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Sample records for c-spine rule prospective

  1. A matched-pair cluster design study protocol to evaluate implementation of the Canadian C-spine rule in hospital emergency departments: Phase III

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe Brian H; Lesiuk Howard J; Coyle Doug; Wells George A; Grimshaw Jeremy; Stiell Ian G; Brison Robert J; Schull Michael; Lee Jacques; Clement Catherine M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Physicians in Canadian emergency departments (EDs) annually treat 185,000 alert and stable trauma victims who are at risk for cervical spine (C-spine) injury. However, only 0.9% of these patients have suffered a cervical spine fracture. Current use of radiography is not efficient. The Canadian C-Spine Rule is designed to allow physicians to be more selective and accurate in ordering C-spine radiography, and to rapidly clear the C-spine without the need for radiography in m...

  2. A matched-pair cluster design study protocol to evaluate implementation of the Canadian C-spine rule in hospital emergency departments: Phase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians in Canadian emergency departments (EDs annually treat 185,000 alert and stable trauma victims who are at risk for cervical spine (C-spine injury. However, only 0.9% of these patients have suffered a cervical spine fracture. Current use of radiography is not efficient. The Canadian C-Spine Rule is designed to allow physicians to be more selective and accurate in ordering C-spine radiography, and to rapidly clear the C-spine without the need for radiography in many patients. The goal of this phase III study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an active strategy to implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule into physician practice. Specific objectives are to: 1 determine clinical impact, 2 determine sustainability, 3 evaluate performance, and 4 conduct an economic evaluation. Methods We propose a matched-pair cluster design study that compares outcomes during three consecutive 12-months "before," "after," and "decay" periods at six pairs of "intervention" and "control" sites. These 12 hospital ED sites will be stratified as "teaching" or "community" hospitals, matched according to baseline C-spine radiography ordering rates, and then allocated within each pair to either intervention or control groups. During the "after" period at the intervention sites, simple and inexpensive strategies will be employed to actively implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule. The following outcomes will be assessed: 1 measures of clinical impact, 2 performance of the Canadian C-Spine Rule, and 3 economic measures. During the 12-month "decay" period, implementation strategies will continue, allowing us to evaluate the sustainability of the effect. We estimate a sample size of 4,800 patients in each period in order to have adequate power to evaluate the main outcomes. Discussion Phase I successfully derived the Canadian C-Spine Rule and phase II confirmed the accuracy and safety of the rule, hence, the potential for physicians to improve care. What

  3. Correlation of Ordered Cervical Spine X-rays in Emergency Department with NEXUS and Canadian C-Spine Rules; a Clinical Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kariman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of cervical spine injuries makes up a major part of trauma patient assessments. Based on the existing sources, more than 98% of the cervical spine X-rays show no positive findings. Therefore, the present clinical audit aimed to evaluate the correlation of ordered cervical spine X-rays in multiple trauma patients with NEXUS and Canadian c-spine clinical decision rules. Methods: The present clinical audit, evaluated the correlation of cervical spine imaging orders in multiple trauma patients presented to the emergency department, with NEXUS and Canadian c-spine rules. Initially, in a pilot study, the mentioned correlation was evaluated, and afterwards the results of this phase was analyzed. Since the correlation was low, an educational training was planned for all the physicians in charge. Finally, the calculated correlations for before and after training were compared using SPSS version 21. Results: Before and after training, cervical spine X-ray was ordered for 98 (62.82% and 85 (54.48% patients, respectively. Accuracy of cervical spine X-ray orders, based on the standard clinical decision rules, increased from 100 (64.1% cases before training, to 143 (91.7% cases after training (p < 0.001. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve regarding the correlation also raised from 52 (95% confidence interval (CI: 43 – 61 to 92 (95% CI: 87 – 97. Conclusion: Teaching NEXUS and Canadian c-spine clinical decision rules plays a significant role in improving the correlation of cervical spine X-ray orders in multiple trauma patients with the existing standards.

  4. Group sequential designs with prospectively planned rules for subpopulation enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; Luber, Brandon; Thompson, Richard E; Hanley, Daniel

    2016-09-20

    We propose a class of randomized trial designs aimed at gaining the advantages of wider generalizability and faster recruitment while mitigating the risks of including a population for which there is greater a priori uncertainty. We focus on testing null hypotheses for the overall population and a predefined subpopulation. Our designs have preplanned rules for modifying enrollment criteria based on data accrued at interim analyses. For example, enrollment can be restricted if the participants from a predefined subpopulation are not benefiting from the new treatment. Our designs have the following features: the multiple testing procedure fully leverages the correlation among statistics for different populations; the asymptotic familywise Type I error rate is strongly controlled; for outcomes that are binary or normally distributed, the decision rule and multiple testing procedure are functions of the data only through minimal sufficient statistics. Our designs incorporate standard group sequential boundaries for each population of interest; this may be helpful in communicating the designs, because many clinical investigators are familiar with such boundaries, which can be summarized succinctly in a single table or graph. We demonstrate these designs through simulations of a Phase III trial of a new treatment for stroke. User-friendly, free software implementing these designs is described. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27076411

  5. NON NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED SURGICAL STABILIZATION IN C-SPINE FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Mahadewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non neurological outcome postsurgical stabilization in C-spine injury has not been reported. Non neurological outcome i.e. the risk of lung infection (pneumonia, systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS, length of postoperative care (LOPOC which can compromise the recovery process and treatment period. This study aims to investigate non neurological outcome comparison after early surgical stabilization (ESS and delayed surgical stabilization (DSS in patients with C-spine fractures. Methods: The author retrospectively reviews 59 of 108 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria with C-spine fractures who underwent surgical stabilization at the Sanglah General Hospital, between 2007 and 2010. Consisting of 25 patients underwent ESS and 34 patients were treated by DSS. The last follow up period range was 3-36 months. Non neurological outcome were evaluated and compared; the risk of pneumonia, SIRS and LOPOC. Results: Significant statistically between ESS and DSS in; the risk of pneumonia (ESS: DSS= 1:9 by Chi-square-test (p=0.023; the risk of SIRS (ESS: DSS= 1:11 by Chi-square-test (p=0.008; and the LOPOC (ESS: DSS= 6.84:9.97 by independent t-test (p=0.000. Application of ESS for C-spine fractures could provide early mobilization, prompt treatment and facilitate early rehabilitation thus significantly reduces complications due to prolong immobilization and reduces LOPOC. Conclussion: It can be concluded that the ESS strategy is effective and efficient thus may propose an option of surgical timing in C-spine fractures.

  6. Validation of the Ottawa Ankle Rules in Iran: A prospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofrani Hossein

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ankle injuries are one of the most common reasons for presenting to emergency departments, but only a small percentage of patients – approximately 15% – have clinically significant fractures. However, these patients are almost always referred for radiography. The Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs have been designed to reduce the number of unnecessary radiographs ordered for these patients. The objective of this study was to validate the OARs in the Iranian population. Methods This prospective survey was done among 200 patients with acute ankle injury from January 2004 to April 2004 in the Akhtar Orthopedics Hospital Emergency Department. Main outcome measures of this survey were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratios (positive and negative of the OARs. Results Sensitivity of the OARs for detecting 37 ankle fractures (23 in the malleolar zone and 14 in the midfoot zone was 100% for each of the two zones, and 100% for both zones. Specificity of the OARs for detecting fractures was 40.50% for both zones, 40.50% for the malleolar zone, and 56.00% for the midfoot zone. Implementation of the OARs had the potential for reducing radiographs by 33%. Conclusion OARs are very accurate and highly sensitive tools for detecting ankle fractures. Implementation of these rules would lead to significant reduction in the number of radiographs, costs, radiation exposure and waiting times in emergency departments.

  7. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  8. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    OpenAIRE

    John Tran; Donald Jeanmonod; Darin Agresti; Khalief Hamden; Jeanmonod, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI) in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two ...

  9. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2016 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This final rule will update Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor under the Medicare prospective payment system for home health agencies (HHAs), effective for episodes ending on or after January 1, 2016. As required by the Affordable Care Act, this rule implements the 3rd year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment rates. This rule updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking and provides a clarification regarding the use of the "initial encounter'' seventh character applicable to certain ICD-10-CM code categories. This final rule will also finalize reductions to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rate in CY 2016, CY 2017, and CY 2018 of 0.97 percent in each year to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014. In addition, this rule implements a HH value-based purchasing (HHVBP) model, beginning January 1, 2016, in which all Medicare-certified HHAs in selected states will be required to participate. Finally, this rule finalizes minor changes to the home health quality reporting program and minor technical regulations text changes. PMID:26552111

  10. Estimation of radiation exposure of retrospective gated and prospective triggered 128-slice triple-rule-out CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Fenchel, Michael; Thomas, Christoph; Boehringer, Nadine; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Kaempf, Michael; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)), email: dominik.ketelsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Buchgeister, Markus (Depts. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    Background: CT has become an important role in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain to exclude an aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary artery syndrome. However, the additional radiation exposure is a cause of concern and dose saving strategies should be applied, if possible. Purpose: To estimate effective dose of retrospective gated and prospective ECG-triggered triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography (TRO-CTA). Material and Methods: An Alderson-Rando-phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for dose measurements. Exposure was performed on a 128-slice single source scanner. The following scan parameters were used (retrospective ECG-gated): 120 kV, 190 mAs/rot., collimation 128x0.6 mm, rotation time 0.3 s. Protocols with a simulated heart rate (HR) of 60 and 100 bpm were performed using the standard ECG-pulsing as well as MinDose. Additionally, a prospective triggered TRO-CTA was acquired (HR 60 bpm). Results: The estimated effective dose of retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA ranged from 7.4-13.4 mSv and from 10.1-17.5 mSv for men and women, respectively. Due to radiosensitive breast tissue, women received a significant increased effective dose of up to 64.7% +- 0.03% (p = 0.028) compared to men. MinDose reduces radiation exposure of up to 33.0% +- 6.5% in comparison to standard ECG-pulsing (p < 0.001). The effective dose increased significantly with lower heart rates (p < 0.001). Prospective ECG-triggered TRO-CTA showed an effective dose of 5.9 mSv and 8.2 mSv for men and women, respectively. Compared to retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA a significant dose reduction was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Due to the significant different dose exposure, scan protocols should be specifically adapted in a patient- and problem-oriented manner

  11. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results: We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101. The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4% cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100] with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  12. Theory of planned behaviour can help understand processes underlying the use of two emergency medicine diagnostic imaging rules

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Richard; Brehaut, Jamie C; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G.; Clement, Catherine M; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical decision rules (CDRs) can be an effective tool for knowledge translation in emergency medicine, but their implementation is often a challenge. This study examined whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) could help explain the inconsistent results between the successful Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) implementation study and unsuccessful Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) implementation study. Both rules are aimed at improving the accuracy and efficiency of emergency departmen...

  13. A Trojan Horse behind Chinese Walls? Problems and Prospects of U.S.-Sponsored "Rule of Law" Reform Projects in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Stephenson

    2000-01-01

    The US government has announced an initiative to promote the "rule of law" in the People’s Republic of China. However, though China has also endorsed building the "rule of law" as a goal, the American and Chinese views of what "rule of law" entails differ substantially. In the US government, rule of law reform is seen as a way to promote human rights and political reform, whereas the Chinese government wants to restrict law reform to those areas closely related to developing a market economy....

  14. A prospective observational study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules for children presenting to emergency departments after head injuries (protocol): the Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Babl, Franz E; Lyttle, Mark D; Bressan, Silvia; Borland, Meredith; Phillips, Natalie; Kochar, Amit; Stuart R Dalziel; Dalton, Sarah; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Gilhotra, Yuri; Neutze, Jocelyn; Ward, Brenton; Donath, Susan; Jachno, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Head injuries in children are responsible for a large number of emergency department visits. Failure to identify a clinically significant intracranial injury in a timely fashion may result in long term neurodisability and death. Whilst cranial computed tomography (CT) provides rapid and definitive identification of intracranial injuries, it is resource intensive and associated with radiation induced cancer. Evidence based head injury clinical decision rules have been derived to aid...

  15. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) for FY 2016, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and Staffing Data Collection. Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2016. In addition, it specifies a SNF all-cause all-condition hospital readmission measure, as well as adopts that measure for a new SNF Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, and includes a discussion of SNF VBP Program policies we are considering for future rulemaking to promote higher quality and more efficient health care for Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, this final rule will implement a new quality reporting program for SNFs as specified in the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act). It also amends the requirements that a long-term care (LTC) facility must meet to qualify to participate as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) in the Medicare program, or a nursing facility (NF) in the Medicaid program, by establishing requirements that implement the provision in the Affordable Care Act regarding the submission of staffing information based on payroll data. PMID:26242002

  16. The REFER (REFer for EchocaRdiogram protocol: a prospective validation of a clinical decision rule, NT-proBNP, or their combination, in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care. Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Lynda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. As mortality rates are high, it is important that patients seen by general practitioners with symptoms suggestive of heart failure are identified quickly and treated appropriately. Identifying patients with heart failure or deciding which patients need further tests is a challenge. All patients with suspected heart failure should be diagnosed using objective tests such as echocardiography, but it is expensive, often delayed, and limited by the significant skill shortage of trained echocardiographers. Alternative approaches for diagnosing heart failure are currently limited. Clinical decision tools that combine clinical signs, symptoms or patient characteristics are designed to be used to support clinical decision-making and validated according to strict methodological procedures. The REFER Study aims to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of our previously derived novel, simple clinical decision rule, a natriuretic peptide assay, or their combination, in the triage for referral for echocardiography of symptomatic adult patients who present in general practice with symptoms suggestive of heart failure. Methods/design This is a prospective, Phase II observational, diagnostic validation study of a clinical decision rule, natriuretic peptides or their combination, for diagnosing heart failure in primary care. Consecutive adult primary care patients 55 years of age or over presenting to their general practitioner with a chief complaint of recent new onset shortness of breath, lethargy or peripheral ankle oedema of over 48 hours duration, with no obvious recurrent, acute or self-limiting cause will be enrolled. Our reference standard is based upon a three step expert specialist consensus using echocardiography and clinical variables and tests. Discussion Our clinical decision rule offers a potential solution to the diagnostic challenge of providing a timely and

  17. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  18. Tax Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker; Imhof, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We examine the provision of public projects under tax and subsidy rules. We find that tax rules separated from project cum subsidy decisions exhibit several advantages when incentive problems of the agenda-setter are taken into account. In particular, tax rules may prevent the proposal of inefficient projects that benefit only a small lobby group. We propose “redistribution efficiency” as a socially desirable property of proposals and find that tax rules always guarantee this kind of efficien...

  19. Biological couplings:Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN LuQuan; LIANG YunHong

    2009-01-01

    introduced from the bionic viewpoint.Constitution,classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated,the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed,and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  20. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    climax of the masque was “Rule, Britannia!” This song advocated a strong navy as a guard against the absolutist European powers with their lack of civil liberties. Furthermore, a strong navy made a standing army superfluous, and so an army could not be deployed as a repressive force of the state. Later a...

  1. Machine Ruling

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies, such as big data, Internet of things, cloud computing, mobile Internet, and robotics, breed and expedite new applications and fields. In the mean while, the long-term prosperity and happiness of human race demands advanced technologies. In this paper, the aforementioned emerging technologies are applied to management and governance for the long-term prosperity and happiness of human race. The term "machine ruling" is coined, introduced, and justified. Moreover, the fram...

  2. Tinbergen Rules the Taylor Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas R. Michl

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates a simple model of growth with a Taylor-like monetary policy rule that includes inflation-targeting as a special case. When the inflation process originates in the product market, inflation-targeting locks in the unemployment rate prevailing at the time the policy matures. Although there is an apparent NAIRU and Phillips curve, this long-run position depends on initial conditions; in the presence of stochastic shocks, it would be path dependent. Even with an employment ta...

  3. Goldbach's Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Aktay, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Goldbach`s Conjecture, "every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes" is renamed Goldbach`s Rule for it can not be otherwise. The conjecture is proven by showing that the existence of prime pairs adding to any even number greater than 2 is a natural by-product of the existence of the prime sequence less than that even number. First it is shown that the remainder of cancellations process which identifies primes less than an even number also remainders prime pairs ...

  4. Presidential Decision no. 2 of 19 March 1971 - Definition of the Rules to be followed on organisation and information concerning processes relating to the licensing of bodies concerned with the prospection, identification and exploration of radioactive ores and their refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decision was made under Decree-Law no. 49398 of 24 November 1969 which lists the nuclear activities subject to licensing in Portugal. The Decision fixes the procedure to be followed when submitting an application to prospect for, explore or refine radioactive ores. (NEA)

  5. Loan prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Florian; Inderst, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We offer a theoretical framework to analyze corporate lending when loan officers must be incentivized to prospect for loans and to transmit the soft information they obtain in that process. We explore how this multi-task agency problem shapes loan officers' compensation, banks' use of soft information in credit approval, and their lending standards. When competition intensifies, prospecting for loans becomes more important and banks' internal agency problem worsens. In response to more compet...

  6. Rule of Administrative Law in Modern China:Its Characteristics, Introspection and Prospect%我国当代行政法治变迁的特色、反思与前瞻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔俊杰

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the combined action from market-oriented economy and democratic politics, there has been progress, which guided by government, of rule of administrative law in modern China over the past 30 years. The progress possesses many bright characteristics, such as under the affect both from normative administrative law and political administrative law, facing a tough choice from different values and functions, deriving nutrition from both legal transplant and innovation, and so on. However, development of administrative law is tightly closeness to the state and society. Thus, rule of administrative law in modern China is facing on at least 3 challenges as unsustainable energy, multi-values, and mal-adaptation resulting from the difference between connotation of administrative regulation and political requirements. Basically, it is time to consider structural changes of Chinese administrative law.%我国当代行政法治变迁已进行了30余年,呈现出规范行政法与政策行政法交互作用、行政法价值与行政法功能复合定位、法律移植与本土革新开放融合等鲜明的特色.伴随着公共行政的不断变迁,我国当代行政法治不仅要应对动力发生机制的不可持续性挑战,而且要落实更为复杂的价值和功能定位问题,还要力图化解制度框架与政策目的不相兼容的矛盾.从根本上讲,尚需从整体上思考我国行政法的结构性变革.

  7. End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This final rule implements a case-mix adjusted bundled prospective payment system (PPS) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis facilities...

  8. Clouded Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the European debt crisis deepens,the word economy has yet to find its footing despite signs of growth and renewed confidence.While the developed world faces the challenge of fiscal indebtedness,many developing countries are feeling the pinch of capital inflows and trade downturn.Global Economic Prospects 2010,the latest report by the World Bank,discussed these issues.Edited excerpts follow:

  9. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2017. Some of these changes will implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Notice of Observation Treatment and Implications for Care Eligibility Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are providing the estimated market basket update to apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2017. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2017. In addition, we are making changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education payments; establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities), including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program; implementing statutory provisions that require hospitals and CAHs to furnish notification to Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare Advantage enrollees, when the beneficiaries receive outpatient observation services for more than 24 hours; announcing the implementation of the Frontier Community Health Integration Project Demonstration; and

  10. Quantum nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the nRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow all conscious observer...

  11. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  12. Biological couplings: Classification and characteristic rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The phenomena that biological functions originate from biological coupling are the important biological foundation of multiple bionics and the significant discoveries in the bionic fields. In this paper, the basic concepts related to biological coupling are introduced from the bionic viewpoint. Constitution, classification and characteristic rules of biological coupling are illuminated, the general modes of biological coupling studies are analyzed, and the prospects of multi-coupling bionics are predicted.

  13. International rules for trade in natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul; Venables, Tony

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for international rules to address market failures in trade in natural resources and the associated international transactions of prospecting and investment in resource exploitation. We argue that several market failures are likely to have substantial costs. However, due to the distinctive features of natural resources, the market failures are particular to them. The ad hoc approaches which have attempted to address them to date leave scope for a more systema...

  14. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  15. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes....

  16. Computation of bankruptcy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Verónica; Lopez, Marcelo; Necco, Claudia Mónica; Quintas, Luis Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    We implemented a system that computes bankruptcy rules. The implemented rules are: The Talmud, the Proportional, the Truncated Proportional, the Adjusted Proportional, the Constrained Equal Awards and the Random Arrival rule. The system computes, compares and graphics the different allocations to claimants. We present some applications and examples exported by the system.

  17. Ottawa ankle rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Stiell, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa ankle rule project demonstrated that more than 95% of patients with ankle injuries had radiographic examinations but that 85% of the films showed no fractures. A group of Ottawa emergency physicians developed two rules to identify clinically important fractures of the malleoli and the midfoot. Use of these rules reduced radiographic examinations by 28% for the ankle and 14% for the foot.

  18. Early object rule acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  19. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  20. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  1. 77 FR 40951 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System... November 10, 2011, we published in the Federal Register, a final rule (76 FR 70228 through 70316) titled... the CY 2012 ESRD PPS final rule (76 FR 70228), we clarified the following: For the low-volume...

  2. Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Libetta, C; Burke, D; Brennan, P; Yassa, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the Ottawa ankle rules can be used to accurately predict which children with ankle and midfoot injuries need radiography. METHODS: Prospective study with historical control group of all children aged 1-15 years presenting to Sheffield Children's Hospital accident and emergency department with blunt ankle and/or midfoot injuries during two five month periods before and after implementation of the Ottawa ankle rules. RESULTS: In the study group 432 out of 761 (56.76...

  3. Prospect redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  4. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  5. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  6. Quantum nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the nRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow all conscious observers to exist inside the system without empirical ambiguity, reflecting our own unambiguous experience in the universe. This requirement is satisfied by the nRules. They allow both objective and observer measurements, so state reduction can occur with or without an observer being present. Keywords: brain states, consciousness, decoherence, epistemology, measurement, ontology, stochastic, state reduction, wave collapse.

  7. Uranium project. Geochemistry prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemistry studies the distribution of the chemicals elements in the terrestrial crust and its ways to migrate. The terminology used in this report is the following one: 1) Principles of the prospection geochemistry 2) Stages of the prospection geochemistry 3)utility of the prospection geochemistry 4) geochemistry of uranium 5) procedures used within the framework of uranium project 6) Average available 7) Selection of the zones of prospection geochemistry 8) Stages of the prospection, Sample preparation and analisis 9) Presentation of the results

  8. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.)

  9. The Rule of Law in Egypt: Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Tamir

    2012-01-01

    With the fall of the Mubarak government in February 2011, Egyptians have a historic opportunity to rebuild their legal and political system from the ground up. Egyptians will elect a new government and draft a new constitution that will go before voters in a national referendum. Myriad other laws and legal institutions will be reshaped over the next several years; indeed they are already being rewritten. The moment is appropriate, therefore, to take stock of the positive trends and challenges...

  10. Results evaluation of max rule, min rule and product rule in score fusion multibiometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Karanwal,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available this paper discusses about unibiometric systems, multibiometric systems, product rule, max rule and min rule of score level fusion. Score level fusion is used to generate scores of a person. Min max normalization scheme is used for normalization which normalizes scoresbetween 0 and 1. The proposed method also evaluates the results between product rule, min rule and max rule.

  11. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  12. 16 CFR 436.10 - Other laws and rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS... franchisees outside of the disclosure document under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The... part 436. A law is not inconsistent with part 436 if it affords prospective franchisees equal...

  13. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE SLIDE RULE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, RONALD E.; AND OTHERS

    A BOOKLET DESIGNED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TO BE USED INDEPENDENTLY FROM AND IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR CLASSROOM CURRICULUM IN MATHEMATICS IS GIVEN. THE FIFTH- OR SIXTH-GRADE STUDENT IS PRESENTED WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF THE SLIDE RULE AND WITH A BACKGROUND REVIEW OF NECESSARY CONCEPTS. THE CONCEPTS OF THE SLIDE RULE ARE…

  15. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  16. Evolving Fuzzy Classifiction Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs, being a robust and adaptive search methods, have found extensive applications in various tasks of Knowledge Discovery. Several usages of Genetic Algorithms (GAs for mining classification rules have shown potentially useful results. The disadvantage of the simple Rule Based Classification Systems is that they involve sharp cutoffs for distribution and hence are unable to deal with uncertainty and vagueness imperative to decision making situations. Fuzzy logic is a precise logic of imprecision and approximate reasoning. More specifically, fuzzy logic has capability to reason in an environment of imprecision, uncertainty and incompleteness of information. Therefore, Fuzzy Systems became very popular in the domain of control applications and expert systems. Regardless of the great success of fuzzy systems, currently, there has been an increasing interest to augment fuzzy systems with learning and adaptation capabilities. This necessitated the integration of EAs with Fuzzy Logic. This paper presents an extensive review on evolving Fuzzy Classification Rules (FCRs employing Genetic algorithms or Genetic Programming. Learning FCRs involves learning of Data Base (DB that contains the definitions of linguistic terms, fuzzy membership functions or fuzzy partitions etc. and Rule Base (RB which contains Fuzzy Classification Rules most often in the form of high level symbolic IF-Then rules consisting of antecedent and consequents with fuzzy constructs. As the problem of rule mining is multi-objective, the application of Multi Objective GAs (MOGAs is gaining ground to deal with conflicting criteria like accuracy and comprehensibility of the discovered rule set. Hence the recent implementations of MOGA in the area of rule mining/fuzzy rule mining have also been discussed. In the end, some unresolved problems are taken up and there is an attempt to lay down some directions for future research.

  17. Selective association rule generation

    CERN Document Server

    Hahsler, Michael; Hornik, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Mining association rules is a popular and well researched method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases. A practical problem is that at medium to low support values often a large number of frequent itemsets and an even larger number of association rules are found in a database. A widely used approach is to gradually increase minimum support and minimum confidence or to filter the found rules using increasingly strict constraints on additional measures of interestingness until the set of rules found is reduced to a manageable size. In this paper we describe a different approach which is based on the idea to first define a set of ``interesting'' itemsets (e.g., by a mixture of mining and expert knowledge) and then, in a second step to selectively generate rules for only these itemsets. The main advantage of this approach over increasing thresholds or filtering rules is that the number of rules found is significantly reduced while at the same time it is not necessary to increa...

  18. 76 FR 49479 - Franchise Rule Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...\\ 72 FR 15544 et seq. The amended Rule requires franchisors to furnish to prospective purchasers with a.... \\3\\ See 73 FR 40580 (July 15, 2008); 73 FR 60696 (Oct. 14, 2008). As recognized in the 2008 analysis... Franchise Rule Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal...

  19. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  20. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  1. TANF Rules Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Single source providing information on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program rules among States and across years (currently 1996-2010), including...

  2. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  3. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on ever...

  4. Institutions and Rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Jessop, Bob; Nielsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This short statement has three aims. First, it suggests that rules and institutionsare a convenient and productive entrypoint for analysing capitalism and mainstream proposals for its reform. But it also suggests that analyses cannot stop there if adequate critiques and alternative strategies are to be developed. Above all we need to move beyond rules and institutions to examine the microfoundations of institutions in particular subjectivities, cognitive frames, modes of calculation, norms of...

  5. Certified Rule Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  6. Pushing the rules: effects and aftereffects of deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Huestegge, Lynn; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    Most of our daily life is organized around rules and social norms. But what makes rules so special? And what if one were to break a rule intentionally? Can we simply free us from the present set of rules or do we automatically adhere to them? How do rule violations influence subsequent behavior? To investigate the effects and aftereffects of violating simple S-R rule, we conducted three experiments that investigated continuous finger-tracking responses on an iPad. Our experiments show that rule violations are distinct from rule-based actions in both response times and movement trajectories, they take longer to initiate and execute, and their movement trajectory is heavily contorted. Data not only show differences between the two types of response (rule-based vs. violation), but also yielded a characteristic pattern of aftereffects in case of rule violations: rule violations do not trigger adaptation effects that render further rule violations less difficult, but every rule violation poses repeated effort on the agent. The study represents a first step towards understanding the signature and underlying mechanisms of deliberate rule violations, they cannot be acted out by themselves, but require the activation of the original rule first. Consequently, they are best understood as reformulations of existing rules that are not accessible on their own, but need to be constantly derived from the original rule, with an add-on that might entail an active tendency to steer away from mental representations that reflect (socially) unwanted behavior. PMID:26245822

  7. Spatial Rules through Spatial Rule built-ins in SWRL

    OpenAIRE

    Karmacharya, Ashish; Cruz, Christophe; Boochs, Frank; Marzani, Franck

    2010-01-01

    International audience The paper presents a method to include spatial rule within rule languages like SWRL to infer spatial rules within semantic web framework. The concept presented here could benefit both geospatial community as they benefit using the adjusted knowledge base to infer spatial rule and semantic web community as the inclusion of spatial data in its framework

  8. 77 FR 4908 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2011-19719 of August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51476), the final rule entitled... Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2012 Rates; Corrections AGENCY: Centers...

  9. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  10. Sum Rules for Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavour in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalisation group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  11. SWRL: Rule Acquisition Using Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere, D; Borisovs, A

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays rule-based systems are very common. The use of ontology-based systems is becoming ever more popular, especially in addition to the rule-based one. The most widely used ontology development platform is Protégé. Protégé provides a knowledge acquisition tool, but still the main issue of the ontologybased rule system is rule acquisition. This paper presents an approach to using SWRL rules Tab, a plug-in to Protégé, for rule acquisition. SWRL rules Tab transforms conj...

  12. Quantum Brain oRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the oRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow conscious observers to...

  13. 75 FR 71799 - Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and CY 2011 Payment Rates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... comment period (65 FR 18434) to implement a prospective payment system for hospital outpatient services... in the November 20, 2009 Federal Register (74 FR 60316). In that final rule with comment period, we... comments received on the provisions of the November 18, 2008 final rule with comment period (73 FR...

  14. 78 FR 72155 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... January 1, 2012, did function for 3 or more years (76 FR 70289). The 3-year MLR is designed to represent a...) Prospective Payment System (PPS) On August 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (75 FR... Register, a final rule (76 FR 70228 through 70316) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal...

  15. 78 FR 40835 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... published in the Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease... rule (77 FR 67450 through 67531) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective... quarters of ASP+6 and then used the Producer Price Index (PPI) to inflate the prices to CY 2011 (75...

  16. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  17. The Enigma of Rules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 377-394. ISSN 0967-2559 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rules * normativity * evolution * language Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion www.informaworld.com

  18. Elimination of Social Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Teddy

    The thesis of this document is that arbitrary social rules must be eliminated. Chapters cover: (1) what it is like to be a student whose personal activities are controlled; (2) the necessity of environmental freedom as a prerequisite to successful educational reform; (3) the question of environmental control; (4) the legal history of environmental…

  19. Learning predictive clustering rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Struyf, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The two most commonly addressed data mining tasks are predictive modelling and clustering. Here we address the task of predictive clustering, which contains elements of both and generalizes them to some extent. We propose a novel approach to predictive clustering called predictive clustering rules, present an initial implementation and its preliminary experimental evaluation.

  20. Ruling by Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijten, Monique; Lorenzo, David

    2009-01-01

    combines qualitative ethnographic case studies with quantitative analysis of data on land distribution. In contrast to rights-based approaches, this perspective understands the legal discourses that people draw upon to explain property relations as `justifying rule talk' rather than the reflection of a...

  1. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  2. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S

    2016-01-01

    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  3. An Airship Slide Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  4. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  5. Hiding Sensitive Association Rule Using Clusters of Sensitive Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay keer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The security of the large database that contains certain crucialinformation, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to thenetwork against unauthorized access. Association rules hidingalgorithms get strong and efficient performance for protectingconfidential and crucial data. The objective of the proposedAssociation rule hiding algorithm for privacy preserving datamining is to hide certain information so that they cannot bediscovered through association rule mining algorithm. The mainapproached of association rule hiding algorithms to hide somegenerated association rules, by increase or decrease the support orthe confidence of the rules. The association rule items whether inLeft Hand Side (LHS or Right Hand Side (RHS of the generatedrule, that cannot be deduced through association rule miningalgorithms. The concept of Increase Support of Left Hand Side(ISL algorithm is decrease the confidence of rule by increase thesupport value of LHS. It doesn’t work for both side of rule. Itworks only for modification of LHS. In this paper, we propose aheuristic algorithm named ISLRC (Increase Support of L.H.S. itemof Rule Clusters based on ISL approach to preserve privacy forsensitive association rules in database. Proposed algorithmmodifies fewer transactions and hides many rules at a time. Theefficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with ISLalgorithms.

  6. Feasibility study for banking loan using association rule mining classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sasmito Aribowo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bad loans in the koperasi can be reduced if the koperasi can detect whether member can complete the mortgage debt or decline. The method used for identify characteristic patterns of prospective lenders in this study, called Association Rule Mining Classifier. Pattern of credit member will be converted into knowledge and used to classify other creditors. Classification process would separate creditors into two groups: good credit and bad credit groups. Research using prototyping for implementing the design into an application using programming language and development tool. The process of association rule mining using Weighted Itemset Tidset (WIT–tree methods. The results shown that the method can predict the prospective customer credit. Training data set using 120 customers who already know their credit history. Data test used 61 customers who apply for credit. The results concluded that 42 customers will be paying off their loans and 19 clients are decline

  7. CANDU market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1994 survey of prospective markets for CANDU reactors discusses prospects in Turkey, Thailand, the Philippines, Korea, Indonesia, China and Egypt, and other opportunities, such as in fuel cycles and nuclear safety. It was concluded that foreign partners would be needed to help with financing

  8. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  9. Linear quantum addition rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Melvyn B.

    2006-01-01

    The quantum integer $[n]_q$ is the polynomial $1 + q + q^2 + ... + q^{n-1}.$ Two sequences of polynomials $\\mathcal{U} = \\{u_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ and $\\mathcal{V} = \\{v_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ define a {\\em linear addition rule} $\\oplus$ on a sequence $\\mathcal{F} = \\{f_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ by $f_m(q)\\oplus f_n(q) = u_n(q)f_m(q) + v_m(q)f_n(q).$ This is called a {\\em quantum addition rule} if $[m]_q \\oplus [n]_q = [m+n]_q$ for all positive integers $m$ and $n$. In this paper all linear qua...

  10. The rule of law

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

    2015-01-01

    The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

  11. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  12. REx: An Efficient Rule Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm REx for generating symbolic rules from artificial neural network (ANN). Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. REx exploits the first order information in the data and finds shortest sufficient conditions for a rule of a class that can differentiate it from patterns of other classes. It can generate concise and perfect rules in the sense that the error rate of the rules is not worse than the inconsistency rate found in the original data. An important feature of rule extraction algorithm, REx, is its recursive nature. They are concise, comprehensible, order insensitive and do not involve any weight values. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmark classification problems, s...

  13. Technidilaton Phenomenology and Prospects for Production

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    1994-01-01

    An effective Lagrangian for the technidilaton and its interactions with matter is constructed. Properties of the technidilaton are compared with those of the Higgs boson. Technidilaton decays and production channels are investigated. Main technidilaton decays are suppressed compared to the Higgs boson and the most important production mechanism is due to gluon fusion. Prospects for technidilaton production and detection at $e^+e^-$ colliders and the SSC are examined. LEP 1, LEP 2 and SSC can find or rule out a technidilaton with a mass up to $10~GeV$, $40~GeV$ and $230~GeV$ respectively.

  14. FISCAL RULES AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Perée, Eric; Välilä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between fiscal rules and public investment both normatively and empirically. We first review the arguments for and against including public investment spending in a fiscal deficit rule. We then seek to assess the determinants of public investment, with a special focus on the role of the fiscal rules embodied in EMU. We conclude that there are practical difficulties precluding the introduction of a 'golden rule' and that there is virtually no evidence that EMU woul...

  15. On a continuous majority rule

    OpenAIRE

    Won Kyu Kim; Kyoung Hee Lee

    2005-01-01

    A seminal paper by May characterizes the majority rule in terms of anonymity, neutrality, and positive responsiveness. Since then, there have been many characterizations of the majority rule using different axioms by several authors. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of a continuous majority rule which generalizes the previous social welfare functions beyond the discrete values, and using new axioms, we will give a characterization of the continuous majority rule.

  16. Morphological Rules in Russian Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda Kopp

    Recent analyses of Russian (Halle 1963, Lightner 1972) have been forced by the criteria of rule "naturalness" and rule "generality" to posit highly abstract underlying forms. These underlying forms and rules are claimed to represent the speaker's competence. Such analyses are now being criticized (Derwing 1973, Hooper 1974) on the following…

  17. Glueballs in QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to gluonium based on QCD sum rules is given. The basic idea underlying the sum rules is that asymptotic freedom is violated first by interaction of quarks and gluons with vacuum fields. Formation of resonances is a phenomenological manifestation of this interaction. The emphasis is given to a new mass scale implied by the sum rules

  18. The PROSPECT Physics Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenfelter, J; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bowes, A; Bryan, C D; Brodsky, J P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Commeford, K; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Diwan, M V; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Goddard, B W; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Jones, D; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McKeown, R D; Mendenhall, M P; Mueller, P; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Qian, X; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Sheets, S; Surukuchi, P T; Varner, R L; Viren, B; Wang, W; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zangakis, G; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over meter-long distances. PROSPECT is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented $^6$Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3-ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7 - 12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the $\

  19. 75 FR 19544 - Inland Navigation Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ....05 Look-out (Rule 5). 83.06 Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.07 Risk of collision (Rule 7). 83.08 Action to avoid collision (Rule 8). 83.09 Narrow channels (Rule 9). 83.10 Traffic separation schemes (Rule 10... the Great Lakes. These Rules apply to all vessels upon the inland waters of the United States, and...

  20. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  1. Rules Extractor from PLSQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dubey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of real production systems implies more difficulties to make an efficient monitoring and especially fault diagnosis. We propose a new method supporting the operator to find the cause and the origin of a fault. To obtain a diagnosis aid system that is both reactive and easy to configure, we define a set of artificial intelligence tools using neuron network techniques. The interest of these techniques is to combine the neural networks learning capabilities and PLSQL business logics and extracting the rules into natural language.

  2. Rule the World

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta Beldarrain, Egoitz

    2014-01-01

    Rule the World es una aplicación para móviles Android. Consiste en introducir al jugador en una realidad aumentada, mediante el uso de su localización, debe de recoger diferentes objetos para darles diferentes usos, como llevarlos equipados, usarlos para construir otros objetos o enviárselos a amigos. En el siguiente documento se muestra el completo desarrollo de este proyecto, como se ha realizado la gestión, en que partes se ha dividido, la planificación que se ha llevado para realizar e...

  3. Rules for Optical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  4. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Slaar (Annelie); M.M.J. Walenkamp (Monique); A. Bentohami (Abdelali); M. Maas (Mario); R.R. van Rijn (Rick); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); L.C. Jager (L. Cara); N.L. Sosef (Nico L.); R. van Velde (Romuald); J.M. Ultee (Jan); J.C. Goslings (Carel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In most hospitals, children with acute wrist trauma are routinely referred for radiography. Objective: To develop and validate a clinical decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required. Materials and methods: We prospectively developed a

  5. Safety and efficiency of the Ottawa Ankle Rule in a Swiss population with ankle sprains

    OpenAIRE

    Can, U; Ruckert, R; Held, U; Buchmann, P; Platz, A; Bachmann, L M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rule (OAR) to rule out ankle and mid-foot fractures in patients presenting with acute ankle sprain and differences of accuracy between surgeons and non-surgeons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Swiss urban secondary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: Between September 2001 and October 2002 359 patients presented with a case of ankle sprain. Of these, 251 patients both met recruitment criteria and provided data for this study. A group...

  6. Pisciculture marine : Elements de prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: To develop its 2005-2009 strategic plan, IFREMER made two prospective analysis studies in 2003: a thematic prospective analysis and a sectorial prospective analysis. The "aquafarming" sectorial prospective analysis, based primarily on an IFREMER idea, particularly brought to light the difference in nature of problems posed by the future evolution of shellfish farming, fish farming and other stockbreeding (pearl farming and shrimp farming). In addition, the prospective analyses m...

  7. Flexible Rule Mining for Difference Rules and Exception Rules from Incomplete Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Two flexible rule mining methods from incomplete database are proposed using Genetic Network Programing (GNP). GNP is one of the evolutionary optimization techniques, which uses the directed graph structure. One of the methods extracts the rules showing the different characteristics between different classes in a database. The method can obtain the rules like 'if P then Q' is interesting only in the focusing class. The other one mines interesting rules like even if itemset X and Y have weak or no statistical relation to class item C, the join of X and Y has strong relation to class item C. An incomplete database includes missing data in some tuples. Generally, it is not easy for Apriori-like methods to extract difference rules and exception rules from incomplete database. We have estimated the performances of the rule extraction using incomplete data in the environmental and medical field.

  8. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  9. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Association Rule Mining in Distributed Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. V. C. Kulloli (Guide); O.A. Omble

    2014-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important term in data mining. Association rule mining generates important rules from the data. These rules are called frequent rules and the whole concept is known as frequent rule mining. Earlier this technique was used to be implemented at local machines to generate rule. But when the data size increases as transaction on data increases then local machines took large time to compute the frequent rules. To reduce the time, local machines started...

  11. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639

  12. Restructuring and simplifying rule bases

    OpenAIRE

    Vanthienen, Jan; Dries, E; WETS, G

    1995-01-01

    Rule bases are commonly acquired, by expert and/or knowledge engineer, in a form which is well suited for acquisition purposes. When the knowledge base is executed, however, a different structure may be required. Moreover, since human experts normally do not provide the knowledge in compact chunks, rule bases often suffer from redundancy. This may considerably harm efficiency. In this paper a procedure is examined to transform rules that are specified in the knowledge acquisition process ...

  13. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  14. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  15. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  16. BANKRUPTCY RULES AND PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    Juan de Dios Moreno Ternero; Antonio Villar Notario

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the relative progressivity of the main bankruptcy rules in taxation problems. A rule F is more progressive than a rule G when the after-tax income vector generated by F Lorenz dominates that generated by G. We focus our analysis on four classical rules (proportional, equal-awards, equal-losses and Talmud) and on the TAL-family, introduced in Moreno-Ternero & Villar (2002). This family depends on a parameter Theta belongs to [0,1] and encompasses the constrained equal award...

  17. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  18. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  19. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit......'s true type. On the other hand, when the risk of unintentional misrepresentation is small, when verification is costly, and when the Buyer is sufficiently risk averse, the Buyer conceivably may be more effectively deterred from intentional misrepresentation under the causality rule. It is argued that the...

  20. Sum rules in photonuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a survey of experimental data the nuclear compton scattering and the derivation of the dipole- and GGT-sum rules are discussed. The calculation that have been performed on dipole sum enhancement and dispersion relation sum rules are considered. (BJ)

  1. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.; Blackmore, A.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  2. Solar-Cell Slide Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Slide rule relates efficiency, impurity types, impurity concentrations, and process types. Solar cell slide rule calculations are determination of allowable impurity concentration for nonredistributive process, determination of impurity buildup factor for redistributive process and determination of allowable impurity concentration for redistributive process.

  3. Rule (4) and Continuous Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of rule (4) on a series or parallel sequence of quantum mechanical steps is to insure that a conscious observer does not skip a step. This rule effectively places the observer in continuous contact with the system. Key Words: brain states, continuous observation, conscious observer, measurement, probability current, state reduction, wave collapse.

  4. Prospects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad overviews presented on the future prospects and conditions of nuclear power. Several graphs and diagrams are shown on energy consumption, energy demand, energy sources, pollution by power plants, mineral fuel inventories, fissionable material inventories, renewable energy sources. The conditions of future utilization of nuclear power and nuclear power plants are discussed. (R.P.)

  5. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and...

  6. Rule Learning with Probabilistic Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gianni; Guarascio, Massimo; Manco, Giuseppe; Ortale, Riccardo; Ritacco, Ettore

    A hierarchical classification framework is proposed for discriminating rare classes in imprecise domains, characterized by rarity (of both classes and cases), noise and low class separability. The devised framework couples the rules of a rule-based classifier with as many local probabilistic generative models. These are trained over the coverage of the corresponding rules to better catch those globally rare cases/classes that become less rare in the coverage. Two novel schemes for tightly integrating rule-based and probabilistic classification are introduced, that classify unlabeled cases by considering multiple classifier rules as well as their local probabilistic counterparts. An intensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework is competitive and often superior in accuracy w.r.t. established competitors, while overcoming them in dealing with rare classes.

  7. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review se...

  8. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... must assume a margin period of risk under the IMM of 20 business days for netting sets where: (1) The... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market...

  9. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination. PMID:12742604

  10. Prospective memory research: why is it relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegel, M; Martin, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Points out that there are at least three reasons why research in prospective memory is highly relevant. Relevance of prospective memory for everyday life; Clinical relevance of prospective memory; Theoretical relevance of prospective memory.

  11. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  12. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules

  13. Environmental protection through technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding force of limiting values regarding nuisances and emissions and of descriptions of technical processes is dependent on the legal nature of the technical rules. Licensing authorities do not have to deal in their own responsibility with the legal obligations of owners under section 5, sub-section 1, number 1,2 BImSchG and section 7, subsection 2, number 3 AtG if authoritative legal regulations and general administrative rules exist, while the courts of administration are dispensed from full control of executive decision only if technical rules exist which have been issued as ordinances. Judges of courts of administration will only escape the dilemma of issuing necessary judgements on highly complex, technic-scientific matters without possessing adequate expert knowledge if the technical rules defining the legal obligations of owners are laid down, not only in part but comprehensively, as ordinances having the force of law. On account of their judging and weighing elements, technical rules cannot be considered in court-proceedings as reflecting experience generally, although they represent natural-scientific, technical expertise. At the level of the individual person's rights to guard himself from nuisances, technical rules do not have the force to render norms more concrete, irrespective of their legal nature. Lack of binding force of technical rules also characterizes their worth as regards compensation claims made and damages demanded under section 906, sub-section 2, number 2 BGB, section 14, number 2 BImSchG, and section 823, subsection 1 BGB. Only under section 823, subsection 2 BGB and as long as they have been issued as ordinances and relate to the plant owner's protection obligations, do technical rules immediately substantiate a claim to damages. It is the emitting plant owner's obligation to comprehensively prove that the preconditions for damages or compensation claims are not given if the technical rules are not fulfilled. (orig./HP)

  14. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  15. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  16. Consciousness The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    We examine the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules are given that govern stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It is found that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are given below. This is the first of several papers that lead to an experimental test of the rules, and of the "parallel principle" that is described elsewhere. Key words: Brain states, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  17. The uranium market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical analysis of the uranium market points out the cyclical nature of the market and suggests that the spot price, exploration levels, and mill capacity utilization rate are dependent on economic factors. An examination of the current uranium market suggests that the effects of the forecasted surplus supply, the diminishing returns in exploration and the long lead times and high costs of development may mean that future production levels are uncertain. The general prospects for the uranium industry are also uncertain because of barriers to trade, environmental regulations and public opinion. The paper concludes that by the use of long term contracts, appropriate inventory policy and greater discussion between producers and consumers the prospects for the uranium market can be made more certain and further imbalances in demand and supply can be avoided. (author)

  18. Radimetric autotransported prospecting survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure of prospection of minerals (''carborne''). It is characterized to be rapid and low costly if a sufficiently dense highway network is available or if transit with a vehicle across the fields is possible. Instruments, methods and results that may be obtained are given. The detector, a scintillation counter, is mounted on the top of an appropiate car registering continuously the measured values. Subsequently data are put on cartography, obtaining thus the values of iso-radiactivity which determine the values of ''background'' and the favorable zones for pursuing prospection work by other methods. The application of the method to the zone of the Chihuidos, province of Neuquen, is described in details and the obtained conclusions are given. (author)

  19. a prospective comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckel, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine effectiveness and safety of homoeopathic vs. conventional treatment for children with atopic eczema in usual care. In a prospective multicentre comparative observational non-randomized study 135 patients (1-14 years old, homoeopathy n=48 vs. conventional n=87) with moderate atopic eczema were included. Treatment was left to the physicians´preferences in both groups. The primary endpoint was the SCORAD (SCOring Atopic Dermatitis) after 6 months. Secondary outcom...

  20. Growth Prospects in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Algeria analyzes the growth prospects of the Algerian economy. Drawing on the findings of the empirical growth literature, the paper combines growth accounting and cross-country growth regressions to examine the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors in driving economic growth. It reviews the past growth performance in Algeria and explores the reasons underpinning the recent pickup in nonhydrocarbon GDP growth. The paper also analyzes labor market devel...

  1. Bright Economic Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minqiu

    2004-01-01

    @@ India is expected to register an 8.2% growth rate for the 2003-04 fiscal year. The overall economic situation this year has been satisfactory despite the scaled down 6-6.5% growth rate for the new fiscal year due to oil price hikes, reduced monsoon volume and some 7% inflation. Judging from the following factors, bright prospects are in store for the country down the road.

  2. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  3. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods and putting a strong emphasis on business rules. This article outlines the importance of managing business rules in an organized manner using dedicated software products and furthermore presents a general prototype for a business rules repository.

  4. A Class of DSm Conditional Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Alford, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two new DSm fusion conditioning rules with example, and as a generalization of them a class of DSm fusion conditioning rules, and then extend them to a class of DSm conditioning rules.

  5. Anonymity-Proof Voting Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Conitzer, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    A (randomized, anonymous) voting rule maps any multiset of total orders of (aka. votes over) a fixed set of alternatives to a probability distribution over these alternatives. A voting rule f is neutral if it treats all alternatives symmetrically. It satisfies participation if no voter ever benefits from not casting her vote. It is falsename-proof if no voter ever benefits from casting additional (potentially different) votes. It is anonymity-proof if it satisfies participation and it i...

  6. Rule 40 guidelines: July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Rule 40 of the Olympic Charter limits athletes competing in the Olympic Games from appearing in advertising during and shortly before the Olympic Games. This helps prevent ambush marketing which might otherwise utilise athletes to create an association with the Games. These guidelines explain the rationale and application of Rule 40 in the United Kingdom.‘Express consents’ to use athletes in advertising are available for official sponsors of London 2012, but other businesses are generally res...

  7. Consciousness: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    We examine the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules are given that govern stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It is found that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are given below. This is the first of several papers that lead to...

  8. Learning and Rewriting in Fuzzy Rule Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Ingrid; Koch, Manuel; MICHAEL R BERTHOLD

    2003-01-01

    Different learning algorithms based on learning from examples are described based on a set of graph rewrite rules. Starting from either a very general or a very special rule set which is modeled as graph, two to three basic rewrite rules are applied until a rule graph explaining all examples is reached. The rewrite rules can also be used to model the corresponding hypothesis space as they describe partial relations between different rule set graphs. The possible paths, algorithms can take thr...

  9. 77 FR 19861 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Test Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... proposing a test rule under TSCA that would require any person who manufactures or processes...

  10. Proposed acid-rain rules: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet discusses the interdependence of the core acid rain rules

  11. Prospective memory in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A. George; Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2011-01-01

    The content of prospective memory is comprised of representations of an action to perform in the future. When people form prospective memories, they temporarily put the memory representation in an inactive state while engaging in other activities, and then activate the representation in the future. Ultimately, successful activation of the memory representation yields an action at an appropriate, but temporally distant, time. A hallmark of prospective memory is that activation of the memory re...

  12. 76 FR 59263 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... care hospital quality measures. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2011-19719 of August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51476), the final rule entitled ``Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective... requirements. IV. Correction of Errors In FR Doc. 2011-19719 of August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51476), make...

  13. 76 FR 59265 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Nursing Facility (SNF) Prospective Payment System (PPS) final rule (76 FR 48486, 48540) inadvertently... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kane, (410) 786-0557. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In FR Doc. 2011-19544 of August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48486), there were three technical errors that are identified...

  14. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  15. Born Rule and Noncontextual Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic rule that links the formalism of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the real world was stated by Born in 1926. Since then, there were many attempts to derive the Born postulate as a theorem, Gleason's one being the most prominent. The Gleason derivation, however, is generally considered as rather intricate and its physical meaning, in particular in relation with the noncontextuality of probability (NP), is not quite evident. More recently, we are witnessing a revival of interest on possible demonstrations of the Born rule, like Zurek's and Deutsch's based on the decoherence and on the theory of decisions, respectively. Despite an ongoing debate about the presence of hidden assumptions and circular reasonings, these have the merit of prompting more physically oriented approaches to the problem. Here we suggest a new proof of the Born rule based on the noncontextuality of probability. Within the theorem we also demonstrate the continuity of probability with respect to the amplitudes, which has been sug...

  16. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  17. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  18. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a prelude to drawing conclusions about oil price prospects in the short term, market fundamentals and perceptions are outlined. A net world oil demand growth of close to one million barrels/day above 1991 is expected in 1992. This will result largely in an increased call on OPEC crude oil since supplies from countries outside OPEC are likely to remain static. There is scope for increasing OPEC crude oil production to the necessary level but it will need to be carefully phased with respect to demand in order to avoid a stock overhang which could unsettle the market and undermine OPEC's objective of supporting oil price levels. Market fundamentals, such as production capacity and the revenue needs of the OPEC members, indicate a continuation at least until next year of the basket price in its current relatively narrow range between $15 and $20/bbl, with perhaps some temporary fluctuations. A view of the demand and supply balance during the next few years suggests there is little awaiting beyond the horizon to change this prospect. (UK)

  19. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to clarify certain rules and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to...

  20. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original Franchise Rule published at 43 FR 59614 (Dec. 21, 1978... separate the disclosure requirements for business opportunities from those for franchises.\\3\\ \\2\\ 60...

  1. Reduction of Negative Rules in Association Rule Mining Using Distance Security and Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Kumar Ameta; Chhavi Saxena

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of data is a challenging task for mined useful association rule in data mining. The classical association rulemining generate rule with various problem such as pruning pass of transaction database, negative rule generation and superiority of rule set. Time to time various researchers modified classical association rule mining with different approach. But in current scenario association rule mining suffered from superiority rule generation. The problem of superiority is sol...

  2. Veterans Transportation Service. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document adopts as a final rule, with changes, a Department of Veterans affairs (VA) proposed rule concerning VA's direct transportation of persons for the purposes of examination, treatment, and care. Section 202 of the Dignified Burial and Other Veterans' Benefits Improvement Act of 2012, as amended, authorized VA to carry out a program to transport any person to or from a VA facility or VA-authorized facility, for the purpose of examination, treatment, or care. VA is authorized to carry out this program until December 31, 2016. These regulations provide guidelines for veterans and the public regarding this program, hereafter referred to as the Veterans Transportation Service (VTS). PMID:27008716

  3. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  4. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  5. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  6. HIDING SENSITIVE ASSOCIATION RULE USING HEURISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthuri S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of identifying patterns from large amount of data. Association rule mining aims to discover dependency relationships across attributes. It may also disclose sensitive information. With extensive application of data mining techniques to various domains, privacy preservation becomes mandatory. Association rule hiding is one of the techniques of privacy preserving data mining to protect the sensitive association rules generated by association rule mining. This paper adopts heuristic approach for hiding sensitive association rules. The proposed technique makes the representative rules and hides the sensitive rules.

  7. Association Rules in the Relational Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Oliver; Ester, Martin; Lu, Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    One of the most utilized data mining tasks is the search for association rules. Association rules represent significant relationships between items in transactions. We extend the concept of association rule to represent a much broader class of associations, which we refer to as \\emph{entity-relationship rules.} Semantically, entity-relationship rules express associations between properties of related objects. Syntactically, these rules are based on a broad subclass of safe domain relational calculus queries. We propose a new definition of support and confidence for entity-relationship rules and for the frequency of entity-relationship queries. We prove that the definition of frequency satisfies standard probability axioms and the Apriori property.

  8. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  9. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Deqin; Zhang, Liping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is ef...

  10. Social rule system theory: universal interaction grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Tom R. Burns; Machado, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Rule system theory has been used in conceptualizing interaction grammars as rule regimes. Such grammars are complexes of rules applying to social action and interaction of individuals, groups, and organizations. They consist of a finite and universal set of rule categories (10) that are identified in the paper and concern five key factors in social life: group agency conditions, social structure, interaction, material conditions, and time and space. A rule regime, while an abst...

  11. Preserving Biodiversity: Ambiguity and Safety Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Giannis Vardas; Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2006-01-01

    Safety rules are developed, for biodiversity preservation. These rules are designed to take into account the impact of uncertainty and worst case scenarios, which when combined with unregulated ecosystem management decisions, might produce extinction of species. The safety rules take the form of fixed land allocation and fixed harvesting rules under uncertainty. We explore how model uncertainty affects these safety rules relative to the classic risk aversion case and how a measure of precauti...

  12. Rule Management in Expert Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Segev; J. Leon Zhao

    1994-01-01

    Expert database systems combine database and expert systems technologies to support the effective management of both rules and data. This paper studies rule processing strategies in expert database systems involving rules that are conditional on joins of relational data. Auxiliary constructs for processing join rules are proposed, and a framework of join rule processing strategies is developed. Cost functions of several strategies are derived based on a stochastic model that characterizes the...

  13. How a Star Cluster Ruled Out MACHOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Are massive black holes hiding in the halos of galaxies, making up the majority of the universes mysterious dark matter? This possibility may have been ruled out by a star cluster in a small galaxy recently discovered orbiting the Milky Way.Dark Matter CandidatesThe relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up ~27%. [ESA/Planck]Roughly 27% of the mass and energy in the observable universe is made up of dark matter matter invisible to us, which is neither accounted for by observable baryonic matter nor dark energy.What makes up this dark matter? Among the many proposed candidates, one of the least exotic is that of massive compact halo objects, or MACHOs. MACHOs are hypothesized to be black holes that formed in the early universe and now hide in galactic halos. We cant detect light from these objects but their mass adds to the gravitational pull of galaxies.So far, MACHOs prospects arent looking great. They have not been detected in gravitational lensing surveys, ruling out MACHOs between 10-7 and 30 solar masses as the dominant component of dark matter in our galaxy. MACHOs over 100 solar masses have also been ruled out, due to the existence of fragile wide halo binaries that would have been disrupted by the presence of such large black holes.But what about MACHOs between 30 and 100 solar masses? In a new study, Timothy Brandt (NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, NJ) uses a recently discovered faint galaxy, Eridanus II, to place constraints on MACHOs in this mass range.MACHO constraints from the survival of a star cluster in Eri II, assuming a cluster age of 3 Gyr (a lower bound; constraints increase when assuming an age of 12 Gyr). [Adapted from Brandt 2016]A Star Cluster in Eri IIEridanus II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that lies roughly 1.2 million light-years away from us. This dim object is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, discovered as part of the Dark Energy Survey

  14. Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue…

  15. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128. ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Rules and Strategies in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Reilles, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the essential feature we have considered when designing a new language based on rules and strategies. Relying on the implementation of Tom, we explain how these ingredients can be implemented and integrated in a Java environment.

  17. Selection rules for ^48Cr

    CERN Document Server

    Kingan, M I Quionez A

    2016-01-01

    In the single j shell(f_{7/2}){}^{48} Cr is the first even-even nucleus for which there are T=0 (Isoscalar) J=1^{+} states. These states are here studied. This nucleus ,in the same model space, is mid-shell for both neutrons and protons and this leads to many selection rules.

  18. Pakistan, military rule and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Casaca, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    As long as the Pakistani military structures do not cut radically their instrumental view of Islamic extremism, and do not understand the imperative need to leave the political scene, allowing the strengthening of the civil society, minority rights, education for tolerance and the rule of law, terrorism will remain a major threat endangering the Pakistani people and its neighbours.

  19. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  20. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418. ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.378, year: 2014

  1. Rule-based information integration

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, de, S.; Keulen, van, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and versioning. We further discuss the integration process from a data point of view.

  2. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  4. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the Commission for approval any proposed Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Rule change. A Regional Entity shall submit a Regional Entity Rule or Rule change to the Electric Reliability Organization... or upon complaint, may propose a change to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or...

  5. Prospects for HTS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed

  6. Prospects at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  8. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  9. Hund's rules, symmetry holes, and the alternating rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review attempts to explain Hund's first rule, that a triplet state should lie below a singlet state of the same configuration, as a consequence of the open-quote Fermi hole close-quote in the triplet state electron-electron distribution function. After describing the failure of such attempts, and reviewing the types of exceptions to Hund's first rule, we examine the open-quote alternating rule close-quote, which accounts for most of the known exceptions. We show that the open-quote alternating rule close-quote is associated with whether the parity of the two-electron wavefunction is natural or unnatural. Whereas in the case of natural parity the triplet correlation function has a broad open-quote Fermi hole close-quote and the singlet correlation function does not, in the case of unnatural parity the singlet correlation function has a quartic open-quote symmetry hole close-quote which is even broader than the quadratic open-quote Fermi hole close-quote of the triplet correlation function. Thus this more general perspective provides a relationship between the ordering of singlet/triplet energy levels and the relative breadths of their open-quote symmetry holesclose quotes. Although the breadth of open-quotes symmetry holes close-quote cannot be said to cause the ordering of singlet/triplet energy levels, both phenomena are consequences of factors of (-1)S+L+ell1+ell2 in the construction of the properly antisymmetrized eigenfunctions of spin and angular variables; hence the two phenomena are closely associated, although neither is the cause of the other

  10. Geochemistry and ore prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied geochemistry is a new technique which helps the geologist in detecting ore deposits. Some deposits, even when they are covered with rather thick surface structures, form around these zones where the infinitesimal content of some elements of soils or waters is notably different. These 'anomalies' may be contemporaneous to the deposit-structure (primary dispersion) or may have occurred later (secondary dispersion). Various factors rule these anomalies: ore-stability, soil homogeneity, water conditions, topography, vegetation, etc... Applied geochemistry is in fact the study of analysis techniques of metal traces in soils as well as the geological interpretation of observed anomalies. This report gives practical data on sampling methods, yields, costs and also on special problems of uranium geochemistry. (author)

  11. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  12. A Report on the Ninth International Web Rule Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Adrian; AG Corporate Semantic Web

    2016-01-01

    The annual International Web Rule Symposium (RuleML) is an international conference on research, applications, languages and standards for rule technologies. RuleML is a leading conference to build bridges between academe and industry in the field of rules and its applications, especially as part of the semantic technology stack. It is devoted to rule-based programming and rule-based systems including production rules systems, logic programming rule engines, and business rule engines/business...

  13. Drug doping in senior Australian rules football: a survey for frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY, K J; McNeil, J J; Capes, A G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine by survey whether the frequency of use of performance enhancing drugs (drug doping) is significant in elite players of Australian Rules football, and to compare this frequency with that in other competitions. METHODS: Randomised unannounced prospective urine testing during the period 1990-95 of players from the Australian Football League out of competition, in competition matches, and in finals matches; testing was performed according to Olympic International Committe...

  14. Constructing majority-rule supertrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMorris FR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supertree methods combine the phylogenetic information from multiple partially-overlapping trees into a larger phylogenetic tree called a supertree. Several supertree construction methods have been proposed to date, but most of these are not designed with any specific properties in mind. Recently, Cotton and Wilkinson proposed extensions of the majority-rule consensus tree method to the supertree setting that inherit many of the appealing properties of the former. Results We study a variant of one of Cotton and Wilkinson's methods, called majority-rule (+ supertrees. After proving that a key underlying problem for constructing majority-rule (+ supertrees is NP-hard, we develop a polynomial-size exact integer linear programming formulation of the problem. We then present a data reduction heuristic that identifies smaller subproblems that can be solved independently. While this technique is not guaranteed to produce optimal solutions, it can achieve substantial problem-size reduction. Finally, we report on a computational study of our approach on various real data sets, including the 121-taxon, 7-tree Seabirds data set of Kennedy and Page. Conclusions The results indicate that our exact method is computationally feasible for moderately large inputs. For larger inputs, our data reduction heuristic makes it feasible to tackle problems that are well beyond the range of the basic integer programming approach. Comparisons between the results obtained by our heuristic and exact solutions indicate that the heuristic produces good answers. Our results also suggest that the majority-rule (+ approach, in both its basic form and with data reduction, yields biologically meaningful phylogenies.

  15. Feynman rules for Gauss's law

    CERN Document Server

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    I work on a set of Feynman rules that were derived in order to incorporate the constraint of Gauss's law in the perturbation expansion of gauge field theories. The constraint is implemented via a Lagrange multiplier field, which, in the case of the non-Abelian theory, develops a radiatively generated effective potential term and corresponding soliton solutions, whose relation to the confining properties of the theory is discussed.

  16. Feynman rules for Gauss's law

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    I work on a set of Feynman rules that were derived in order to incorporate the constraint of Gauss's law in the perturbation expansion of gauge field theories and calculate the interaction energy of two static sources. The constraint is implemented via a Lagrange multiplier field, $\\lambda$, which, in the case of the non-Abelian theory, develops a radiatively generated effective potential term. After analysing the constant and soliton solutions for $\\lambda$, the confining properties and the ...

  17. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo;

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark'...... of interviews with trade organisations. Finally, we have examined the application of the new rules, mainly by looking at the Danish Consumer Complaints Board.......The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...

  18. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  19. 75 FR 79339 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Rulings, 75 FR 52311 (August 25, 2010). This current notice covers all scope rulings and anticircumvention... its turbocharger spindle units are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; requested...

  20. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  1. 78 FR 32372 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...). \\2\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 78 FR 9370 (February 8, 2013). Scope Rulings Made Between October 1... Republic of China Requestor: Tobacco Import USA (``TIU''); hookah charcoal tablets imported by TIU are...

  2. 76 FR 10558 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... of Scope Rulings, 75 FR 79339 (December 20, 2010). This current notice covers all scope rulings and... Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: Elgin Fastener Group; hex collared stud is...

  3. 78 FR 59653 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...). \\2\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 78 FR 42934 (July 18, 2013). Scope Rulings Made Between April 1... (PTFE) resin products made from raw, unfilled PTFE powder from Russia and the People's Republic of...

  4. 77 FR 50084 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Rulings, 77 FR 38767 (June 29, 2012). Scope Rulings Completed Between January 1, 2012, and March 31, 2012... and Paper Mills, PT. Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk, and Paper Max, Ltd. (collectively ``APP''); (1)...

  5. 78 FR 9370 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ....225(o). \\2\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 77 FR 52313 (August 29, 2012). Scope Rulings Made Between.... Indah Kiat Pulp & Paper Tbk, and Paper Max, Ltd. (collectively ``APP''); (1) APP's Ningbo Fold...

  6. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  7. Notes: Several Problems with Advance Ruling (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOHYAMA Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, most tax scholars and practitioners have believed that the introduction of "advance-ruling" would dispel the uncertainty about tax consequences and facilitate transactions. However, Givati (2009) shows that in the U.S. advance rulings (Private Letter Ruling and Advance Pricing Agreements) are not frequently used. Givati (2009) argues that some taxpayers avoid applying for advance ruling not because of the "direct cost" of the application, but because of strategic disadvantages. For ...

  8. Exponential fitting quadrature rule for functional equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, A.; Paternoster, B.; Santomauro, G.

    2012-09-01

    A Gaussian quadrature rule for periodic integrand function is presented. The weights and nodes depend on the frequency of the problem and they are constructed by following the exponential fitting theory. The composite rule based on this formula is derived. The analysis of the error is carried out and it proves that the exponentially fitted Gaussian rule is more accurate than the classical Gauss-Legendre rule when oscillatory functions are treated. Some numerical tests are presented.

  9. Fusion Rules for Extended Current Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Ernest; Gepner, Doron

    1996-01-01

    The initial classification of fusion rules have shown that rational conformal field theory is very limited. In this paper we study the fusion rules of extend ed current algebras. Explicit formulas are given for the S matrix and the fusion rules, based on the full splitting of the fixed point fields. We find that in s ome cases sensible fusion rules are obtained, while in others this procedure lea ds to fractional fusion constants.

  10. Inferring comprehensible business/ICT alignment rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Cumps, Bjorn; Martens, David; De Backer, Manu; Haesen, Raf; Viaene, Stijn; Dedene, Guido; Baesens, Bart; Snoeck, Monique

    2009-01-01

    We inferred business rules for business/ICT alignment by applying a novel rule induction algorithm on a data set containing rich alignment information polled from 641 organisations in 7 European countries. The alignment rule set was created using AntMiner+, a rule induction technique with a reputation of inducing accurate, comprehensible, and intuitive predictive models from data. Our data set consisted of 18 alignment practices distilled from an analysis of relevant publications and validate...

  11. Auxiliary nRules of Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Standard quantum mechanics makes use of four auxiliary rules that allow the Schrodinger solutions to be related to laboratory experience, such as the Born rule that connects square modulus to probability. These rules (here called the sRules) lead to some unacceptable results. They do not allow the primary observer to be part of the system. They do not allow individual observations (as opposed to ensembles) to be part of the system. They make a fundamental distinction between microscopic and m...

  12. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Islamic principles completely cover all prospects of life including working in organization. The impact of management style used in an organization play an important role in employee commitment towards its work. This paper is an effort to explore impact of Islamic work ethic on human resource of organization including the prospective of work conflict, job satisfaction, job turn over, turnover intentions and organizational commitment. Data for current study was collected personally through que...

  13. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions on

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of prospective mathematics teachers in Teaching Practice course taken at the last semester of the teacher education program. For this purpose, 47 prospective teachers taking Teaching Practice wrote and submitted one or two-page reflection of their school-based experiences at the end of the semester. Their written responses were examined and analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that (1) there exist not enough opportunities for practice...

  14. 42 CFR 411.106 - Aggregation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregation rules. 411.106 Section 411.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.106 Aggregation rules. The following rules apply...

  15. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  16. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  17. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  18. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  19. 7 CFR 29.3618 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3618 Section 29.3618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3618 Rule 17. Any lot of tobacco which is not green but contains over...

  20. The Orbital Angular Momentum Sum Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatma; Burkardt, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    As an alternative to the Ji sum rule for the quark angular momentum, a sum rule for the quark orbital angular momentum, based on a twist-3 generalized parton distribution, has been suggested. We study the validity of this sum rule in the context of scalar Yukawa interactions as well as in QED for an electron.

  1. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  2. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  3. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  4. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing rulings. 103.85 Section 103.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The...

  5. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  6. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed. PMID:18319445

  8. 29 CFR 2200.2 - Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction. (a) Scope. These rules shall govern all... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction. 2200.2 Section 2200.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263A-15 - Effective dates, transitional rules, and anti-abuse rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-abuse rule. 1.263A-15 Section 1.263A-15 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., transitional rules, and anti-abuse rule. (a) Effective dates—(1) Sections 1.263A-8 through 1.263A-15 generally... account under former section 189 or section 266. (c) Anti-abuse rule. The interest capitalization...

  10. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows that the...

  11. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%. We also found a satis- factory performance of certain groups of subjects for the conjunctive rule, for the elimination{by{aspects rule, for the majority rule, and for the maximin rule. Our data sug...

  12. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  13. Cutkosky Rules from Outer Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We overview recent results on the mathematical foundations of Cutkosky rules. We emphasize that the two operations of shrinking an internal edge or putting internal lines on the mass-shell are natural operation on the cubical chain complex studied in the context of geometric group theory. This together with Cutkosky's theorem regarded as a theorem which informs us about variations connected to the monodromy of Feynman amplitudes allows for a systematic approach to normal and anomalous thresholds, dispersion relations and the optical theorem. In this report we follow [1] closely.

  14. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with

  15. Prospect on nuclear energy and promotion strategy for next 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes prospect for nuclear energy and promotion strategy for next 50 years, which has four part ; summary, prospect on nuclear energy for next 50 years with wealth, quality of the life and energy, available energy, future power and energy, nuclear power except as using energy, promotion strategy for nuclear energy for next 50 year with current situation and the rule of nuclear energy in the future, international situation and effect on environment, nuclear reactor and strategy for nuclear fuel cycle, international, institutional and social problems, using nuclear energy except power, precondition for international use of nuclear power, use of nuclear energy for extra field and conclusion.

  16. Auxiliary nRules of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2005-01-01

    Standard quantum mechanics makes use of four auxiliary rules that allow the Schrodinger solutions to be related to laboratory experience, such as the Born rule that connects square modulus to probability. These rules (here called the sRules) lead to some unacceptable results. They do not allow the primary observer to be part of the system. They do not allow individual observations (as opposed to ensembles) to be part of the system. They make a fundamental distinction between microscopic and macroscopic things, and they are ambiguous in their description of secondary observers such as Schrodingers cat. The nRules are an alternative set of auxiliary rules that avoid the above difficulties. In this paper we look at a wide range of representative experiments showing that the nRules adequately relate the Schrodinger solutions to empirical experience. This suggests that the sRules should be abandoned in favor of the more satisfactory nRules, or a third auxiliary rule-set called the oRules. Keywords: brain states, c...

  17. Behavioural Rule Discovery from Swarm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, David; Wang, Hui; Moore, George; Bi, Yaxin

    Rules determine the functionality of a given system, in either natural or man-made systems. Man-made systems, such as computer applications, use a set of known rules to control the behaviours applied in a strict manner. Biological or natural systems employ unknown rules, these being undiscovered rules which are more complex. These rules are unknown due to the inability to determine how they are applied, unless observed by a third party. The swarm is one of the largest naturally observed systems, with bird flocks and ant colonies being the most notable. It is a collection or group of individuals who use behaviours to complete a given goal or objective. It is the aim of this paper to present rule discovery methods for the mining of these unknown rules within a swarm system, employing a bird flock simulation environment to gather data.

  18. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed to...

  19. Quantum Brains: The OnuRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and a related paper the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the onuRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow conscious observers to exist inside the system without empirical ambiguity, reflecting our own unambiguous experience in the universe. This requirement is satisfied by the onuRules. These rules are restricted to observer measurements, so state reduction can only occur when an observer is present. Keywords: brain states, epistemological model, ontological model, stochastic choice, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  20. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijaya Prakash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  1. Software Security Rules: SDLC Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software has become an integral part of everyday life. Everyday, millions of people perform transaction through internet, ATM, mobile phone, they send email & e-greetings, and use word processing and spreadsheet for various purpose. People use software bearing in mind that it is reliable and can be trust upon and the operation they perform is secured. Now, if these software have exploitable security hole then how can they be safe for use. Security brings value to software in terms of people’s trust. The value provided by secure software is of vital importance because many critical functions are entirely dependent on the software. That is why security is a serious topic which should be given proper attention during the entire SDLC, ‘right from the beginning’. For the proper implementation of security in the software, twenty one security rules are proposed in this paper along with validation results. It is found that by applying these rules as per given implementation mechanism, most of the vulnerabilities are eliminated in the software and a more secure software can be built.

  2. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets. PMID:25494520

  3. Variable rules meet Impoverishment theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrott, Jeffrey K.; Nevins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper revives the sociolinguistic notion of ‘variable rules’ (Labov 1969, Cedergren and Sankoff 1974, Guy 1991) as a specific and restricted mechanism within the theoretical framework of Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz 1993, Embick and Noyer 2007). We propose that intra-individual ......This paper revives the sociolinguistic notion of ‘variable rules’ (Labov 1969, Cedergren and Sankoff 1974, Guy 1991) as a specific and restricted mechanism within the theoretical framework of Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz 1993, Embick and Noyer 2007). We propose that intra......-individual paradigm ‘leveling’ variation (or, variable syncretism) can be effectively modeled as resulting from post-syntactic feature deletion rules that apply variably. In other words, variable rules enact a structural change only probabilistically, rather than deterministically, when their structural description...... is met. By hypothesis, morphological ‘Impoverishment’ operations (Bonet 1991, Halle 1997, Noyer 1998) are induced by the inherent and universal markedness of particular morphosyntactic features or their combination (Greenberg 1966, Croft 2003). We examine markedness-driven variable Impoverishment...

  4. Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiattribute Decision Making Method Based on Cumulative Prospect Theory and Dempster-Shafer Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xihua Li; Fuqiang Wang; Xiaohong Chen

    2014-01-01

    With respect to decision making problems under uncertainty, a trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy multiattribute decision making method based on cumulative prospect theory and Dempster-Shafer theory is developed. The proposed method reflects behavioral characteristics of decision makers, information fuzziness under uncertainty, and uncertain attribute weight information. Firstly, distance measurement and comparison rule of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used to derive value functio...

  5. EVALUATING TOOLS FOR EXECUTION AND MANAGEMENT OF AUTHORIZATION BUSINESS RULES EVALUATING TOOLS FOR EXECUTION AND MANAGEMENT OF AUTHORIZATION BUSINESS RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guerreiro Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Information security is an essential subject for commercial and government organizations, and its deployment should be supported by software tools, both at design time (when authorization business rules are planned and designed and at run time (when authorization business rules are applied and monitored. An authorization business rule (or authorization rules, for short is a rule that states which operations may be executed on each data item by each user. Therefore, information security supporting tools should include features for editing, managing, and assuring the application and monitoring of authorization rules. These features may be structured in a framework composed by rule management and rule execution components. In real scenarios, evaluating and selecting tools to support organization business processes is typically handled by prospecting activities that are conducted in an ad-hoc way, and therefore are very time-consuming and hard to track. However, the rapid evolution of business scenarios, the increasing demand for traceability in business-IT alignment and the great number of IT solutions available for being evaluated require prospecting activities to be more systematic, traceable and quickly adapted to different scenarios. This work proposes a set of criteria and a systematic method for evaluating tools for management and execution of authorization rules. We have applied our approach in a real scenario. The results demonstrated that BRMS (Business Rule Management Systems tools can be used for authorization rule management, and Oracle DBMS is the most suitable tool for authorization rules storage and execution. Segurança da informação é um tópico essencial para organizações privadas e governamentais, e sua disponibilização deve ser apoiada por ferramentas de software, tanto em tempo de projeto (quando regras de negócio de autorização são planejadas e projetadas como em tempo de execução (quando regras de negócio de

  6. Rule-Based Network Service Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Deca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unprecedented development of networks, manual network service provisioning is becoming increasingly risky, error-prone, expensive, and time-consuming. To solve this problem,rule-based methods can provide adequate leverage for automating various network management tasks. This paper presents a rule-based solution for automated network service provisioning. The proposed approach captures configuration data interdependencies using high-level, service-specific, user-configurable rules. We focus on the service validation task, which is illustrated by means of a case study.Based on numerical results, we analyse the influence of the network-level complexity factors and rule descriptive features on the rule efficiency. This analysis shows the operators how to increase rule efficiency while keeping the rules simple and the rule set compact. We present a technique that allows operators to increase the error coverage, and we show that high error coverage scales well when the complexity of networks and services increases.We reassess the correlation function between specific rule efficiency and rule complexity metrics found in previous work, and show that this correlation function holds for various sizes, types, and complexities of networks and services.

  7. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  8. 31 CFR 800.103 - Applicability rule; prospective application of certain provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... board of directors of a U.S. business or has requested the conversion of convertible voting securities; or (4) The parties have, in the Committee's view, otherwise made a commitment to engage in...

  9. Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-approaches, patterns and prospects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götzenberger, L.; de Bello, Francesco; Brathen, K. A.; Davison, J.; Dubuis, A.; Guisan, A.; Lepš, Jan; Lindborg, R.; Moora, M.; Partel, M.; Pellissier, L.; Pottier, J.; Vittoz, P.; Zobel, K.; Zobel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2012), s. 111-127. ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : community assembly * competition * meta-analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 10.256, year: 2012

  10. Modulus of unbounded valence subdivision rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cannon, Floyd and Parry have studied the modulus of finite subdivision rules extensively. We investigate the properties of the modulus of subdivision rules with linear and exponential growth at every vertex, using barycentric subdivision and a subdivision rule for the Borromean rings as examples. We show that the subdivision rule arising from the Borromean rings is conformal, and conjecture that the subdivision rules for all alternating links are conformal. We show that the 1,2,3-tile criterion of Cannon, Floyd, and Parry is sufficient to prove conformality for linear growth, but not exponential growth. We show that the criterion gives a weaker form of conformality for subdivision rules of exponential growth at each vertex. We contrast this with the known, bounded-valence case, and illustrate our results with circle packings using Ken Stephenson's Circlepack.

  11. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows that the...... ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  12. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition...... management control and information systems. A model is proposed to explain the relationship between the drivers of rule change and the actual dynamics of rules, incorporating two sets of moderators: organizational moderators and rule-related moderators. Research limitations/implications: - The findings...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed to...

  13. Quantum Brains: The NuRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the nuRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow conscious observers to exist inside the system without empirical ambiguity, reflecting our own unambiguous experience in the universe. This requirement is satisfied by the nuRules. They allow both objective and observer measurements, so state reduction can occur with or without an observer being present. Keywords: brain states, epistemological model, ontological model, stochastic choice, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  14. Why Dempster’s Fusion Rule is not a Generalization of Bayes Fusion Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Dezert; Albena Tchamova; Deqiang Han; Jean-Marc Tacnet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze Bayes fusion rule in details from a fusion standpoint, as well as the emblematic Dempster’s rule of combination introduced by Shafer in his Mathematical Theory of evidence based on belief functions. We propose a new interesting formulation of Bayes rule and point out some of its properties. A deep analysis of the compatibility of Dempster’s fusion rule with Bayes fusion rule is done. We show that Dempster’s rule is com...

  15. Taking International Marketing Decisions under WTO Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Jean-Emile

    2002-01-01

    With the conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the establishment of the World trade Organisation (WTO) in April 1994, a comprehensive set of rules emerged that affect in a pervasive manner the activities of firms on foreign markets. This body of rules is overwhelmingly presented in the literature from a trade policy or legal viewpoint. The result is that for many marketers WTO rules are somewhat confusing, and their impact on international business operation is difficult to assess. This paper i...

  16. A Quick Algorithm for Mining Exceptional Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Exceptional rules are often ignored because of their small support. However, they have high confidence, so they are useful sometimes. A new algorithm for mining exceptional rules is presented, which creates a large itemset from a relatively small database and scans the whole database only one time to generate all exceptional rules. This algorithm is proved to be quick and effective through its application in a mushroom database.

  17. ASSOCIATION RULE MINING IN ECOMMERCE: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswari S,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Association Rule mining is one of the most popular data mining techniques which can be defined as extracting the interesting correlation and relation among large volume of transactions. E-commerce applications generate huge amount of operational and behavioral data. Applying association rule mining in e-commerce application can unearth the hidden knowledge from these data. In this paper a survey of association rule mining and its various applications in e-commerce environment are made.

  18. Mining association rules using formal concept analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquier, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the use of Formal Concept Analysis in the framework of association rule extraction. Using frequent closed itemsets and their generators, that are defined using the Galois closure operator, we address two major problems: response times of association rule extraction and the relevance and usefulness of discovered association rules. We quickly review the Close and the A-Close algorithms for extracting frequent closed itemsets using their generators that redu...

  19. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  20. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  1. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  3. Methods and Concepts for Business Rules Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zoet, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Business rules are among the fastest changing business concepts in many organizations. The frequency of change is caused due to changing customer demands, changing regulation, increased regulation, and changing strategies. At the same time questions for more transparency are emerging, thus enforcing explanation of the applied business rules in a specific situation. In the current body of knowledge, Business Rules Management (BRM) is often classified as a technical solution. This perspective v...

  4. Stochastic Inflow Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Anongrit Kangrang; Kangrang Kangrang; Witsanukorn Chaiyapoom

    2008-01-01

    Rule curves are basic monthly guidelines for long term reservoir operation. Generally, the optimal rule curves are searched by reservoir simulation model and optimization techniques. A traditional reservoir simulation does not consider the risk of reservoir operation caused by natural uncertainty from inflow. A stochastic simulation model embedded genetic algorithm model is developed for searching the optimal rule curves in this study. Synthetic inflows are used in the developed model for ass...

  5. Stability consequences of fiscal policy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Railavo, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Using an optimisation-based model with endogenous labour supply and a proportional tax rate, we compare the stabilising properties of different fiscal policy rules. The economy is affected by shocks from both government spending and technology. The fiscal policy rule can be based on government liabilities or the government budget deficit. As both are given as measures of fiscal policy performance in the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), we also use a fiscal policy rule based on the combination...

  6. Improved Apriori Algorithm for Mining Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan M. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Association rules are the main technique for data mining. Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm of association rule mining. Lots of algorithms for mining association rules and their mutations are proposed on basis of Apriori algorithm, but traditional algorithms are not efficient. For the two bottlenecks of frequent itemsets mining: the large multitude of candidate 2- itemsets, the poor efficiency of counting their support. Proposed algorithm reduces one redundant pruning operations of C...

  7. Using rule learning for subgroup discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kavšek, Branko

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how to adapt standard classification rule learning approaches to subgroup discovery. The goal of subgroup discovery is to find rules describing subsets of a selected population that are sufficiently large and statistically unusual in terms of class distribution. The dissertation presents a subgroup discovery algorithm, CN2-SD, developed by modifying parts of the CN2 classification rule learner: its covering algorithm, search heuristic, pr...

  8. Realizing Business Processes with ECA Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula-Lavinia; Romanenko, Inna

    2006-01-01

    Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules offer a flexible, adaptive, and modular approach to realizing business processes. This article discusses the use of ECA rules for describing business processes in an executable manner. It investigates the benefits one hopes to derive from using ECA rules and presents the challenges in realizing business processes. These constitute a list of requirements for an (executable) business process description language, and we take them as a basis t...

  9. On Simplex Pivoting Rules and Complexity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Ilan; Papadimitriou, Christos; Rubinstein, Aviad

    2014-01-01

    We show that there are simplex pivoting rules for which it is PSPACE-complete to tell if a particular basis will appear on the algorithm's path. Such rules cannot be the basis of a strongly polynomial algorithm, unless P = PSPACE. We conjecture that the same can be shown for most known variants of the simplex method. However, we also point out that Dantzig's shadow vertex algorithm has a polynomial path problem. Finally, we discuss in the same context randomized pivoting rules.

  10. The INCOTERMS rules and their importance

    OpenAIRE

    Anca LAZĂR

    2011-01-01

    The content INCOTERMS are a set of rules that determine the rights and obligations of the international sales contract, selecting a rule of interpretation of commercial terms INCOTERMS, progress is the result of negotiation between the parties and expresses the ratio of these economic forces. In relation to the obligations of the parties to an international sales contract are several different types of contracts covered by the clause. To define the main rules INCOTERMS was considered as a sta...

  11. The Floor-Leverage Rule for Retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Scott; John Watson

    2013-01-01

    The Floor-Leverage Rule is a spending and investment strategy designed for retirees that can tolerate investment risk, but insist on sustainable spending. The rule calls for purchasing a spending guarantee with 85% of wealth and investing the remaining 15% in equities with 3x leverage. Surprisingly, this leverage is a tool for managing risk. We compare our rule to some popular strategies, illustrate it for a variety of retiree preferences, and evaluate its historical performance.

  12. Operating rules description using Petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    LAHLOU, O; BON, P; ALLAIN, L

    2007-01-01

    European Rail Traffic Management System) is a new European standard for train control systems which must be implemented to upgrade high-speed and conventional railway lines. ERTMS will require changes to safety cases, signalling principles and operating rules. In this paper, we will take an interest in the formal description of operating rules. The first point is a systematic method of description of operating rule into coloured Petri nets. This systematic method is based on characteristics o...

  13. The Rule Responder eScience Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Adrian; Zhao, Zhili

    2010-01-01

    To a large degree information and services for chemical e-Science have become accessible - anytime, anywhere - but not necessarily useful. The Rule Responder eScience middleware is about providing information consumers with rule-based agents to transform existing information into relevant information of practical consequences, hence providing control to the end-users to express in a declarative rule-based way how to turn existing information into personally relevant information and how to rea...

  14. How do Expenditure Rules affect Fiscal Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wierts

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of self-enforced national expenditure rules in limiting the expenditure bias and procyclical expenditure increases/decreases due to revenue windfalls/shortfalls. A simple model predicts that expenditure rules can have the intended effects, but only if the political and institutional costs of non compliance are sufficiently large. Empirical estimations provide some support that expenditure rules affect expenditure outcomes in the hypothesised manner, especially...

  15. Characterizing minimal impartial rules for awarding prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of choosing prize winners from among a group of experts when each expert nominates another expert for the prize. A nomination rule determines the set of winners on the basis of the profile of nominations; the rule is impartial if one's nomination never influences one's own chance of winning the prize. In this paper, we consider impartial, anonymous, symmetric, and monotonic nomination rules and characterize the set of all minimal such ones. We show that the set consists o...

  16. The reinforcement axiom under sequential positional rules

    OpenAIRE

    Courtin, Sebastien; Mbih, Boniface; Moyouwou, Issofa; Senné, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement axiom roughly states that when an alternative is selected by two different constituencies, it must also be selected by their union. Hare and Coombs rules are special cases of sequential positional voting rules, which are known to violate this axiom. In this article, we first show that reinforcement can be violated by all such rules. We then evaluate, by the use of Monte Carlo simulations and the Fishburn-Gehrlein technique, the proportion of profiles at which this phenomenon...

  17. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  18. New Framework in Sensitive Rule Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. NAVEENKUMAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of extracting hidden patterns from data. As more data is gathered, with the amount of data doubling every three years, data mining is becoming an increasingly important tool to transform this data into information. Privacy preserving data mining is a novel research direction in data mining and statistical databases, which has recently been proposed in response to the concerns of preserving personal or sensible information derived from data mining algorithms. There have been two types of privacy proposed concerning data mining. The first type of privacy, called output privacy, is that the data is altered so that the mining result will preserve certain privacy. The second type of privacy, called input privacy, is that the data is manipulated so that the mining result is not affected or minimally affected. For output privacy in hiding association rules, current approaches require hidden rules or patterns to be given in advance. However, to specify hidden rules, entire data mining process needs to be executed. For some applications, only certain sensitive rules that contain sensitive items are required to hide. In this work, an algorithm ISSRH (Increase Support Sensitive Rule Hiding is proposed, to hide the sensitive rules that contain sensitive items, so that sensitive rules containing specified sensitive items on the right hand side of the rule cannot be inferred through association rule mining.

  19. Climatic change and economic development: equity rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with alternative equity rules in the allocation of carbon emissions among countries. It is composed in two parts. The first one provides a discussion of such rules which enlightens their key characteristics. The second part proposes some calculations whose aim is to evaluate the implications of a strict egalitarian rule. Although the changes in emissions and key indicators implied by such a rule are large, implementing an emissions trading regime strongly helps both the attainment of the target and development paths in poor countries

  20. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Marwaha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified waterfall model for decision rules generation.

  1. The Explanatory Power of Monetary Policy Rules

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the use of monetary policy rules has become pervasive in analyzing and prescribing monetary policy. This paper traces the development of such rules and their use in the analysis, prediction, and stabilization of national economies. In particular, rules provide insight into eras in which monetary policy was not effective as well as when it was, such as the persistence of the ongoing “Great Moderation.” The paper stresses the “scientific” contributions of rules, includin...

  2. An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Mohri, M; Mohri, Mehryar; Sproat, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Context-dependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finite-state transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many of our applications demand the ability to compile weighted rules into weighted FSTs, transducers generalized by providing transitions with weights. We have extended the algorithm to allow for this.

  3. Optimal Majority Rules and Enhanced Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Widgrén, Mika

    2001-01-01

    The decision-making rules of the European Union (EU) are defined in an incomplete contract signed by 15 national governments. The design of the contract defines the set of policy issues where it applies – in decision-making rules i.e. the majority rules and the division of powers among the actors involved. The treaty also gives competence to the Commission in terms of making legislative proposals. In this Paper, our objective is to study how decision-making rules affect expected outcomes in t...

  4. OPTIMAL RULE SET GENERATION USING PSO ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa sengupta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Classification and Prediction is an important research area of data mining. Construction of classifier model for any decision system is an important job for many data mining applications. The objective of developing such a classifier is to classify unlabeled dataset into classes. Here we have applied a discrete Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm for selecting optimal classification rule sets from huge number of rules possibly exist in a dataset. In the proposed DPSO algorithm, decision matrix approach was used for generation of initial possible classification rules from a dataset. Then the proposed algorithm discovers important or significant rules from all possible classification rules without sacrificing predictive accuracy. The proposed algorithm deals with discrete valued data, and its initial population of candidate solutions contains particles of different sizes. The experiment has been done on the task of optimal rule selection in the data sets collected from UCI repository. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can automatically evolve on average the small number of conditions per rule and a few rules per rule set, and achieved better classification performance of predictive accuracy for few classes.

  5. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  6. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  7. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  8. Handbook for Prospective Single Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marindin, Hope

    This handbook for prospective single adoptive parents provides information on locating and adopting a child, necessary clothing and supplies for children of various ages, health and day care arrangements, expenses incurred after adoption, various financial benefits and subsidies available to the adoptive parent, and legal and financial provisions…

  9. Prospects for the upgraded Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans and prospects for the next Fermilab collider running period, Run II (beginning in 1999), are described. The upgrades to the accelerator are discussed in the context of expected achievable instantaneous and integrated luminosity. Upgrades to the two collider detectors, CDF and D0, along with physics potential for Run II are also described. Options for Fermilab beyond Run II are mentioned

  10. Prospective Memory: The Future for Future Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gonen-Yaacovi; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute future intentions and thoughts. It is probably the newest established field of memory research. We provide a selective review of work conducted in the last two decades with respect to the following issues: (1) the different types and characteristics of prospective tasks, (2) the theoretical models of the cognitive processes supporting prospective memory, (3) prospective memory performance in younger and older adults and (4) the findings...

  11. Prospective Memory Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Iris W.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty adults received training in prospective memory; 23 who received training in reducing worries about forgetfulness and 22 controls formed a comparison group. Results of a telephone task and a prospective categorization task revealed significant but small effects for the prospective memory group. After 3 months, the comparison group's…

  12. Kirchhoff's rule for quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We formulate and discuss one-particle quantum scattering theory on an arbitrary finite graph with n open ends and where we define the Hamiltonian to be (minus) the Laplace operator with general boundary conditions at the vertices. This results in a scattering theory with n channels. The corresponding on-shell S-matrix formed by the reflection and transmission amplitudes for incoming plane waves of energy E>0 is given explicitly in terms of the boundary conditions and the lengths of the internal lines. It is shown to be unitary, which may be viewed as the quantum version of Kirchhoff's law. We exhibit covariance and symmetry properties. It is symmetric if the boundary conditions are real. Also there is a duality transformation on the set of boundary conditions and the lengths of the internal lines such that the low-energy behaviour of one theory gives the high-energy behaviour of the transformed theory. Finally, we provide a composition rule by which the on-shell S-matrix of a graph is factorizable in terms of the S-matrices of its subgraphs. All proofs use only known facts from the theory of self-adjoint extensions, standard linear algebra, complex function theory and elementary arguments from the theory of Hermitian symplectic forms. (author)

  13. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  14. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  15. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period....

  16. Pair Triplet Association Rule Generation in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many applications involve the generation and analysis of a new kind of data, called stream data, where data flows in and out of an observation platform or window dynamically. Such data streams have the unique features such as huge or possibly infinite volume, dynamically changing, flowing in or out in a fixed order, allowing only one or a small number of scans. An important problem in data stream mining is that of finding frequent items in the stream. This problem finds application across several domains such as financial systems, web traffic monitoring, internet advertising, retail and e-business. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining technique for stream data. The Space-Saving algorithm reports both frequent and top-k elements with tight guarantees on errors. We also develop the notion of association rules in streams of elements. The Streaming-Rules algorithm is integrated with Space-Saving algorithm to report 1-1 association rules with tight guarantees on errors, using minimal space, and limited processing per element and we are using Apriori algorithm for static datasets and generation of association rules and implement Streaming-Rules algorithm for pair, triplet association rules. We compare the top- rules of static datasets with output of stream datasets and find percentage of error.

  17. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the Registry as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007. DATES:...

  18. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  19. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  20. 77 FR 9893 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Rulings, 76 FR 73596 (November 29, 2011). This current notice covers all scope rulings and... Distributing, Inc.'s cast smart splitter is not within the scope of the antidumping duty order; June 6, 2011. A...: Ashley Furniture Industries Inc.; certain polyurethane mirrors and an upholstered mirror are ] not...

  1. Copyright Ruling on Anthologies May Spur Vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1991-01-01

    Some scholars warn that a federal court ruling on copyright infringement may increase costs and delay production of anthologies of readings for college students. Others say the ruling provides needed safeguards against the pirating of intellectual property. Increased care in obtaining reproduction permission is anticipated. (MSE)

  2. 22 CFR 401.10 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General rule. 401.10 Section 401.10 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.10... to carry out the true intent and meaning of the Treaty....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2634 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2634 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3620 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3620 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1125 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1125 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green tobacco, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3121 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3121 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2409 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2409 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  8. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  9. Fusion rules in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)

  10. 78 FR 42934 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ...). \\2\\ See Notice of Scope Rulings, 78 FR 32372 (May 30, 2013). Scope Rulings Made Between January 1... duty order; March 7, 2013. A-570-970 and C-570-971: Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's... orders, and ASC's ladders, models ASE, ASH, and DJX3-W, and strip door mounting brackets are within...

  11. 77 FR 38767 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Rulings, 77 FR 32568 (June 1, 2012). This current notice covers all scope rulings and anticircumvention...-968: Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Rubbermaid; cleaning system...: Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Rubbermaid; non-extruded...

  12. 38 CFR 4.68 - Amputation rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amputation rule. 4.68... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.68 Amputation rule. The combined rating for disabilities of an extremity shall not exceed the rating for the amputation at the elective level,...

  13. 16 CFR 410.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 410.1 Section 410.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING AS TO SIZES OF VIEWABLE... method of competition and an unfair and deceptive act or practice to use any figure or size...

  14. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-interventio

  15. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  16. The Chinese calendar and its operational rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1998-06-01

    The Chinese calendar is a form of luni-solar calendar. The rules in operation today have remained unchanged since almost the very beginning of the last (Qing) dynasty - i. e. as far back as A.D.1645. It is the purpose of this article to explain these rules, particularly with regard to the determination of month numbers and intercalation.

  17. Rules and Discretion in International Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Guitián

    1992-01-01

    Economic interdependence offers the potential for raising global welfare, but there is a fuzzy boundary between national interests and global objectives in the economic policy area. This paper examines the boundary area. It concludes that all international economic regimes must entail a mix of rules and discretion, and it considers the most appropriate weights to be given to rules and discretion.

  18. 76 FR 31301 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Rulings, 76 FR 10558 (February 25, 2011). This current notice covers all scope rulings and... Furniture from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: Stork Craft Manufacturing; whether its infant... tissue paper from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are circumventing the antidumping...

  19. QDC sum rules for heavy quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QCD sum rules for equal mass heavy quark meson states are presented and the technical procedures used to calculate the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization are discussed. Using dispersion relations, sum rules are derived and applications made to the lowest lying states of the charmonium and upsilon systems. (U.K.)

  20. 76 FR 73596 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Scope Rulings, 76 FR 31301 (May 31, 2011). This current notice covers all scope rulings and...: C2F, Inc.; its PRO-0203-01 black journal and PTL-018121 black bound-stitched journal are not within... scope of the antidumping duty order; requested October 12, 2010. A-570-900: Diamond Sawblades and...

  1. Best Practice Rules about Conflict of Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Study and describe the Best Practice Rules of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code concerning conflict of Interest Best Practice Rules coIne from the UK corporate governance,which could prevent the worst cases of abuse of rights in company law.

  2. Rules, strategies and objects in ELAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Hubert; Kirchner, Hélène

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the ELAN rule-based programming language and presents the extension of the language with objects. The extension with objects is defined as a specific instance of the rewriting calculus, also called rho-calculus. This leads to an expressive programming framework that combines the concepts of objects, rules and strategies which has been prototyped in ELAN.

  3. Objects, rules and strategies in ELAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Hubert; Kirchner, Hélène

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the ELAN rule-based programming language and presents a general approach for prototyping a new language by transformations defined in ELAN. The approach is used to design an extension of ELAN with objects, leading to an expressive programming framework that combines the concepts of objects, rules and strategies.

  4. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  5. 77 FR 39112 - State Official Notification Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...'' language from the Final Rule and suggested that the exception to the ten-day notification requirement... provided. By way of clarification, material changes are those changes that substantively affect the legal... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1082 RIN 3170-AA02 State Official Notification Rule AGENCY: Bureau of...

  6. Supersymmetry Projection Rules on Exotic Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    We study the supersymmetry projection rules on exotic branes in type II string theories and M-theory. They justify the validity of the exotic duality between standard branes and exotic branes of codimension two. By virtue of the supersymmetry projection rules on various branes, we can apply the exotic duality to a system which involves multiple non-parallel branes.

  7. Discriminative Pattern Identification using Rule Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Mahajan*1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on data mining technology for decision making. Decision making systems and data mining techniques such as association rule mining have been designed and are now used for making automated decisions, like loan granting or denial. Discrimination situations found in dataset in direct and indirect ways. Rules are formed from the dataset using Apriori algorithm and certain parameters such as number of rules, minimum support and confidence. Power of discrimination within rules are calculated by an elift and glift on a classification rule using Alpha and strong Alpha protection. In direct discrimination, the rules are directly extracted from dataset and searched for discriminatory pattern. In indirect discrimination, system needs some background knowledge as a further input and it is used to find unfair treatments. Inference model required for integration of classification rules with background rules. Inference model is a mathematic model. Direct and Indirect Discrimination tested over German credit dataset.

  8. Progress and prospects of superalloys - applications and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the application and prospects of superalloys have been discussed. These application includes aircraft engine and ground gas turbines, nuclear reactors including fuel containment, sour gas wells, coal gasification heat exchangers, chemical industries and petroleum industries. Production of superalloy GH3030 and development of national superalloys CH151, GH11, GH220, DZ3, DZ4, DZ17G, DZ38G and DD3 have been explained in this paper in P.R. China. (A.B.)

  9. Association Rule Discovery and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Data mining, i.e. , mining knowledge from large amounts of data, is a demanding field since huge amounts of data have been collected in various applications. The collected data far exceed peoples ability to analyze it. Thus, some new and efficient methods are needed to discover knowledge from large database. Association rule discovery is an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining.The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent item sets and then forming conditional implication rule among them. In this paper, we describe and summarize recent work on association rule discovery, offer a new method to association rule mining and point out that association rule discovery can be applied in spatial data mining. It is useful to discover knowledge from remote sensing and geographical information system.``

  10. a Heterosynaptic Learning Rule for Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    In this article we introduce a novel stochastic Hebb-like learning rule for neural networks that is neurobiologically motivated. This learning rule combines features of unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (reinforcement) learning and is stochastic with respect to the selection of the time points when a synapse is modified. Moreover, the learning rule does not only affect the synapse between pre- and postsynaptic neuron, which is called homosynaptic plasticity, but effects also further remote synapses of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. This more complex form of synaptic plasticity has recently come under investigations in neurobiology and is called heterosynaptic plasticity. We demonstrate that this learning rule is useful in training neural networks by learning parity functions including the exclusive-or (XOR) mapping in a multilayer feed-forward network. We find, that our stochastic learning rule works well, even in the presence of noise. Importantly, the mean learning time increases with the number of patterns to be learned polynomially, indicating efficient learning.

  11. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  12. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2013-01-01

    demands. These new demands call for new design rules for coordination, incentives and leadership, among others. Our existing rules are mostly based upon past experience and empirical studies of what is. What might be – going beyond what we have observed and explained of yesterday and today to help design...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what...... might be. We need to revise existing rules and perhaps devise totally new design rules for managing uncertainty and interdependency to design efficient, effective and sustainable organizations. In this paper, we explore the development and evaluation of organizational design rules for the future....

  13. Harvest control rules in modern fisheries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturla F. Kvamsdal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harvest control rules have become an important tool in modern fisheries management, and are increasingly adopted to provide continuity in management practices, to deal with uncertainty and ecosystem considerations, and to relieve management decisions from short-term political pressure. We provide the conceptual and institutional background for harvest control rules, a discussion of the structure of fisheries management, and brief introductions to harvest control rules in a selection of present day cases. The cases demonstrate that harvest control rules take different forms in different settings, yet cover only a subset of the full policy space. We conclude with views on harvest control rules in future fisheries management, both in terms of ideal and realistic developments. One major challenge for future fisheries management is closing the gap between ideas and practice.

  14. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  15. Learning and Tuning of Fuzzy Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter, we review some of the current techniques for learning and tuning fuzzy rules. For clarity, we refer to the process of generating rules from data as the learning problem and distinguish it from tuning an already existing set of fuzzy rules. For learning, we touch on unsupervised learning techniques such as fuzzy c-means, fuzzy decision tree systems, fuzzy genetic algorithms, and linear fuzzy rules generation methods. For tuning, we discuss Jang's ANFIS architecture, Berenji-Khedkar's GARIC architecture and its extensions in GARIC-Q. We show that the hybrid techniques capable of learning and tuning fuzzy rules, such as CART-ANFIS, RNN-FLCS, and GARIC-RB, are desirable in development of a number of future intelligent systems.

  16. Why Dempster’s Rule doesn’t behave as Bayes rule with Informative Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Dezert; Albena Tchamova; Deqiang Han; Jean-Marc Tacnet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze Bayes fusion rule in details from a fusion standpoint, as well as the emblematic Dempster’s rule of combination introduced by Shafer in his Mathematical Theory of evidence based on belief functions. We propose a new interesting formulation of Bayes rule and point out some of its properties. A deep analysis of the compatibility of Dempster’s fusion rule with Bayes fusion rule is done. Our analysis proves clearly that Demp...

  17. RuleMaDrone: A Web-Interface to Visualise Space Usage Rules for Drones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippaers, Aäron

    2015-01-01

    RuleMaDrone, an application developed within this thesis, is presented as a solution to communicate the rules and regulations to drone operators. To provide the solution a framework for drone safety was designed which consists of the rules and regulations, the drone properties and the environmental factors. RuleMaDrone is developed with this framework and thus will provide drone operators with an application which they can use to find a safe and legal fly zone. RuleMaDrone u...

  18. The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule for suspected cardiac chest pain: derivation and external validation

    OpenAIRE

    Body, Richard; Carley, Simon; McDowell, Garry; Pemberton, Philip; Burrows, Gillian; Cook , Gary; Lewis, Philip S; Smith, Alexander; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to derive and validate a clinical decision rule (CDR) for suspected cardiac chest pain in the emergency department (ED). Incorporating information available at the time of first presentation, this CDR would effectively risk-stratify patients and immediately identify: (A) patients for whom hospitalisation may be safely avoided; and (B) high-risk patients, facilitating judicious use of resources. Methods In two sequential prospective observational cohort studies at heterogene...

  19. Implementation of a pre-hospital decision rule in general practice. Triage of patients with suspected myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Grijseels, Els; Deckers, Jaap; Hoes, Arno; Boersma, Eric; Hartman, J.A.M.; van der Does, Emiel; Simoons, Maarten

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To improve pre-hospital triage of patients with suspected acute cardiac disease. DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECTS. Patients with symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac pathology, who were seen by a general practitioner, for whom acute admission into hospital was requested, and in whom a pre-hospital electrocardiogram was recorded by the ambulance service. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a decision rule was developed based on clinical cha...

  20. Prospects for Future Collider Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-01-01

    One item on the agenda of future colliders is certain to be the Higgs boson. What is it trying to tell us? The primary objective of any future collider must surely be to identify physics beyond the Standard Model, and supersymmetry is one of the most studied options. it Is supersymmetry waiting for us and, if so, can LHC Run 2 find it? The big surprise from the initial 13-TeV LHC data has been the appearance of a possible signal for a new boson X with a mass ~750 GeV. What are the prospects for future colliders if the X(750) exists? One of the most intriguing possibilities in electroweak physics would be the discovery of non-perturbative phenomena. What are the prospects for observing sphalerons at the LHC or a future collider?

  1. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of prospective mathematics teachers in Teaching Practice course taken at the last semester of the teacher education program. For this purpose, 47 prospective teachers taking Teaching Practice wrote and submitted one or two-page reflection of their school-based experiences at the end of the semester. Their written responses were examined and analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that (1 there exist not enough opportunities for practice teaching, little or no feedback from their supervising teachers, no links between pure mathematics courses and school mathematics. On the other hand, they stated that they get benefit from the teaching courses such as Teaching Methodology I-II, and Instructional Technology and Developing Materials, feel like the real teacher of their classrooms and get to know more about the real classroom environment and school students. Key words:

  2. Prospects for an independent Kurdistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    The last ninety years of Kurdish history demonstrates their political progression towards statehood. Examination of this history and US policy during this period allows us to analyze the circumstances that prevented Kurdish statehood. The three levels of analysis utilized allow analysis of Kurdish history with regards to the individual, the state and the international system. Such analysis assists in determining the prospect for independence of the Iraqi Kurds today. An Iraqi Kurdish declara...

  3. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  4. Prospects for de-automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  5. A prospective treatment for sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, 2College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principa...

  6. A prospective treatment for sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar MR; Shahidi Bonjar L

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, 2College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principal compon...

  7. Youth Policy:Future prospects?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenham, Aniela Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Editorial to Special edition: The Next Five Years: Prospects for Young People. OVER THE LAST thirty years scholars have drawn attention to how young people’s lives have become more complicated, fragmented and difficult to navigate (Furlong and Cartmel, 1997). While youth transitions are now recognised as non-linear and more complex, policy has predominantly focused upon transitions that are deemed problematic as a result of their association with ‘poor’ welfare outcomes (teenage pregnancy, NE...

  8. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidi Bonjar MR; Shahidi Bonjar L

    2015-01-01

    Mohammad Rashid Shahidi Bonjar,1 Leyla Shahidi Bonjar2 1School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous docum...

  9. Stochastic Inflow Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongrit Kangrang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rule curves are basic monthly guidelines for long term reservoir operation. Generally, the optimal rule curves are searched by reservoir simulation model and optimization techniques. A traditional reservoir simulation does not consider the risk of reservoir operation caused by natural uncertainty from inflow. A stochastic simulation model embedded genetic algorithm model is developed for searching the optimal rule curves in this study. Synthetic inflows are used in the developed model for assessing the risk reservoir operation. Single and multi-reservoir systems are applied to assess the efficiency of the proposed technique. The developed model has been applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Bhumibol and Sirikit Reservoirs (the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand for multi-reservoir system and the Ubolratana Reservoir (the Chi River Basin, Thailand for single system. The optimal rule curves of each system were used to assess by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the situations of water shortage and excess release of the obtained rule curves are not significantly different from the situation of the curves searching by tradition simulation. It can be concluded that the stochastic simulation model embedded genetic algorithm provided the optimal rule curves as considering the risk of reservoir operation. Furthermore, the proposed model is applicable for both single and multi-reservoir systems.

  10. Rules for preventing chemical risks: fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem, this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. The present rule defines the dispositions to take in account for avoid fire hazards in nuclear facilities (Power reactors and accelerators are excluded)

  11. The INCOTERMS rules and their importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca LAZĂR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content INCOTERMS are a set of rules that determine the rights and obligations of the international sales contract, selecting a rule of interpretation of commercial terms INCOTERMS, progress is the result of negotiation between the parties and expresses the ratio of these economic forces. In relation to the obligations of the parties to an international sales contract are several different types of contracts covered by the clause. To define the main rules INCOTERMS was considered as a starting point delivery of goods, establishment of the seller and the buyer2, the rules concerning the obligations of each party that are grouped into ten items with identical titles for all the rules. Due to significant developments in international trade, for making available to retailers in the interpretation of the rules commonly used trade terms in international trade, the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris draw a set of delivery conditions for their interpretation in international sales, rules that were in international trade practice some habits, but who were not of equal significance to traders in different countries.

  12. The new nuclear rules and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety in Germany is laid down in a systematic legal structure shaped like a pyramid, i.e. ''Basic Law/Atomic Energy Act/Legal Ordinances/Sublegal Rules and Regulations.'' Legislators did not standardize technical details. Consequently, standards of technical safety can be found only in the so-called sublegal rules and regulations of the 1970s and 1980s. Given the time these rules and regulations were established, modernization may be indicated. One step on this way was to be the ''KTA 2000'' project which, after having reached an advanced level of completion, was terminated by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) for irrelevant reasons. In 2003, the BMU then initiated a process for a new set of nuclear rules and regulations. On June 16, 2009, the BMU announced that the federal and state governments had agreed on a procedure for introducing new safety rules for nuclear power plants. A trial period of 15 months was to begin on July 1 in which the federal government and the state governments were to apply the new rules on a test basis side by side with the existing rules and regulations. The experience accumulated in this way was to be evaluated by mid-2011 before the rules and regulations would be officially published in the Federal Gazette. One main idea of the BMU seems to be that reference to the rules and regulations describing the state of the art was meant to draw attention to a grave discrepancy between ''old'' plants and today's ''ideal'' requirements. It is to be hoped that there will not be a special German way also in matters of safety assessment. (orig.)

  13. 19 CFR 177.8 - Issuance of rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of rulings. 177.8 Section 177.8 Customs... (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.8 Issuance of rulings. (a) Ruling letters... § 177.2(b)(7), the information claimed to be exempt from disclosure is clearly identified and...

  14. Different Communication Rules between the English and Chinese Greetings

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li

    2009-01-01

    Communication is rule governed; so are greetings which serve as a polite way of communication. The rules vary depending on the cultural context or the cultural context helps to define the rules and so communication rules are culturally diverse. It is important for foreign language learners to learn that communication rules are both culturally and contextually bound to achieve effective and efficient communication.

  15. Voting over informal risk-sharing rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, S.

    2005-01-01

    People vote over risk-sharing rules to cope with random revenues. Risk-sharing rules are enforced through peer pressure : those who comply exert a negative externality on those who do not. People are differently affected by this externality. The author determines the elected risk-sharing rules and the level of compliance. It turns out that full risk-sharing is achieved only if everybody complies. Partial risk-sharing is more often achieved with, sometime, some level of non-compliance. In many...

  16. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate algorithms for solving of this NP-hard problem. The paper contains various bounds on precision of the greedy algorithm, bounds on minimal length of rules based on an information obtained during greedy algorithm work, and results of the study of association rules for the most part of binary information systems. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows: as from 1 April 2003 • Article R II 1.19 - Types and duration of contracts of staff members (page 15) as from 1 July 2003 Implementation of the category of local staff members Copies of this update are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  18. Association Rule Mining and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several algorithms in data mining technique have been studied recently, among which association is one of the most important techniques. In this paper, we introduce theory of association rule in data mining, and analyze the characteristics of postal EMS service. We create a data warehouse model for EMS services and give the procedure of applying association rule mining based on it. In the end, we give an example of the whole mining procedure. This EMS-Data warehouse model and association rule mining technique have been applied in a practical Postal CRM System.

  19. The Rule Responder eScience Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Paschke, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    To a large degree information and services for chemical e-Science have become accessible - anytime, anywhere - but not necessarily useful. The Rule Responder eScience middleware is about providing information consumers with rule-based agents to transform existing information into relevant information of practical consequences, hence providing control to the end-users to express in a declarative rule-based way how to turn existing information into personally relevant information and how to react or make automated decisions on top of it.

  20. Design of a Rule Based Hindi Lemmatizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Paul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is the process of clipping off the affixes from the input word to obtain the respective root word, but it is not necessary that stemming pr ovide us the genuine and meaningful root word. To overcome this problem we come up with a so lution- Lemmatizer. It is the process by which we crave out the lemma from the given word an d can also add additional rules to make the clipped word a proper stem. In this paper we ha ve created an inflectional lemmatizer which generates the rules for extracting the suffixes and also added rules for generating a proper meaningful root word

  1. Conscious Pulse II: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that considers the rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. In this paper, we imagine that an endogenous quantum mechanical superposition is created by a classical stimulus, and that this leads to a `physiological pulse' of states that are in superposition with one another. This pulse is correlated with a `conscious pulse' of the kind discussed in a previous paper (Conscious Pulse I). We then add a rule (5) to the four rules pr...

  2. Schrodinger's cat The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper we examined the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules were given that were found to govern the stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It was shown that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are repeated below. In this paper, these rules are successfully applied to two different versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. Key Words: brain states, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann

  3. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  4. Head CT scan in Iranian minor head injury patients: evaluating current decision rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Robab; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Shirani, Farzaneh; Payandemehr, Pooya; Bahramimotlagh, Hooman; Ramezani, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to select one of the seven available clinical decision rules for minor head injury, for managing Iranian patients. This was a prospective cohort study evaluating medium- or high-risk minor head injury patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with minor head trauma who were eligible for brain imaging based on seven available clinical decision rules (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS)-II, Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (NCWFNS), New Orleans, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Guideline, Scandinavian, and Canadian computed tomography (CT) head rule) were selected. Subjects were underwent a non-contrast axial spiral head CT scan. The outcome was defined as abnormal and normal head CT scan. Univariate analysis and stepwise linear regression were applied to show the best combination of risk factors for detecting CT scan abnormalities. Five hundred patients with minor head trauma were underwent brain CT scan. The following criteria were derived by stepwise linear regression: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 15, confusion, signs of basal skull fracture, drug history of warfarin, vomiting more than once, loss of consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, and age over 65 years. This model has 86.15 % (75.33-93.45 %) sensitivity and 46.44 % (46.67-51.25 %) specificity in detecting minor head injury patients with CT scan abnormalities (95 % confidence interval). Of seven decision rules, only the Canadian CT Head Rule possesses seven of the eight high-risk factors associated with abnormal head CT results which were identified by this study. This study underlines the Canadian CT Head Rule's utility in Iranian minor head injury patients. Our study encourages researchers to evaluate available guidelines in different communities. PMID:26407978

  5. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  6. The maintenance rule and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the program of the Maintenance Rule is optimize maintenance ensuring appropriate behavior, both in terms of reliability and availability, structures, systems and components (SSCs) within the scope defined against a pre-established performance criteria

  7. 75 FR 22352 - Aviation Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain Aviation Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal Aviation Administration...

  8. Extracting Symbolic Rules for Medical Diagnosis Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems involving classification and function approximation. Although backpropagation NNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained NNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. An algorithm is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules for medical diagnosis problem. Empirical study on three benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, diabetes, and lenses demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates high quality rules from NNs comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy.

  9. 17 CFR 200.29 - Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization § 200.29 Rules. The.... Where any such proposals presents a legal problem or is a matter of first impression, or involves...

  10. New Brunswick electricity market rules : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity market rules for New Brunswick were reviewed with particular reference to two broad classifications. The first classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of the system operator (SO) in facilitating the Bilateral Contract market, as well as the role of market participants in participating in the Bilateral Contract market. The second classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of each of the SO, market participants and transmitters in maintaining the reliability of the integrated electricity system and ensuring a secure supply of electricity for consumers in New Brunswick. The market rules consist of 10 chapters entitled: (1) introduction to the market rules and administrative rules of general application, (2) market participation and the use of the SO-controlled grid, (3) market administration, (4) technical and connection requirements, testing and commissioning, (5) system reliability, (6) operational requirements, (7) settlement, (8) connection of new or modified facilities, (9) transmission system planning, investment and operation, and (10) definitions and interpretation

  11. 75 FR 12803 - Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...Notice of the Compact Council's establishment of a process for initiating noncriminal justice criminal history record checks during times of emergencies and disasters under the authority of the Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule, title 28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part...

  12. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  13. Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heater, Don

    1995-01-01

    Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.

  14. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  15. Conscious Pulse II The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that considers the rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. In this paper, we imagine that an endogenous quantum mechanical superposition is created by a classical stimulus, and that this leads to a `physiological pulse' of states that are in superposition with one another. This pulse is correlated with a `conscious pulse' of the kind discussed in a previous paper (Conscious Pulse I). We then add a rule (5) to the four rules previously given. This rule addresses the effect of `pain' consciousness on both of these pulses, and in doing so, it validates the "Parallel Principle" applied to pain. Key words: Brain states, cat paradox, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  16. CBP Customs Rulings Online Search System (CROSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CROSS is a searchable database of CBP rulings that can be retrieved based on simple or complex search characteristics using keywords and Boolean operators. CROSS...

  17. 12 CFR 747.2 - Rules of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS, ADJUDICATIVE HEARINGS, RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 747.2 Rules of construction. For purposes of this subpart: (a) Any...

  18. Simultaneous Evolution of Learning Rules and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchkamp, Oliver

    1996-01-01

    We study a model of local evolution. Players are located on a network and play games agains their neighbors. Players are characterized by three properties: (1) The stage game strategies they use agains their neighbors. (2) The repeated game strategy that determines the former. (3) A learning rule that selects the repeated game strategy, on the basis of the player's own and the neighbors' payoff and repeated game strategy. The dynamics that specifies learning rules is given exogenously. Player...

  19. Unstructured Direct Elicitation of Decision Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Min; John R. Hauser; Dong, Songting; Dzyabura, Daria; Yang, Zhilin; Su, Chenting; Gaskin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of unstructured direct-elicitation (UDE) of decision rules consumers use to form consideration sets. With incentives to think hard and answer truthfully, tested formats ask respondents to state non-compensatory, compensatory, or mixed rules for agents who will select a product for the respondents. In a mobile-phone study two validation tasks (one delayed 3 weeks) ask respondents to indicate which of 32 mobile phones they would consider from a fractional 4[supers...

  20. Mining Clinical Data using Minimal Predictive Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Batal, Iyad; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Modern hospitals and health-care institutes collect huge amounts of clinical data. Those who deal with such data know that there is a widening gap between data collection and data comprehension. Thus, it is very important to develop data mining techniques capable of automatically extracting useful knowledge to support clinical decision-making in various diagnostic and patient-management tasks. In this paper, we develop a new framework for rule mining based on minimal predictive rules (MPR). O...

  1. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  2. Can Taylor rule fundamentals predict exchange rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Yiding

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there are many favourable features of the asset- pricing model of exchange rates incorporating Taylor rules. Against this back- ground, this thesis focuses on the relationship between the exchange rate and Taylor rule fundamentals. The introductory chapter provides a short summary of the most relevant literature, and explains the connections between the main chapters. In chapter 2, we mainly follow Engel and West's (2006) framework of the asset-...

  3. Rule 4.3 guidelines: July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Rule 41.3 of the Olympic Charter limits athletes competing in the Olympic Games from appearing in advertising during and shortly before the Olympic Games. This helps prevent ambush marketing which might otherwise utilize athletes to create an association with the Games. These guidelines explain the rationale and application of Rule 41.3 in the United Kingdom. ‘‘Express consents’ to use athletes in advertising are available for official sponsors of London 2012, but other businesses are general...

  4. Higher twist corrections to Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some higher twist corrections to the Bjorken sum rule are estimated in the framework of a quark-diquark model of the nucleon. The parameters of the model have been previously fixed by fitting the measured higher twist corrections to the unpolarized structure function F2(x,Q2). The resulting corrections to the Bjorken sum rule turn out to be negligible. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig

  5. A REVIEW ON ASSOCIATION RULE MINING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    JYOTI ARORA, NIDHI BHALLA, SANJEEV RAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a review of four different association rule mining algorithmsApriori, AprioriTid,Apriori hybrid and tertius algorithms and their drawbacks which would be helpful to find new solution for the Problems found in these algorithms and also presents a comparison between different association mining algorithms. Association rule mining is the one of the most important technique of the data mining. Its aim is to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns and association among s...

  6. MINING ASSOCIATION RULES FROM XML DOCUMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Neha M. Shroff; G. V. Gujar

    2014-01-01

    In this work we describe an approach to mine Tree-based association rules from XML documents. Such rules provide information on both the structure and the content of XML documents; moreover, they can be stored in XML format to be queried later on. The mined knowledge is approximate, intensional knowledge used to provide: (i) quick, approximate answers to queries and (ii) information about structural regularities that can be used as dataguides for document querying. A prototype of the proposed...

  7. Liquidity Trap and Stability of Taylor Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Le Riche, Antoine; Francesco MAGRIS; Parent, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We study a productive economy with safe government bonds and fractional cash-in-advance constraint on consumption expenditures. Government issues bonds and levies taxes to finance public expenditures, while the Central Bank follows a feedback Taylor rules by pegging the nominal interest rate. We show that when the nominal interest rate is bound to be non-negative, under active policy rules a liquidity trap steady state does emerge besides the Leeper (1991) equilibrium. The stability of the tw...

  8. Certified Subterm Criterion and Certified Usable Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Sternagel, Christian; Thiemann, René

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our formalization of two important termination techniques for term rewrite systems: the subterm criterion and the reduction pair processor in combination with usable rules. For both techniques we developed executable check functions in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL which can certify the correct application of these techniques in some given termination proof. As there are several variants of usable rules we designed our check function in such a way ...

  9. Following new tax rules on charitable deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, R W; Sossi, F T

    1994-11-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 established new rules governing individuals who make donations to charitable organizations and organizations that provide goods and services in return for charitable donations. Healthcare financial managers and fund-raising personnel need to become familiar with these rules so they can assure that donors of charitable contributions to their organizations will receive appropriate tax deductions and that the organizations themselves will not incur penalties for failing to make proper disclosures. PMID:10146096

  10. New Inference Rules for Max-SAT

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C. M.; Manya, F.; Planes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Exact Max-SAT solvers, compared with SAT solvers, apply little inference at each node of the proof tree. Commonly used SAT inference rules like unit propagation produce a simplified formula that preserves satisfiability but, unfortunately, solving the Max-SAT problem for the simplified formula is not equivalent to solving it for the original formula. In this paper, we define a number of original inference rules that, besides being applied efficiently, transform Max-SAT instances into equivale...

  11. Measuring Privacy Leakage for IDS Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ulltveit-Moe, Nils; Oleshchuk, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a measurement approach for estimating the privacy leakage from Intrusion Detection System (IDS) alarms. Quantitative information flow analysis is used to build a theoretical model of privacy leakage from IDS rules, based on information entropy. This theoretical model is subsequently verified empirically both based on simulations and in an experimental study. The analysis shows that the metric is able to distinguish between IDS rules that have no or low expected privacy lea...

  12. Involving business users in business rules lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Thorževskij, Sašo

    2010-01-01

    Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which require continuous modifications of business policies. The latter also implies changes in business informatics, the basis for effective and prosperous operation. To answer to the constant need for modifications and adaptations, a new approach to information systems design and implementation has been developed, based on separating business rules from the rest of the information system. In such solutions, business rule execution is entrusted ...

  13. Conscious Pulse I: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    This paper elaborates on four previously proposed rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. A new rule is proposed that applies to a continuous model of conscious brain states that cannot precisely resolve eigenvalues. If two apparatus states are in superposition, and if their eigenvalues are so close together that they cannot be consciously resolved on this model, then it is shown that observation will not generally reduce the superposition to just one of its mem...

  14. A RECENT REVIEW ON ASSOCIATION RULE MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Maragatham G; Lakshmi M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently more encroachment has emerged in the field of data mining. One of the hottest topic in this area is mining for hidden patterns from the existing massive collection of databases. The knowledge obtained from these databases are used for different applications like super market sales-prediction, fraud detection etc. In thisarticle, the various advancements in data mining using the association rule mining is discussed. The role of Association rules in temporal mining, utility mining, sta...

  15. Cellular Scaling Rules of Insectivore Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overla...

  16. Schrodinger's cat: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper we examined the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules were given that were found to govern the stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It was shown that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are repeated below. In t...

  17. Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, R W

    1988-01-01

    According to cultural materialism, cultural practices result from the materialistic outcomes of those practices, not from sociobiological, mentalistic, or mystical predispositions (e.g., Hindus worship cows because, in the long run, that worship results in more food, not less food). However, according to behavior analysis, such materialistic outcomes do not reinforce or punish the cultural practices, because such outcomes are too delayed, too improbable, or individually too small to directly reinforce or punish the cultural practices (e.g., the food increase is too delayed to reinforce the cow worship). Therefore, the molar, materialistic contingencies need the support of molecular, behavioral contingencies. And according to the present theory of rule-governed behavior, the statement of rules describing those molar, materialistic contingencies can establish the needed molecular contingencies. Given the proper behavioral history, such rule statements combine with noncompliance to produce a learned aversive condition (often labeled fear, anxiety, or guilt). The termination of this aversive condition reinforces compliance, just as its presentation punishes noncompliance (e.g., the termination of guilt reinforces the tending to a sick cow). In addition, supernatural rules often supplement these materialistic rules. Furthermore, the production of both materialistic and supernatural rules needs cultural designers who understand the molar, materialistic contingencies. PMID:22478012

  18. Incorporating Fuzzy Inference in Active Database Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海英; 台立钢; 钟廷修

    2003-01-01

    Active databases react to stimulation, or event from inside or outside the system without user or application interference through Events Conditions Actions(ECA) rules (triggers). ECA rule is defined as: ON event IF condition THEN action, which means when an event happens, if the condition is satisfied then the corresponding action is executed. The nature of ECA rule makes it an appropriate means to model dynamic character of systems, as gained much studies during recent years. Traditional ECA rule is crisp, which means their events, condition (s) and action(s) are accurate. As indicate that ECA rules can only represent precise knowledge. But knowledge is usually fuzzy in engineering. A concept of fuzzy ECA rules characterized with fuzzy event, fuzzy condition and fuzzy action is proposed in this article.The realization avenues of fuzzy triggers are discussed. The work we have done blazes a way in representing approximate syntax in active database application systems. At last a case of "overheating alarm" is given to illustrate the approach.

  19. The Born rule fails in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule fails and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure problem in cosmology. A particular volume-averaged form is proposed

  20. Clinical prediction rule for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Nova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in the world. Even though ultraviolet radiation is the main cause, established prevention campaigns have not proved to be effective for controlling the incidence of this disease. Objective: To develop clinical prediction rules based on medical consultation and a questionnaire to estimate the risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer. Methods: This study was developed in several steps. They were: Identifying risk factors that could be possible predictors of nonmelanoma skin cancer; their clinical validation; developing a prediction rule using logistic regression; and collecting information from 962 patients in a case and control design (481 cases and 481 controls. We developed independent prediction rules for basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Finally, we evaluated reliability for each of the variables. Results: The variables that made up the final prediction rule were: Family history of skin cancer, history of outdoor work, age, phototypes 1-3 and the presence of poikiloderma of civatte, actinic keratosis and conjunctivitis in band. Prediction rules specificity was 87% for basal cell carcinomas and 92% for squamous cell carcinomas. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was good except for the conjunctivitis in band variable. Conclusions: The prediction rules let us calculate the individual risk of developing basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. This is an economic easy-to-apply tool that could be useful in primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer.

  1. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  2. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  3. Rule Extraction:Using Neural Networks or for Neural Networks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In the research of rule extraction from neural networks, fidelity describes how well the rules mimic the behavior of a neural network while accuracy describes how well the rules can be generalized. This paper identifies the fidelity-accuracy dilemma. It argues to distinguish rule extraction using neural networks and rule extraction for neural networks according to their different goals, where fidelity and accuracy should be excluded from the rule quality evaluation framework, respectively.

  4. Apriori and Ant Colony Optimization of Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuman Singh Sadh; Nitin Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Association Rule mining is one of the important and most popular data mining technique. Association rule mining can be efficiently used in any decision making processor decision based rule generation. In this paper we present an efficient mining based optimization techniques for rule generation. By using apriori algorithm we find the positive and negative association rules. Then we apply ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) for optimizing the association rules. Our results show the effecti...

  5. Support-Less Association Rule Mining Using Tuple Count Cube

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Ding; William Perrizo

    2007-01-01

    Association rule mining is one of the important tasks in data mining and knowledge discovery (KDD). The traditional task of association rule mining is to find all the rules with high support and high confidence. In some applications, we are interested in finding high confidence rules even though the support may be low. This type of problem differs from the traditional association rule mining problem; hence, it is called support-less association rule mining. Existing algorithms for association...

  6. Prospects for $K^+ \\to \\pi^+ \

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The rare decays K+ -> p + n -n are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%. Part of the experimental apparatus has been commissioned during a technical run in 2012. The physics prospects and the status of the experiment will be reviewed after the commissioning run of 2014 and the data taking in 2015.

  7. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    OpenAIRE

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the stat...

  8. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tentalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and $\\delta_{CP}$, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  9. Renewable energy prospects for implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation contains papers that were originally commissioned by the journal Energy Policy for a series on renewable energy appearing between January 1991 to September 1992. In view of the fast-changing demands on conventional energy supply to meet environmental imperatives, it seemed timely to reproduce here a selection of those papers with a new introduction and a revised concluding chapter by the Editor of the series, Dr Tim Jackson, a research fellow with the Stockholm Environment Institute. The book is organized into four parts. The papers in Part I

  10. Continuous-emission monitoring: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowances Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CRF Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet summarizes the key components of the proposed Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75)

  11. PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS' SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    TAMANNA KAUSHAL

    2013-01-01

    Teachers play a prominent role in national and social reconstruction and in transmission of wisdom, knowledge and experiences of one generation, to another generation. This study was carried out to identify the prospective teachers' Sense of responsibility towards environment at bachelor of education level in National Capital Region (NCR). The sample comprised of 100 prospective teachers (males & females) of B. Ed colleges. Data was collected from prospective teachers, through an En...

  12. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  13. Prospective Memory Development Through Childhood into Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Anna Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being suppressed, time-based and event-based memory not being distinguished and time delay between intention formation and intention execution not being controlled. The present study aimed to overcome these issues and draw a more coherent picture of prospe...

  14. Prospective memory and chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Habota, Tina; Cameron, Jan; McLennan, Skye N; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Peter G Rendell

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience a number of debilitating symptoms, which impact on activities of daily living and result in poor quality of life. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, has not been investigated in this group. However, emerging evidence suggests CHF patients have difficulties with cognitive processes related to prospective memory. Self-care, which partly relies on prospective memory, is essential in sympto...

  15. Many faces, one rule: the role of perceptual expertise in infants’ sequential rule learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulf, Hermann; Brenna, Viola; Valenza, Eloisa; Johnson, Scott P.; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Rule learning is a mechanism that allows infants to recognize and generalize rule-like patterns, such as ABB or ABA. Although infants are better at learning rules from speech vs. non-speech, rule learning can be applied also to frequently experienced visual stimuli, suggesting that perceptual expertise with material to be learned is critical in enhancing rule learning abilities. Yet infants’ rule learning has never been investigated using one of the most commonly experienced visual stimulus category available in infants’ environment, i.e., faces. Here, we investigate 7-month-olds’ ability to extract rule-like patterns from sequences composed of upright faces and compared their results to those of infants who viewed inverted faces, which presumably are encountered far less frequently than upright faces. Infants were habituated with face triads in either an ABA or ABB condition followed by a test phase with ABA and ABB triads composed of faces that differed from those showed during habituation. When upright faces were used, infants generalized the pattern presented during habituation to include the new face identities showed during testing, but when inverted faces were presented, infants failed to extract the rule. This finding supports the idea that perceptual expertise can modulate 7-month-olds’ abilities to detect rule-like patterns. PMID:26539142

  16. RULE OF CARCINOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRIC CARDIA OBSERVED BY ENDOSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the rule of development of early cancer of gastric cardiac in vivo. Methods: A prospective cohort was held in the high incidence area of cancer of esophagus and stomach in china. One hundred and six persons were examined regularly by endoscopy to observe the change of pro-cancer lesions of gastric cardiac by taking biopsy specimen. All specimens were diagnosed through normal pathological process. Results: The 106 subjects were examined twice in 1998 and 2002. Of 8 normal persons, 3 stayed normal, 4 turned to chronic gastritis, 1 developed early gastric cardiac cancer. Of 61 persons with chronic gastritis, 11 were observed to have gland atrophy, 4 with mild atypical hyperplasia, and 2 with highly atypical hyperplasia. Of 9 subjects showing atrophic chronic gastritis, 5 revealed no change, and 4 became chronic gastritis. Of 22 subjects who revealed mild atypical hyperplasia, 17 resolved, 4 showed no change, and 1 advanced to highly atypical hyperplasia. One person with highly atypical hyperplasia reverted to mild atypical hyperplasia. Of 5 subjects with early gastric cardiac cancer without any treatment, 1 became advanced cancer, 1 still stayed in early cancer stage, 3 turned to atypical hyperplasia. Conclusion: 1. The development of early cancer of gastric cardia would proceed through the stages of chronic gastritis, gland atrophy, and atypical hyperplasia. 2. The early cancer and pre-cancer lesions of gastric cardia is reversible, though possessing malignant possibility.

  17. A Role for Memory in Prospective Timing informs Timing in Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Waldum, Emily R.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2012-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) tasks require the estimation of time in passing – known as prospective timing. Prospective timing is said to depend on an attentionally-driven internal clock mechanism, and is thought to be unaffected by memory for interval information (for reviews see, Block, Hancock, & Zakay, 2010; Block & Zakay, 1997). A prospective timing task that required a verbal estimate following the entire interval (Experiment 1) and a TBPM task that required production of a targ...

  18. Work ethics: An Islamic prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic principles completely cover all prospects of life including working in organization. The impact of management style used in an organization play an important role in employee commitment towards its work. This paper is an effort to explore impact of Islamic work ethic on human resource of organization including the prospective of work conflict, job satisfaction, job turn over, turnover intentions and organizational commitment. Data for current study was collected personally through questionnaires from 18 branches of seven banks of Pakistan who practices Islamic banking. In total, 150 Muslims employees were targeted as respondent of current study, while response rate was above 85%. Results show that there is significant impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and rewards while Islamic work ethic has no significant relation with intention to quit job. Out of seven, only three hypotheses were fully supported, while two were partially supported, however number of rejected hypothesis were two. Islamic work ethics are source to built greater morale in employees resulting greater job satisfaction. Adopting Islamic work ethics improves organizational commitment, source of motivation as well as reduces the negative intentions of quitting job.

  19. Cureton's Basic Principles of Physical Fitness Work (Rules for Conducting Exercise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This document is an annotated list of 20 rules for conducting exercise. Among the rules described are the warm-up rule, the rule for regulation of exercise dosage, recuperation rule, posture rule, glandular fitness rule, maximum respiration rule, and maximum circulation rule. The time of workout and procedures for taking cool baths are…

  20. RGANN: An Efficient Algorithm to Extract Rules from ANNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient rule generation algorithm, called rule generation from artificial neural networks (RGANN) to generate symbolic rules from ANNs. Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods supports explicitness of the generated rules. Generated rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, including breast cancer, wine, season, golf-playing, and ...

  1. Official News relating to CERN Safety Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Safety Rules listed below have been published on the HSE website (see here) and entered into force on the 9 June 2015:   Safety Regulation SR-M “Mechanical equipment”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M_ENv2.htm; this SR-M (version 2) cancels and replaces SR-M (version 1) and the corresponding provisions of General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 “Special Equipment” (version 1).   General Safety Instruction GSI-M-1 “Lifting equipment and accessories”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M-1_ENv2.htm; this GSI-M-1 (version 2) cancels and replaces GSI-M1 (version 1). Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-1 “Slings and lifting chains”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-1_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-2 “Cranes, bridge cranes, gantry cranes and power-driven hoists”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-2_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-3 “Non-f...

  2. New Inference Rules for Max-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C M; Planes, J; 10.1613/jair.2215

    2011-01-01

    Exact Max-SAT solvers, compared with SAT solvers, apply little inference at each node of the proof tree. Commonly used SAT inference rules like unit propagation produce a simplified formula that preserves satisfiability but, unfortunately, solving the Max-SAT problem for the simplified formula is not equivalent to solving it for the original formula. In this paper, we define a number of original inference rules that, besides being applied efficiently, transform Max-SAT instances into equivalent Max-SAT instances which are easier to solve. The soundness of the rules, that can be seen as refinements of unit resolution adapted to Max-SAT, are proved in a novel and simple way via an integer programming transformation. With the aim of finding out how powerful the inference rules are in practice, we have developed a new Max-SAT solver, called MaxSatz, which incorporates those rules, and performed an experimental investigation. The results provide empirical evidence that MaxSatz is very competitive, at least, on ran...

  3. 16 CFR 437.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anything you think may be wrong or anything important that's been left out, you should let us know about it... oral, written, or visual representation to a prospective business opportunity purchaser which states a... lower-case boldface type: CAUTION These figures are only estimates of what we think you may earn....

  4. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rear...

  5. Rule-Governed Behavior: Teaching a Preliminary Repertoire of Rule-Following to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Zuckerman, Carrie K.; Bishop, Michele R.; Olive, Melissa L.; O'Hora, Denis P.

    2011-01-01

    Rule-governed behavior is generally considered an integral component of complex verbal repertoires but has rarely been the subject of empirical research. In particular, little or no previous research has attempted to establish rule-governed behavior in individuals who do not already display the repertoire. This study consists of two experiments…

  6. KTA nuclear safety rules, or the love for service according to the rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some critical comments on the question as to what extent the KTA rules really support the safety-oriented and in this sense purposeful implementation of the Atomic Energy Act. The authors review some specific KTA rules for their expediency, not with holding disapproval in some cases. (HP)

  7. LERM (Logical Elements Rule Method): A method for assessing and formalizing clinical rules for decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Medlock; D. Opondo; S. Eslami; M. Askari; P. Wierenga; S.E. de Rooij; A. Abu-Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to create a step-by-step method for transforming clinical rules for use in decision support, and to validate this method for usability and reliability. Methods: A sample set of clinical rules was identified from the relevant literature. Using an iterative approach

  8. Change, Stability and Context: Prospective Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdurrahman; Cokadar, Hulusi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore and compare first-year and fourth-year prospective teachers' perceptions of good teaching, a good teacher, and a good student. A questionnaire with close- and open-ended questions was administered to 142 first-year and 138 fourth-year prospective teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University.…

  9. Prospective Memory Training in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the results of a training program for prospective remembering. The goal of the training was to improve prospective memory by associating cues from the retrieval situation with the to be remembered information. The training group consisted of 20 participants, aged between 45 and

  10. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course. Participants' epistemological…

  11. Straightforward derivation of the generalized Kramer's Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ancient Kramer's rule is an useful recurrence relation for the calculation of diagonal multipolar matrix elements between hydrogenic eigenfunctions. Such a recursion formula was recently generalized in order to extend its application to the off-diagonal case. For that, the procedure followed to improve the old Kramer's rule makes use of the hypervirial theorem as well as the commutation relations involved. In this work, in order to overcome the above difficulties we propose a simple procedure based in the extension of the identity (En-Em)=nf(r)-f(r)Hm|m> in a such a way that the generalized Kramer's rule is straightforwardly obtained. The proposed method has been designed in order to consider any type of potentials, and also arbitrary f(r) functions, for which can be easily extended to consider different matrix elements. Besides, a similar procedure can be followed with the purpose to obtain recurrence relations for the calculation of two-center integrals

  12. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  13. Rule-based decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rule-based decision making model is designed in G2 environment. A theoretical and methodological frame for the model is composed and motivated. The rule-based decision making model is based on object-oriented modelling, knowledge engineering and decision theory. The idea of safety objective tree is utilized. Advanced rule-based methodologies are applied. A general decision making model 'decision element' is constructed. The strategy planning of the decision element is based on e.g. value theory and utility theory. A hypothetical process model is built to give input data for the decision element. The basic principle of the object model in decision making is division in tasks. Probability models are used in characterizing component availabilities. Bayes' theorem is used to recalculate the probability figures when new information is got. The model includes simple learning features to save the solution path. A decision analytic interpretation is given to the decision making process. (author)

  14. Bayes’ Rule for Clinicians: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F Westbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayes’ Rule is a way of calculating conditional probabilities. It is difficult to find an explanation of its relevance that is both mathematically comprehensive and easily accessible to all readers. This article tries to fill that void, by laying out the nature of Bayes’ Rule and its implications for clinicians in a way that assumes little or no background in probability theory. It builds on Meehl & Rosen’s (1955 classic paper, by laying out algebraic proofs that they simply allude to, and by providing extremely simple and intuitively accessible examples of the concepts that they assumed their reader understood, and provides examples of how the rule applies in a variety of clinical settings.

  15. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2005 : Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2004/2005, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2004 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2005, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  16. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  17. PROCEDURAL ASPECTS REGARDING REFERENCES FOR PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana - Măriuca Petrescu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preliminary rulings, or the preliminary reference as it is known, can be traced directly to the need to secure uniformity in the Community legal order throughout the Member States. The procedure of preliminary rulings was mentioned for the first time by the Advocate General Joseph-Louis Lagrange 40 years ago in this Opinion in Bosch v de Geus case. Much of the responsibility for applying the rules laid down in the European Community Treaty (EC Treaty and in Community acts belongs to the national courts of the Member States. To help safeguard the uniform application of Community law, article 234 (former art.177 of EC Treaty, therefore lays down a procedure which enables national courts to refer to the European Court of Justice questions of Community law that they have to decide before giving a judgment.

  18. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1st January 1996 are modified as follows as of 1st July 2006: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme-reorganisation of the Fellowship Programme-modification of Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions-new definition of disability and associated benefits-revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board-bringing together of the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification No.16) are available from Departmental secretariats. In addition, the Staff Rules and Regulations can be consulted on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2)-July 2006 Protection of members o...

  19. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2006: The modifications are listed below: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme - reorganization of the Fellowship Programme - modification of the Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions - new definition of disability and associated benefits - revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board - bringing together the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification# 16) are available in departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular ...

  20. Determining interaction rules in animal swarms

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, Anders; Nystrom, Johan; Tunstrom, Kolbjorn

    2009-01-01

    We use a method developed for coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations as a tool for hypothesis testing and reconstruction of interaction rules between animals in swarms, schools and flocks. It is widely belied that individuals involved in collective behavior such as swarming act according to mechanistic rules that depend primarily on the neighboring animals positions and velocities. This assumption has been used extensively to model flocking under a wide variety of different circumstances. Thus far however it has not been possible to actually determine the exact nature of the rules involved and how they vary from species to species. The methodology presented in this paper can potentially address this question. The input data needed consists of observed trajectories from field studies or controlled experiments.

  1. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-11-01

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

  2. Parallelism In Rule-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Arvind; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; de Saussure, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    1988-03-01

    Rule-based systems, which have proven to be extremely useful for several Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems applications, currently face severe limitations due to the slow speed of their execution. To achieve the desired speed-up, this paper addresses the problem of parallelization of production systems and explores the various architectural and algorithmic possibilities. The inherent sources of parallelism in the production system structure are analyzed and the trade-offs, limitations and feasibility of exploitation of these sources of parallelism are presented. Based on this analysis, we propose a dedicated, coarse-grained, n-ary tree multiprocessor architecture for the parallel implementation of rule-based systems and then present algorithms for partitioning of rules in this architecture.

  3. Parity conservation in atoms: testing laporte's rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful development of unified theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions and the experimental discovery of the elastic scattering of high energy neutrinos from nucleons has provided strong motivation to the search for weak electron-nucleon interactions in ordinary atoms, through a breakdown of Laporte's rule. A review is presented of recent developments in this field, including a qualitative discussion of this type of weak interaction and a short summary of the experiments in progress. A more detailed discussion of one particular experiment is given, involving microwave transitions in a metastable hydrogen beam. Presently no evidence contradicts Laporte's rule. Data from optical activity in bismuth vapor, has probably ruled out the gauge model of Weinberg-Salam. (Auth.)

  4. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2004: • Preliminary note - Terminology realignment following the restructuring of the Organization (page - i -) • Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) • Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) • Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) • Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2003/2004, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2003 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 3/2004, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  5. Symmetry energy from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent attempts to calculate the nuclear symmetry energy from QCD sum rules. Calculating the difference between the proton and neutron correlation function in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter within the QCD sum rule approach, the potential part of the nuclear symmetry energy can be expressed in terms of local operators. We find that the scalar (vector) self-energy part gives negative (positive) contribution to the nuclear symmetry energy, consistent with the results from relativistic mean-field theories. Moreover, the magnitudes are consistent with phenomenological estimates. In terms of the operators, we find that an important contribution to self-energies contributing to the symmetry energy comes from the twist-4 matrix elements, whose leading density dependence can be extracted from deep inelastic scattering experiments. Our result also extends an early success of the QCD sum rule method in understanding the symmetric nuclear matter in terms of QCD variables to the asymmetric nuclear matter case. (orig.)

  6. Optimal decision fusion given sensor rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunmin ZHU; Xiaorong LI

    2005-01-01

    When all the rules of sensor decision are known,the optimal distributed decision fusion,which relies only on the joint conditional probability densities,can be derived for very general decision systems.They include those systems with interdependent sensor observations and any network structure.It is also valid for m-ary Bayesian decision problems and binary problems under the Neyman-Pearson criterion.Local decision rules of a sensor with communication from other sensors that are optimal for the sensor itself are also presented,which take the form of a generalized likelihood ratio test.Numerical examples are given to reveal some interesting phenomena that communication between sensors can improve performance of a senor decision,but cannot guarantee to improve the global fusion performance when sensor rules were given before fusing.

  7. 49 CFR 553.29 - Adoption of final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 553.29 Section 553.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 553.29 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the...

  8. 19 CFR 177.6 - Withdrawal of ruling requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of ruling requests. 177.6 Section 177.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.6 Withdrawal of ruling...

  9. 19 CFR 177.2 - Submission of ruling requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 177.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of ruling requests. 177.2 Section 177.2... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.2 Submission of ruling...

  10. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a... that date. See, however, § 177.10(e) (changes of practice published in the Federal Register) and §...

  11. 75 FR 49435 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... final rule (71 FR 6352) for the finding of attainment of the Ajo, Arizona PM 10 nonattainment area, and.... EPA first promulgated the conformity rule on November 24, 1993 (58 FR 62188), and subsequently... addressing a new or revised NAAQS. See the March 24, 2010 final rule and the July 1, 2004 final rule (75...

  12. 78 FR 10573 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Buyers Guide in English to ask for a copy of it in Spanish. \\1\\ 77 FR 7476 (Dec. 17, 2012). The... 16 CFR Part 455 Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule (``Used Car Rule'' or ``Rule''). The notice stated...

  13. Radiation detectors: needs and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important applications for x- and γ-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI2, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties

  14. Prospects of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is briefly reviewed, emphasizing the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project in the US and the Megajoule project in France. Critical aspects of target performance such as symmetry and stability of capsule implosions and interaction physics in hohlraum targets are discussed. The advantages of heavy-ion beam drivers and corresponding research programs are pointed out with reference to the long-term prospects for ICF power production. The new concept of the fast ignition of precompressed fuel by petawatt, picosecond laser pulses is also covered. The laser plasma group at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) is one of the European institutes funded by EURATOM for an ICF keep-in-touch activity, and we highlight results obtained at MPQ relevant to the recent progress of ICF. (author)

  15. Nuclear power prospects in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its programme to assist the development of nuclear power, IAEA undertakes, on r e quest, reviews of the prospects for nuclear power in individual Member States. A general finding of the Pakistan report is that nuclear power should be considered 'a leading contender for the supply of future energy needs'. A principal reason for this is that the conventional energy resources available, both of hydroelectric energy and of fossil fuels, appear insufficient by themselves to give in the long run the high per capita consumption of electricity which is characteristic of a developed country. Thus, an alternative source of energy to supplement the existing resources appears desirable. The analysis comparing nuclear power economics with those of conventional alternatives is performed separately for the Karachi area, for West Pakistan and for East Pakistan, since the power supply systems serving these regions are not now, nor in the near future likely to be, interconnected

  16. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  17. Prospects in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakov, A A; Nemets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Tendencies in five main branches of atomic spectrometry (absorption, emission, mass, fluorescence and ionization spectrometry) are considered. The first three techniques are the most widespread and universal, with the best sensitivity attributed to atomic mass spectrometry. In the direct elemental analysis of solid samples, the leading roles are now conquered by laser-induced breakdown and laser ablation mass spectrometry, and the related techniques with transfer of the laser ablation products into inductively-coupled plasma. Advances in design of diode lasers and optical parametric oscillators promote developments in fluorescence and ionization spectrometry and also in absorption techniques where uses of optical cavities for increased effective absorption pathlength are expected to expand. Prospects for analytical instrumentation are seen in higher productivity, portability, miniaturization, incorporation of advanced software, automated sample preparation and transition to the multifunctional modular archite...

  18. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO

  19. Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rules for Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Dezert, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose five versions of a Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule (PCR) for information fusion together with several examples. From PCR1 to PCR2, PCR3, PCR4, PCR5 one increases the complexity of the rules and also the exactitude of the redistribution of conflicting masses. PCR1 restricted from the hyper-power set to the power set and without degenerate cases gives the same result as the Weighted Average Operator (WAO) proposed recently by J{\\o}sang, Daniel and Vannoorenber...

  20. Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baye, Daniel, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-09-30

    Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x{sup 2} as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived. (paper)

  1. Appreciative Socialization Group: Rules of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona USURELU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Appreciative socialization group is the result of a strong collaboration between a NGO from Iasi, Romania, active volunteers and service users involved (disabled persons. In this paper we aim to offer the rules of implementation of this model. It is important to respect some rules in order to obtain the desired result – social integration of disabled persons in our case. Apprecitive socialization group is based on a number of elements taken from the literature that treats this subject, and a number of elements of appreciative inquiry, the process of socialization, the process of empowerment and also the partnership process.

  2. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  3. Glueballs multiquark states and the OZI rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New signatures for detection of non-quarkonium mesons are considered, including K+K+π+π- and Ksub(s)Ksub(s)π+π+ decays for states where K+K+ and K+Ksup(*)+ decays are forbidden, and A-dependence of Ssup(*) and delta production on nuclei by kaon beams. Analysis of OZI rule shows that only selection rules forbidding hairpin diagrams are valid and that phi phi production by pion beams is not a serious OZI violation indicating presence of glueballs. (author)

  4. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, A.; Mueller, E.H. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; von Hippel, G.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Horgan, R.R. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, CMS

    2009-04-15

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. (orig.)

  5. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. (orig.)

  6. Proper Reparametrization of Rational Ruled Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Li-Yong Shen; Xiao-Shan Gao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a proper reparametrization algorithm for rational ruled surfaces. That is, for an improper rational parametrization of a ruled surface, we construct a proper rational parametrization for the same surface. The algorithm consists of three steps. We first reparametrize the improper rational parametrization caused by improper supports. Then the improper rational parametrization is transformed to a new one which is proper in one of the parameters. Finally, the problem is reduced to the proper reparametrization of planar rational algebraic curves.

  7. Conscious Pulse; 1, The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    This paper elaborates on four previously proposed rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. A new rule is proposed that applies to a continuous model of conscious brain states that cannot precisely resolve eigenvalues. If two apparatus states are in superposition, and if their eigenvalues are so close together that they cannot be consciously resolved on this model, then it is shown that observation will not generally reduce the superposition to just one of its member eigenstates. In general, the observation of a quantum mechanical superposition results in another superposition. Key words: Brain states, cat paradox, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  8. The monetarist policy rule: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. CURRIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with monetarist views on demand management, and more specifically with what has become known as the monetarist policy rule - an open-loop policy of the simplest possible design. The author examines the evolution of thinking on this rule, starting with Friedman’s own writing and moving through the shift in thinking represented by the rational expectations literature. It is forcefully argued that the theoretical arguments for open-loop monetary policies are weak, and that the practical weakness of these policies were in large part anticipated by the theoretical literature.

  9. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  10. Mining association rule efficiently based on data warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 赖邦传; 罗铤

    2003-01-01

    The conventional complete association rule set was replaced by the least association rule set in data warehouse association rule mining process. The least association rule set should comply with two requirements: 1) it should be the minimal and the simplest association rule set; 2) its predictive power should in no way be weaker than that of the complete association rule set so that the precision of the association rule set analysis can be guaranteed.By adopting the least association rule set, the pruning of weak rules can be effectively carried out so as to greatly reduce the number of frequent itemset, and therefore improve the mining efficiency. Finally, based on the classical Apriori algorithm, the upward closure property of weak rules is utilized to develop a corresponding efficient algorithm.

  11. Remembering about Intended Actions: review of Studies on Prospective Memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Albiński, Rafał

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to acquaint the reader with the subject of prospective memory, especially in its event-based form. Definition of prospective memory is presented in the text along with discussion concerning the place of prospective memory in the broadly understood memory research area. Critical features of prospective tasks and two types of processes (automatic and controlled) mediating prospective memory are described. Also presented is the multi-process framework of prospective mem...

  12. AN IMPROVED GRAPH BASED METHOD FOR EXTRACTING ASSOCIATION RULES

    OpenAIRE

    Wael AlZoubi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved approach to mine strong association rules from an association graph, called graph based association rule mining (GBAR) method, where the association for each frequent itemset is represented by a sub-graph, then all sub-graphs are merged to determine association rules with high confidence and eliminate weak rules, the proposed graph based technique is self-motivated since it builds the association graph in a successive manner. These rules achieve the scalability...

  13. THE TAL-FAMILY OF RULES FOR BANKRUPTCY PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Villar Notario; Juan D. Moreno Ternero

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes a family of solutions to bankruptcy problems that generalizes the Talmud rule (T) and encompasses both the constrained equal-awards rule (A) and the constrained equal-losses rule (L). We study the structural properties of this family of rules and provide a characterization result. That allows us to identify the distinctive features of these three reference rules, T, A, L.

  14. The Food Safety Modernization Act’s Produce Safety Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Theresa M. J.; Strawn, Laura K.; Eifert, Joseph D.; Rideout, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Limited resources are available for extension personnel to distribute to stakeholders seeking information on the Food and Drug Administration’s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) and its seven different rules: Produce Safety Rule, Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule, Preventative Controls for Animal Food Rule, Foreign Supplier Verification Program for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals, Accredited Third-Party Certification Rule, Focused Mitigation Strategies to Protect Food Agains...

  15. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  16. 7 CFR 29.1120 - Rule 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 14. 29.1120 Section 29.1120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... of affected leaf surface or the degree of injury. In appraising injury, consideration shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6099 - Rule 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 13. 29.6099 Section 29.6099 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... consideration shall be given to the kinds of injury normal to the group or grade....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3117 - Rule 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 14. 29.3117 Section 29.3117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... of affected leaf surface or the degree of injury. In appraising injury, consideration shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2631 - Rule 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 15. 29.2631 Section 29.2631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... appraising injury, consideration shall be given to the normal characteristics of the group....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3616 - Rule 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 15. 29.3616 Section 29.3616 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... of affected leaf surface or the degree of injury. In appraising injury, consideration shall be...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2407 - Rule 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 16. 29.2407 Section 29.2407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... appraising injury, consideration shall be given to the normal characteristics of the group....

  2. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this s

  3. Cramer rule over quaternion skew field

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrchei, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    New definitions of determinant functionals over the quaternion skew field are given in this paper. The inverse matrix over the quaternion skew field is represented by analogues of the classical adjoint matrix. Cramer rule for right and left quaternionic systems of linear equations have been obtained.

  4. 75 FR 55269 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... that there will be no increase in the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-188, 122 Stat....

  5. New rules revamp national security prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Following the collapse of recent prosecutions of Chinese-American scientists on national security grounds, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) has issued new rules on such lawsuits that will require top officials in Washington to review and supervise all cases that implicitly involve spying – rather than leaving decisions to local prosecutors.

  6. 15 CFR 1180.3 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY... funded research and development activities, and (b) A summary of the agency's new and on-going research... INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.3 General rule. Unless an exception...

  7. Business judgement rule in Czech Corporations Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír KOŽIAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Czech private law is currently undergoing a thorough transformation. This inclundes adoption of a brand new Corporations Act, which is to supersede the current Commercial Code. The new legislation introduces several new rules governing liability of company executive officers. One of these is business judgment rule. It should provide company executive officers with a certain level of protection against litigantion – if specific terms are met, it is presumed, that they carried out their responsibilities with proper care. I intend to demonstrate, that the czech business judgment rule is flawed, despite the fact that it draws from foreign examples and that this regulation, although seemingly groundbreaking, in fact changes nothing in examination of the decisions of the company executive officers in Czech Republic. The main goal of this article is therefore to analyze and criticize the business judgment rule in the new Czech legislation and to compare it to notable foreign legal systems. The methods used are inductive and deductive reasoning, author‘s own analysis of legal text, comparative method and compilation of available resources relating to the topic of the article.

  8. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd;

    distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  9. Annotated Spelling-to-Sound Correspondence Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce

    As part of the development of the phonics-based reading component of the SWRL Model 2 Communication Skills Program for kindergarten through third grade, this set of 166 spelling-to-sound correspondence rules for one- and two-syllable words was created. Designed to accompany a lexicon for beginning reading instruction, this booklet includes an…

  10. 42 CFR 414.44 - Transition rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 414.44 Transition rules. (a) Adjusted historical payment basis—(1) All services other than radiology and nuclear medicine services. For all physician services other than radiology services, furnished in... prevailing charge applied in the fee schedule area for the service in CY 1991, as determined by CMS...

  11. Vacuum corrections to QCD charmonium sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is presented of a new method for computing higher gluonic power corrections to QCD charmonium sum rules. The method is equivalent to using the Schwinger gauge condition (xsup(μ) - zsub(Q)sup(μ))Asub(μ)(x) = 0 for vacuum gluons. As an application of the method O(G2) and O(G3) corrections are calculated

  12. Quantum Pieri rules for tautological subbundles

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Naichung Conan; Li, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    We give quantum Pieri rules for quantum cohomology of Grassmannians of classical types, expressing the quantum product of Chern classes of the tautological subbundles with general cohomology classes. We derive them by showing the relevant genus zero, three-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants coincide with certain classical intersection numbers.

  13. On the Functional Diversity of Phonological Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, R. W. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shows that a phonological description that recognizes the functional variety of phonological rules is more illuminating than one in which data are handled merely as the output of a set of completely undifferentiated processes. Emphasizes the value of distinguishing motivated and unmotivated processes in phonology. (Author/RM)

  14. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3122 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 19. 29.3122 Section 29.3122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green tan, and green red. Any lot containing 20 percent or more of crude leaves shall...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2410 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 19. 29.2410 Section 29.2410 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, light green, or dark green. Any lot containing 20 percent or more of crude leaves shall...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3120 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3120 Section 29.3120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves, or any lot which contains 20 percent of greenish and green leaves combined, shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3619 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 18. 29.3619 Section 29.3619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... as “mixed” and designated by the color symbol “M” when it is not green but contains (a) over...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2633 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.2633 Section 29.2633 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves or any lot which contains 20 percent of greenish and green leaves combined shall be designated...