrils.

  17. The structure of Abeta42 C-terminal fragments probed by a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Murray, Megan M; Bernstein, Summer L; Condron, Margaret M; Bitan, Gal; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2009-03-27

    The C-terminus of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) 42 plays an important role in this protein's oligomerization and may therefore be a good therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Certain C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of Abeta42 have been shown to disrupt oligomerization and to strongly inhibit Abeta42-induced neurotoxicity. Here we study the structures of selected CTFs [Abeta(x-42); x=29-31, 39] using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and ion mobility mass spectrometry. Our simulations in explicit solvent reveal that the CTFs adopt a metastable beta-structure: beta-hairpin for Abeta(x-42) (x=29-31) and extended beta-strand for Abeta(39-42). The beta-hairpin of Abeta(30-42) is converted into a turn-coil conformation when the last two hydrophobic residues are removed, suggesting that I41 and A42 are critical in stabilizing the beta-hairpin in Abeta42-derived CTFs. The importance of solvent in determining the structure of the CTFs is further highlighted in ion mobility mass spectrometry experiments and solvent-free replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison between structures with solvent and structures without solvent reveals that hydrophobic interactions are critical for the formation of beta-hairpin. The possible role played by the CTFs in disrupting oligomerization is discussed.

  18. Phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of Aquaporin-4 is required for Golgi transition in primary cultured astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in the perivascular and subpial astrocytes end-feet in mammalian brain, and plays a critical component of an integrated water and potassium homeostasis. Here we examine whether AQP4 is phosphorylated in primary cultured mouse astrocytes. Astrocytes were metabolically labeled with [32P]phosphoric acid, then AQP4 was immunoprecipitated with anti-AQP4 antibody. We observed that AQP4 was constitutively phosphorylated, which is reduced by treatment with protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. To elucidate the phosphorylation of AQP4 by CK2, myc-tagged wild-type or mutant AQP4 was transiently transfected in primary cultured astrocytes. Substitution of Ala residues for four putative CK2 phosphorylation sites in the C terminus abolished the phosphorylation of AQP4. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that the quadruple mutant was localized in the Golgi apparatus. These observations indicate that the C-terminal domain of AQP4 is constitutively phosphorylated at least in part by protein kinase CK2 and it is required for Golgi transition.

  19. Beta.-glucosidase coding sequences and protein from orpinomyces PC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong; Ximenes, Eduardo A.

    2001-02-06

    Provided is a novel .beta.-glucosidase from Orpinomyces sp. PC2, nucleotide sequences encoding the mature protein and the precursor protein, and methods for recombinant production of this .beta.-glucosidase.

  20. A novel PKD2L1 C-terminal domain critical for trimerization and channel function

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wang; Hussein, Shaimaa; Yang, Jungwoo; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Hernandez-Anzaldo, Samuel; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Cao, Ying; Zeng, Hongbo; Tang, Jingfeng; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    As a transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily member, polycystic kidney disease 2-like-1 (PKD2L1) is also called TRPP3 and has similar membrane topology as voltage-gated cation channels. PKD2L1 is involved in hedgehog signaling, intestinal development, and sour tasting. PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 form heterotetramers with 3:1 stoichiometry. C-terminal coiled-coil-2 (CC2) domain (G699-W743) of PKD2L1 was reported to be important for its trimerization but independent studies showed that CC2 does n...

  1. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  2. Domain mapping of Escherichia coli RecQ defines the roles of conserved N- and C-terminal regions in the RecQ family

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Douglas A.; Keck, James L.

    2003-01-01

    RecQ DNA helicases function in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Although the precise cellular roles played by this family of enzymes remain elusive, the importance of RecQ proteins is clear; mutations in any of three human RecQ genes lead to genomic instability and cancer. In this report, proteolysis is used to define a two-domain structure for Escherichia coli RecQ, revealing a large (∼59 kDa) N-terminal and a small (∼9 kDa) C-terminal domain. A short N-terminal segment (7 or 21 re...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    OpenAIRE

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; LIU, PATRICIA; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs a...

  4. Functional implications of C-terminus of TBX5 with high homology to C-terminal domain of yeast DNA-directed RNA polymerase Ⅱ largest subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-ren; GONG Li-guo; GENG Wen-qing; QIU Guang-rong; SUN Kai-lai

    2008-01-01

    @@ TBX5, as a member of the T-box-containing transcription factor family, encodes a protein of 518 amino acids and is expressed in the embryonic heart and developing limb tissues.1 The coding region of TBX5 cDNA is 1.5 kb with eight exons including the N-terminal portion, the DNA binding domain and C-terminal region. We reported that the abnormality in transcription level of the TbX5 gene might be the mechanism underlying human simple congenital heart disease in the absence of TBX5 mutations.

  5. The C-terminal region controls correct folding of genus Trametes pyranose 2-oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresová, Helena; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslík, Pavel

    2007-06-30

    The pyranose 2-oxidases from Trametes ochracea and Trametes pubescens share markedly similar amino acid sequences with identity of 93.4%. When expressed from the recombinant plasmids based on the same vector in the Escherichia coli host strain BL21(DE3) at higher growth temperatures, they differ strikingly in the formation of the inclusion bodies. Upon overexpression in the cultures performed at 28 degrees C, the specific activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens was eight times higher than that from T. ochracea: 93% of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. ochracea and only 15% of that from T. pubescens was present in the form of inclusion bodies. To ascertain the cause of this difference, both cloned genes were shuffled. Site-directed recombination of p2o cDNAs revealed that DNA constructs ending with 3' end of p2o cDNA from T. pubescens code for proteins that are folded into an active form to the greater extent, regardless of the gene expression level. "In silicio" analysis of physico-chemical properties of the protein sequences of pyranose 2-oxidases revealed that the sequence of amino acid residues 368-430, constituting the small, head domain of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens, affects positively the enzyme folding at higher cultivation temperatures. The domain differs in six amino acid residues from that of T. ochracea.

  6. Functional mechanism of C-terminal tail in the enzymatic role of porcine testicular carbonyl reductase: a combined experiment and molecular dynamics simulation study of the C-terminal tail in the enzymatic role of PTCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minky Son

    Full Text Available Porcine testicular carbonyl reductase, PTCR which is one of the short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of carbonyl compounds including steroids and prostaglandins. Previously we reported C-terminal tail of PTCR was deleted due to a nonsynonymous single nucleotide variation (nsSNV. Here we identified from kinetic studies that the enzymatic properties for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT were different between wild-type and C-terminal-deleted PTCRs. Compared to wild-type PTCR, C-terminal-deleted PTCR has much higher reduction rate. To investigate structural difference between wild-type and C-terminal-deleted PTCRs upon 5α-DHT binding, we performed molecular dynamics simulations for two complexes. Using trajectories, molecular interactions including hydrogen bonding patterns, distance between 5α-DHT and catalytic Tyr193, and interaction energies are analyzed and compared. During the MD simulation time, the dynamic behavior of C-terminal tail in wild-type PTCR is also examined using essential dynamics analysis. The results of our simulations reveal that the binding conformation of 5α-DHT in C-terminal-deleted PTCR is more favorable for reduction reaction in PTCR, which shows strong agreement with kinetic data. These structural findings provide valuable information to understand substrate specificity of PTCR and further kinetic properties of enzymes belonging to the SDR superfamily.

  7. Analysis on n-gram statistics and linguistic features of whole genome protein sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qi-wen; WANG Xiao-long; LIN Lei

    2008-01-01

    To obtain the statistical sequence analysis on a large number of genomic and proteomie sequences available for different organisms,the n-grams of whole genome protein sequences from 20 organisms were extracted.Their linguistic features were analyzed by two tests:Zipf power law and Shannon entropy,developed for analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences.The natural genome proteins and the artificial genome proteins were compared with each other and some statistical features of n-grams were discovered.The results show that:the n-grams of whole genome protein sequences approximately follow the Zipf law when n is larger than 4;the Shannon n-gram entropy of natural genome proteins is lower than that of artificial proteins;a simple unigram model can distinguish different organisms;there exist organism-specific usages of "phrases" in protein sequences.It is suggested that further detailed analysis on n-gram of whole genome protein sequences will result in a powerful model for mapping the relationship of protein sequence,structure and function.

  8. Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase: role of amino acids conserved in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain on the specific recognition of the initiator tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S; Li, Y; Ramesh, V; RajBhandary, U L

    2000-03-01

    The formylation of initiator methionyl-tRNA by methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTF) is important for the initiation of protein synthesis in eubacteria. We are studying the molecular mechanisms of recognition of the initiator tRNA by Escherichia coli MTF. MTF from eubacteria contains an approximately 100-amino acid C-terminal extension that is not found in the E. coli glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, which, like MTF, use N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as a formyl group donor. This C-terminal extension, which forms a distinct structural domain, is attached to the N-terminal domain through a linker region. Here, we describe the effect of (i) substitution mutations on some nineteen basic, aromatic and other conserved amino acids in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain of MTF and (ii) deletion mutations from the C-terminus on enzyme activity. We show that the positive charge on two of the lysine residues in the linker region leading to the C-terminal domain are important for enzyme activity. Mutation of some of the basic amino acids in the C-terminal domain to alanine has mostly small effects on the kinetic parameters, whereas mutation to glutamic acid has large effects. However, the deletion of 18, 20, or 80 amino acids from the C-terminus has very large effects on enzyme activity. Overall, our results support the notion that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal domain provide a positively charged channel that is used for the nonspecific binding of tRNA, whereas some of the amino acids in the linker region play an important role in activity of MTF.

  9. Sequence- and interactome-based prediction of viral protein hotspots targeting host proteins: a case study for HIV Nef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available Virus proteins alter protein pathways of the host toward the synthesis of viral particles by breaking and making edges via binding to host proteins. In this study, we developed a computational approach to predict viral sequence hotspots for binding to host proteins based on sequences of viral and host proteins and literature-curated virus-host protein interactome data. We use a motif discovery algorithm repeatedly on collections of sequences of viral proteins and immediate binding partners of their host targets and choose only those motifs that are conserved on viral sequences and highly statistically enriched among binding partners of virus protein targeted host proteins. Our results match experimental data on binding sites of Nef to host proteins such as MAPK1, VAV1, LCK, HCK, HLA-A, CD4, FYN, and GNB2L1 with high statistical significance but is a poor predictor of Nef binding sites on highly flexible, hoop-like regions. Predicted hotspots recapture CD8 cell epitopes of HIV Nef highlighting their importance in modulating virus-host interactions. Host proteins potentially targeted or outcompeted by Nef appear crowding the T cell receptor, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Scanning of HIV Nef motifs on multiple alignments of hepatitis C protein NS5A produces results consistent with literature, indicating the potential value of the hotspot discovery in advancing our understanding of virus-host crosstalk.

  10. Interaction of c-Myc with the pRb-related protein p107 results in inhibition of c-Myc-mediated transactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, R.L.; Hijmans, E.M.; Zhu, L.; Bernards, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The product of the c-myc proto-oncogene, c-Myc, is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein with an Nterminal transactivation domain and a C-terminal DNA binding domain. Several lines of evidence indicate that c-Myc activity is essential for normal cell cycle progression. Since the abundance of c-Myc

  11. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, B; Han, L; Soriano-Úbeda, C; Avilés, M; Coy, P; Jovine, L; Jiménez-Movilla, M

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  12. Properties and catalytic activities of MICAL1, the flavoenzyme involved in cytoskeleton dynamics, and modulation by its CH, LIM and C-terminal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Teresa; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Vanoni, Maria A

    2016-03-01

    MICAL1 is a cytoplasmic 119 kDa protein participating in cytoskeleton dynamics through the NADPH-dependent oxidase and F-actin depolymerizing activities of its N-terminal flavoprotein domain, which is followed by calponin homology (CH), LIM domains and a C-terminal region with Pro-, Glu-rich and coiled-coil motifs. MICAL1 and truncated forms lacking the C-terminal, LIM and/or CH regions have been produced and characterized. The CH, LIM and C-terminal regions cause an increase of Km,NADPH exhibited by the NADPH oxidase activity of the flavoprotein domain, paralleling changes in the overall protein charge. The C-terminus also determines a ∼ 10-fold decrease of kcat, revealing its role in establishing an inactive/active conformational equilibrium, which is at the heart of the regulation of MICAL1 in cells. F-actin lowers Km,NADPH (10-50 μM) and increases kcat (10-25 s(-1)) to similar values for all MICAL forms. The apparent Km,actin of MICAL1 is ∼ 10-fold higher than that of the other forms (3-5 μM), reflecting the fact that F-actin binds to the flavoprotein domain in the MICAL's active conformation and stabilizes it. Analyses of the reaction in the presence of F-actin indicate that actin depolymerization is mediated by H2O2 produced by the NADPH oxidase reaction, rather than due to direct hydroxylation of actin methionine residues. PMID:26845023

  13. Natural vs. random protein sequences: Discovering combinatorics properties on amino acid words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Daniele; Felici, Giovanni; Vergni, Davide

    2016-02-21

    Casual mutations and natural selection have driven the evolution of protein amino acid sequences that we observe at present in nature. The question about which is the dominant force of proteins evolution is still lacking of an unambiguous answer. Casual mutations tend to randomize protein sequences while, in order to have the correct functionality, one expects that selection mechanisms impose rigid constraints on amino acid sequences. Moreover, one also has to consider that the space of all possible amino acid sequences is so astonishingly large that it could be reasonable to have a well tuned amino acid sequence indistinguishable from a random one. In order to study the possibility to discriminate between random and natural amino acid sequences, we introduce different measures of association between pairs of amino acids in a sequence, and apply them to a dataset of 1047 natural protein sequences and 10,470 random sequences, carefully generated in order to preserve the relative length and amino acid distribution of the natural proteins. We analyze the multidimensional measures with machine learning techniques and show that, to a reasonable extent, natural protein sequences can be differentiated from random ones.

  14. Scoring protein relationships in functional interaction networks predicted from sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K Mazandu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The abundance of diverse biological data from various sources constitutes a rich source of knowledge, which has the power to advance our understanding of organisms. This requires computational methods in order to integrate and exploit these data effectively and elucidate local and genome wide functional connections between protein pairs, thus enabling functional inferences for uncharacterized proteins. These biological data are primarily in the form of sequences, which determine functions, although functional properties of a protein can often be predicted from just the domains it contains. Thus, protein sequences and domains can be used to predict protein pair-wise functional relationships, and thus contribute to the function prediction process of uncharacterized proteins in order to ensure that knowledge is gained from sequencing efforts. In this work, we introduce information-theoretic based approaches to score protein-protein functional interaction pairs predicted from protein sequence similarity and conserved protein signature matches. The proposed schemes are effective for data-driven scoring of connections between protein pairs. We applied these schemes to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome to produce a homology-based functional network of the organism with a high confidence and coverage. We use the network for predicting functions of uncharacterised proteins. AVAILABILITY: Protein pair-wise functional relationship scores for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain CDC1551 sequence data and python scripts to compute these scores are available at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/~gmazandu/scoringschemes.

  15. Recombinant expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josts, Inokentijs; Grinter, Rhys; Kelly, Sharon M.; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander; Cogdell, Richard; Smith, Brian O.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    TamB is a recently described inner membrane protein that, together with its partner protein TamA, is required for the efficient secretion of a subset of autotransporter proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli K-12, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.34, c = 220.74 Å, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary secondary-structure and X-ray diffraction analyses are reported. Two molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit. Experimental phasing using selenomethionine-labelled protein will be undertaken in the future. PMID:25195908

  16. Sequence Searcher: A Java tool to perform regular expression and fuzzy searches of multiple DNA and protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sequence-searching tools have limiting factors for their use. For example, they may be platform specific, enforce restrictive size limits and sequences to be searched, or only allow searches of one of DNA or protein. Findings We present an easy-to-use, fast, platform-independent tool to search for amino acid or nucleotide patterns within one or many protein or nucleic acid sequences. The user can choose to search for regular expressions or perform a fuzzy search in which a particular number of errors is accepted during matching of a sequence. Positions of mismatches in fuzzy searches are displayed graphically the user. Conclusion SeqS provides an improved feature set and functions as a stand-alone tool or could be integrated into other bioinformatics platforms.

  17. CMsearch: simultaneous exploration of protein sequence space and structure space improves not only protein homology detection but also protein structure prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-06-15

    Motivation: Protein homology detection, a fundamental problem in computational biology, is an indispensable step toward predicting protein structures and understanding protein functions. Despite the advances in recent decades on sequence alignment, threading and alignment-free methods, protein homology detection remains a challenging open problem. Recently, network methods that try to find transitive paths in the protein structure space demonstrate the importance of incorporating network information of the structure space. Yet, current methods merge the sequence space and the structure space into a single space, and thus introduce inconsistency in combining different sources of information. Method: We present a novel network-based protein homology detection method, CMsearch, based on cross-modal learning. Instead of exploring a single network built from the mixture of sequence and structure space information, CMsearch builds two separate networks to represent the sequence space and the structure space. It then learns sequence–structure correlation by simultaneously taking sequence information, structure information, sequence space information and structure space information into consideration. Results: We tested CMsearch on two challenging tasks, protein homology detection and protein structure prediction, by querying all 8332 PDB40 proteins. Our results demonstrate that CMsearch is insensitive to the similarity metrics used to define the sequence and the structure spaces. By using HMM–HMM alignment as the sequence similarity metric, CMsearch clearly outperforms state-of-the-art homology detection methods and the CASP-winning template-based protein structure prediction methods.

  18. Protein identities from 'Graphocephala atropunctata' expressed sequence tags: Expanding leafhopper vector biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat shock proteins and 44 protein sequences from the blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, were produced and identified. The sequences were submitted and published under accession numbers: DQ445499-DQ445542, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, Public Database. The blue-green sharps...

  19. Cross-sectional association between urinary type II collagen. C-terminal telopeptide concentration and radiographic spinal disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When degraded, type II collagen, which is contained in large quantities in the cartilage and intervertebral discs, produces a C-terminal peptide (type II collagen C terminal telopeptide, CTX-II), which is excreted in the urine. It has been reported that CTX-II is useful for evaluating the severity of cartilage degeneration and abrasion in the hip and knee joints, but shows no correlation with the severity of degeneration of intervertebral discs, which are mostly composed of type II collagen. The present study was performed to clarify whether urinary CTX-II was correlated with intervertebral X-ray findings. A cross-sectional study was performed to clarify correlations between urinary CTX-II and the progression of degeneration of each intervertebral disc on lumbar X-P films. The subjects of this study were 100 patients (400 intervertebral discs) aged≥40 years. They visited this hospital for the first time because of low backache. Intervertebral disc height, osteophyte length and Kellgren-Lawrence classification were measured to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration on X-ray films. The second freshly voided urine was used for measuring urinary CTX-II. The measurement results were investigated for correlations with disc height, osteophyte length, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and lumbar MRI findings by cross-sectional analysis. The t-test and Kruskal-Wallis-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Urinary CTX-II was not correlated with age or BMI but was significantly higher in females than in males. It was only correlated with the degeneration of L2/3 and 3/4 discs and showed a significant difference between lower, medium, and higher disc groups. It was not correlated with osteophyte length or lumbar MRI findings. Urinary CTX-II was only correlated with L2/3 and 3/4 disc degeneration. This was presumably ascribable to the focus and distance during radiography. Osteophyte formation is a phenomenon secondary to intervertebral disc degeneration

  20. The C-terminal domain of the MutL homolog from Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms an inverted homodimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Namadurai

    Full Text Available The mismatch repair (MMR pathway serves to maintain the integrity of the genome by removing mispaired bases from the newly synthesized strand. In E. coli, MutS, MutL and MutH coordinate to discriminate the daughter strand through a mechanism involving lack of methylation on the new strand. This facilitates the creation of a nick by MutH in the daughter strand to initiate mismatch repair. Many bacteria and eukaryotes, including humans, do not possess a homolog of MutH. Although the exact strategy for strand discrimination in these organisms is yet to be ascertained, the required nicking endonuclease activity is resident in the C-terminal domain of MutL. This activity is dependent on the integrity of a conserved metal binding motif. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, MutL in bacteria like Neisseria exist in the form of a homodimer. Even though this homodimer would possess two active sites, it still acts a nicking endonuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (CTD of the MutL homolog of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NgoL determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure shows that the metal binding motif exists in a helical configuration and that four of the six conserved motifs in the MutL family, including the metal binding site, localize together to form a composite active site. NgoL-CTD exists in the form of an elongated inverted homodimer stabilized by a hydrophobic interface rich in leucines. The inverted arrangement places the two composite active sites in each subunit on opposite lateral sides of the homodimer. Such an arrangement raises the possibility that one of the active sites is occluded due to interaction of NgoL with other protein factors involved in MMR. The presentation of only one active site to substrate DNA will ensure that nicking of only one strand occurs to prevent inadvertent and deleterious double stranded cleavage.

  1. The C-terminal domain of the MutL homolog from Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms an inverted homodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namadurai, Sivakumar; Jain, Deepti; Kulkarni, Dhananjay S; Tabib, Chaitanya R; Friedhoff, Peter; Rao, Desirazu N; Nair, Deepak T

    2010-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) pathway serves to maintain the integrity of the genome by removing mispaired bases from the newly synthesized strand. In E. coli, MutS, MutL and MutH coordinate to discriminate the daughter strand through a mechanism involving lack of methylation on the new strand. This facilitates the creation of a nick by MutH in the daughter strand to initiate mismatch repair. Many bacteria and eukaryotes, including humans, do not possess a homolog of MutH. Although the exact strategy for strand discrimination in these organisms is yet to be ascertained, the required nicking endonuclease activity is resident in the C-terminal domain of MutL. This activity is dependent on the integrity of a conserved metal binding motif. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, MutL in bacteria like Neisseria exist in the form of a homodimer. Even though this homodimer would possess two active sites, it still acts a nicking endonuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the MutL homolog of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NgoL) determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure shows that the metal binding motif exists in a helical configuration and that four of the six conserved motifs in the MutL family, including the metal binding site, localize together to form a composite active site. NgoL-CTD exists in the form of an elongated inverted homodimer stabilized by a hydrophobic interface rich in leucines. The inverted arrangement places the two composite active sites in each subunit on opposite lateral sides of the homodimer. Such an arrangement raises the possibility that one of the active sites is occluded due to interaction of NgoL with other protein factors involved in MMR. The presentation of only one active site to substrate DNA will ensure that nicking of only one strand occurs to prevent inadvertent and deleterious double stranded cleavage. PMID:21060849

  2. Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobin; García-Estrada, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is the non-ribosomal condensation of L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine into the tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). This reaction is catalysed by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum by the pcbAB gene. This enzyme contains at least ten catalytic domains. The precise role of the C-terminal domain of this multidomain NRPS still remains obscure. The C-terminal region of ACVS bears the epimerase and the thioesterase domains and may be involved in the epimerization of LLL-ACV to LLD-ACV and in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond. In this work, the conserved motifs (3371)EGHGRE(3376) (located in the putative epimerase domain) and (3629)GWSFG(3633) (located in the thioesterase domain) were changed by site-directed-mutagenesis to LGFGLL and GWAFG, respectively. In addition, the whole thioesterase domain (230 amino acids) and the different parts of this domain were deleted. The activity of these mutant enzymes was assessed in vivo by two different procedures: i) through the quantification of bisACV produced by the fungus and ii) by quantifying the benzylpenicillin production using tailored strains of P. chrysogenum, which lack the pcbAB gene, as host strains. All indicated mutant enzymes showed lower or null activity than the control strain confirming that E3371, H3373, R3375 and E3376 belong to the epimerase active centre. Different fragments included in the C-terminal region of ACVS control thioester hydrolysis. Overexpression of the sequence encoding the ACVS integrated thioesterase domain as a separate (stand-alone) transcriptional unit complemented mutants lacking the integrated thioesterase domain, although with low ACV releasing activity, suggesting that the stand-alone thioesterease interacts with the other ACVS domains.

  3. Resolving hot spots in the C-terminal dimerization domain that determine the stability of the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ciglia

    Full Text Available Human heat shock protein of 90 kDa (hHsp90 is a homodimer that has an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation at the molecular level. Inhibiting hHsp90 function is a validated approach for treating different types of tumors. Inhibiting the dimerization of hHsp90 via its C-terminal domain (CTD should provide a novel way to therapeutically interfere with hHsp90 function. Here, we predicted hot spot residues that cluster in the CTD dimerization interface by a structural decomposition of the effective energy of binding computed by the MM-GBSA approach and confirmed these predictions using in silico alanine scanning with DrugScore(PPI. Mutation of these residues to alanine caused a significant decrease in the melting temperature according to differential scanning fluorimetry experiments, indicating a reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 complexes. Size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering studies demonstrate that the reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 correlates with a lower complex stoichiometry due to the disruption of the dimerization interface. These results suggest that the identified hot spot residues can be used as a pharmacophoric template for identifying and designing small-molecule inhibitors of hHsp90 dimerization.

  4. A Superhelical Spiral in the Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase A C-terminal Domain Imparts Unidirectional Supercoiling Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthenburg,A.; Graybosch, D.; Huetsch, J.; Verdine, G.

    2005-01-01

    DNA gyrase is unique among type II topoisomerases in that its DNA supercoiling activity is unidirectional. The C-terminal domain of the gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is required for this supercoiling bias. We report here the x-ray structure of the Escherichia coli GyrA-CTD (Protein Data Bank code 1ZI0). The E. coli GyrA-CTD adopts a circular-shaped {beta}-pinwheel fold first seen in the Borrelia burgdorferi GyrA-CTD. However, whereas the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD is flat, the E. coli GyrA-CTD is spiral. DNA relaxation assays reveal that the E. coli GyrA-CTD wraps DNA inducing substantial (+) superhelicity, while the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD introduces a more modest (+) superhelicity. The observation of a superhelical spiral in the present structure and that of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ParC-CTD structure suggests unexpected similarities in substrate selectivity between gyrase and Topo IV enzymes. We propose a model wherein the right-handed ((+) solenoidal) wrapping of DNA around the E. coli GyrA-CTD enforces unidirectional (-) DNA supercoiling.

  5. Identification of the bacteriophage T5 dUTPase by protein sequence comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, A V

    1996-01-01

    It is shown by protein sequence comparisons that a 148 amino acid open reading frame (ORF 148) located at 67% of the bacteriophage T5 genome encodes a protein with strong similarity to known dUTPases. This protein contains five characteristic amino acid sequence motifs that are common to the dUTPase gene family. A similarity in size and high degree of sequence identity strongly suggest that the protein encoded by the ORF 148 of bacteriophage T5 is dUTPase. PMID:8988373

  6. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, D P; Kubiniec, M A; Yoshimura, F; Genco, R J

    1988-01-01

    The gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis 381, fimbrilin, has been cloned and sequenced. The gene was present as a single copy on the bacterial chromosome, and the codon usage in the gene conformed closely to that expected for an abundant protein. The predicted size of the mature protein was 35,924 daltons, and the secretory form may have had a 10-amino-acid, hydrophilic leader sequence similar to the leader sequences of the MePhe fimbriae family. The protein se...

  7. Interactions of the C-terminal Domain of Human Ku70 with DNA Substrate: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a systems biology approach to improve the assessment of health risks associated with space radiation. The primary toxic and mutagenic lesion following radiation exposure is the DNA double strand break (DSB), thus a model incorporating proteins and pathways important in response and repair of this lesion is critical. One key protein heterodimer for systems models of radiation effects is the Ku(sub 70/80) complex. The Ku70/80 complex is important in the initial binding of DSB ends following DNA damage, and is a component of nonhomologous end joining repair, the primary pathway for DSB repair in mammalian cells. The C-terminal domain of Ku70 (Ku70c, residues 559-609), contains an helix-extended strand-helix motif and similar motifs have been found in other nucleic acid-binding proteins critical for DNA repair. However, the exact mechanism of damage recognition and substrate specificity for the Ku heterodimer remains unclear in part due to the absence of a high-resolution structure of the Ku70c/DNA complex. We performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a system with the subunit Ku70c and a 14 base pairs DNA duplex, whose starting structures are designed to be variable so as to mimic their different binding modes. By analyzing conformational changes and energetic properties of the complex during MD simulations, we found that interactions are preferred at DNA ends, and within the major groove, which is consistent with previous experimental investigations. In addition, the results indicate that cooperation of Ku70c with other subunits of Ku(sub 70/80) is necessary to explain the high affinity of binding as observed in experiments.

  8. 3matrix and 3motif: a protein structure visualization system for conserved sequence motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Steven P.; Lu, Lin; Brutlag, Douglas L.

    2003-01-01

    Computational methods such as sequence alignment and motif construction are useful in grouping related proteins into families, as well as helping to annotate new proteins of unknown function. These methods identify conserved amino acids in protein sequences, but cannot determine the specific functional or structural roles of conserved amino acids without additional study. In this work, we present 3matrix (http://3matrix.stanford.edu) and 3motif (http://3motif.stanford.edu), a web-based sequen...

  9. Parameters of proteome evolution from histograms of amino-acid sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Koon-Kiu; Axelsen Jacob; Maslov Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is mostly driven by gene duplications, deletions, and sequence modifications of existing proteins. Indirect information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the proteome-wide distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. Results We introduce a simple mathematical framework based on a stochastic birth-and-death model...

  10. Protein secondary structure prediction for a single-sequence using hidden semi-Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Borodovsky Mark; Altunbasak Yucel; Aydin Zafer

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction has been improving steadily towards the 88% estimated theoretical limit. There are two types of prediction algorithms: Single-sequence prediction algorithms imply that information about other (homologous) proteins is not available, while algorithms of the second type imply that information about homologous proteins is available, and use it intensively. The single-sequence algorithms could make an important contribution...

  11. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Meinicke Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Description Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web ...

  12. A machine learning approach for the identification of odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthan PN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. Although several sequence based search methods have been exploited for protein family prediction, less effort has been devoted to the prediction of OBPs from sequence data and this area is more challenging due to poor sequence identity between these proteins. Results In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that uses Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC in conjunction with multiple physicochemical properties of amino acids to predict odorant-binding proteins. The algorithm was applied to the dataset derived from Pfam and GenDiS database and we obtained overall prediction accuracy of 97.7% (94.5% and 98.4% for positive and negative classes respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that RLSC is potentially useful for predicting the odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties irrespective of sequence similarity. Our method predicts 92.8% of 56 odorant binding proteins non-homologous to any protein in the swissprot database and 97.1% of the 414 independent dataset proteins, suggesting the usefulness of RLSC method for facilitating the prediction of odorant binding proteins from sequence information.

  13. Display of cell surface sites for fibronectin assembly is modulated by cell adherence to (1F3 and C-terminal modules of fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibronectin-null cells assemble soluble fibronectin shortly after adherence to a substrate coated with intact fibronectin but not when adherent to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin (modules (7F3-(10F3. Interactions of adherent cells with regions of adsorbed fibronectin other than modules (7F3-(10F3, therefore, are required for early display of the cell surface sites that initiate and direct fibronectin assembly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify these regions, coatings of proteolytically derived or recombinant pieces of fibronectin containing modules in addition to (7F3-(10F3 were tested for effects on fibronectin assembly by adherent fibronectin-null fibroblasts. Pieces as large as one comprising modules (2F3-(14F3, which include the heparin-binding and cell adhesion domains, were not effective in supporting fibronectin assembly. Addition of module (1F3 or the C-terminal modules to modules (2F3-(14F3 resulted in some activity, and addition of both (1F3 and the C-terminal modules resulted in a construct, (1F3-C, that best mimicked the activity of a coating of intact fibronectin. Constructs (1F3-C V0, (1F3-C V64, and (1F3-C Delta(V(15F3(10F1 were all able to support fibronectin assembly, suggesting that (1F3 through (11F1 and/or (12F1 were important for activity. Coatings in which the active parts of (1F3-C were present in different proteins were much less active than intact (1F3-C. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that (1F3 acts together with C-terminal modules to induce display of fibronectin assembly sites on adherent cells.

  14. C-terminal clipping of chemokine CCL1/I-309 enhances CCR8-mediated intracellular calcium release and anti-apoptotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Catherine; Deiteren, Kathleen; Mortier, Anneleen; Tounsi, Amel; Fransen, Erik; Proost, Paul; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lambeir, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase M (CPM) targets the basic amino acids arginine and lysine present at the C-terminus of peptides or proteins. CPM is thought to be involved in inflammatory processes. This is corroborated by CPM-mediated trimming and modulation of inflammatory factors, and expression of the protease in inflammatory environments. Since the function of CPM in and beyond inflammation remains mainly undefined, the identification of natural substrates can aid in discovering the (patho)physiological role of CPM. CCL1/I-309, with its three C-terminal basic amino acids, forms a potential natural substrate for CPM. CCL1 plays a role not only in inflammation but also in apoptosis, angiogenesis and tumor biology. Enzymatic processing differently impacts the biological activity of chemokines thereby contributing to the complex regulation of the chemokine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether (i) CCL1/I-309 is prone to trimming by CPM, and (ii) the biological activity of CCL1 is altered after C-terminal proteolytic processing. CCL1 was identified as a novel substrate for CPM in vitro using mass spectrometry. C-terminal clipping of CCL1 augmented intracellular calcium release mediated by CCR8 but reduced the binding of CCL1 to CCR8. In line with the higher intracellular calcium release, a pronounced increase of the anti-apoptotic activity of CCL1 was observed in the BW5147 cellular model. CCR8 signaling, CCR8 binding and anti-apoptotic activity were unaffected when CPM was exposed to the carboxypeptidase inhibitor DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidino-ethylthiopropanoic acid. The results of this study suggest that CPM is a likely candidate for the regulation of biological processes relying on the CCL1-CCR8 system. PMID:22479563

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from Aquifex aeolicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from A. aeolicus has been purified and crystallized. FlhB is a key protein in the regulation of protein export by the bacterial flagellar secretion system. It is composed of two domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (FlhBc). Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of FlhBc from Aquifex aeolicus are reported. Purified protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.49, b = 33.89, c = 122.13 Å, β = 107.53°

  16. Salmonella typhimurium InvA expression probed with a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminal peptide of InvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C G; MacDonald, L A; Ginocchio, C C; Galán, J E; Johnson, R P

    1996-03-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium InvA protein is a component of a sec-independent secretion apparatus necessary for full virulence of the bacteria. We generated a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminal portion of the InvA protein that recognized proteins in S. typhimurium and weakly in Y. enterocolitica, but not in several other species of bacteria, including S. flexneri. S. typhimurium grown without agitation produced relatively constant amounts of membrane InvA throughout the growth cycle, whereas bacteria grown with agitation had a sharp increase in the amount of membrane InvA at late exponential phase. Levels of InvA present in Salmonella membranes under some growth conditions do not appear to correlate with levels of invasion under the same conditions.

  17. Template-assembled melittin: structural and functional characterization of a designed, synthetic channel-forming protein.

    OpenAIRE

    PAWLAK, M.; Meseth, U; Dhanapal, B.; Mutter, M.; Vogel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Template-assembled proteins (TASPs) comprising 4 peptide blocks, each of either the natural melittin sequence (melittin-TASP) or of a truncated melittin sequence (amino acids 6-26, melittin6-26-TASP), C-terminally linked to a (linear or cyclic) 10-amino acid template were synthesized and characterized, structurally by CD, by fluorescence spectroscopy, and by monolayer experiments, and functionally, by electrical conductance measurements on planar bilayers and release experiments on dye-loaded...

  18. Full validation of therapeutic antibody sequences by middle-up mass measurements and middle-down protein sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resemann, Anja; Jabs, Wolfgang; Wiechmann, Anja; Wagner, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Evers, Waltraud; Belau, Eckhard; Vorwerg, Lars; Evans, Catherine; Beck, Alain; Suckau, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory bodies request full sequence data assessment both for innovator and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Full sequence coverage is typically used to verify the integrity of the analytical data obtained following the combination of multiple LC-MS/MS datasets from orthogonal protease digests (so called "bottom-up" approaches). Top-down or middle-down mass spectrometric approaches have the potential to minimize artifacts, reduce overall analysis time and provide orthogonality to this traditional approach. In this work we report a new combined approach involving middle-up LC-QTOF and middle-down LC-MALDI in-source decay (ISD) mass spectrometry. This was applied to cetuximab, panitumumab and natalizumab, selected as representative US Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved mAbs. The goal was to unambiguously confirm their reference sequences and examine the general applicability of this approach. Furthermore, a new measure for assessing the integrity and validity of results from middle-down approaches is introduced - the "Sequence Validation Percentage." Full sequence data assessment of the 3 antibodies was achieved enabling all 3 sequences to be fully validated by a combination of middle-up molecular weight determination and middle-down protein sequencing. Three errors in the reference amino acid sequence of natalizumab, causing a cumulative mass shift of only -2 Da in the natalizumab Fd domain, were corrected as a result of this work.

  19. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, J Preben;

    2010-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule that is split, thereby generating the chemical and electrical gradients across the plasma membrane that are essential in, for example, signalling, secondary transport and volume...... regulation in animal cells. Crystal structures of the potassium-bound form of the pump revealed an intimate docking of the alpha-subunit carboxy terminus at the transmembrane domain. Here we show that this element is a key regulator of a previously unrecognized ion pathway. Current models of P-type ATPases...... operate with a single ion conduit through the pump, but our data suggest an additional pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase between the ion-binding sites and the cytoplasm. The C-terminal pathway allows a cytoplasmic proton to enter and stabilize site III when empty in the potassium-bound state, and when...

  20. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, Jens Preben;

    2010-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule that is split, thereby generating the chemical and electrical gradients across the plasma membrane that are essential in, for example, signalling, secondary transport and volume...... regulation in animal cells. Crystal structures of the potassium-bound form of the pump revealed an intimate docking of the alpha-subunit carboxy terminus at the transmembrane domain. Here we show that this element is a key regulator of a previously unrecognized ion pathway. Current models of P-type ATPases...... operate with a single ion conduit through the pump, but our data suggest an additional pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase between the ion-binding sites and the cytoplasm. The C-terminal pathway allows a cytoplasmic proton to enter and stabilize site III when empty in the potassium-bound state, and when...

  1. Potential Clinical Utility of Copeptin (C-terminal provasopressin) measurements in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, K C; Brabant, G

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin is a 39-amino-acids containing glycosylated peptide derived from the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor. In the process of proteolysis the AVP precursor is processed to AVP, neurophysin II, and copeptin in equimolar amounts. In contrast to AVP, copeptin remains stable for several days at room temperature in serum or plasma. Hence, copeptin serves as a bona fide biomarker of AVP release. We briefly summarise clinical utility of copeptin in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. We also discuss potential applications of copeptin measurements in hyponatraemic states, assessment of an anterior pituitary function, as well as a wide range of several acute and chronic medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or diabetes mellitus. PMID:27008633

  2. Physical model of the sequence-to-function map of proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Tlusty, Tsvi; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We treat proteins as amorphous learning matter: A `gene' encodes bonds in an `amino acid' network making a `protein'. The gene is evolved until the network forms a shear band across the protein, which allows for long-range soft modes required for protein function. The evolution projects the high-dimensional sequence space onto a low-dimensional space of mechanical modes, in accord with the observed dimensional reduction between genotype and phenotype of proteins. Spectral analysis shows correspondence between localization around the shear band of both mechanical modes and sequence ripples.

  3. Mapping C-terminal transactivation domains of the nuclear HER family receptor tyrosine kinase HER3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M Brand

    Full Text Available Nuclear localized HER family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs have been observed in primary tumor specimens and cancer cell lines for nearly two decades. Inside the nucleus, HER family members (EGFR, HER2, and HER3 have been shown to function as co-transcriptional activators for various cancer-promoting genes. However, the regions of each receptor that confer transcriptional potential remain poorly defined. The current study aimed to map the putative transactivation domains (TADs of the HER3 receptor. To accomplish this goal, various intracellular regions of HER3 were fused to the DNA binding domain of the yeast transcription factor Gal4 (Gal4DBD and tested for their ability to transactivate Gal4 UAS-luciferase. Results from these analyses demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of HER3 (CTD, amino acids distal to the tyrosine kinase domain contained potent transactivation potential. Next, nine HER3-CTD truncation mutants were constructed to map minimal regions of transactivation potential using the Gal4 UAS-luciferase based system. These analyses identified a bipartite region of 34 (B₁ and 27 (B₂ amino acids in length that conferred the majority of HER3's transactivation potential. Next, we identified full-length nuclear HER3 association and regulation of a 122 bp region of the cyclin D1 promoter. To understand how the B₁ and B₂ regions influenced the transcriptional functions of nuclear HER3, we performed cyclin D1 promoter-luciferase assays in which HER3 deleted of the B₁ and B₂ regions was severely hindered in regulating this promoter. Further, the overexpression of HER3 enhanced cyclin D1 mRNA expression, while HER3 deleted of its identified TADs was hindered at doing so. Thus, the ability for HER3 to function as a transcriptional co-activator may be dependent on specific C-terminal TADs.

  4. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  5. In Silico Characterization of Pectate Lyase Protein Sequences from Different Source Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 121 protein sequences of pectate lyases were subjected to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and motif analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed different clusters based on different source organisms representing bacterial, fungal, plant, and nematode pectate lyases. The multiple accessions of bacterial, fungal, nematode, and plant pectate lyase protein sequences were placed closely revealing a sequence level similarity. The multiple sequence alignment of these pectate lyase protein sequences from different source organisms showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology from amino acid residues 439–467, 715–816, and 829–910 which could be used for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for pectate lyases. The motif analysis revealed a conserved Pec_Lyase_C domain uniformly observed in all pectate lyases irrespective of variable sources suggesting its possible role in structural and enzymatic functions.

  6. Using evolutionary sequence variation to make inferences about protein structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Lucy

    2015-03-01

    The evolutionary trajectory of a protein through sequence space is constrained by its function. Collections of sequence homologs record the outcomes of millions of evolutionary experiments in which the protein evolves according to these constraints. The explosive growth in the number of available protein sequences raises the possibility of using the natural variation present in homologous protein sequences to infer these constraints and thus identify residues that control different protein phenotypes. Because in many cases phenotypic changes are controlled by more than one amino acid, the mutations that separate one phenotype from another may not be independent, requiring us to understand the correlation structure of the data. To address this we build a maximum entropy probability model for the protein sequence. The parameters of the inferred model are constrained by the statistics of a large sequence alignment. Pairs of sequence positions with the strongest interactions accurately predict contacts in protein tertiary structure, enabling all atom structural models to be constructed. We describe development of a theoretical inference framework that enables the relationship between the amount of available input data and the reliability of structural predictions to be better understood.

  7. Influence of N- and/or C-terminal regions on activity, expression, characteristics and structure of lipase from Geobacillus sp. 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiukaitė, Renata; Gegeckas, Audrius; Kazlauskas, Darius; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-01-01

    GD-95 lipase from Geobacillus sp. strain 95 and its modified variants lacking N-terminal signal peptide and/or 10 or 20 C-terminal amino acids were successfully cloned, expressed and purified. To our knowledge, GD-95 lipase precursor (Pre-GD-95) is the first Geobacillus lipase possessing more than 80% lipolytic activity at 5 °C. It has maximum activity at 55 °C and displays a broad pH activity range. GD-95 lipase was shown to hydrolyze p-NP dodecanoate, tricaprylin and canola oil better than other analyzed substrates. Structural and sequence alignments of bacterial lipases and GD-95 lipase revealed that the C-terminus forms an α helix, which is a conserved structure in lipases from Pseudomonas, Clostridium or Staphylococcus bacteria. This work demonstrates that 10 and 20 C-terminal amino acids of GD-95 lipase significantly affect stability and other physicochemical properties of this enzyme, which has never been reported before and can help create lipases with more specific properties for industrial application. GD-95 lipase and its modified variants GD-95-10 can be successfully applied to biofuel production, in leather and pulp industries, for the production of cosmetics or perfumes. These lipases are potential biocatalysts in processes, which require extreme conditions: low or high temperature, strongly acidic or alkaline environment and various organic solvents.

  8. Prediction of protein hydration sites from sequence by modular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlich, L.; Reczko, M.; Bohr, Henrik;

    1998-01-01

    The hydration properties of a protein are important determinants of its structure and function. Here, modular neural networks are employed to predict ordered hydration sites using protein sequence information. First, secondary structure and solvent accessibility are predicted from sequence with t...... provide insight into the mutual interdependencies between the location of ordered water sites and the structural and chemical characteristics of the protein residues.......The hydration properties of a protein are important determinants of its structure and function. Here, modular neural networks are employed to predict ordered hydration sites using protein sequence information. First, secondary structure and solvent accessibility are predicted from sequence with two...... structure and solvent accessibility and, using actual values of these properties, redidue hydration can be predicted to 77% accuracy with a Metthews coefficient of 0.43. However, predicted property data with an accuracy of 60-70% result in less than half the improvement in predictive performance observed...

  9. Adaptive immunity against Leishmania nucleoside hydrolase maps its c-terminal domain as the target of the CD4+ T cell-driven protective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Dirlei; Claser, Carla; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara P; Travassos, Luiz R; Palatnik, Marcos; Soares, Irene da Silva; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs) show homology among parasite protozoa, fungi and bacteria. They are vital protagonists in the establishment of early infection and, therefore, are excellent candidates for the pathogen recognition by adaptive immune responses. Immune protection against NHs would prevent disease at the early infection of several pathogens. We have identified the domain of the NH of L. donovani (NH36) responsible for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin we demonstrate that protection against L. chagasi is related to its C-terminal domain (amino-acids 199-314) and is mediated mainly by a CD4+ T cell driven response with a lower contribution of CD8+ T cells. Immunization with this peptide exceeds in 36.73±12.33% the protective response induced by the cognate NH36 protein. Increases in IgM, IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, CD4+ T cell proportions, IFN-γ secretion, ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and percents of antibody binding inhibition by synthetic predicted epitopes were detected in F3 vaccinated mice. The increases in DTH and in ratios of TNFα/IL-10 CD4+ producing cells were however the strong correlates of protection which was confirmed by in vivo depletion with monoclonal antibodies, algorithm predicted CD4 and CD8 epitopes and a pronounced decrease in parasite load (90.5-88.23%; p = 0.011) that was long-lasting. No decrease in parasite load was detected after vaccination with the N-domain of NH36, in spite of the induction of IFN-γ/IL-10 expression by CD4+ T cells after challenge. Both peptides reduced the size of footpad lesions, but only the C-domain reduced the parasite load of mice challenged with L. amazonensis. The identification of the target of the immune response to NH36 represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis and for multivalent

  10. Adaptive Immunity against Leishmania Nucleoside Hydrolase Maps Its C-Terminal Domain as the Target of the CD4+ T Cell–Driven Protective Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Dirlei; Claser, Carla; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara P.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Palatnik, Marcos; da Silva Soares, Irene; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs) show homology among parasite protozoa, fungi and bacteria. They are vital protagonists in the establishment of early infection and, therefore, are excellent candidates for the pathogen recognition by adaptive immune responses. Immune protection against NHs would prevent disease at the early infection of several pathogens. We have identified the domain of the NH of L. donovani (NH36) responsible for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin we demonstrate that protection against L. chagasi is related to its C-terminal domain (amino-acids 199–314) and is mediated mainly by a CD4+ T cell driven response with a lower contribution of CD8+ T cells. Immunization with this peptide exceeds in 36.73±12.33% the protective response induced by the cognate NH36 protein. Increases in IgM, IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, CD4+ T cell proportions, IFN-γ secretion, ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and percents of antibody binding inhibition by synthetic predicted epitopes were detected in F3 vaccinated mice. The increases in DTH and in ratios of TNFα/IL-10 CD4+ producing cells were however the strong correlates of protection which was confirmed by in vivo depletion with monoclonal antibodies, algorithm predicted CD4 and CD8 epitopes and a pronounced decrease in parasite load (90.5–88.23%; p = 0.011) that was long-lasting. No decrease in parasite load was detected after vaccination with the N-domain of NH36, in spite of the induction of IFN-γ/IL-10 expression by CD4+ T cells after challenge. Both peptides reduced the size of footpad lesions, but only the C-domain reduced the parasite load of mice challenged with L. amazonensis. The identification of the target of the immune response to NH36 represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis and for

  11. Adaptive immunity against Leishmania nucleoside hydrolase maps its c-terminal domain as the target of the CD4+ T cell-driven protective response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlei Nico

    Full Text Available Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs show homology among parasite protozoa, fungi and bacteria. They are vital protagonists in the establishment of early infection and, therefore, are excellent candidates for the pathogen recognition by adaptive immune responses. Immune protection against NHs would prevent disease at the early infection of several pathogens. We have identified the domain of the NH of L. donovani (NH36 responsible for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin we demonstrate that protection against L. chagasi is related to its C-terminal domain (amino-acids 199-314 and is mediated mainly by a CD4+ T cell driven response with a lower contribution of CD8+ T cells. Immunization with this peptide exceeds in 36.73±12.33% the protective response induced by the cognate NH36 protein. Increases in IgM, IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, CD4+ T cell proportions, IFN-γ secretion, ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and percents of antibody binding inhibition by synthetic predicted epitopes were detected in F3 vaccinated mice. The increases in DTH and in ratios of TNFα/IL-10 CD4+ producing cells were however the strong correlates of protection which was confirmed by in vivo depletion with monoclonal antibodies, algorithm predicted CD4 and CD8 epitopes and a pronounced decrease in parasite load (90.5-88.23%; p = 0.011 that was long-lasting. No decrease in parasite load was detected after vaccination with the N-domain of NH36, in spite of the induction of IFN-γ/IL-10 expression by CD4+ T cells after challenge. Both peptides reduced the size of footpad lesions, but only the C-domain reduced the parasite load of mice challenged with L. amazonensis. The identification of the target of the immune response to NH36 represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis and

  12. Increased Infectivity of Anchorless Mouse Scrapie Prions in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Prion Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Brent; Phillips, Katie; Meade-White, Kimberly; Striebel, James; Chesebro, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is found in all mammals, mostly as a glycoprotein anchored to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Following prion infection, host protease-sensitive prion protein (PrPsen or PrPC) is converted into an abnormal, disease-associated, protease-resistant form (PrPres). Biochemical characteristics, such as the PrP amino acid sequence, and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and GPI anchoring, can affect the transmiss...

  13. Contributions of the Prion Protein Sequence, Strain, and Environment to the Species Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Bruce, Kathryn L; Chen, Buxin; Gyoneva, Stefka; Behrens, Sven H; Bommarius, Andreas S; Chernoff, Yury O

    2016-01-15

    Amyloid propagation requires high levels of sequence specificity so that only molecules with very high sequence identity can form cross-β-sheet structures of sufficient stringency for incorporation into the amyloid fibril. This sequence specificity presents a barrier to the transmission of prions between two species with divergent sequences, termed a species barrier. Here we study the relative effects of protein sequence, seed conformation, and environment on the species barrier strength and specificity for the yeast prion protein Sup35p from three closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group; namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Through in vivo plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major characteristics of the transmission barrier and conformational fidelity are determined by the protein sequence rather than by the cellular environment. In vitro data confirm that the kinetics and structural preferences of aggregation of the S. paradoxus and S. bayanus proteins are influenced by anions in accordance with their positions in the Hofmeister series, as observed previously for S. cerevisiae. However, the specificity of the species barrier is primarily affected by the sequence and the type of anion present during the formation of the initial seed, whereas anions present during the seeded aggregation process typically influence kinetics rather than the specificity of prion conversion. Therefore, our work shows that the protein sequence and the conformation variant (strain) of the prion seed are the primary determinants of cross-species prion specificity both in vivo and in vitro.

  14. Contributions of the Prion Protein Sequence, Strain, and Environment to the Species Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Bruce, Kathryn L; Chen, Buxin; Gyoneva, Stefka; Behrens, Sven H; Bommarius, Andreas S; Chernoff, Yury O

    2016-01-15

    Amyloid propagation requires high levels of sequence specificity so that only molecules with very high sequence identity can form cross-β-sheet structures of sufficient stringency for incorporation into the amyloid fibril. This sequence specificity presents a barrier to the transmission of prions between two species with divergent sequences, termed a species barrier. Here we study the relative effects of protein sequence, seed conformation, and environment on the species barrier strength and specificity for the yeast prion protein Sup35p from three closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group; namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Through in vivo plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major characteristics of the transmission barrier and conformational fidelity are determined by the protein sequence rather than by the cellular environment. In vitro data confirm that the kinetics and structural preferences of aggregation of the S. paradoxus and S. bayanus proteins are influenced by anions in accordance with their positions in the Hofmeister series, as observed previously for S. cerevisiae. However, the specificity of the species barrier is primarily affected by the sequence and the type of anion present during the formation of the initial seed, whereas anions present during the seeded aggregation process typically influence kinetics rather than the specificity of prion conversion. Therefore, our work shows that the protein sequence and the conformation variant (strain) of the prion seed are the primary determinants of cross-species prion specificity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26565023

  15. Prediction of GPCR-G Protein Coupling Specificity Using Features of Sequences and Biological Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihide Ono; Haretsugu Hishigaki

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the coupling specificity between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and specific classes of G proteins is important for further elucidation of receptor functions within a cell. Increasing information on GPCR sequences and the G protein family would facilitate prediction of the coupling properties of GPCRs. In this study, we describe a novel approach for predicting the coupling specificity between GPCRs and G proteins. This method uses not only GPCR sequences but also the functional knowledge generated by natural language processing, and can achieve 92.2% prediction accuracy by using the C4.5 algorithm.Furthermore, rules related to GPCR-G protein coupling are generated. The combination of sequence analysis and text mining improves the prediction accuracy for GPCR-G protein coupling specificity, and also provides clues for understanding GPCR signaling.

  16. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yong-Jun; Dong Shuang-Lin; Fang Shao-Qing; Zhang Lan; He Peng; Xu Ya-Long; Li Fei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined ...

  17. Order through disorder: hyper-mobile C-terminal residues stabilize the folded state of a helical peptide. a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi K Patapati

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom has it that the presence of disordered regions in the three-dimensional structures of polypeptides not only does not contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of their folded state, but, on the contrary, that the presence of disorder leads to a decrease of the corresponding proteins' stability. We have performed extensive 3.4 µs long folding simulations (in explicit solvent and with full electrostatics of an undecamer peptide of experimentally known helical structure, both with and without its disordered (four residue long C-terminal tail. Our simulations clearly indicate that the presence of the apparently disordered (in structural terms C-terminal tail, increases the thermodynamic stability of the peptide's folded (helical state. These results show that at least for the case of relatively short peptides, the interplay between thermodynamic stability and the apparent structural stability can be rather subtle, with even disordered regions contributing significantly to the stability of the folded state. Our results have clear implications for the understanding of peptide energetics and the design of foldable peptides.

  18. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA membrane insertion: roles of N- and C-terminal flexible arms and central helix-turn-helix motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Keil, Verena; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-03-13

    EsxA (ESAT-6), an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and bacterial cytosolic translocation within host macrophages. Our previous study showed that EsxA exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis. However, the molecular mechanism of EsxA membrane insertion remains unknown. In this study, we generated truncated EsxA proteins with deletions of the N- and/or C-terminal flexible arm. Using a fluorescence-based liposome leakage assay, we found that both the N- and C-terminal arms were required for membrane disruption. Moreover, we found that, upon acidification, EsxA converted into a more organized structure with increased α-helical content, which was evidenced by CD analysis and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Finally, using an environmentally sensitive fluorescent dye, we obtained direct evidence that the central helix-turn-helix motif of EsxA inserted into the membranes and formed a membrane-spanning pore. A model of EsxA membrane insertion is proposed and discussed.

  19. Crystallization and X-ray data analysis of the 10 kDa C-terminal lid subdomain from Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Liam; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D., E-mail: m.walkinshaw@ed.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa lid subdomain from the C. elegans chaperone Hsp70 have been obtained that diffract X-rays to ∼3.5 Å and belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Analysis of X-ray data and initial heavy-atom phasing reveals 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit related by 432 non-crystallographic symmetry. Hsp70 is an important molecular chaperone involved in the regulation of protein folding. Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa helical lid domain (residues 542–640) from a Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70 homologue have been produced that diffract X-rays to ∼3.4 Å. Crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 197, c = 200 Å. The Matthews coefficient, self-rotation function and Patterson map indicate 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit, showing non-crystallographic 432 symmetry. Molecular-replacement studies using the corresponding domain from rat, the only eukaryotic homologue with a known structure, failed and a mercury derivative was obtained. Preliminary MAD phasing using SHELXD and SHARP for location and refinement of the heavy-atom substructure and SOLOMON for density modification produced interpretable maps with a clear protein–solvent boundary. Further density-modification, model-building and refinement are currently under way.

  20. Prediction of Spontaneous Protein Deamidation from Sequence-Derived Secondary Structure and Intrinsic Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ramiro Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Asparagine residues in proteins undergo spontaneous deamidation, a post-translational modification that may act as a molecular clock for the regulation of protein function and turnover. Asparagine deamidation is modulated by protein local sequence, secondary structure and hydrogen bonding. We present NGOME, an algorithm able to predict non-enzymatic deamidation of internal asparagine residues in proteins in the absence of structural data, using sequence-based predictions of secondary structure and intrinsic disorder. Compared to previous algorithms, NGOME does not require three-dimensional structures yet yields better predictions than available sequence-only methods. Four case studies of specific proteins show how NGOME may help the user identify deamidation-prone asparagine residues, often related to protein gain of function, protein degradation or protein misfolding in pathological processes. A fifth case study applies NGOME at a proteomic scale and unveils a correlation between asparagine deamidation and protein degradation in yeast. NGOME is freely available as a webserver at the National EMBnet node Argentina, URL: http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/ in the subpage "Protein and nucleic acid structure and sequence analysis".

  1. Large cryptic internal sequence repeats in protein structures from Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sarani; N A Udayaprakash; R Subashini; P Mridula; T Yamane; K Sekar

    2009-03-01

    Amino acid sequences are known to constantly mutate and diverge unless there is a limiting condition that makes such a change deleterious. However, closer examination of the sequence and structure reveals that a few large, cryptic repeats are nevertheless sequentially conserved. This leads to the question of why only certain repeats are conserved at the sequence level. It would be interesting to find out if these sequences maintain their conservation at the three-dimensional structure level. They can play an active role in protein and nucleotide stability, thus not only ensuring proper functioning but also potentiating malfunction and disease. Therefore, insights into any aspect of the repeats – be it structure, function or evolution – would prove to be of some importance. This study aims to address the relationship between protein sequence and its three-dimensional structure, by examining if large cryptic sequence repeats have the same structure.

  2. Utilizing sequence intrinsic composition to classify protein-coding and long non-coding transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Bu, Dechao; Zhao, Guoguang; Yu, Kuntao; Zhang, Changhai; Liu, Yuanning; Chen, Runsheng; Zhao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to classify protein-coding or non-coding transcripts, especially those re-constructed from high-throughput sequencing data of poorly annotated species. This study developed and evaluated a powerful signature tool, Coding-Non-Coding Index (CNCI), by profiling adjoining nucleotide triplets to effectively distinguish protein-coding and non-coding sequences independent of known annotations. CNCI is effective for classifying incomplete transcripts and sense–antisense pairs. The i...

  3. Paracellular permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 C-terminal amidation in nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song KH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keon-Hyoung Song,1 Sang-Bum Kim,2 Chang-Koo Shim,2 Suk-Jae Chung,2 Dae-Duk Kim,2 Sang-Ki Rhee,1 Guang J Choi,1 Chul-Hyun Kim,3 Kiyoung Kim4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Sports Medicine, 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea Background: The identification of permeation enhancers has gained interest in the development of drug delivery systems. A six-mer peptide, H-FCIGRL-OH (AT1002, is a tight junction modulator with promising permeation-enhancing activity. AT1002 enhances the transport of molecular weight markers or agents with low bioavailability with no cytotoxicity. However, AT1002 is not stable in neutral pH or after incubation under physiological conditions, which is necessary to fully uncover its permeation-enhancing effect. Thus, we increased the stability or mitigated the instability of AT1002 by modifying its terminal amino acids and evaluated its subsequent biological activity.Methods: C-terminal-amidated (FCIGRL-NH2, Pep1 and N-terminal-acetylated (Ac-FCIGRL, Pep2 peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We further assessed cytotoxicity on cell monolayers, as well as the permeation-enhancing activity following nasal administration of the paracellular marker mannitol.Results: Pep1 was nontoxic to cell monolayers and showed a relatively low decrease in peak area compared to AT1002. In addition, administration of mannitol with Pep1 resulted in significant increases in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and peak plasma concentration at 3.63-fold and 2.68-fold, respectively, compared to mannitol alone. In contrast, no increase in mannitol concentration was shown with mannitol/AT1002 or mannitol/Pep2 compared to the control. Thus, Pep1 increased

  4. A sequence-based dynamic ensemble learning system for protein ligand-binding site prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2015-12-03

    Background: Proteins have the fundamental ability to selectively bind to other molecules and perform specific functions through such interactions, such as protein-ligand binding. Accurate prediction of protein residues that physically bind to ligands is important for drug design and protein docking studies. Most of the successful protein-ligand binding predictions were based on known structures. However, structural information is not largely available in practice due to the huge gap between the number of known protein sequences and that of experimentally solved structures

  5. Identification of a novel calcium binding motif based on the detection of sequence insertions in the animal peroxidase domain of bacterial proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Santamaría-Hernando

    Full Text Available Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20, where it was found to be involved in Ca(2+ coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33-79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca(2+ binding with a K(D of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821 is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of

  6. Large scale identification and categorization of protein sequences using structured logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Ifrim, Georgiana; Liboriussen, Poul;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Structured Logistic Regression (SLR) is a newly developed machine learning tool first proposed in the context of text categorization. Current availability of extensive protein sequence databases calls for an automated method to reliably classify sequences and SLR seems well...

  7. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O' Callaghan, Dennis J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Kim, Seong Kee, E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  8. Reducing C-terminal truncation mitigates synucleinopathy and neurodegeneration in a transgenic model of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Fares; Fernagut, Pierre-Olivier; Bezard, Erwan; Pruvost, Alain; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Hoang, Quyen Q; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2016-08-23

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic orphan neurodegenerative disorder. No treatment is currently available to slow down the aggressive neurodegenerative process, and patients die within a few years after disease onset. The cytopathological hallmark of MSA is the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in affected oligodendrocytes. Several studies point to α-syn oligomerization and aggregation as a mediator of neurotoxicity in synucleinopathies including MSA. C-terminal truncation by the inflammatory protease caspase-1 has recently been implicated in the mechanisms that promote aggregation of α-syn in vitro and in neuronal cell models of α-syn toxicity. We present here an in vivo proof of concept of the ability of the caspase-1 inhibitor prodrug VX-765 to mitigate α-syn pathology and to mediate neuroprotection in proteolipid protein α-syn (PLP-SYN) mice, a transgenic mouse model of MSA. PLP-SYN and age-matched wild-type mice were treated for a period of 11 wk with VX-765 or placebo. VX-765 prevented motor deficits in PLP-SYN mice compared with placebo controls. More importantly, VX-765 was able to limit the progressive toxicity of α-syn aggregation by reducing its load in the striatum of PLP-SYN mice. Not only did VX-765 reduce truncated α-syn, but it also decreased its monomeric and oligomeric forms. Finally, VX-765 showed neuroprotective effects by preserving tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra of PLP-SYN mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that VX-765, a drug that was well tolerated in a 6 wk-long phase II trial in patients with epilepsy, is a promising candidate to achieve disease modification in synucleinopathies by limiting α-syn accumulation. PMID:27482103

  9. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noheon Park

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1.

  10. JiffyNet: a web-based instant protein network modeler for newly sequenced species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eiru; Kim, Hanhae; Lee, Insuk

    2013-07-01

    Revolutionary DNA sequencing technology has enabled affordable genome sequencing for numerous species. Thousands of species already have completely decoded genomes, and tens of thousands more are in progress. Naturally, parallel expansion of the functional parts list library is anticipated, yet genome-level understanding of function also requires maps of functional relationships, such as functional protein networks. Such networks have been constructed for many sequenced species including common model organisms. Nevertheless, the majority of species with sequenced genomes still have no protein network models available. Moreover, biologists might want to obtain protein networks for their species of interest on completion of the genome projects. Therefore, there is high demand for accessible means to automatically construct genome-scale protein networks based on sequence information from genome projects only. Here, we present a public web server, JiffyNet, specifically designed to instantly construct genome-scale protein networks based on associalogs (functional associations transferred from a template network by orthology) for a query species with only protein sequences provided. Assessment of the networks by JiffyNet demonstrated generally high predictive ability for pathway annotations. Furthermore, JiffyNet provides network visualization and analysis pages for wide variety of molecular concepts to facilitate network-guided hypothesis generation. JiffyNet is freely accessible at http://www.jiffynet.org.

  11. 3D representations of amino acids—applications to protein sequence comparison and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid sequence of a protein is the key to understanding its structure and ultimately its function in the cell. This paper addresses the fundamental issue of encoding amino acids in ways that the representation of such a protein sequence facilitates the decoding of its information content. We show that a feature-based representation in a three-dimensional (3D space derived from amino acid substitution matrices provides an adequate representation that can be used for direct comparison of protein sequences based on geometry. We measure the performance of such a representation in the context of the protein structural fold prediction problem. We compare the results of classifying different sets of proteins belonging to distinct structural folds against classifications of the same proteins obtained from sequence alone or directly from structural information. We find that sequence alone performs poorly as a structure classifier. We show in contrast that the use of the three dimensional representation of the sequences significantly improves the classification accuracy. We conclude with a discussion of the current limitations of such a representation and with a description of potential improvements.

  12. Diversity of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusov Yuri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are present in most eukaryotes and mediate signaling in numerous biological processes. In plants, Gγ subunits were shown to provide functional selectivity to G-proteins. Three unconventional Gγ subunits were recently reported in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean but no structural analysis has been reported so far. Their relationship with conventional Gγ subunits and taxonomical distribution has not been yet demonstrated. Results After an extensive similarity search through plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes we assembled over 200 non-redundant proteins related to the known Gγ subunits. Structural analysis of these sequences revealed that most of them lack the obligatory C-terminal prenylation motif (CaaX. According to their C-terminal structures we classified the plant Gγ subunits into three distinct types. Type A consists of Gγ subunits with a putative prenylation motif. Type B subunits lack a prenylation motif and do not have any cysteine residues in the C-terminal region, while type C subunits contain an extended C-terminal domain highly enriched with cysteines. Comparative analysis of C-terminal domains of the proteins, intron-exon arrangement of the corresponding genes and phylogenetic studies suggested a common origin of all plant Gγ subunits. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses suggest that types C and B most probably originated independently from type A ancestors. We speculate on a potential mechanism used by those Gγ subunits lacking isoprenylation motifs to anchor the Gβγ dimer to the plasma membrane and propose a new flexible nomenclature for plant Gγ subunits. Finally, in the light of our new classification, we give a word of caution about the interpretation of Gγ research in Arabidopsis and its generalization to other plant species.

  13. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated

  14. Structural insights and ab initio sequencing within the DING proteins family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.elias@weizmann.ac.il [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Liebschner, Dorothee [CRM2, Nancy Université (France); Gotthard, Guillaume; Chabriere, Eric [AFMB, Université Aix-Marseille II (France)

    2011-01-01

    DING proteins constitute a recently discovered protein family that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. The structural insights and the physiological involvements of these intriguing proteins are hereby deciphered. DING proteins constitute an intriguing family of phosphate-binding proteins that was identified in a wide range of organisms, from prokaryotes and archae to eukaryotes. Despite their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence in eukaryotes, their encoding genes are missing from sequenced genomes. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies. In humans, these proteins have been related to several diseases, like atherosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation processes and HIV inhibition. The human phosphate binding protein is a human representative of the DING family that was serendipitously discovered from human plasma. An original approach was developed to determine ab initio the complete and exact sequence of this 38 kDa protein by utilizing mass spectrometry and X-ray data in tandem. Taking advantage of this first complete eukaryotic DING sequence, a immunohistochemistry study was undertaken to check the presence of DING proteins in various mice tissues, revealing that these proteins are widely expressed. Finally, the structure of a bacterial representative from Pseudomonas fluorescens was solved at sub-angstrom resolution, allowing the molecular mechanism of the phosphate binding in these high-affinity proteins to be elucidated.

  15. Draft versus finished sequence data for DNA and protein diagnostic signature development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M W; Smith, J R; Torres, C L; Slezak, T R

    2004-10-29

    Sequencing pathogen genomes is costly, demanding careful allocation of limited sequencing resources. We built a computational Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (SAP) to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing necessary to develop high-quality diagnostic DNA and protein signatures. SAP uses simulations to estimate the number of target genomes and close phylogenetic relatives (near neighbors, or NNs) to sequence. We use SAP to assess whether draft data is sufficient or finished sequencing is required using Marburg and variola virus sequences. Simulations indicate that intermediate to high quality draft with error rates of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} ({approx} 8x coverage) of target organisms is suitable for DNA signature prediction. Low quality draft with error rates of {approx} 1% (3x to 6x coverage) of target isolates is inadequate for DNA signature prediction, although low quality draft of NNs is sufficient, as long as the target genomes are of high quality. For protein signature prediction, sequencing errors in target genomes substantially reduce the detection of amino acid sequence conservation, even if the draft is of high quality. In summary, high quality draft of target and low quality draft of NNs appears to be a cost-effective investment for DNA signature prediction, but may lead to underestimation of predicted protein signatures.

  16. Analysis of the hybrid proline-rich protein families from seven plant species suggests rapid diversification of their sequences and expression patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Lukáš; Cvrčková Fatima; Dvořáková Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) are putative cell wall proteins consisting, usually, of a repetitive proline-rich (PR) N-terminal domain and a conserved eight-cysteine motif (8 CM) C-terminal domain. Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of HyPRPs might provide not only insight into their so far elusive function, but also a model for other large protein families in plants. Results We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of HyPRPs from seven plant species, i...

  17. Quantitative sequence-function relationships in proteins based on gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesk Arthur M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between divergence of amino-acid sequence and divergence of function among homologous proteins is complex. The assumption that homologs share function – the basis of transfer of annotations in databases – must therefore be regarded with caution. Here, we present a quantitative study of sequence and function divergence, based on the Gene Ontology classification of function. We determined the relationship between sequence divergence and function divergence in 6828 protein families from the PFAM database. Within families there is a broad range of sequence similarity from very closely related proteins – for instance, orthologs in different mammals – to very distantly-related proteins at the limit of reliable recognition of homology. Results We correlated the divergence in sequences determined from pairwise alignments, and the divergence in function determined by path lengths in the Gene Ontology graph, taking into account the fact that many proteins have multiple functions. Our results show that, among homologous proteins, the proportion of divergent functions decreases dramatically above a threshold of sequence similarity at about 50% residue identity. For proteins with more than 50% residue identity, transfer of annotation between homologs will lead to an erroneous attribution with a totally dissimilar function in fewer than 6% of cases. This means that for very similar proteins (about 50 % identical residues the chance of completely incorrect annotation is low; however, because of the phenomenon of recruitment, it is still non-zero. Conclusion Our results describe general features of the evolution of protein function, and serve as a guide to the reliability of annotation transfer, based on the closeness of the relationship between a new protein and its nearest annotated relative.

  18. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates. PMID:27635128

  19. A Primary Sequence Analysis of the ARGONAUTE Protein Family in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Castillo-Cobián, Amanda; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO) family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks) conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates. PMID:27635128

  20. A primary sequence analysis of the ARGONAUTE protein family in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodriguez-Leal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA (sRNA-mediated gene silencing represents a conserved regulatory mechanism controlling a wide diversity of developmental processes through interactions of sRNAs with proteins of the ARGONAUTE (AGO family. On the basis of a large phylogenetic analysis that includes 206 AGO genes belonging to 23 plant species, AGO genes group into four clades corresponding to the phylogenetic distribution proposed for the ten family members of Arabidopsis thaliana. A primary analysis of the corresponding protein sequences resulted in 50 sequences of amino acids (blocks conserved across their linear length. Protein members of the AGO4/6/8/9 and AGO1/10 clades are more conserved than members of the AGO5 and AGO2/3/7 clades. In addition to blocks containing components of the PIWI, PAZ, and DUF1785 domains, members of the AGO2/3/7 and AGO4/6/8/9 clades possess other consensus block sequences that are exclusive of members within these clades, suggesting unforeseen functional specialization revealed by their primary sequence. We also show that AGO proteins of animal and plant kingdoms share linear sequences of blocks that include motifs involved in posttranslational modifications such as those regulating AGO2 in humans and the PIWI protein AUBERGINE in Drosophila. Our results open possibilities for exploring new structural and functional aspects related to the evolution of AGO proteins within the plant kingdom, and their convergence with analogous proteins in mammals and invertebrates.

  1. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving, R.A.H.; Priem, J.; Bossers, A.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined

  2. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  3. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (pcancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  4. Functional and structural analysis of C-terminal BRCA1 missense variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Quiles

    Full Text Available Germline inactivating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS. Genetic testing of these genes is available, although approximately 15% of tests identify variants of uncertain significance (VUS. Classification of these variants into pathogenic or non-pathogenic type is an important challenge in genetic diagnosis and counseling. The aim of the present study is to functionally assess a set of 7 missense VUS (Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G, R1589H, Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V located in the C-terminal region of BRCA1 by combining in silico prediction tools and structural analysis with a transcription activation (TA assay. The in silico prediction programs gave discrepant results making its interpretation difficult. Structural analysis of the three variants located in the BRCT domains (Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V reveals significant alterations of BRCT structure. The TA assay shows that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V dramatically compromise the transcriptional activity of BRCA1, while variants Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G and R1589H behave like wild-type BRCA1. In conclusion, our results suggest that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V can be classified as likely pathogenic BRCA1 mutations.

  5. Serpin A1 C-Terminal Peptides as Collagen Turnover Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Simona; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Nuti, Francesca; Papini, Anna Maria; Giovannelli, Lisa; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-08-19

    The modulation of collagen turnover can be a relevant pharmacological target in the context of treating either pathological or pathophysiological conditions, such as collagen-related diseases and skin aging. Our recent work has focused on the search for short-chain peptides as lead compounds for further development of compounds that enhance the production of type I collagen. In this study we selected and synthesized overlapping peptides of the C-terminal portion of serpin A1 (residues 393-418), the impact of which on collagen production has been reported previously, in order to identify shorter and still active fragments and to provide insight on the mechanisms involved. The biological activity of each fragment was evaluated with cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts, and changes in the amounts of collagen were monitored in collected culture media by a sandwich ELISA technique developed in house. Interestingly, we identified a decapeptide, termed SA1-III (Ac-MGKVVNPTQK-NH2 ), as a promising candidate for our purposes; it is able to induce a significant increase in type I collagen levels in the culture medium of treated cells at micromolar concentrations. PMID:26615979

  6. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Blaurock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis.

  7. Secretin and its C-terminal hexapeptide potentiates insulin release in mouse islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Hansen, B; Lernmark, A;

    1986-01-01

    Peptides representing the C-terminal end of secretin were synthetized and their effects tested along with secretin on column-perifused isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Insulin release induced by 10 mmol/l D-glucose was potentiated by secretin tested in a concentration range of 0.01-10 micrograms...... [Val-NH2, S-(24-27)] or only marginally [S-(26-27), S-(23-27)] potentiating effects on insulin release in the presence of 10 mmol/l D-glucose. The effects of secretin and S-(22-27) were not influenced by 2 mmol/l glutamine. The intact hormone and the five synthetic peptides as well as Val-NH2 had...... no stimulatory effect on islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In fact, S-(23-27), S-(24-27), and S-(25-27) inhibited the islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity, the activation by which amino acids and amino acid derivatives are known to elicit a potentiation of insulin release. Our results suggest that the C...

  8. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  9. Successful Recovery of Nuclear Protein-Coding Genes from Small Insects in Museums Using Illumina Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Kojun; Pflug, James M; Sproul, John S; Dasenko, Mark A; Maddison, David R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore high-throughput Illumina sequencing of nuclear protein-coding, ribosomal, and mitochondrial genes in small, dried insects stored in natural history collections. We sequenced one tenebrionid beetle and 12 carabid beetles ranging in size from 3.7 to 9.7 mm in length that have been stored in various museums for 4 to 84 years. Although we chose a number of old, small specimens for which we expected low sequence recovery, we successfully recovered at least some low-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from all specimens. For example, in one 56-year-old beetle, 4.4 mm in length, our de novo assembly recovered about 63% of approximately 41,900 nucleotides in a target suite of 67 nuclear protein-coding gene fragments, and 70% using a reference-based assembly. Even in the least successfully sequenced carabid specimen, reference-based assembly yielded fragments that were at least 50% of the target length for 34 of 67 nuclear protein-coding gene fragments. Exploration of alternative references for reference-based assembly revealed few signs of bias created by the reference. For all specimens we recovered almost complete copies of ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. We verified the general accuracy of the sequences through comparisons with sequences obtained from PCR and Sanger sequencing, including of conspecific, fresh specimens, and through phylogenetic analysis that tested the placement of sequences in predicted regions. A few possible inaccuracies in the sequences were detected, but these rarely affected the phylogenetic placement of the samples. Although our sample sizes are low, an exploratory regression study suggests that the dominant factor in predicting success at recovering nuclear protein-coding genes is a high number of Illumina reads, with success at PCR of COI and killing by immersion in ethanol being secondary factors; in analyses of only high-read samples, the primary significant explanatory variable was body length, with small beetles

  10. CLUSS: Clustering of protein sequences based on a new similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezinski Ryszard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid burgeoning of available protein data makes the use of clustering within families of proteins increasingly important. The challenge is to identify subfamilies of evolutionarily related sequences. This identification reveals phylogenetic relationships, which provide prior knowledge to help researchers understand biological phenomena. A good evolutionary model is essential to achieve a clustering that reflects the biological reality, and an accurate estimate of protein sequence similarity is crucial to the building of such a model. Most existing algorithms estimate this similarity using techniques that are not necessarily biologically plausible, especially for hard-to-align sequences such as proteins with different domain structures, which cause many difficulties for the alignment-dependent algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel similarity measure based on matching amino acid subsequences. This measure, named SMS for Substitution Matching Similarity, is especially designed for application to non-aligned protein sequences. It allows us to develop a new alignment-free algorithm, named CLUSS, for clustering protein families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first alignment-free algorithm for clustering protein sequences. Unlike other clustering algorithms, CLUSS is effective on both alignable and non-alignable protein families. In the rest of the paper, we use the term "phylogenetic" in the sense of "relatedness of biological functions". Results To show the effectiveness of CLUSS, we performed an extensive clustering on COG database. To demonstrate its ability to deal with hard-to-align sequences, we tested it on the GH2 family. In addition, we carried out experimental comparisons of CLUSS with a variety of mainstream algorithms. These comparisons were made on hard-to-align and easy-to-align protein sequences. The results of these experiments show the superiority of CLUSS in yielding clusters of proteins

  11. Protein secondary structure prediction for a single-sequence using hidden semi-Markov models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodovsky Mark

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction has been improving steadily towards the 88% estimated theoretical limit. There are two types of prediction algorithms: Single-sequence prediction algorithms imply that information about other (homologous proteins is not available, while algorithms of the second type imply that information about homologous proteins is available, and use it intensively. The single-sequence algorithms could make an important contribution to studies of proteins with no detected homologs, however the accuracy of protein secondary structure prediction from a single-sequence is not as high as when the additional evolutionary information is present. Results In this paper, we further refine and extend the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM initially considered in the BSPSS algorithm. We introduce an improved residue dependency model by considering the patterns of statistically significant amino acid correlation at structural segment borders. We also derive models that specialize on different sections of the dependency structure and incorporate them into HSMM. In addition, we implement an iterative training method to refine estimates of HSMM parameters. The three-state-per-residue accuracy and other accuracy measures of the new method, IPSSP, are shown to be comparable or better than ones for BSPSS as well as for PSIPRED, tested under the single-sequence condition. Conclusions We have shown that new dependency models and training methods bring further improvements to single-sequence protein secondary structure prediction. The results are obtained under cross-validation conditions using a dataset with no pair of sequences having significant sequence similarity. As new sequences are added to the database it is possible to augment the dependency structure and obtain even higher accuracy. Current and future advances should contribute to the improvement of function prediction for orphan proteins inscrutable

  12. ProteinSplit: splitting of multi-domain proteins using prediction of ordered and disordered regions in protein sequences for virtual structural genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annotation of protein folds within newly sequenced genomes is the main target for semi-automated protein structure prediction (virtual structural genomics). A large number of automated methods have been developed recently with very good results in the case of single-domain proteins. Unfortunately, most of these automated methods often fail to properly predict the distant homology between a given multi-domain protein query and structural templates. Therefore a multi-domain protein should be split into domains in order to overcome this limitation. ProteinSplit is designed to identify protein domain boundaries using a novel algorithm that predicts disordered regions in protein sequences. The software utilizes various sequence characteristics to assess the local propensity of a protein to be disordered or ordered in terms of local structure stability. These disordered parts of a protein are likely to create interdomain spacers. Because of its speed and portability, the method was successfully applied to several genome-wide fold annotation experiments. The user can run an automated analysis of sets of proteins or perform semi-automated multiple user projects (saving the results on the server). Additionally the sequences of predicted domains can be sent to the Bioinfo.PL Protein Structure Prediction Meta-Server for further protein three-dimensional structure and function prediction. The program is freely accessible as a web service at http://lucjan.bioinfo.pl/proteinsplit together with detailed benchmark results on the critical assessment of a fully automated structure prediction (CAFASP) set of sequences. The source code of the local version of protein domain boundary prediction is available upon request from the authors

  13. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie-Leigh Jonker

    Full Text Available Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes. It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa. Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes. Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa.

  14. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Y-box Binding Protein Gene in Min Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dong-jie; Liu Di; Wang Liang; He Xin-miao; Wang Wen-tao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the gene sequence of Min pig Y-box binding protein (YB-1) gene, the complete coding sequence of Min pig YB-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence features were analyzed by some software and online website. The results showed that the complete CDS of Min pig Y-box was found to be 975 bp long, encoding 324 amino acids. It contained a conserved cold shock domain and several phosphorylation sites, but had no transmembrane domains, and was consistent with a protein found in the cytoplasm. Min pig YB-1 nucleotides shared high similarity (61.37%-97.66%) with other mammals.

  15. A method to locate protein coding sequences in DNA of prokaryotic systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolaskar, A. S.; Reddy, B. V.

    1985-01-01

    cDNA sequence data from E. coli phages, for which complete genome sequences are known, have been analysed, From this analysis thirteen triplets have been identified as markers to distinguish protein-coding frames from fortuitous open reading frames. The region of -18 to +18 nucleotides around ATG/GTG, has been analysed and used to identify initiator codons from internal ATG/GTG. With the aid of criteria defined above a method has been developed to locate protein coding sequences by a combinat...

  16. Development and characterization of a novel C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskew Jeffery D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been shown to be overexpressed in a number of cancers, including prostate cancer, making it an important target for drug discovery. Unfortunately, results with N-terminal inhibitors from initial clinical trials have been disappointing, as toxicity and resistance resulting from induction of the heat shock response (HSR has led to both scheduling and administration concerns. Therefore, Hsp90 inhibitors that do not induce the heat shock response represent a promising new direction for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein, the development of a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, KU174, is described, which demonstrates anti-cancer activity in prostate cancer cells in the absence of a HSR and describe a novel approach to characterize Hsp90 inhibition in cancer cells. Methods PC3-MM2 and LNCaP-LN3 cells were used in both direct and indirect in vitro Hsp90 inhibition assays (DARTS, Surface Plasmon Resonance, co-immunoprecipitation, luciferase, Western blot, anti-proliferative, cytotoxicity and size exclusion chromatography to characterize the effects of KU174 in prostate cancer cells. Pilot in vivo efficacy studies were also conducted with KU174 in PC3-MM2 xenograft studies. Results KU174 exhibits robust anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity along with client protein degradation and disruption of Hsp90 native complexes without induction of a HSR. Furthermore, KU174 demonstrates direct binding to the Hsp90 protein and Hsp90 complexes in cancer cells. In addition, in pilot in-vivo proof-of-concept studies KU174 demonstrates efficacy at 75 mg/kg in a PC3-MM2 rat tumor model. Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors have potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. MannDB – A microbial database of automated protein sequence analyses and evidence integration for protein characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczmarski Thomas A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MannDB was created to meet a need for rapid, comprehensive automated protein sequence analyses to support selection of proteins suitable as targets for driving the development of reagents for pathogen or protein toxin detection. Because a large number of open-source tools were needed, it was necessary to produce a software system to scale the computations for whole-proteome analysis. Thus, we built a fully automated system for executing software tools and for storage, integration, and display of automated protein sequence analysis and annotation data. Description MannDB is a relational database that organizes data resulting from fully automated, high-throughput protein-sequence analyses using open-source tools. Types of analyses provided include predictions of cleavage, chemical properties, classification, features, functional assignment, post-translational modifications, motifs, antigenicity, and secondary structure. Proteomes (lists of hypothetical and known proteins are downloaded and parsed from Genbank and then inserted into MannDB, and annotations from SwissProt are downloaded when identifiers are found in the Genbank entry or when identical sequences are identified. Currently 36 open-source tools are run against MannDB protein sequences either on local systems or by means of batch submission to external servers. In addition, BLAST against protein entries in MvirDB, our database of microbial virulence factors, is performed. A web client browser enables viewing of computational results and downloaded annotations, and a query tool enables structured and free-text search capabilities. When available, links to external databases, including MvirDB, are provided. MannDB contains whole-proteome analyses for at least one representative organism from each category of biological threat organism listed by APHIS, CDC, HHS, NIAID, USDA, USFDA, and WHO. Conclusion MannDB comprises a large number of genomes and comprehensive protein

  18. Preparative Protein Production from Inclusion Bodies and Crystallization: A Seven-Week Biochemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan J.; Snyder, W. Kalani; Westerman, Shelley; McFarland, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe how to produce and purify proteins from "Escherichia coli" inclusion bodies by adapting versatile, preparative-scale techniques to the undergraduate laboratory schedule. This 7-week sequence of experiments fits into an annual cycle of research activity in biochemistry courses. Recombinant proteins are expressed as inclusion bodies,…

  19. Sequence, chromophore extraction and 3-D model of the photoactive yellow protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kort; M.K. Philips-Jones; D.M.F. Aalten; A. Haker; S.M. Hoffer; K.J. Hellingwerf; W. Crielaard

    1998-01-01

    The photoactive yellow protein (pyp) gene has been isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides by probing with a homologous PCR-product. A sequence analysis shows that this pyp gene encodes a 124 AA protein with 48% identity to the three known PYPs. Downstream from pyp, a number of adjacent open reading f

  20. Effect of single-point sequence alterations on the aggregationpropensity of a model protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratko, Dusan; Cellmer, Troy; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2005-10-07

    Sequences of contemporary proteins are believed to have evolved through process that optimized their overall fitness including their resistance to deleterious aggregation. Biotechnological processing may expose therapeutic proteins to conditions that are much more conducive to aggregation than those encountered in a cellular environment. An important task of protein engineering is to identify alternative sequences that would protect proteins when processed at high concentrations without altering their native structure associated with specific biological function. Our computational studies exploit parallel tempering simulations of coarse-grained model proteins to demonstrate that isolated amino-acid residue substitutions can result in significant changes in the aggregation resistance of the protein in a crowded environment while retaining protein structure in isolation. A thermodynamic analysis of protein clusters subject to competing processes of folding and association shows that moderate mutations can produce effects similar to those caused by changes in system conditions, including temperature, concentration, and solvent composition that affect the aggregation propensity. The range of conditions where a protein can resist aggregation can therefore be tuned by sequence alterations although the protein generally may retain its generic ability for aggregation.

  1. Sequence Analysis of the Protein Structure Homology Modeling of Growth Hormone Gene from Salmo trutta caspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the growth hormone protein investigated and characterized from Salmo trutta caspius. Growth hormone gene in the Salmo trutta caspius have six exons in the full length that is translated into a Molecular Weight (kDa: ssDNA: 64.98 and dsDNA: 129.6. There are also 210 amino acid residue. The assembled full length of DNA contains open reading frame of growth hormone gene that contains 15 sequences in the full length. The average GC content is 47% and AT content is 53%. This protein multiple alignment has shown that this peptide is 100% identical to the corresponding homologous protein in the growth hormone protein which including Salmo salar (Accession number: AAA49558.1 and Rainbow trout (Salmo trutta (Accession number: AAA49555.1" sequences. The sequence of protein had deposited in Gene Bank, Accession number: AEK70940. Also we were analyzed second and third structure between sequences reported in Gene Bank Network system. The results are shown, there are homology between second structure in three sequences including: Salmo trutta caspius, Salmo salar and Rainbow trout. Regarding third structure, Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar are same type, but Rainbow trout has different homology with Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar. However, the sequences were observed three parallel " helix and in second structure there were almost same percent β sheet.

  2. Analysis of the hybrid proline-rich protein families from seven plant species suggests rapid diversification of their sequences and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lukáš

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs are putative cell wall proteins consisting, usually, of a repetitive proline-rich (PR N-terminal domain and a conserved eight-cysteine motif (8 CM C-terminal domain. Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of HyPRPs might provide not only insight into their so far elusive function, but also a model for other large protein families in plants. Results We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of HyPRPs from seven plant species, including representatives of gymnosperms and both monocot and dicot angiosperms. Every species studied possesses a large family of 14–52 HyPRPs. Angiosperm HyPRPs exhibit signs of recent major diversification involving, at least in Arabidopsis and rice, several independent tandem gene multiplications. A distinct subfamily of relatively well-conserved C-type HyPRPs, often with long hydrophobic PR domains, has been identified. In most of gymnosperm (pine HyPRPs, diversity appears within the C-type group while angiosperms have only a few of well-conserved C-type representatives. Atypical (glycine-rich or extremely short N-terminal domains apparently evolved independently in multiple lineages of the HyPRP family, possibly via inversion or loss of sequences encoding proline-rich domains. Expression profiles of potato and Arabidopsis HyPRP genes exhibit instances of both overlapping and complementary organ distribution. The diversified non-C-type HyPRP genes from recently amplified chromosomal clusters in Arabidopsis often share their specialized expression profiles. C-type genes have broader expression patterns in both species (potato and Arabidopsis, although orthologous genes exhibit some differences. Conclusion HyPRPs represent a dynamically evolving protein family apparently unique to seed plants. We suggest that ancestral HyPRPs with long proline-rich domains produced the current diversity through ongoing gene duplications accompanied by shortening

  3. Sortase A as a novel molecular "stapler" for sequence-specific protein conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Subramanian, Shyamsundar; Boder, Eric T

    2007-01-01

    The Sortase family of transpeptidase enzymes catalyzes sequence-specific ligation of proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we describe the application of recombinant Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A to attach a tagged model protein substrate (green fluorescent protein) to polystyrene beads chemically modified with either alkylamine or the in vivo Sortase A ligand, Gly-Gly-Gly, on their surfaces. Furthermore, we show that Sortase A can be used to sequence-specifically ligate eGFP to amino-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) and to generate protein oligomers and cyclized monomers using suitably tagged eGFP. We find that an alkylamine can substitute for the natural Gly3 substrate, which suggests the possibility of using the enzyme in materials applications. The highly specific and mild Sortase A-catalyzed reaction, based on small recognition tags unlikely to interfere with protein expression, thus represents a useful addition to the protein immobil