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Sample records for c-spine rule prospective

  1. A matched-pair cluster design study protocol to evaluate implementation of the Canadian C-spine rule in hospital emergency departments: Phase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians in Canadian emergency departments (EDs annually treat 185,000 alert and stable trauma victims who are at risk for cervical spine (C-spine injury. However, only 0.9% of these patients have suffered a cervical spine fracture. Current use of radiography is not efficient. The Canadian C-Spine Rule is designed to allow physicians to be more selective and accurate in ordering C-spine radiography, and to rapidly clear the C-spine without the need for radiography in many patients. The goal of this phase III study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an active strategy to implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule into physician practice. Specific objectives are to: 1 determine clinical impact, 2 determine sustainability, 3 evaluate performance, and 4 conduct an economic evaluation. Methods We propose a matched-pair cluster design study that compares outcomes during three consecutive 12-months "before," "after," and "decay" periods at six pairs of "intervention" and "control" sites. These 12 hospital ED sites will be stratified as "teaching" or "community" hospitals, matched according to baseline C-spine radiography ordering rates, and then allocated within each pair to either intervention or control groups. During the "after" period at the intervention sites, simple and inexpensive strategies will be employed to actively implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule. The following outcomes will be assessed: 1 measures of clinical impact, 2 performance of the Canadian C-Spine Rule, and 3 economic measures. During the 12-month "decay" period, implementation strategies will continue, allowing us to evaluate the sustainability of the effect. We estimate a sample size of 4,800 patients in each period in order to have adequate power to evaluate the main outcomes. Discussion Phase I successfully derived the Canadian C-Spine Rule and phase II confirmed the accuracy and safety of the rule, hence, the potential for physicians to improve care. What

  2. Facilitators and barriers to application of the Canadian C-spine rule by emergency department triage nurses.

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    Clement, Catherine M; Stiell, Ian G; Lowe, Maureen A; Brehaut, Jamie C; Calder, Lisa A; Vaillancourt, Christian; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-01

    We recently conducted a multicentre implementation study on the use of the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) by emergency department (ED) nurses to clear the c-spine in alert and stable trauma patients (n = 4506). The objective of this study was to conduct a survey of nurses, physicians, and administrators to evaluate their views on the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the CCR. We conducted both a paper-based and an electronic survey of the three different ED hospital staff groups of nine large teaching hospitals in Ontario, including six regional trauma centres. The content of this survey was informed by a qualitative evaluation of the opinions of the study nurses who had participated in the validation study. 57.5% (281/489) ED triage nurses, 50.2% ED physicians, and 82.8% of administrators responded. Nurse responses most often showed support from manager/educators and teamwork between physicians, nurses, and managers as being important facilitators to the use of the CCR. Physician responses most often identified the importance of a nurse leader/champion/educator, and presence of strong physician leaders. Administrator responses indicated the importance of nurse educators/champions, nurse engagement, and educational support. Barriers indicated by all three groups included busy department, lack of physician support, and lack of nursing support. Bringing about change in clinical practice is complex. Strong leadership, effective communication, and senior physician buy-in appear to be very important. Identification of system-specific barriers and facilitators are important components of successful knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospects for the Rule of Law in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Internet. The still unresolved debate over whether cyberspace constitutes a fundamentally new domain that requires fundamentally new laws to gov- ern...Russian lead on restrictions of civil liberties. 9 The Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). A keystone element of the ongoing legal debates revolves around...security policy formulation. iii v Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press PROSPECTS FOR THE RULE OF LAW IN CYBERSPACE Keir Giles

  4. Airbags and children: a spectrum of C-spine injuries.

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    Giguère, J F; St-Vil, D; Turmel, A; Di Lorenzo, M; Pothel, C; Manseau, S; Mercier, C

    1998-06-01

    Over 30 children who were improperly restrained or in rear facing safety seats have been reported killed in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) involving airbags. The authors report one minor and two major injuries in properly restrained children in the front passenger seat. In case 1, A 10-year-old seat-belted boy was involved in an MVA (40 km/h) with deployment of both airbags. Physical examination findings showed right hyphema with corneal abrasion, right cheek abrasion and minimal cervical tenderness. C-spine x-ray was normal. He was treated for whiplash and facial burns resulting from contact with hot gas released by the airbags and discharged. In case 2, a 4-year-old boy wearing a lapbelt was in a MVA (20 km/h) with airbag deployment. On arrival, his Glasgow coma score was 3 and he was hemodynamically unstable. Secondary survey after stabilization showed left neck abrasions and ecchymoses, quadraplegia, priapism, and absent rectal tone. C-spine x-ray showed atlanto-occipital dislocation with possible complete spinal cord transection at C1. Aggressive maneuvers were withheld, and the patient was pronounced dead. Autopsy findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. In case 3, a 3-year-old boy in a forward-facing safety seat was in a MVA (60 km/h) with air bag deployment. The patient was fully awake. C-spine x-rays were normal. Because of fluctuating level of consciousness, he underwent head computed tomography (CT) scan, which demonstrated a posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage and a hematoma posterior to the odontoid, suggesting a ligamentous tear. He remained asymptomatic and was discharged on day 6. A head CT scan at 1 month showed a periosteal reaction in the area of the alar ligament suggestive of partial ligamentous avulsion; this injury was the forerunner of atlanto-occipital dislocation. Airbags deploy by releasing a hot effluent at 300 km/h. Mechanisms of injury include direct contact of hot gas with facial skin and energy transmitted directly from the

  5. 31 CFR 800.103 - Applicability rule; prospective application of certain provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS General § 800.103 Applicability rule... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability rule; prospective application of certain provisions. 800.103 Section 800.103 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  6. An Algorithm of Association Rule Mining for Microbial Energy Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Muhammad; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbons beneath earth’s surface produces some microbiological anomalies in soils and sediments. The detection of such microbial populations involves pure bio chemical processes which are specialized, expensive and time consuming. This paper proposes a new algorithm of context based association rule mining on non spatial data. The algorithm is a modified form of already developed algorithm which was for spatial database only. The algorithm is applied to mine context based association rules on microbial database to extract interesting and useful associations of microbial attributes with existence of hydrocarbon reserve. The surface and soil manifestations caused by the presence of hydrocarbon oxidizing microbes are selected from existing literature and stored in a shared database. The algorithm is applied on the said database to generate direct and indirect associations among the stored microbial indicators. These associations are then correlated with the probability of hydrocarbon’s existence. The numerical evaluation shows better accuracy for non-spatial data as compared to conventional algorithms at generating reliable and robust rules. PMID:28393846

  7. Medicare Program; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System for Federal Fiscal Year 2018. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-03

    This final rule updates the prospective payment rates for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) for federal fiscal year (FY) 2018 as required by the statute. As required by section 1886(j)(5) of the Social Security Act (the Act), this rule includes the classification and weighting factors for the IRF prospective payment system's (IRF PPS) case-mix groups and a description of the methodologies and data used in computing the prospective payment rates for FY 2018. This final rule also revises the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes that are used to determine presumptive compliance under the "60 percent rule," removes the 25 percent payment penalty for inpatient rehabilitation facility patient assessment instrument (IRF-PAI) late transmissions, removes the voluntary swallowing status item (Item 27) from the IRF-PAI, summarizes comments regarding the criteria used to classify facilities for payment under the IRF PPS, provides for a subregulatory process for certain annual updates to the presumptive methodology diagnosis code lists, adopts the use of height/weight items on the IRF-PAI to determine patient body mass index (BMI) greater than 50 for cases of single-joint replacement under the presumptive methodology, and revises and updates measures and reporting requirements under the IRF quality reporting program (QRP).

  8. NON NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED SURGICAL STABILIZATION IN C-SPINE FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Mahadewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non neurological outcome postsurgical stabilization in C-spine injury has not been reported. Non neurological outcome i.e. the risk of lung infection (pneumonia, systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS, length of postoperative care (LOPOC which can compromise the recovery process and treatment period. This study aims to investigate non neurological outcome comparison after early surgical stabilization (ESS and delayed surgical stabilization (DSS in patients with C-spine fractures. Methods: The author retrospectively reviews 59 of 108 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria with C-spine fractures who underwent surgical stabilization at the Sanglah General Hospital, between 2007 and 2010. Consisting of 25 patients underwent ESS and 34 patients were treated by DSS. The last follow up period range was 3-36 months. Non neurological outcome were evaluated and compared; the risk of pneumonia, SIRS and LOPOC. Results: Significant statistically between ESS and DSS in; the risk of pneumonia (ESS: DSS= 1:9 by Chi-square-test (p=0.023; the risk of SIRS (ESS: DSS= 1:11 by Chi-square-test (p=0.008; and the LOPOC (ESS: DSS= 6.84:9.97 by independent t-test (p=0.000. Application of ESS for C-spine fractures could provide early mobilization, prompt treatment and facilitate early rehabilitation thus significantly reduces complications due to prolong immobilization and reduces LOPOC. Conclussion: It can be concluded that the ESS strategy is effective and efficient thus may propose an option of surgical timing in C-spine fractures.

  9. Medicare program; inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system for federal fiscal year 2009. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    This final rule updates the prospective payment rates for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) for Federal fiscal year (FY) 2009 (for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2008 and on or before September 30, 2009) as required under section 1886(j)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act). Section 1886(j)(5) of the Act requires the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register on or before the August 1 that precedes the start of each fiscal year, the classification and weighting factors for the IRF prospective payment system's (PPS) case-mix groups and a description of the methodology and data used in computing the prospective payment rates for that fiscal year. We are revising existing policies regarding the PPS within the authority granted under section 1886(j) of the Act.

  10. Medicare program; inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system for federal fiscal year 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-07

    This final rule updates the payment rates for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) for Federal fiscal year (FY) 2010 (for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2009 and on or before September 30, 2010) as required under section 1886(j)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act). Section 1886(j)(5) of the Act requires the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register on or before the August 1 that precedes the start of each fiscal year, the classification and weighting factors for the IRF prospective payment system's (PPS) case-mix groups and a description of the methodology and data used in computing the prospective payment rates for that fiscal year. We are revising existing policies regarding the IRF PPS within the authority granted under section 1886(j) of the Act.

  11. Validation of the Vancouver Chest Pain Rule: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mohammad; Hejripour, Zia; Honarmand, Amir Reza; Pourtabatabaei, Nasim

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to validate the Vancouver Chest Pain Rule in an emergency department (ED) setting to identify very-low-risk patients with acute chest pain. A prospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients 25 years of age and older presenting to the ED with a chief complaint of acute chest pain during January 2009 to July 2009. According to the Vancouver Chest Pain Rule, cardiac history, chest pain characteristics, physical and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, and cardiac biomarker measurement (creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme [CK-MB]) were used to identify patients with very low risk for developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 30 days. The primary outcome was defined as developing ACS (myocardial infarction or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [MI]/unstable angina) within 30 days of ED presentation, and all diagnoses were made using predefined explicit criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Of 593 patients who were eligible for evaluation, 39 (6.6%) developed MI and 43 (7.3%) developed unstable angina. Among all patients, 292 (49.2%) patients could have been assigned to the very-low-risk group and discharged after a brief ED assessment according to the Vancouver Chest Pain Rule. Among these patients, four (1.4%) developed ACS within 30 days. Sensitivity of the rule was 95.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]=88.0% to 98.7%), specificity was 56.3% (95% CI=52.0% to 60.7%), positive prediction value was 25.9% (95% CI=21.0% to 31.0%), and negative prediction value was 98.6% (95% CI=96.5% to 99.6%). This study showed a lower sensitivity and higher specificity when applying the Vancouver Chest Pain Rule to this population as compared to the original study. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Can multislice CT alone rule out reliably pulmonary embolism? A prospective study

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    Guilabert, Jose Pamies [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain)]. E-mail: pamies_jos@gva.es; Manzur, Dolores Nauffal [Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Tarrasa, Maria J. Torres [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Llorens, Maximiliano Lloret [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain); Braun, Petra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital La Plana of Vila-real (Spain); Arques, Maria P. Bello [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario La Fe (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety of withholding anticoagulation in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism after negative multislice computed tomography (MSCT) pulmonary angiography and lower-limb venography. Materials and methods: A total of 383 consecutive patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism were prospectively studied. Patients underwent MSCT pulmonary angiography and lower-limb venography, as well as pulmonary scintigraphy and lower-limb ultrasound examination. Patients with negative MSCT results for both pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis were not administered anticoagulants and were followed up for 6 months to rule out thromboembolism. Results: At MSCT, 156 patients were positive for pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, or both; 224 were negative; and findings were inconclusive in three. False-negatives were five patients with high probability scintigram and two with venous thrombosis detected at US. A total of 184 patients with negative MSCT and without anticoagulation were followed up for 6 months. During this period of time just one recurrence of pulmonary embolism was detected. The negative predictive value of MSCT pulmonary angiography plus lower-limb venography was 95.8% (183/191). Conclusion: MSCT is efficacious in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, with negative predictive values reported in the literature ranging from 94% to 100%. This enables omission of anticoagulation in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism after negative MSCT findings without the need for other diagnostic tests.

  13. Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) rule in European patients with low implicit clinical probability (PERCEPIC): a multicentre, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Andrea; Soulié, Caroline; Moumneh, Thomas; Delmez, Quentin; Ghuysen, Alexandre; El Kouri, Dominique; Brice, Christian; Marjanovic, Nicolas S; Bouget, Jacques; Moustafa, Fares; Trinh-Duc, Albert; Le Gall, Catherine; Imsaad, Lionel; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Gable, Béatrice; Girard, Philippe; Sanchez, Olivier; Schmidt, Jeannot; Le Gal, Grégoire; Meyer, Guy; Delvau, Nicolas; Roy, Pierre-Marie

    2017-12-01

    The ability of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) to exclude pulmonary embolism without further testing remains debated outside the USA, especially in the population with suspected pulmonary embolism who have a high prevalence of the condition. Our main objective was to prospectively assess the predictive value of negative PERC to rule out pulmonary embolism among European patients with low implicit clinical probability. We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 12 emergency departments in France and Belgium. We included consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with suspected pulmonary embolism. Patients were excluded if they had already been hospitalised for more than 2 days, had curative anticoagulant therapy in progress for more than 48 h, or had a diagnosis of thromboembolic disease documented before admission to emergency department. Physicians completed a standardised case report form comprising implicit clinical probability assessment (low, moderate, or high) and a list of risk factors including criteria of the PERC rule. They were asked to follow international recommendations for diagnostic strategy, masked to PERC assessment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with low implicit clinical probability and negative PERC who had venous thromboembolic events, diagnosed during initial diagnostic work-up or during 3-month follow-up, as externally adjudicated by an independent committee masked to the PERC and clinical probability assessment. The upper limit of the 95% CI around the 3-month thromboembolic risk was set at 3%. We did all analyses by intention to treat, including all patients with complete follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02360540. Between May 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, 1773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were prospectively assessed for inclusion, of whom 1757 were included. 1052 (60%) patients were classed as having low clinical probability

  14. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  15. A framework for prospectively defining progression rules for internal pilot studies monitoring recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Lisa V; Williamson, Paula R; Wilby, Martin J; Jaki, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Just over half of publicly funded trials recruit their target sample size within the planned study duration. When recruitment targets are missed, the funder of a trial is faced with the decision of either committing further resources to the study or risk that a worthwhile treatment effect may be missed by an underpowered final analysis. To avoid this challenging situation, when there is insufficient prior evidence to support predicted recruitment rates, funders now require feasibility assessments to be performed in the early stages of trials. Progression criteria are usually specified and agreed with the funder ahead of time. To date, however, the progression rules used are typically ad hoc. In addition, rules routinely permit adaptations to recruitment strategies but do not stipulate criteria for evaluating their effectiveness. In this paper, we develop a framework for planning and designing internal pilot studies which permit a trial to be stopped early if recruitment is disappointing or to continue to full recruitment if enrolment during the feasibility phase is adequate. This framework enables a progression rule to be pre-specified and agreed upon prior to starting a trial. The novel two-stage designs stipulate that if neither of these situations arises, adaptations to recruitment should be made and subsequently evaluated to establish whether they have been successful. We derive optimal progression rules for internal pilot studies which minimise the expected trial overrun and maintain a high probability of completing the study when the recruitment rate is adequate. The advantages of this procedure are illustrated using a real trial example.

  16. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-14

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2018 to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program.

  17. Estimation of radiation exposure of retrospective gated and prospective triggered 128-slice triple-rule-out CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Fenchel, Michael; Thomas, Christoph; Boehringer, Nadine; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Kaempf, Michael; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)), email: dominik.ketelsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Buchgeister, Markus (Depts. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    Background: CT has become an important role in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain to exclude an aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary artery syndrome. However, the additional radiation exposure is a cause of concern and dose saving strategies should be applied, if possible. Purpose: To estimate effective dose of retrospective gated and prospective ECG-triggered triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography (TRO-CTA). Material and Methods: An Alderson-Rando-phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for dose measurements. Exposure was performed on a 128-slice single source scanner. The following scan parameters were used (retrospective ECG-gated): 120 kV, 190 mAs/rot., collimation 128x0.6 mm, rotation time 0.3 s. Protocols with a simulated heart rate (HR) of 60 and 100 bpm were performed using the standard ECG-pulsing as well as MinDose. Additionally, a prospective triggered TRO-CTA was acquired (HR 60 bpm). Results: The estimated effective dose of retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA ranged from 7.4-13.4 mSv and from 10.1-17.5 mSv for men and women, respectively. Due to radiosensitive breast tissue, women received a significant increased effective dose of up to 64.7% +- 0.03% (p = 0.028) compared to men. MinDose reduces radiation exposure of up to 33.0% +- 6.5% in comparison to standard ECG-pulsing (p < 0.001). The effective dose increased significantly with lower heart rates (p < 0.001). Prospective ECG-triggered TRO-CTA showed an effective dose of 5.9 mSv and 8.2 mSv for men and women, respectively. Compared to retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA a significant dose reduction was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Due to the significant different dose exposure, scan protocols should be specifically adapted in a patient- and problem-oriented manner

  18. The Amsterdam wrist rules: The multicenter prospective derivation and external validation of a clinical decision rule for the use of radiography in acute wrist trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Walenkamp (Monique); A. Bentohami (Abdelali); A. Slaar (Annelie); M.S.H. Beerekamp (Suzan); M. Maas (Mario); L.C. Jager (L. Cara); N.L. Sosef (Nico L.); R. van Velde (Romuald); J.M. Ultee (Jan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.C. Goslings (Carel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although only 39 % of patients with wrist trauma have sustained a fracture, the majority of patients is routinely referred for radiography. The purpose of this study was to derive and externally validate a clinical decision rule that selects patients with acute wrist trauma

  19. Diagnostic performance of reproducible chest wall tenderness to rule out acute coronary syndrome in acute chest pain: a prospective diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräni, Christoph; Senn, Oliver; Bischof, Manuel; Cippà, Pietro E; Hauffe, Till; Zimmerli, Lukas; Battegay, Edouard; Franzen, Daniel

    2015-01-28

    Acute chest pain (ACP) is a leading cause of hospital emergency unit consultation. As there are various underlying conditions, ranging from musculoskeletal disorders to acute coronary syndrome (ACS), thorough clinical diagnostics are warranted. The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether reproducible chest wall tenderness (CWT) on palpation in patients with ACP can help to rule out ACS. In this prospective, double-blinded diagnostic study, all consecutive patients assessed in the emergency unit at the University Hospital Zurich because of ACP between July 2012 and December 2013 were included when a member of the study team was present. Reproducible CWT on palpation was the initial step and was recorded before further examinations were initiated. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by a study-independent physician. 121 patients (60.3% male, median age 47 years, IQR 34-66.5 years) were included. The prevalence of ACS was 11.6%. Non-reproducible CWT had a high sensitivity of 92.9% (95% CI 66.1% to 98.8%) for ACS and the presence of reproducible CWT ruled out ACS (p=0.003) with a high negative predictive value (98.1%, 95% CI 89.9% to 99.7%). Conversely non-reproducible CWT ruled in ACS with low specificity (48.6%, 95% CI 38.8% to 58.5%) and low positive predictive value (19.1%, 95% CI 10.6% to 30.5%). This prospective diagnostic study supports the concept that reproducible CWT helps to rule out ACS in patients with ACP in an early stage of the evaluation process. However, ACS and other diagnoses should be considered in patients with a negative CWT test. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01724996. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Short Inpatient Hospital Stays; Transition for Certain Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospitals Under the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System; Provider Administrative Appeals and Judicial Review. Final rule with comment period; final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2016 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, this document includes certain finalized policies relating to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system: Changes to the 2-midnight rule under the short inpatient hospital stay policy; and a payment transition for hospitals that lost their status as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (MDH) because they are no longer in a rural area due to the implementation of the new Office of Management and Budget delineations in FY 2015 and have not reclassified from urban to rural before January 1, 2016. In addition, this document contains a final rule that finalizes certain 2015 proposals, and addresses public comments received, relating to the changes in the Medicare regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review relating to appropriate claims in provider cost reports.

  1. Medicare program; FY 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems: changes to certain cost reporting procedures related to disproportionate share hospital uncompensated care payments. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    : In the fiscal year (FY) 2014 inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS)/long-term care hospital (LTCH) PPS final rule, we established the methodology for determining the amount of uncompensated care payments made to hospitals eligible for the disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payment adjustment in FY 2014 and a process for making interim and final payments. This interim final rule with comment period revises certain operational considerations for hospitals with Medicare cost reporting periods that span more than one Federal fiscal year and also makes changes to the data that will be used in the uncompensated care payment calculation in order to ensure that data from Indian Health Service (IHS) hospitals are included in Factor 1 and Factor 3 of that calculation.

  2. Why the Three-Point Rule Failed to Sufficiently Reduce the Number of Draws in Soccer: An Application of Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Dennis; Heuer, Andreas; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Incentives guide human behavior by altering the level of external motivation. We apply the idea of loss aversion from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the point reward systems in soccer and investigate the controversial impact of the three-point rule on reducing the fraction of draws in this sport. Making use of the Poisson nature of goal scoring, we compared empirical results with theoretically deduced draw ratios from 24 countries encompassing 20 seasons each (N = 118.148 matches). The rule change yielded a slight reduction in the ratio of draws, but despite adverse incentives, still 18% more matches ended drawn than expected, t(23) = 11.04, p theory assertions. Alternative point systems that manipulated incentives for losses yielded reductions at or below statistical expectation. This provides support for the deduced concept of how arbitrary aims, such as the reduction of draws in the world's soccer leagues, could be more effectively accomplished than currently attempted.

  3. Prospective Validation of Modified NEXUS Cervical Spine Injury Criteria in Low-risk Elderly Fall Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Emergency X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS criteria are used extensively in emergency departments to rule out C-spine injuries (CSI in the general population. Although the NEXUS validation set included 2,943 elderly patients, multiple case reports and the Canadian C-Spine Rules question the validity of applying NEXUS to geriatric populations. The objective of this study was to validate a modified NEXUS criteria in a low-risk elderly fall population with two changes: a modified definition for distracting injury and the definition of normal mentation. Methods: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of geriatric fall patients who presented to a Level I trauma center and were not triaged to the trauma bay. Providers enrolled non-intoxicated patients at baseline mental status with no lateralizing neurologic deficits. They recorded midline neck tenderness, signs of trauma, and presence of other distracting injury. Results: We enrolled 800 patients. One patient fall event was excluded due to duplicate enrollment, and four were lost to follow up, leaving 795 for analysis. Average age was 83.6 (range 65-101. The numbers in parenthesis after the negative predictive value represent confidence interval. There were 11 (1.4% cervical spine injuries. One hundred seventeen patients had midline tenderness and seven of these had CSI; 366 patients had signs of trauma to the face/neck, and 10 of these patients had CSI. Using signs of trauma to the head/neck as the only distracting injury and baseline mental status as normal alertness, the modified NEXUS criteria was 100% sensitive (CI [67.9-100] with a negative predictive value of 100 (98.7-100. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a modified NEXUS criteria can be safely applied to low-risk elderly falls.

  4. The presence of nonthoracic distracting injuries does not affect the initial clinical examination of the cervical spine in evaluable blunt trauma patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Plurad, David; Barmparas, Galinos; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Bukur, Marko; Branco, Bernardino C; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-09-01

    A distracting injury mandates cervical spine (c-spine) imaging in the evaluable blunt trauma patient who demonstrates no pain or tenderness over the c-spine. The purpose of this study was to examine which distracting injuries can negatively affect the sensitivity of the standard clinical examination of the c-spine. This is a prospective observational study conducted at a Level I Trauma Center from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009. After institutional review board approval, all evaluable (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥13) blunt trauma patients older than 16 years sustaining a c-spine injury were enrolled. A distracting injury was defined as any immediately evident bony or soft tissue injury or a complaint of non-c-spine pain whether or not an actual injury was subsequently diagnosed. Information regarding the initial clinical examination and the presence of a distracting injury was collected from the senior resident or attending trauma surgeon involved in the initial management. During the study period, 101 evaluable patients sustained a c-spine injury. Distracting injuries were present in 88 patients (87.1%). The most common was rib fracture (21.6%), followed by lower extremity fracture (20.5%) and upper extremity fracture (12.5%). Only four (4.0%) patients had no pain or tenderness on the initial examination of the c-spine. All four patients had bruising and tenderness to the upper anterior chest. None of these four patients developed neurologic sequelae or required a surgical stabilization or immobilization. C-spine imaging may not be required in the evaluable blunt trauma patient despite distracting injuries in any body regions that do not involve the upper chest. Further definition of distracting injuries is mandated to avoid unnecessary utilization of resources and to reduce the imaging burden associated with the evaluation of the c-spine.

  5. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, and End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2018. It also updates the payment rate for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury (AKI). This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program (QIP), including for payment years (PYs) 2019 through 2021.

  6. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2017 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-03

    This final rule updates the Home Health Prospective Payment System (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor; effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2017. This rule also: Implements the last year of the 4-year phase-in of the rebasing adjustments to the HH PPS payment rates; updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the 2nd-year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between CY 2012 and CY 2014; finalizes changes to the methodology used to calculate payments made under the HH PPS for high-cost "outlier" episodes of care; implements changes in payment for furnishing Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) using a disposable device for patients under a home health plan of care; discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments; includes an update on subsequent research and analysis as a result of the findings from the home health study; and finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model, which was implemented on January 1, 2016; and updates to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP).

  7. Supporting clinical rules engine in the adjustment of medication (SCREAM): protocol of a multicentre, prospective, randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres Gonzalvo, Carlota; de Wit, Hugo A J M; van Oijen, Brigit P C; Hurkens, Kim P G M; Janknegt, Rob; Schols, Jos M G A; Mulder, Wubbo J; Verhey, Frans R; Winkens, Bjorn; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M

    2017-01-26

    In the nursing home population, it is estimated that 1 in every 3 patients is polymedicated and given their considerable frailty, these patients are especially prone to adverse drug reactions. Clinical pharmacist-led medication reviews are considered successful interventions to improve medication safety in the inpatient setting. Due to the limited available evidence concerning the benefits of medication reviews performed in the nursing home setting, we propose a study aiming to demonstrate a positive effect that a clinical decision support system, as a health care intervention, may have on the target population. The primary objective of this study is to reduce the number of patients with at least one event when using the clinical decision support system compared to the regular care. These events consist of hospital referrals, delirium, falls, and/or deaths. This study is a multicentre, prospective, randomised study with a cluster group design. The randomisation will be per main nursing home physician and stratified per ward (somatic and psychogeriatric). In the intervention group the clinical decision support system will be used to screen medication list, laboratory values and medical history in order to obtain potential clinical relevant remarks. The remarks will be sent to the main physician and feedback will be provided whether the advice was followed or not. In the control group regular care will be applied. We strongly believe that by using a clinical decision support system, medication reviews are performed in a standardised way which leads to comparable results between patients. In addition, using a clinical decision support system eliminates the time factor to perform medication reviews as the major problems related to medication, laboratory values, indications and/or established patient characteristics will be directly available. In this way, and in order to make the medication review process complete, consultation within healthcare professionals and

  8. Safe exclusion of pulmonary embolism using the Wells rule and qualitative D-dimer testing in primary care: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Petra M G; Lucassen, Wim A M; Büller, Harry R; Cate, Hugo ten; Hoes, Arno W; Moons, Karel G M; Prins, Martin H; Oudega, Ruud; van Weert, Henk C P M; Stoffers, Henri E J H

    2012-01-01

    Objective To validate the use of the Wells clinical decision rule combined with a point of care D-dimer test to safely exclude pulmonary embolism in primary care. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care across three different regions of the Netherlands (Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht). Participants 598 adults with suspected pulmonary embolism in primary care. Interventions Doctors scored patients according to the seven variables of the Wells rule and carried out a qualitative point of care D-dimer test. All patients were referred to secondary care and diagnosed according to local protocols. Pulmonary embolism was confirmed or refuted on the basis of a composite reference standard, including spiral computed tomography and three months’ follow-up. Main outcome measures Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), proportion of patients at low risk (efficiency), number of missed patients with pulmonary embolism in low risk category (false negative rate), and the presence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, based on the composite reference standard, including events during the follow-up period of three months. Results Pulmonary embolism was present in 73 patients (prevalence 12.2%). On the basis of a threshold Wells score of ≤4 and a negative qualitative D-dimer test result, 272 of 598 patients were classified as low risk (efficiency 45.5%). Four cases of pulmonary embolism were observed in these 272 patients (false negative rate 1.5%, 95% confidence interval 0.4% to 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of this combined diagnostic approach was 94.5% (86.6% to 98.5%) and 51.0% (46.7% to 55.4%), respectively. Conclusion A Wells score of ≤4 combined with a negative qualitative D-dimer test result can safely and efficiently exclude pulmonary embolism in primary care. PMID:23036917

  9. Medicare program; changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system for acute care hospitals and fiscal year 2010 rates; and changes to the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and rate years 2010 and 2009 rates. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-27

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems, and to implement certain provisions made by the TMA, Abstinence Education, and QI Program Extension Act of 2007, the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. In addition, in the Addendum to this final rule, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2009. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2009. Second, we are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for rate year (RY) 2010, including responding to public comments received on a June 3, 2009 supplemental proposed rule relating to the proposed RY 2010 Medicare Severity Long-Term Care Diagnosis-Related Groups (MS-LTC-DRG) relative weights and the proposed RY 2010 high-cost outlier (HCO) fixed-loss amount. In the Addendum to this final rule, we also set forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS for RY 2010. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2009. In addition, we are responding to public comments received on and finalizing a June 3, 2009 interim final rule with comment period that revised the MS-LTC-DRG relative weights for

  10. Medicare program: hospital outpatient prospective payment system and CY 2011 payment rates; ambulatory surgical center payment system and CY 2011 payment rates; payments to hospitals for graduate medical education costs; physician self-referral rules and related changes to provider agreement regulations; payment for certified registered nurse anesthetist services furnished in rural hospitals and critical access hospitals. Final rule with comment period; final rules; and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    The final rule with comment period in this document revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system and to implement certain provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare hospital outpatient services paid under the prospective payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2011. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates the revised Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act. In this final rule with comment period, we set forth the applicable relative payment weights and amounts for services furnished in ASCs, specific HCPCS codes to which these changes apply, and other pertinent ratesetting information for the CY 2011 ASC payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2011. In this document, we also are including two final rules that implement provisions of the Affordable Care Act relating to payments to hospitals for direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) costs; and new limitations on certain physician referrals to hospitals in which they have an ownership or investment interest. In the interim final rule with comment period that is included in this document, we are changing the effective date for otherwise eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals that have been reclassified from urban to rural under section 1886(d)(8)(E) of the Social Security

  11. Medicare program; prospective payment system for federally qualified health centers; changes to contracting policies for rural health clinics; and changes to Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 enforcement actions for proficiency testing referral. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    This final rule with comment period implements methodology and payment rates for a prospective payment system (PPS) for federally qualified health center (FQHC) services under Medicare Part B beginning on October 1, 2014, in compliance with the statutory requirement of the Affordable Care Act. In addition, it establishes a policy which allows rural health clinics (RHCs) to contract with nonphysician practitioners when statutory requirements for employment of nurse practitioners and physician assistants are met, and makes other technical and conforming changes to the RHC and FQHC regulations. Finally, this final rule with comment period implements changes to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations regarding enforcement actions for proficiency testing (PT) referrals.

  12. Medicare program: changes to the hospital outpatient prospective payment system and CY 2010 payment rates; changes to the ambulatory surgical center payment system and CY 2010 payment rates. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-20

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare hospital outpatient services paid under the prospective payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2010. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates the revised Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system. In this final rule with comment period, we set forth the applicable relative payment weights and amounts for services furnished in ASCs, specific HCPCS codes to which these changes will apply, and other pertinent ratesetting information for the CY 2010 ASC payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2010.

  13. Medicare Program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system changes and FY2011 rates; provider agreements and supplier approvals; and hospital conditions of participation for rehabilitation and respiratory care services; Medicaid program: accreditation for providers of inpatient psychiatric services. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    : We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. We are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and setting forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS. In addition, we are finalizing the provisions of the August 27, 2009 interim final rule that implemented statutory provisions relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. We are making changes affecting the: Medicare conditions of participation for hospitals relating to the types of practitioners who may provide rehabilitation services and respiratory care services; and determination of the effective date of provider agreements and supplier approvals under Medicare. We are also setting forth provisions that offer psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs increased flexibility in obtaining accreditation to participate in the Medicaid program. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs will have the choice of undergoing a State survey or of obtaining accreditation from a national accrediting organization whose hospital accreditation

  14. Theory of planned behaviour can help understand processes underlying the use of two emergency medicine diagnostic imaging rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Richard; Brehaut, Jamie C; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G; Clement, Catherine M; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-08-07

    Clinical decision rules (CDRs) can be an effective tool for knowledge translation in emergency medicine, but their implementation is often a challenge. This study examined whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) could help explain the inconsistent results between the successful Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) implementation study and unsuccessful Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) implementation study. Both rules are aimed at improving the accuracy and efficiency of emergency department radiography use in clinical contexts that exhibit enormous inefficiency at the present time. The rules were prospectively derived and validated using the same methodology demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability. The rules subsequently underwent parallel implementations at 12 Canadian hospitals, yet only the CCR was observed to significantly reduce radiography ordering rates, while the CCHR failed to have any significant impact at all. The drastically different results are unlikely to be the result of differences in implementation strategies or the decision rules. Physicians at the 12 participating Canadian hospitals were randomized to CCR or CCHR TPB surveys that were administered during the baseline phases of the implementation studies, before any intervention had taken place. The collected baseline survey data were linked to concurrent baseline physician and patient-specific imaging data, and subsequently analyzed using mixed effects linear and logistic models. A total of 223 of the 378 eligible physicians randomized to a TPB survey completed their assigned baseline survey (CCR: 122 of 181; CCHR: 101 of 197). Attitudes were significantly associated with intention in both settings (CCR: ß = 0.40; CCHR: ß = 0.30), as were subjective norms (CCR: ß = 0.26; CCHR: ß = 0.73). Intention was significantly associated with actual image ordering for CCR (OR = 1.79), but not CCHR. The TPB can be used to better understand processes underlying use of CDRs. TPB

  15. Medicare program; inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system for federal fiscal year 2012; changes in size and square footage of inpatient rehabilitation units and inpatient psychiatric units. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    This final rule will implement section 3004 of the Affordable Care Act, which establishes a new quality reporting program that provides for a 2 percent reduction in the annual increase factor beginning in 2014 for failure to report quality data to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. This final rule will also update the prospective payment rates for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) for Federal fiscal year (FY) 2012 (for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2011 and on or before September 30, 2012) as required under section 1886(j)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act). Section 1886(j)(5) of the Act requires the Secretary to publish in the Federal Register on or before the August 1 that precedes the start of each FY the classification and weighting factors for the IRF prospective payment system (PPS) case-mix groups and a description of the methodology and data used in computing the prospective payment rates for that fiscal year. We are also consolidating, clarifying, and revising existing policies regarding IRF hospitals and IRF units of hospitals to eliminate unnecessary confusion and enhance consistency. Furthermore, in accordance with the general principles of the President's January 18, 2011 Executive Order entitled "Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review," we are amending existing regulatory provisions regarding ''new'' facilities and changes in the bed size and square footage of IRFs and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs) to improve clarity and remove obsolete material.

  16. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2018 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update and CY 2019 Case-Mix Adjustment Methodology Refinements; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    This final rule updates the home health prospective payment system (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor, effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2018. This rule also: Updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the third year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between calendar year (CY) 2012 and CY 2014; and discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments that were implemented in CY 2014 through CY 2017. In addition, this rule finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model and to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP). We are not finalizing the implementation of the Home Health Groupings Model (HHGM) in this final rule.

  17. Medicare and Medicaid programs: hospital outpatient prospective payment and ambulatory surgical center payment systems and quality reporting programs; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program; organ procurement organizations; quality improvement organizations; Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Program; provider reimbursement determinations and appeals. Final rule with comment period and final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    : This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2014 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. In the final rules in this document, we are finalizing changes to the conditions for coverage (CfCs) for organ procurement organizations (OPOs); revisions to the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) regulations; changes to the Medicare fee-for-service Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program; and changes relating to provider reimbursement determinations and appeals.

  18. Medicare and Medicaid programs: hospital outpatient prospective payment; ambulatory surgical center payment; hospital value-based purchasing program; physician self-referral; and patient notification requirements in provider agreements. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) for CY 2012 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare hospital outpatient services paid under the OPPS. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates the revised Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system. In this final rule with comment period, we set forth the relative payment weights and payment amounts for services furnished in ASCs, specific HCPCS codes to which these changes apply, and other ratesetting information for the CY 2012 ASC payment system. We are revising the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, adding new requirements for ASC Quality Reporting System, and making additional changes to provisions of the Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. We also are allowing eligible hospitals and CAHs participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program to meet the clinical quality measure reporting requirement of the EHR Incentive Program for payment year 2012 by participating in the 2012 Medicare EHR Incentive Program Electronic Reporting Pilot. Finally, we are making changes to the rules governing the whole hospital and rural provider exceptions to the physician self-referral prohibition for expansion of facility capacity and changes to provider agreement regulations on patient notification requirements.

  19. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; electronic reporting pilot; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Quality Reporting Program; revision to Quality Improvement Organization regulations. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2013 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program. We are continuing the electronic reporting pilot for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, and revising the various regulations governing Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), including the secure transmittal of electronic medical information, beneficiary complaint resolution and notification processes, and technical changes. The technical changes to the QIO regulations reflect CMS' commitment to the general principles of the President's Executive Order on Regulatory Reform, Executive Order 13563 (January 18, 2011).

  20. Applying an electron counting rule to screen prospective thermoelectric alloys: The thermoelectric properties of YCrB{sub 4} and Er{sub 3}CrB{sub 7}-type phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, J.W., E-mail: jws9n@virginia.ed [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904-4714 (United States); Poon, S.J. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904-4714 (United States)

    2010-08-13

    An electron counting rule, which was recently expanded to study molecular organometallics, boranes, and metallocenes, is utilized herein to predict the formation of a semiconducting gap or pseudo-gap in the density of states of deltahedral crystalline solids at or near the Fermi energy. It is suggested that this rule may be exploited to screen intermetallic compounds for prospective thermoelectric materials. The rule was applied to several structure types of known deltahedral boride and borocarbide compounds, and its predictions were compared to those of first principles electronic structure calculations when such were available in the literature or to published reports of transport properties. In addition, the rule has been used to predict the properties of several materials for which the electronic structure and properties have not hitherto been reported. In accordance with these predictions, layered ternary boride intermetallic compounds with structure types YCrB{sub 4} and Er{sub 3}CrB{sub 7} were synthesized, and the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficients of these alloys were measured from room temperature to 1100 K. Alloys of composition RMB{sub 4} (R = Y, Gd, Ho; M = Cr, Mo, W) were found to be n-type semiconductors and to exhibit thermopower up to {approx}70-115 {mu}V/K; the band gap was estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.28 eV, depending on composition. Undoped YCrB{sub 4} was measured to have a maximum power factor of 6.0 {mu}W/cm K{sup 2} at 500 K and Fe-doped YMoB{sub 4} of 2.4 {mu}W/cm K{sup 2} near 1000 K.

  1. The REFER (REFer for EchocaRdiogram protocol: a prospective validation of a clinical decision rule, NT-proBNP, or their combination, in the diagnosis of heart failure in primary care. Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Lynda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. As mortality rates are high, it is important that patients seen by general practitioners with symptoms suggestive of heart failure are identified quickly and treated appropriately. Identifying patients with heart failure or deciding which patients need further tests is a challenge. All patients with suspected heart failure should be diagnosed using objective tests such as echocardiography, but it is expensive, often delayed, and limited by the significant skill shortage of trained echocardiographers. Alternative approaches for diagnosing heart failure are currently limited. Clinical decision tools that combine clinical signs, symptoms or patient characteristics are designed to be used to support clinical decision-making and validated according to strict methodological procedures. The REFER Study aims to determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of our previously derived novel, simple clinical decision rule, a natriuretic peptide assay, or their combination, in the triage for referral for echocardiography of symptomatic adult patients who present in general practice with symptoms suggestive of heart failure. Methods/design This is a prospective, Phase II observational, diagnostic validation study of a clinical decision rule, natriuretic peptides or their combination, for diagnosing heart failure in primary care. Consecutive adult primary care patients 55 years of age or over presenting to their general practitioner with a chief complaint of recent new onset shortness of breath, lethargy or peripheral ankle oedema of over 48 hours duration, with no obvious recurrent, acute or self-limiting cause will be enrolled. Our reference standard is based upon a three step expert specialist consensus using echocardiography and clinical variables and tests. Discussion Our clinical decision rule offers a potential solution to the diagnostic challenge of providing a timely and

  2. Medicare program; extension of the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for acute care hospitals for fiscal year 2014. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-18

    This interim final rule with comment period implements changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and to the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for FY 2014 (through March 31, 2014) in accordance with sections 1105 and 1106, respectively, of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act of 2013.

  3. Phonological Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mingher Obied

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study sheds light on the phonological rules as part of communication used through language. It tackles the reasons behind them, types, characteristics and functions. Finally, it focuses on conclusion that reaches at.

  4. A Clinical Prediction Rule for Functional Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of an International Prospective Multicenter Data Set of 757 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Kopjar, Branko; Côté, Pierre; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-12-16

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a progressive spinal condition that is often managed surgically. Knowledge of important predictors of surgical outcome can provide decision support to surgeons and enable them to effectively manage their patients' expectations. The purpose of this study was to identify the most important clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with CSM using data from two multinational prospective studies. A total of 757 patients treated surgically for CSM participated in either the CSM-North America or the CSM-International study. The model was designed to distinguish between patients who achieved a modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score of ≥16 at the one-year follow-up and those who did not (mJOA myelopathy, and older age. The final model consisted of six significant and clinically relevant predictors: baseline severity score (relative risk [RR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.15), impaired gait (RR, 0.76 [ref. = absence]; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.88), age (RR, 0.91 per decade; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96), comorbidity score (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.98), smoking status (RR, 0.78 [ref. = non-smoking]; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93), and duration of symptoms (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99). Patients were more likely to achieve a score of ≥16 (indicating minimal impairment) if they were younger, had milder preoperative myelopathy, did not smoke, had fewer and less severe comorbidities, did not present with impaired gait, and had shorter symptom duration. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  5. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    OpenAIRE

    Adam KONICZEK; Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-01-01

    The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  6. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  7. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  8. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2018, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, Survey Team Composition, and Correction of the Performance Period for the NHSN HCP Influenza Vaccination Immunization Reporting Measure in the ESRD QIP for PY 2020. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-04

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2018. It also revises and rebases the market basket index by updating the base year from 2010 to 2014, and by adding a new cost category for Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Services. The rule also finalizes revisions to the SNF Quality Reporting Program (QRP), including measure and standardized resident assessment data policies and policies related to public display. In addition, it finalizes policies for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program that will affect Medicare payment to SNFs beginning in FY 2019. The final rule also clarifies the regulatory requirements for team composition for surveys conducted for investigating a complaint and aligns regulatory provisions for investigation of complaints with the statutory requirements. The final rule also finalizes the performance period for the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Healthcare Personnel (HCP) Influenza Vaccination Reporting Measure included in the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Quality Incentive Program (QIP) for Payment Year 2020.

  9. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; physician-owned hospitals: data sources for expansion exception; physician certification of inpatient hospital services; Medicare Advantage organizations and Part D sponsors: CMS-identified overpayments associated with submitted payment data. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2015 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. In this document, we also are making changes to the data sources permitted for expansion requests for physician-owned hospitals under the physician self-referral regulations; changes to the underlying authority for the requirement of an admission order for all hospital inpatient admissions and changes to require physician certification for hospital inpatient admissions only for long-stay cases and outlier cases; and changes to establish a formal process, including a three-level appeals process, to recoup overpayments that result from the submission of erroneous payment data by Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations and Part D sponsors in the limited circumstances in which the organization or sponsor fails to correct these data.

  10. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  11. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  12. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  13. Investigating the performance and cost-effectiveness of the simple ultrasound-based rules compared to the risk of malignancy index in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (SUBSONiC-study): protocol of a prospective multicenter cohort study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meys, Evelyne M J; Rutten, Iris J G; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Slangen, Brigitte F; Bergmans, Martin G M; Mertens, Helen J M M; Nolting, Ernst; Boskamp, Dieuwke; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; van Gorp, Toon

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the risk of malignancy is essential in the management of adnexal masses. An accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant masses will reduce morbidity and costs due to unnecessary operations, and will improve referral to a gynecologic oncologist for specialized cancer care, which improves outcome and overall survival. The Risk of Malignancy Index is currently the most commonly used method in clinical practice, but has a relatively low diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 75-80% and specificity 85-90%). Recent reports show that other methods, such as simple ultrasound-based rules, subjective assessment and (Diffusion Weighted) Magnetic Resonance Imaging might be superior to the RMI in the pre-operative differentiation of adnexal masses. A prospective multicenter cohort study will be performed in the south of The Netherlands. A total of 270 women diagnosed with at least one pelvic mass that is suspected to be of ovarian origin who will undergo surgery, will be enrolled. We will apply the Risk of Malignancy Index with a cut-off value of 200 and a two-step triage test consisting of simple ultrasound-based rules supplemented -if necessary- with either subjective assessment by an expert sonographer or Magnetic Resonance Imaging with diffusion weighted sequences, to characterize the adnexal masses. The histological diagnosis will be the reference standard. Diagnostic performances will be expressed as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. We hypothesize that this two-step triage test, including the simple ultrasound-based rules, will have better diagnostic accuracy than the Risk of Malignancy Index and therefore will improve the management of women with adnexal masses. Furthermore, we expect this two-step test to be more cost-effective. If the hypothesis is confirmed, the results of this study could have major effects on current guidelines and implementation of the triage test in daily clinical

  14. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Organ Procurement Organization Reporting and Communication; Transplant Outcome Measures and Documentation Requirements; Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs; Payment to Nonexcepted Off-Campus Provider-Based Department of a Hospital; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program; Establishment of Payment Rates Under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule for Nonexcepted Items and Services Furnished by an Off-Campus Provider-Based Department of a Hospital. Final rule with comment period and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2017 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, in this final rule with comment period, we are making changes to tolerance thresholds for clinical outcomes for solid organ transplant programs; to Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) definitions, outcome measures, and organ transport documentation; and to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs. We also are removing the HCAHPS Pain Management dimension from the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. In addition, we are implementing section 603 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 relating to payment for certain items and services furnished by certain off-campus provider-based departments of a provider. In this document, we also are issuing an interim final rule with comment period to establish the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule payment rates for the nonexcepted items and services billed by a nonexcepted off-campus provider-based department of a hospital in accordance with the provisions of section 603.

  15. Secure association rule sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Stanley R. de M.; Zaïane, Osmar R.; Saygın, Yücel; Saygin, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    The sharing of association rules is often beneficial in industry, but requires privacy safeguards. One may decide to disclose only part of the knowledge and conceal strategic patterns which we call restrictive rules. These restrictive rules must be protected before sharing since they are paramount for strategic decisions and need to remain private. To address this challenging problem, we propose a unified framework for protecting sensitive knowledge before sharing. This framework encompasses:...

  16. Rules, culture, and fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, William M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforce...

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2017. Some of these changes will implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Notice of Observation Treatment and Implications for Care Eligibility Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are providing the estimated market basket update to apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2017. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2017. In addition, we are making changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education payments; establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities), including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program; implementing statutory provisions that require hospitals and CAHs to furnish notification to Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare Advantage enrollees, when the beneficiaries receive outpatient observation services for more than 24 hours; announcing the implementation of the Frontier Community Health Integration Project Demonstration; and

  18. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  19. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  20. Branes and wrapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, F.

    We show that the solitonic branes of ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, a specific wrapping rule in order to reproduce the number of half-supersymmetric solitonic branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of this wrapping rule

  1. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  2. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, R.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  3. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Iemhoff, R.

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  4. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  5. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  6. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  7. Legal Services: Rules of Professional Conduct for Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    aspect of the Rule expresses the principle that the beneficiary of a fiduciary relationship may not exploit it to the detriment of the fiduciary . As...of undue influence , intimidation, and overreaching. This potential for abuse inherent in direct solicitation of prospective clients justifies its pro...determine whether a client–lawyer relationship exists. f. Failure to comply with an obligation or prohibition imposed by a Rule is a basis for invoking the

  8. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  9. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  10. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  11. Ontology in association rules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    .... Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount...

  12. End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This final rule implements a case-mix adjusted bundled prospective payment system (PPS) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis facilities...

  13. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  14. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  15. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  16. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  17. QCD spectral sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    The aim of the book is to give an introduction to the method of QCD Spectral Sum Rules and to review its developments. After some general introductory remarks, Chiral Symmetry, the Historical Developments of the Sum Rules and the necessary materials for perturbative QCD including the MS regularization and renormalization schemes are discussed. The book also gives a critical review and some improvements of the wide uses of the QSSR in Hadron Physics and QSSR beyond the Standard Hadron Phenomenology. The author has participated actively in this field since 1978 just before the expanding success

  18. A Rationale for Restrictive Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Krehbiel, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Congressmen often claim to dislike restrictions on their opportunities to offer amendments to legislation in the Committee of the Whole. Yet restrictive rules of various forms not only are quite common but often are voted into existence explicitly or implicitly. Whenever a modified closed rule from the Rules Committee receives a majority vote, members explicitly accept the restrictions that such rules place on amendments. Whenever a bill is passed under suspension of the rules, the requisite ...

  19. 75 FR 60640 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 485, and 489 RIN 0938-AP80; RIN 0938-AP33 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Changes and FY...: Correction of final rules and interim final rule with comment period. SUMMARY: This document corrects...

  20. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  1. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  2. Structural Rules for Abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Niiniluoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Atocha Aliseda gives in Abductive Reasoning (2006 a structural characterization of the forward explanatory reasoning from a theory to observational data. This paper discusses the converse problem of giving structural rules for the backward abductive reasoning from observations to explanatory theories.

  3. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  4. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  5. Rules of Relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Vrooman

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the collective consequences of social rules. The theoretical analyses take as a starting point the notion of 'new institutionalism' in the social sciences. The analyses focus on the nature and societal role of institutions, and more specifically social security

  6. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  7. Neutrino Mass Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Neutrino mass sum rules are an important class of predictions in flavour models relating the Majorana phases to the neutrino masses. This leads, for instance, to enormous restrictions on the effective mass as probed in experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay. While up to now these sum rules have in practically all cases been taken to hold exactly, we will go here beyond that. While the effect of the renormalisation group running can be visible, the qualitative features do not change. This changes somewhat for model dependent corrections which might alter even the qualitative predictions but only for large corrections and a high neutrino mass scale close to the edge of the current limits. This finding backs up the solidity of the predictions derived in the literature apart from some exceptions, and it thus marks a very important step in deriving testable and robust predictions from neutrino flavour models.

  8. Ontology in association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has emerged to address the problem of transforming data into useful knowledge. Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount of information humanly manageable. On the other hand, important association rules may be overlooked owing to the setting of the support threshold, which is a very subjective metric, but rooted in most data mining techniques. This paper presents a study on the effects, in terms of precision and recall, of using a data preparation technique, called SemPrune, which is built on domain ontology. SemPrune is intended for pre- and post-processing phases of data mining. Identifying generalization/specialization relations, as well as composition/decomposition relations, is the key to successfully applying SemPrune.

  9. Chaos Rules Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Murphy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of my PhD research, I mused over proposed titles for my thesis. I was pretty pleased with myself when I came up with Chaos Rules (the implied double meaning was deliberate, or more completely, Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education. I used the then-emerging theories of chaos and complexity to underpin my analysis. So it was with more than a little excitement that I read the call for contributions to this special issue of IRRODL. What follows is a walk-through of my thesis with an emphasis on the contribution of chaos and complexity theory.

  10. The Spanish Sharing Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Bernarda Zamora

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the intrahousehold distribution of household's private expenditures between men and women (the sharing rule) in two types of Spanish households: those in which the woman works and those in which the woman does not work. The results for working women are parallel to those obtained for other countries which indicate a proportionally higher transfer from the woman to the man than from the man to the woman, such that the proportion of the woman's share decreases both wit...

  11. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Coverage and Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program Bid Surety Bonds, State Licensure and Appeals Process for Breach of Contract Actions, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program and Fee Schedule Adjustments, Access to Care Issues for Durable Medical Equipment; and the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for calendar year 2017. It also finalizes policies for coverage and payment for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, including the inclusion of new quality measures beginning with payment year (PY) 2020 and provides updates to programmatic policies for the PY 2018 and PY 2019 ESRD QIP. This rule also implements statutory requirements for bid surety bonds and state licensure for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Competitive Bidding Program (CBP). This rule also expands suppliers' appeal rights in the event of a breach of contract action taken by CMS, by revising the appeals regulation to extend the appeals process to all types of actions taken by CMS for a supplier's breach of contract, rather than limit an appeal for the termination of a competitive bidding contract. The rule also finalizes changes to the methodologies for adjusting fee schedule amounts for DMEPOS using information from CBPs and for submitting bids and establishing single payment amounts under the CBPs for certain groupings of similar items with different features to address price inversions. Final changes also are made to the method for establishing bid limits for items under the DMEPOS CBPs. In addition, this rule summarizes comments on the impacts of coordinating Medicare and Medicaid Durable Medical Equipment for dually eligible beneficiaries. Finally, this rule also summarizes comments received in response to a request for information related to the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model and future payment models affecting renal care.

  12. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  13. Ruling by Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijten, Monique; Lorenzo, David

    2009-01-01

    This contribution looks at land property relations in a peasant community in the central highlands of Peru. Rather than using a rights-based approach, the authors propose a `practice force field approach' for their analysis of property relations under communal land tenure regimes. Their study...... of a system of property rights. It is shown how property relations are shaped in mediated interactive processes, where official rules, moral principles, shared histories and strategic games come together. The authors use this practice force field approach to study Usibamba, an Andean community that has...

  14. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  15. Service dogs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  16. Energy-Length Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Mihul, Alexandru C; Mihul, Eleonora A

    2006-01-01

    Lorentz ordering (causality) implies the following rule: for any given energy p0 of a system there is a certain interval c0 on x0 so that their product is the Lorentz ordering constant L It means p0c0 = L. The constant L=hc. Hence Planck constant h in a similar way as c are both consequences of Lorentz metric. The basic ideas are: 1. Lorentz metric implies that x0 must represent a length like the other components of x in X 2. The dual metric space X* is well defined since the Lorentz metric t...

  17. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... rule and the market risk rule to savings and loan holding companies, and the Board, FDIC, and OCC propose applying the market risk capital rule to savings and loan holding companies and to state and... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed...

  18. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    OpenAIRE

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules), in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are mul...

  19. A Proposal of Fuzzy Multidimensional Association Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Intan, Rolly

    2006-01-01

    Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules), in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are mul...

  20. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently...... agnostic, in the sense of being produced for generic purposes or purposes different from those sought by big data crunching. It is based on varying formats and modes of communication (e.g., texts, image and sound), raising severe problems of semiotic translation and meaning compatibility. Crucially......, the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...

  2. Feasibility study for banking loan using association rule mining classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sasmito Aribowo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bad loans in the koperasi can be reduced if the koperasi can detect whether member can complete the mortgage debt or decline. The method used for identify characteristic patterns of prospective lenders in this study, called Association Rule Mining Classifier. Pattern of credit member will be converted into knowledge and used to classify other creditors. Classification process would separate creditors into two groups: good credit and bad credit groups. Research using prototyping for implementing the design into an application using programming language and development tool. The process of association rule mining using Weighted Itemset Tidset (WIT–tree methods. The results shown that the method can predict the prospective customer credit. Training data set using 120 customers who already know their credit history. Data test used 61 customers who apply for credit. The results concluded that 42 customers will be paying off their loans and 19 clients are decline

  3. Committee proposals and restrictive rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J S

    1999-07-06

    I analyze a game-theoretic model of committee-legislature interaction in which a majority decision to adopt either an open or closed amendment rule occurs following the committee's proposal of a bill. I find that, in equilibrium, the closed rule is almost always chosen when the dimension of the policy space is >1. Furthermore, the difference between the equilibrium outcome and that which would have occurred under the open rule can be arbitrarily small.

  4. Committee proposals and restrictive rules

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S. Banks

    1999-01-01

    I analyze a game-theoretic model of committee–legislature interaction in which a majority decision to adopt either an open or closed amendment rule occurs following the committee’s proposal of a bill. I find that, in equilibrium, the closed rule is almost always chosen when the dimension of the policy space is >1. Furthermore, the difference between the equilibrium outcome and that which would have occurred under the open rule can be arbitrarily small.

  5. Competition, Work Rules and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bridgman

    2011-01-01

    More competitive markets are associated with higher productivity. However, changes in competition complicate productivity measurement since changing mark-ups may shift factor shares. This paper examines productivity measurement in markets with market power and restrictive work rules: rules that induce wages to be paid for non-productive labor hours. It develops a theoretical model to explain why workers would want restrictive work rules and how competition leads to their reduction. I model a ...

  6. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  7. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  8. Solitonic branes and wrapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    We show that the solitonic branes of ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, a specific wrapping rule in order to reproduce the number of half-supersymmetric solitonic branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of this wrapping rule

  9. Reflections on the Goldwater Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    The APA's Goldwater Rule, precluding psychiatrists from rendering opinions to the media about public figures whom they have not examined, has often engendered controversy. Here, I consider the justifications for the rule, how well they stand up to criticism, and the extent, if any, to which modifications might be called for. Although embarrassment to the profession is often cited as the basis for the Rule, it reflects more substantive concerns, including the risk of harm to living persons and discouraging persons in need of treatment from seeking psychiatric attention. The most potent criticisms of the Rule are that it discourages public education about mental illness and its effects and precludes legitimate scholarly endeavors by psychiatrists studying foreign leaders, historical figures, and others. However, there are many ways of providing education about mental illness without violating the Rule, and read properly, it should not prevent legitimate historical investigation, though some clarification of the Rule on this point might be helpful. Even psychiatrists who seek to aid policymakers in dealing with international or domestic threats should not find that the Rule interferes with their efforts. On balance, the Goldwater Rule continues to be an important underpinning of ethical behavior by psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Drinking Water Arsenic Rule History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA published the final arsenic rule on January 22, 2001. In response to the national debate surrounding the arsenic rule related to science and costs, the EPA announced on March 20, 2001 that the agency would reassess the science and cost issues.

  11. Statistical Rules-of-Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Six best-selling introductory behavioral statistics textbooks that were published in 1982 and two well-known sampling theory textbooks were reviewed to determine the presence of rules-of-thumb--useful principles with wide application that are not intended to be strictly accurate. The relative frequency and type of rules are reported along with a…

  12. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Koen Smit; Martin Zoet

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  13. Business rule mining from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Business rules represent the knowledge that guides the operations of a business organization. They are implemented in software applications used by organizations, and the activity of extracting them from software is known as business rule mining. It has various purposes amongst which migration and

  14. Rule Value Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Child, C. H. T.; Stathis, K.

    2006-01-01

    RVRL (Rule Value Reinforcement Learning) is a new algorithm which extends an existing learning framework that models the environment of a situated agent using a probabilistic rule representation. The algorithm attaches values to learned rules by adapting reinforcement learning. Structure captured by the rules is used to form a policy. The resulting rule values represent the utility of taking an action if the rule`s conditions are present in the agent`s current percept. Advantages of the new f...

  15. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  16. Prospective Coding by Spiking Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanni Brea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to make predictions, such as associating the sound of a bell with upcoming feeding or predicting a movement that a motor command is eliciting. How predictions are realized on the neuronal level and what plasticity rule underlies their learning is not well understood. Here we propose a biologically plausible synaptic plasticity rule to learn predictions on a single neuron level on a timescale of seconds. The learning rule allows a spiking two-compartment neuron to match its current firing rate to its own expected future discounted firing rate. For instance, if an originally neutral event is repeatedly followed by an event that elevates the firing rate of a neuron, the originally neutral event will eventually also elevate the neuron's firing rate. The plasticity rule is a form of spike timing dependent plasticity in which a presynaptic spike followed by a postsynaptic spike leads to potentiation. Even if the plasticity window has a width of 20 milliseconds, associations on the time scale of seconds can be learned. We illustrate prospective coding with three examples: learning to predict a time varying input, learning to predict the next stimulus in a delayed paired-associate task and learning with a recurrent network to reproduce a temporally compressed version of a sequence. We discuss the potential role of the learning mechanism in classical trace conditioning. In the special case that the signal to be predicted encodes reward, the neuron learns to predict the discounted future reward and learning is closely related to the temporal difference learning algorithm TD(λ.

  17. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  18. 75 FR 27272 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to facilitate the use of... the amateur service rules by making them conform with other Commission rules, thereby eliminating...

  19. 76 FR 17569 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document revises the Amateur Radio Service rules to amend and clarify the rules with respect to amateur stations transmitting spread spectrum emissions. The rule amendments are necessary to...

  20. 78 FR 61202 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...This document corrects technical errors that appeared in the final rule published in the August 6, 2013, Federal Register entitled ``Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2014.''

  1. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, Alexei; Mayers, Dominic; Preskill, John

    2004-05-01

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system—in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n -party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties—by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules.

  2. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... (2003), the article assumes that Buyers may misrepresent, either intentionally or unintentionally, and that the Court cannot distinguish one from the other. A trade-off then arises between risk allocation and deterrence. From the perspective of risk allocation, the pro rata rule is preferable since...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  3. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda, Pamela; Gamberoni, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  4. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunit......This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new...

  5. Enhancing Collaborative Rule-making on Global Sustainability Concerns Through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunit......This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new...

  6. A prospective study of gentamicin ototoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, O; Hansen, M M; Kaaber-Bühler, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out at the institut......Twenty patients were included in a prospective otoneurological study performed to assess the ototoxicity in gentamicin therapy. Gentamicin was administered intravenously, and the serum level was currently determined. Audiographic and electronystagmographic studies were carried out...... of gentamicin did not rule out the possiblity of ototoxicity. These results urge the continuing of prospective studies and indicate that gentamicin should be used only as a link in the primary treatment of severe infection or in cases in which other, less toxic agents have failed....

  7. Committee Proposals and Restrictive Rules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey S. Banks

    1999-01-01

    I analyze a game-theoretic model of committee-legislature interaction in which a majority decision to adopt either an open or closed amendment rule occurs following the committee's proposal of a bill...

  8. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods and putting a strong emphasis on business rules. This article outlines the importance of managing business rules in an organized manner using dedicated software products and furthermore presents a general prototype for a business rules repository.

  9. Breaking the Rules in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  10. Wrapping rules (in) string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we show that the number of all 1/2-BPS branes in string theory compactified on a torus can be derived by universal wrapping rules whose formulation we present. These rules even apply to branes in less than ten dimensions whose ten-dimensional origin is an exotic brane. In that case the wrapping rules contain an additional combinatorial factor that is related to the highest dimension in which the ten-dimensional exotic brane, after compactification, can be realized as a standard brane. We show that the wrapping rules also apply to cases with less supersymmetry. As a specific example, we discuss the compactification of IIA/IIB string theory on ( T 4/ ℤ 2) × T n .

  11. Business Rule Mining from Spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sohon

    2015-01-01

    Business rules represent the knowledge that guides the operations of a business organization. They are implemented in software applications used by organizations, and the activity of extracting them from software is known as business rule mining. It has various purposes amongst which migration and generating documentation are the most common. However, apart from conventional software, organizations also use spreadsheets for a large part of their operations and decision-making activities. Ther...

  12. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  13. 76 FR 59265 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012; Correction... Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012'' that appeared in the... Nursing Facility (SNF) Prospective Payment System (PPS) final rule (76 FR 48486, 48540) inadvertently...

  14. 19 CFR 102.11 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.11 General rules. The following rules shall apply for purposes of determining the country of origin of imported goods other than textile and apparel products covered by § 102.21. (a) The country of origin of a good is the country in which: (1) The good is wholly obtained or...

  15. MODERN THAMIZH SANDHI RULES GENERATOR IN NLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thamizh sandhi rules generator deals with addition, deletion, getting changes with existing Information and this adjoining letters/sandhi grammar rules processing with indirect/bi-lingual machine translation. This Modern Thamizh Sandhi Rules Generator is implemented under Unicode based Indic Script. Modern Thamizh sandhi generation is the initial stage of developing the Word Formation rules in Thamizh computational method.

  16. 75 FR 78169 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... rules with respect to amateur service vanity call signs. The rules are necessary to amend the amateur... amends the vanity call sign system rules to clarify the date on which the call sign associated with a... the exceptions to the general rule that a call sign is unavailable to the vanity call sign system for...

  17. 76 FR 45168 - Rules Relating to Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1080 RIN 3170-AA03 Rules Relating to Investigations AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... of 2010, is adopting its Rules Relating to Investigations in order to describe the Bureau's...) Background The Bureau is adopting Rules Relating to Investigations (``Rules'') that implement provisions of...

  18. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-09-21

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  19. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  20. The Rewrite Rule Machine Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    overlap among their instructions; that is, large, complex computations tend to be globally inhomogeneou.. SIMD architectures can be very inefficient in...matched rule. 4 fibo + f #)>0 tb /+ \\ => 0 x 0 fiofibo fib ++ S 0 1 1Xx S Y 0 y x (a) (b) ribo + SS S + 0 00 0 0 (C) Figure 1: Rewrite Rules for Fibonacci ...simple example, the Fibonacci function, as defined by the equations ’This restriction can be relaxed to implement so-called perpetual processes. 5 fibo(0

  1. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  2. 19 CFR 181.92 - Definitions and general NAFTA advance ruling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or his designee. A “published advance ruling” is an advance ruling which has been published in full... that does no more than call attention to a well-established interpretation of principles under the...) Prospective NAFTA transactions. It is in the interest of the sound administration of the NAFTA that persons...

  3. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  4. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  5. Rules for Engaging Challenging People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Nathan L.

    2006-01-01

    Communication is the cornerstone of any successful leadership enterprise, including education leadership. It is counterintuitive to think that an excellent education leader could possess a keen vision and have no ability to communicate that vision to students and staff members. Discovering and implementing the rules of communicating effectively…

  6. Extension of magnetic anomaly rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. A.

    1982-12-01

    The Moskowitz-Lombardi rule which has established a relationship for magnetic hyperfine-structure anomalies for ten mercury, Z = 80, isotopes and isomers is extended, in the light of new experimental work, to iridium, gold, and thallium, Z = 77, 79, and 81 respectively

  7. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  8. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  9. Can the Ottawa and Pittsburgh rules reduce requests for radiography in patients referred to acute knee clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, S; Zang, T T; Tamimi, N; Haddad, F S

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to study the role of the Ottawa and Pittsburgh rules to reduce the unnecessary use of radiographs following knee injury. We prospectively reviewed 106 patients who were referred to our clinic over a 3-month period. The Ottawa and Pittsburgh rules were applied to individual patients to evaluate the need for radiography. One hundred and one patients (95%) had radiography of their knee. Five patients (5%) had a fracture of their knee and in all cases, the Ottawa and Pittsburgh knee rules were fulfilled. Using the Ottawa rules, 27 radiographs (25%) could have been avoided without missing a fracture. Using the Pittsburgh rules, 32 radiographs (30%) could have been avoided. The Ottawa and Pittsburgh rules have a high sensitivity for the detection of knee fractures. Their use can aid efficient clinical evaluation without adverse clinical outcome and may reduce healthcare costs.

  10. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  11. Processing of abstract rule violations in audition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Schröger

    Full Text Available The ability to encode rules and to detect rule-violating events outside the focus of attention is vital for adaptive behavior. Our brain recordings reveal that violations of abstract auditory rules are processed even when the sounds are unattended. When subjects performed a task related to the sounds but not to the rule, rule violations impaired task performance and activated a network involving supratemporal, parietal and frontal areas although none of the subjects acquired explicit knowledge of the rule or became aware of rule violations. When subjects tried to behaviorally detect rule violations, the brain's automatic violation detection facilitated intentional detection. This shows the brain's capacity for abstraction - an important cognitive function necessary to model the world. Our study provides the first evidence for the task-independence (i.e. automaticity of this ability to encode abstract rules and for its immediate consequences for subsequent mental processes.

  12. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  13. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2018 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals, Critical Access Hospitals, and Eligible Professionals; Provider-Based Status of Indian Health Service and Tribal Facilities and Organizations; Costs Reporting and Provider Requirements; Agreement Termination Notices. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2018. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, the 21st Century Cures Act, and other legislation. We also are making changes relating to the provider-based status of Indian Health Service (IHS) and Tribal facilities and organizations and to the low-volume hospital payment adjustment for hospitals operated by the IHS or a Tribe. In addition, we are providing the market basket update that will apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2018. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2018. In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities). We also are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. We also are making changes relating to transparency of accrediting organization survey

  14. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  15. Evolving Temporal Association Rules with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of the proposed framework isolates target temporal itemsets in synthetic datasets. The Iterative Rule Learning method successfully discovers these targets in datasets with varying levels of difficulty.

  16. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...... was found to be the cause of death in 7%. Altogether toxicology analyses were necessary for determining the cause of death in 51% of the cases. In four cases the cause of death would not have been found, had this investigation not been made. It is concluded that toxicology analyses should be the rule rather...

  17. Rules for modeling signal-transduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, William S; Faeder, James R; Blinov, Michael L; Posner, Richard G; Hucka, Michael; Fontana, Walter

    2006-07-18

    Formalized rules for protein-protein interactions have recently been introduced to represent the binding and enzymatic activities of proteins in cellular signaling. Rules encode an understanding of how a system works in terms of the biomolecules in the system and their possible states and interactions. A set of rules can be as easy to read as a diagrammatic interaction map, but unlike most such maps, rules have precise interpretations. Rules can be processed to automatically generate a mathematical or computational model for a system, which enables explanatory and predictive insights into the system's behavior. Rules are independent units of a model specification that facilitate model revision. Instead of changing a large number of equations or lines of code, as may be required in the case of a conventional mathematical model, a protein interaction can be introduced or modified simply by adding or changing a single rule that represents the interaction of interest. Rules can be defined and visualized by using graphs, so no specialized training in mathematics or computer science is necessary to create models or to take advantage of the representational precision of rules. Rules can be encoded in a machine-readable format to enable electronic storage and exchange of models, as well as basic knowledge about protein-protein interactions. Here, we review the motivation for rule-based modeling; applications of the approach; and issues that arise in model specification, simulation, and testing. We also discuss rule visualization and exchange and the software available for rule-based modeling.

  18. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  19. Feynman rules for Gauss's law

    CERN Document Server

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    I work on a set of Feynman rules that were derived in order to incorporate the constraint of Gauss's law in the perturbation expansion of gauge field theories. The constraint is implemented via a Lagrange multiplier field, which, in the case of the non-Abelian theory, develops a radiatively generated effective potential term and corresponding soliton solutions, whose relation to the confining properties of the theory is discussed.

  20. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Nartem' yanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Shchepkin, M.G. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki)

    1982-05-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations have been obtained. The effects due to the neutrino masses are taken into account, msub(..nu..) being not assumed to be a small parameter. Study of the ''binary'' lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. ..nu.. ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+-) process permits to accurately take into account neutrino masses and to obtain expressions for the cross sections oscillating as functions of distance L between the points of neutrino production and absorption. In the case of Dirac or left Majoran masses obtained is the sum rule according to which the cross section sigma(lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(-)) summarized with the weight 1/vsub(k) by aromas of final lepton remains constant (exactly, decrease as 1/L/sup 2/) and it does not oscillate. In the case of left Majoran masses there is admixture of antineutrino due to which the lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+) process is possible. In this case both components (neutrino with antineutrino admixture) oscillates independently and there exists analogous sum rule for the sigma(lsub(i)sup(-) ..-->.. lsub(k)sup(+)) cross section.

  1. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  2. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  3. Strengthening Chile's Rule-Based Fiscal Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Daban Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of Chile’s impressive fiscal performance has been its structural balance rule. By insulating public spending from short-term copper price fluctuations and the business cycle, the rule has helped preserve fiscal discipline. However, the implementation of the rule in recent years has revealed certain challenges, and in May 2010, the government established a high-level commission to recommend reforms that could make the rule even more effective. This paper assesses the scope fo...

  4. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  5. Association rule interestingness: measure and statistical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lallich, Stéphane; Teytaud, Olivier; Prudhomme, Elie

    2006-01-01

    The search for interesting Boolean association rules is an important topic in knowledge discovery in databases. The set of admissible rules for the selected support and condence thresholds can easily be extracted by algorithms based on support and condence, such as Apriori. However, they may produce a large number of rules, many of them are uninteresting. One has to resolve a two-tier problem: choosing the measures best suited to the problem at hand, then validating the interesting rules agai...

  6. Fusion Rules for Extended Current Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Ernest; Gepner, Doron

    1996-01-01

    The initial classification of fusion rules have shown that rational conformal field theory is very limited. In this paper we study the fusion rules of extend ed current algebras. Explicit formulas are given for the S matrix and the fusion rules, based on the full splitting of the fixed point fields. We find that in s ome cases sensible fusion rules are obtained, while in others this procedure lea ds to fractional fusion constants.

  7. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  8. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  9. Questions about Voting Rules, With Some Answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor); V. Goranko; W. Jamroga

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe raise questions about voting rules, and provide some of the answers. The method is to define a number of new formal properties of voting rules, and use these for classification and analysis. The aim is to get a better perspective on vices and virtues of individual voting rules.

  10. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  11. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  12. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  13. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call... of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 310--TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 0 1. The authority...

  14. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call... follows: PART 310--TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 0 1. The authority citation for part 310 continues to read as...

  15. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the telemarketing of debt relief services. This...

  16. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call... of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 310--TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 0 1. The authority...

  17. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  18. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  19. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71. ...

  20. CULTURE STUDYING FEATURES OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ SINGING TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vay Limin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals culture studying features of prospective music teachers’ singing training. The rules of maintaining a balance between the main areas of students learning activity are defined, such as: motivational, informative, innovative, assessing, creative-acting. Culture studying features of prospective music teachers’ singing training are determined as an important condition of teaching activity quality. Taking into account cultural features of prospective music teachers’ singing training is disclosed as understanding the activity source of an expert existence, as it requires accumulating an amount of special theoretical knowledge and practical skills; advanced acquaintance with the methodological principles and modern technology of the chosen specialties; forming the important moral and professional qualities of the person of the prospective music teacher’s personality, combination of which makes it possible to creatively work actively in the chosen musical-pedagogical sphere, combination of which makes it possible to work creatively and actively in the chosen musical and pedagogical sphere.

  1. The dead donor rule: effect on the virtuous practice of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaten, Frank C

    2014-07-01

    The President's Council on Bioethics in 2008 reaffirmed the necessity of the dead donor rule and the legitimacy of the current criteria for diagnosing both neurological and cardiac death. In spite of this report,many have continued to express concerns about the ethics of donation after circulatory death, the validity of determining death using neurological criteria and the necessity for maintaining the dead donor rule for organ donation. I analysed the dead donor rule for its effect on the virtuous practice of medicine by physicians caring for potential organ donors. The dead donor rule consistently impedes physicians in fulfilling their primary duty to act for the good of their prospective donor patients. This compromises the virtue of fidelity. It also weakens many other virtues necessary for physicians to provide excellent end-of-life care. The dead donor rule, while ethically powerful in theory, loses its force during translation to the bedside. This is so because the rule mandates simultaneous life and death within the same body for organ donation, a biological status that is inherently contradictory. The rule should be rejected as an ethical norm governing vital organ transplantation at the end of life. Its elimination will strengthen the doctor–patient relationship and foster trustworthiness in organ procurement.

  2. Automated visualization of rule-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, John Arul Prakash; Tapia, Jose-Juan; Faeder, James R

    2017-11-01

    Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use "reaction rules" to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i) a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii) the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii) a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models.

  3. Automated visualization of rule-based models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arul Prakash Sekar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use "reaction rules" to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models.

  4. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules...... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...... that the Representative rule yields more trust than the Non-rule and also significantly more trust than the Unilateral rule, when analysing the results at group level. These findings challenge the theoretical understanding by, for example, deliberative normative theorists that more inclusive, consensual and non...

  5. 76 FR 18930 - Medicare Programs: Changes to the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System Transition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...: Changes to the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System Transition Budget-Neutrality Adjustment... period. SUMMARY: This interim final rule with comment will revise the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) transition budget-neutrality adjustment finalized in the CY 2011 ESRD Prospective Payment System (PPS) final...

  6. 78 FR 41013 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for CY 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Medicaid Programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for CY 2014, Home Health Quality... technical errors that appeared in the proposed rule with comment period titled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for CY 2014, Home Health Quality Reporting...

  7. Membership Rules - LHCRRB Scrutiny Group

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Resources Scrutiny Group was created in 2001 to review and scrutinize the M&O cost estimates of the LHC Collaborations. The Scrutiny Group first met on 23 August 2001 and reported to the RRBs at its 13th Plenary meeting, in October 2001 (RRB-D-2001-8). The Scrutiny Group operates according to the procedures set out in Annex 12 of the MoUs for the M&O of the LHC experiments. This document lists the Rules of Procedure that apply to the M&O Scrutiny Group

  8. Vet Centers. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  9. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  10. Automated visualization of rule-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jose-Juan; Faeder, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Frameworks such as BioNetGen, Kappa and Simmune use “reaction rules” to specify biochemical interactions compactly, where each rule specifies a mechanism such as binding or phosphorylation and its structural requirements. Current rule-based models of signaling pathways have tens to hundreds of rules, and these numbers are expected to increase as more molecule types and pathways are added. Visual representations are critical for conveying rule-based models, but current approaches to show rules and interactions between rules scale poorly with model size. Also, inferring design motifs that emerge from biochemical interactions is an open problem, so current approaches to visualize model architecture rely on manual interpretation of the model. Here, we present three new visualization tools that constitute an automated visualization framework for rule-based models: (i) a compact rule visualization that efficiently displays each rule, (ii) the atom-rule graph that conveys regulatory interactions in the model as a bipartite network, and (iii) a tunable compression pipeline that incorporates expert knowledge and produces compact diagrams of model architecture when applied to the atom-rule graph. The compressed graphs convey network motifs and architectural features useful for understanding both small and large rule-based models, as we show by application to specific examples. Our tools also produce more readable diagrams than current approaches, as we show by comparing visualizations of 27 published models using standard graph metrics. We provide an implementation in the open source and freely available BioNetGen framework, but the underlying methods are general and can be applied to rule-based models from the Kappa and Simmune frameworks also. We expect that these tools will promote communication and analysis of rule-based models and their eventual integration into comprehensive whole-cell models. PMID:29131816

  11. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  12. Generalization of the Born rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    An alternative formulation of quantum mechanics is proposed based on a principle that can be considered a generalization of the Born rule. The principle is composed of a mathematical expression and an associated interpretation, and establishes a correlation between the positions of a particle at two different times. Under reasonable conditions for the wave function, this correlation implies that the particles follow quasiclassical trajectories. It is also shown that the Born rule is equivalent to a particular case of the evolved principle. These features allow the principle to provide a unified explanation of the results of the statistical experiments and of the quasiclassical macroscopic evolution. There is a strong analogy between the quantum principle and a probabilistic principle which is necessary to derive empirical predictions from the mathematical formalism of probability theory. This principle is referred to by some authors as Cournot’s principle, while other authors use the equivalent notion of typicality. In this paper probability theory and quantum mechanics are formulated in such a way as to explicitly include the two principles and to emphasize the very similar conceptual structure of the two theories.

  13. Proposal to modify Rule 6, Rule 10a, and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    According to the current versions of Rule 10a and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, names of a genus or subgenus and specific epithets may be taken from any source and may even be composed in an arbitrary manner. Based on these rules, names may be composed of any word or any combination of elements derived from any language with a Latin ending. We propose modifying these rules by adding the text, currently part of Recommendation 6, according to which words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. We also propose modification of Rule 6 by adopting some of the current paragraphs of Recommendation 6 to become part of the Rule.

  14. The golden rule of reviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Shaw, Ruth G.; Moore, Allen J.; Rausher, Mark D.; Strong, Donald R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Barrett, Louise; Rieseberg, Loren; Breed, Michael D.; Sullivan, Jack; Osenberg, Craig W.; Holyoak, Marcel; Elgar, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the time required to publish a scientific or scholarly paper is the speed with which reviews by peers are returned to journals. Peer review is a reciprocal altruistic system in which each individual may perform every task—editors, reviewers, and authors—at different times. Journals have no way to coerce reviewers to return their critiques faster. To greatly shorten the time to publication, all actors in this altruistic network should abide by the Golden Rule of Reviewing: review for others as you would have others review for you. Say yes to reviewing whenever your duties and schedule allow; provide a thorough, fair, and constructive critique of the work; and do it at your first opportunity regardless of the deadline.

  15. Selection rules for bimolecular photoabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bittner, Alexander M.

    1992-09-01

    Bimolecular photoabsorption is a term describing processes in which two molecules or other chemically distinct entities undergo simultaneous excitation to electronic excited states, the energy being provided by the absorption of one or more laser photons. These processes have previously been referred to as synergistic, cooperative, or mean-frequency absorption. This paper introduces a new terminology for the description of such phenomena and provides an overview of the features associated with bimolecular processes involving the absorption of one, two or three photons from a single laser beam. Emphasis is placed on a detailed symmetry analysis based on irreducible tensors, leading to a comprehensive treatment of the selection rules for all the major molecular point groups. Finally, attention is drawn to some systems in which these effects have been detected, and others in which they might be expected to occur.

  16. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  17. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  18. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  20. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  1. Interactions between parental alcohol-specific rules and risk personalities in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.; Larsen, H.; Peeters, M.; Pronk, T.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of an important context variable (alcohol-specific parental rules) and an important person variable (risky personality traits) and their interaction on prospective adolescent drinking. Methods: Participants were 252 adolescents, 67.9% female, between 13 and 16 years old.

  2. Interactions between Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Risk Personalities in the Prediction of Adolescent Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Pronk, Thomas; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of an important context variable (alcohol-specific parental rules) and an important person variable (risky personality traits) and their interaction on prospective adolescent drinking. Methods: Participants were 252 adolescents, 67.9% female, between 13 and 16 years old.

  3. Do adults with autism spectrum disorders compensate in naturalistic prospective memory tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to prepare breakfast following a set of rules and time restrictions. Overall, adults with ASD had less correct time- and event-based prospective memory responses in comparison to controls, which is consistent with previous research in children with ASD. Moreover, ASD participants completed fewer tasks, followed rules less closely, and monitored the elapsing time less closely than controls. Individuals with ASD seem not to be compensating in naturalistic prospective memory tasks.

  4. Against the golden rule argument against abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonin-Vail, D

    1997-01-01

    R.M. Hare and Harry J. Gensler have each argued that abortion can be shown to be immoral by appealing to a version of the golden rule. I argue that both versions of the golden rule argument against abortion should be rejected: each rests on a version of the golden rule which is objectionable on independent grounds, each is unable to support its conclusion when the rule is satisfactorily modified, and each is unable to avoid the implication that contraception is as wrong as abortion and for the same reason. In addition, some further problems particular to each position are identified.

  5. The Impact of Rules on Economic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Coca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the rules, the importance of those rules that influence economic activity. It will be presented the institutions starting from the "rules of the game" until the "rule of law". Then it will be explained the concept of "spontaneous order" and the importance of that order in society. For a good economic activity, we need a “good governance”. It will be explained what this means good governance and how addiction affects about institutional change.

  6. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  7. Analyzing microarray data using quantitative association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Richter, Lothar; Rückert, Ulrich; Kramer, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    We tackle the problem of finding regularities in microarray data. Various data mining tools, such as clustering, classification, Bayesian networks and association rules, have been applied so far to gain insight into gene-expression data. Association rule mining techniques used so far work on discretizations of the data and cannot account for cumulative effects. In this paper, we investigate the use of quantitative association rules that can operate directly on numeric data and represent cumulative effects of variables. Technically speaking, this type of quantitative association rules based on half-spaces can find non-axis-parallel regularities. We performed a variety of experiments testing the utility of quantitative association rules for microarray data. First of all, the results should be statistically significant and robust against fluctuations in the data. Next, the approach should be scalable in the number of variables, which is important for such high-dimensional data. Finally, the rules should make sense biologically and be sufficiently different from rules found in regular association rule mining working with discretizations. In all of these dimensions, the proposed approach performed satisfactorily. Therefore, quantitative association rules based on half-spaces should be considered as a tool for the analysis of microarray gene-expression data. The code is available from the authors on request.

  8. Proposed Clinical Decision Rules to Diagnose Acute Rhinosinusitis Among Adults in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebell, Mark H.; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, we sought to develop a clinical decision rule for the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. METHODS Multivariate analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were used to develop clinical...... decision rules for the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis, defined using 3 different reference standards (purulent antral puncture fluid or abnormal finding on a computed tomographic (CT) scan; for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, we used a positive bacterial culture of antral fluid). Signs, symptoms, C......-reactive protein (CRP), and reference standard tests were prospectively recorded in 175 Danish patients aged 18 to 65 years seeking care for suspected acute rhinosinusitis. For each reference standard, we developed 2 clinical decision rules: a point score based on a logistic regression model and an algorithm based...

  9. Rules of Thumb (Empirical Rules) for the Biomass Utilization by Thermochemical Conversion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANTAL, Jr, Michael J; HELSEN, Lieve M; KOUZU, Masato; LÉDÉ, Jacques; MATSUMURA, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The rules of thumb for developing thermochemical conversion technology are introduced together with the fundamental rules of thumb for thermochemical conversion, which is the basic idea for these technologies...

  10. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  11. Entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.

  12. Success Rules of OSS Projects using Datamining 3-Itemset Association Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Wahju Rahardjo Emanuel; Retantyo Wardoyo; Jazi Eko Istiyanto; Khabib Mustofa

    2010-01-01

    We present a research to find the success rules of 134,549 Open Source Software (OSS) Projects at Sourceforge portal using Datamining 3-Itemset Association Rule. Seventeen types of OSS Project's data are collected, classified, and then analyzed using Weka datamining tool. The Datamining 3-Itemset Association Rule is used to find the success rules of these projects by assuming that the success of these projects are reflected by the number of downloads. The result are formulated into 9 success ...

  13. Revised Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the revised version of the Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.

  14. Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory with graphical displays of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reported evidence that contradicts cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic. The same body of research also violates two editing principles of original prospect theory: cancellation (the principle that people delete any attribute that is the same in both alternatives before deciding between them and combination (the principle that people combine branches leading to the same consequence by adding their probabilities. This study was designed to replicate previous results and to test whether the violations of cumulative prospect theory might be eliminated or reduced by using formats for presentation of risky gambles in which cancellation and combination could be facilitated visually. Contrary to the idea that decision behavior contradicting cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic would be altered by use of these formats, however, data with two new graphical formats as well as fresh replication data continued to show the patterns of evidence that violate cumulative prospect theory, the priority heuristic, and the editing principles of combination and cancellation. Systematic violations of restricted branch independence also contradicted predictions of ``stripped'' prospect theory (subjectively weighted additive utility without the editing rules.

  15. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  16. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period. (c...

  17. 42 CFR 408.80 - Basic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rules. 408.80 Section 408.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Group Payment § 408.80 Basic rules. (a...

  18. 42 CFR 438.602 - Basic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rule. 438.602 Section 438.602 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Certifications and Program Integrity § 438.602 Basic rule. As a condition...

  19. 42 CFR 418.301 - Basic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rules. 418.301 Section 418.301 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.301 Basic rules. (a) Medicare payment for covered...

  20. Bremsstrahlung sum rule and nuclear charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellafiore, A. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy)); Lipparini, E. (Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica)

    1982-11-01

    We derive a model-independent relation between the nuclear charge radius Rsub(c), the bremsstrahlung-weighted photoabsorption sum rule sigmasub(-)/sub 1/ and the mean proton distance. Such a relation allows the mean proton distance to be determined from available experimental data. We also discuss the Foldy sum rule in the light of our result.

  1. 42 CFR 435.401 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rules. 435.401 Section 435.401 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Eligibility Requirements § 435.401 General rules. (a) A Medicaid agency may... eligibility for optional coverage groups that are— (1) For families and children, more restrictive than those...

  2. 42 CFR 436.401 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rules. 436.401 Section 436.401 Public... Requirements § 436.401 General rules. (a) The agency may not impose any eligibility requirement that is... requirements for determining eligibility for optional coverage groups that are more restrictive than those used...

  3. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Weyde, T.; Conklin, D.; Chew, E.; Childs, A.; Chuan, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  4. 50 CFR 424.20 - Emergency rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency rules. 424.20 Section 424.20... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.20 Emergency rules. (a) Sections 424... implementing any action described in § 424.10 in regard to any emergency posing a significant risk to the well...

  5. Economic Laboratory Experiment on Horn's Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.; Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, U.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for empirically testing several alternative game-theoretic rationales for Horn’s rule. It then presents an economic laboratory experiment where these rationales are empirically tested. Subjects seem to coordinate on Horn’s rule where efficiency acts as a focal point.

  6. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to revise... service vanity call sign system. The Commission also revises certain rules applicable to amateur service club stations. The Commission found that certain provisions in the rules applicable to the vanity call...

  7. Nested Quantification in Graph Transformation Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Corradini, A.; Ehrig, H; Montanari, U.; Ribeiro, L.; Rozenberg, G.

    In this paper we describe a way to integrate Taentzer’s rule amalgamation with the recently proposed notions of nested graph conditions. The resulting so-called quantified graph transformation rules include (universally and existentially) quantified sub-structures in a flexible way. This can be used

  8. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  9. Riparian Protection Rules for Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    George G. Ice; Robert L. Beschta; Raymond S. Craig; James R. Sedell

    1989-01-01

    Forest Practice Rules under the Oregon Forest Practices Act were modified in 1987 to increase protection of riparian areas adjacent to timber harvest operations. These modifications addressed concerns about water quality protection and retaining trees as sources of large woody debris for future stream channel structure. The rule changes triggered debate about the...

  10. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes....

  11. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    values. • Unless they have a strong guarantee to the contrary Example from recent history : Java Deserialization • Suppose an alert is raised for a...some initial feedback from two collaborators, who used our rules to audit several hundred alerts from C and Java codebases 32 Audit Rules and Lexicon

  12. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final amended Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to address the telemarketing of debt relief...

  13. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate,

  14. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a

  15. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  16. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  17. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  18. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure that...

  19. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  20. 38 CFR 4.68 - Amputation rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amputation rule. 4.68... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.68 Amputation rule. The combined rating for disabilities of an extremity shall not exceed the rating for the amputation at the elective level, were...

  1. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  2. The formal logic of business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of improvement areas and utilization of information and communication technologies have gained value and priority in our knowledge driven society. Rules define constraints, conditions and policies of how the business processes are to be performed but they also affect the behavior of the resource and facilitate strategic business goals achieving. They control the business and represent business knowledge. The research works about business rules show how to specify and classify business rules from the business perspective and to establish an approach to managing them that will enable faster change in business processes and other business concepts in all areas of the business. In concrete this paper deals with four approaches to business rules formalization, i. e. notation of OCL, inference rules, decision table and predicate logic and with their general evaluation. The article shows also the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches of formalization. They are the example of every mentioned approach.

  3. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is business rule. When we gain its accurate formulation and when we achieve to formalize and to store business rule in special repository we can manage it actualize it and use it for many reasons. The article emphasizes formats of business rule formalization and its reference to business applications implementation.

  4. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...... production is possible if there is strong industry pressure and when the initiatives to promote the sector are also seen to help build or maintain the ruling coalition....

  5. Straight leg elevation to rule out pelvic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Caroline; O'Keeffe, Francis; Finnegan, Pete; Dickson, Kristofer; Smit, De Villiers; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-10-09

    Pelvic x-ray is frequently used as a screening tool during initial assessment of injured patients. However routine use in the awake and alert blunt trauma patient may be questioned due to low yield. We propose a clinical tool that may avoid unnecessary imaging by examining whether the ability to straight leg raise, without pain, can rule out pelvic injury. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the exposure variables of ability to straight leg raise and presence of pain on doing so, and presence of pelvic fracture on x-ray as the primary outcome variable. Of the 328 participants, 35 had pelvic fractures, and of these 32 were either unable to straight leg raise, or had pain on doing so, with a sensitivity of 91.43% (95% CI: 76.94-98.2%) and a negative predictive value of 98.57% (95% CI: 95.88-99.70%). The 3 participants with a pelvic fracture who could straight leg raise with no pain, all had a GCS of less than 15, and therefore, among the sub-group of patients with GCS15, a 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value for straight leg raise with no pain to rule out pelvic fracture was demonstrated. Among awake, alert patients, painless straight leg raise can exclude pelvic fractures and be incorporated into initial examination during reception and resuscitation of injured patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  7. RuleMaDrone: A Web-Interface to Visualise Space Usage Rules for Drones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippaers, Aäron

    2015-01-01

    RuleMaDrone, an application developed within this thesis, is presented as a solution to communicate the rules and regulations to drone operators. To provide the solution a framework for drone safety was designed which consists of the rules and regulations, the drone properties and the environmental factors. RuleMaDrone is developed with this framework and thus will provide drone operators with an application which they can use to find a safe and legal fly zone. RuleMaDrone u...

  8. RuleMonkey: software for stochastic simulation of rule-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Joshua; Monine, Michael I; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hlavacek, William S; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Posner, Richard G

    2010-07-30

    The system-level dynamics of many molecular interactions, particularly protein-protein interactions, can be conveniently represented using reaction rules, which can be specified using model-specification languages, such as the BioNetGen language (BNGL). A set of rules implicitly defines a (bio)chemical reaction network. The reaction network implied by a set of rules is often very large, and as a result, generation of the network implied by rules tends to be computationally expensive. Moreover, the cost of many commonly used methods for simulating network dynamics is a function of network size. Together these factors have limited application of the rule-based modeling approach. Recently, several methods for simulating rule-based models have been developed that avoid the expensive step of network generation. The cost of these "network-free" simulation methods is independent of the number of reactions implied by rules. Software implementing such methods is now needed for the simulation and analysis of rule-based models of biochemical systems. Here, we present a software tool called RuleMonkey, which implements a network-free method for simulation of rule-based models that is similar to Gillespie's method. The method is suitable for rule-based models that can be encoded in BNGL, including models with rules that have global application conditions, such as rules for intramolecular association reactions. In addition, the method is rejection free, unlike other network-free methods that introduce null events, i.e., steps in the simulation procedure that do not change the state of the reaction system being simulated. We verify that RuleMonkey produces correct simulation results, and we compare its performance against DYNSTOC, another BNGL-compliant tool for network-free simulation of rule-based models. We also compare RuleMonkey against problem-specific codes implementing network-free simulation methods. RuleMonkey enables the simulation of rule-based models for which the

  9. RuleMonkey: software for stochastic simulation of rule-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlavacek William S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The system-level dynamics of many molecular interactions, particularly protein-protein interactions, can be conveniently represented using reaction rules, which can be specified using model-specification languages, such as the BioNetGen language (BNGL. A set of rules implicitly defines a (biochemical reaction network. The reaction network implied by a set of rules is often very large, and as a result, generation of the network implied by rules tends to be computationally expensive. Moreover, the cost of many commonly used methods for simulating network dynamics is a function of network size. Together these factors have limited application of the rule-based modeling approach. Recently, several methods for simulating rule-based models have been developed that avoid the expensive step of network generation. The cost of these "network-free" simulation methods is independent of the number of reactions implied by rules. Software implementing such methods is now needed for the simulation and analysis of rule-based models of biochemical systems. Results Here, we present a software tool called RuleMonkey, which implements a network-free method for simulation of rule-based models that is similar to Gillespie's method. The method is suitable for rule-based models that can be encoded in BNGL, including models with rules that have global application conditions, such as rules for intramolecular association reactions. In addition, the method is rejection free, unlike other network-free methods that introduce null events, i.e., steps in the simulation procedure that do not change the state of the reaction system being simulated. We verify that RuleMonkey produces correct simulation results, and we compare its performance against DYNSTOC, another BNGL-compliant tool for network-free simulation of rule-based models. We also compare RuleMonkey against problem-specific codes implementing network-free simulation methods. Conclusions Rule

  10. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  11. Challenges and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Finally, the prospective areas for biopharmaceutical innovation in Africa include research and development, marketing, workforce development and contract manufacturing. Keywords: Small .... However, in line with the EUs definition, enterprises with less than 250 employees should have turnover of less than €50 million.

  12. Hope, HIV and health: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli, Anthony; MacNeil, Susan; Partridge, Vanessa; Tinker, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of trait hope on the health of 16 HIV+ individuals. In 2006, hopefulness was assessed with a comprehensive measure derived from an integrative theory of hope. At this time, we also collected self-reported health data as well as blood samples that provided an index of immunological status (CD4). Subsequently, at 8, 24, and 48 months we obtained follow-up CD4 levels. To rule out a potential confound, we computed and found, no significant correlations between self-reports of hope or heath, and blind ratings of illness denial provided by a case manager. Total hope scores as well as hope sub-scores were significantly correlated with various dimensions of self-reported health as well as CDC established CD4 classification levels, both concurrently and prospectively.

  13. Evaluating Learning Algorithms to Support Human Rule Evaluation Based on Objective Rule Evaluation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an evaluation of learning algorithms of a novel rule evaluation support method for post-processing of mined results with rule evaluation models based on objective indices. Post-processing of mined results is one of the key processes in a data mining process. However, it is difficult for human experts to completely evaluate several thousands of rules from a large dataset with noise. To reduce the costs in such rule evaluation task, we have developed a rule evaluation support method with rule evaluation models that learn from a dataset. This dataset comprises objective indices for mined classification rules and evaluation by a human expert for each rule. To evaluate performances of learning algorithms for constructing the rule evaluation models, we have done a case study on the meningitis data mining as an actual problem. Furthermore, we have also evaluated our method with ten rule sets obtained from ten UCI datasets. With regard to these results, we show the availability of our rule evaluation support method for human experts.

  14. 187 | Page THE RULE OF LAW IN GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Military rule is marked with autocracy and rule by force. ... recognized as necessary in the administration of justice provided they observe the rules of ... military rule. It is the law which is reasonably justiciable in a democratic society. Hence, all persons in Nigeria are under Nigerian law or within the Nigerian rule of law.

  15. Oxytocin conditions trait-based rule adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-01

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive rule adherence is reduced by oxytocin-a hypothalamic neuropeptide that biases the biobehavioural approach-avoidance system. Participants (N = 139) self-administered oxytocin or placebo intranasally, and reported their need for structure and approach-avoidance sensitivity. Next, participants made binary decisions and were given an arbitrary rule that demanded to forgo financial benefits. Under oxytocin, participants violated the rule more often, especially when they had high need for structure and high approach sensitivity. Possibly, oxytocin dampens the need for a highly structured environment and enables individuals to flexibly trade-off internal desires against external restrictions. Implications for the treatment of clinical disorders marked by maladaptive rule adherence are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Medicaid program: rescission of School-Based Administration/Transportation final rule, Outpatient Hospital Services final rule, and partial rescission of Case Management Interim final rule. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    This rule finalizes our proposal to rescind the December 28, 2007 final rule entitled, "Elimination of Reimbursement under Medicaid for School Administration Expenditures and Costs Related to Transportation of School-Age Children Between Home and School;" the November 7, 2008 final rule entitled, "Clarification of Outpatient Hospital Facility (Including Outpatient Hospital Clinic) Services Definition;" and certain provisions of the December 4, 2007 interim final rule entitled, "Optional State Plan Case Management Services." These regulations have been the subject of Congressional moratoria and have not yet been implemented (or, with respect to the case management interim final rule, have only been partially implemented) by CMS. In light of concerns raised about the adverse effects that could result from these regulations, in particular, the potential restrictions on services available to beneficiaries and the lack of clear evidence demonstrating that the approaches taken in the regulations are warranted, CMS is rescinding the two final rules in full, and partially rescinding the interim final rule. Rescinding these provisions will permit further opportunity to determine the best approach to further the objectives of the Medicaid program in providing necessary health benefits coverage to needy individuals.

  17. Qcd Sum Rule Analysis Of Baryon Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, X

    2004-01-01

    The masses of low-lying baryon states are calculated using the QCD sum rule method. Both octet and decuplet baryon states are studied via the conventional sum rule method and the new parity-projected sum rule method. Firstly, the low-lying N* channels of octets are studied via the conventional sum rule method. Using generalized interpolating fields, three independent sets of QCD sum rules are derived which allow the extraction of the spin 12± , and 32± states in both the non-strange and strange channels. Thereafter, we explored a new technique which exactly projects out the parities that are mixed in the conventional sum rules. One advantage of the new parity- project sum rules is to be able to study the origin of mass splittings between positive and negative-parity baryon pairs in a direct manner in relation to the chiral-symmetry breaking of QCD as manifested via the vacuum condensates. At last, we re-visited the spin 32± decuplet states in both the conventional and t...

  18. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. At Home with Sustainability: From Green Default Rules to Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Anne Hale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is often assumed that default rules affect change without awareness, this paper suggests that contrast with the default and transition into conscious adoption of the default design may be the starting point to establish long-term changes in consumer behavior. Despite the rooting of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green consumers do come from somewhere. Green default rules offer interesting prospects for sidestepping the drawbacks of direct marketing to individuals. Under green default rules, behavior is guided by a default, such as utilities automatically sending customers renewables-sourced instead of fossil-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1 communications and market creation and (2 responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable consumption.

  20. Sum rules and giant resonances in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1989-04-01

    The formalism of sum rules is developed and employed to investigate various giant resonances in nuclei. Particular emphasis is given to the role of surface effects which are shown to play a crucial role in the propagation of isoscalar as well as isovector collective modes. Sum rules for non-Hermitian operators, in particular for charge exchange reactions, are derived using the formalism of the dynamic polarizability. Several sum rules for investigating magnetic excitations, the structure of the transition density and the role of the nuclear deformation and of temperature on giant resonances are also presented and discussed.

  1. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate algorithms for solving of this NP-hard problem. The paper contains various bounds on precision of the greedy algorithm, bounds on minimal length of rules based on an information obtained during greedy algorithm work, and results of the study of association rules for the most part of binary information systems. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows: as from 1 April 2003 • Article R II 1.19 - Types and duration of contracts of staff members (page 15) as from 1 July 2003 Implementation of the category of local staff members Copies of this update are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. CSW rules for a massive scalar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boels, Rutger Herman; Schwinn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We derive the analog of the Cachazo-Svrcek-Witten (CSW) diagrammatic Feynman rules for four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge theory coupled to a massive colored scalar. The mass term is shown to give rise to a new tower of vertices in addition to the CSW vertices for massless scalars in non......-supersymmetric theories. The rules are derived directly from an action, once through a canonical transformation within light-cone Yang-Mills and once by the construction of a twistor action. The rules are tested against known results in several examples and are used to simplify the proof of on-shell recursion relations...

  4. 77 FR 24409 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... RIN 0938-AQ26 Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program; Physician Self-Referral; and Patient... appeared in the final rule with comment period published in the Federal Register on November 30, 2011...

  5. 77 FR 217 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... RIN 0938-AQ26 Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment; Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment; Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program; Physician Self-Referral; and Patient... (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Correction of final rule with comment period. SUMMARY: This document corrects...

  6. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review se...

  7. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  8. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  9. 33 CFR 83.06 - Safe speed (Rule 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES RULES Steering and Sailing Rules Conduct of Vessels in Any Condition of Visibility § 83.06... interference; (4) The possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be detected by...

  10. 76 FR 43569 - Identification of Enforceable Rules and Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Commission's Telemarketing Sales Rule and its rules under the Federal Trade Commission Act, although the...--Telemarketing Sales Rule 2. 16 CFR part 313--Privacy of Consumer Financial Information 3. 16 CFR part 320...

  11. Risk Management Plan (RMP) Rule Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments, this rule contains regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that use extremely hazardous substances, and aids in emergency preparedness and response.

  12. Electron scattering sum rules in polarized nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1989-07-01

    Sum rules for the inelastic scattering of polarized electrons frompolarized nuclei are derived and discussed. The role of the nucleon formfactors is investigated with special emphasis to the case of deuteron and/sup 3/He.

  13. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  14. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  15. Surface Water Treatment Rules State Implementation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents provide guidance to states, tribes and U.S. EPA Regions exercising primary enforcement responsibility under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The documents contain EPA’s recommendations for implementation of the Surface Water Treatment Rules.

  16. Total Coliform Rule (TCR) Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides the FR notice to 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Drinking Water: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Total Coliforms (Including Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli); Final Rule (26 pp, 5 M).

  17. Revised Total Coliform Rule Lab Sampling Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    This form should be completed when a water system collects any required Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) samples. It should also be used when collecting “Special” non-compliance samples for the RTCR.

  18. Rule of Thumb and Dynamic Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the relationships between learning about rules of thumb (represented by classifier systems) and dynamic programming. Building on a result about Markovian stochastic approximation algorithms, we characterize all decision functions that can be asymptotically obtained through

  19. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design rules are contingent if-then statements about what a good design should be for a given situation. Today’s challenge is to look forward to devise organization design rules for a different future with greater uncertainty and greater interdependency – all with dynamic performance...... demands. These new demands call for new design rules for coordination, incentives and leadership, among others. Our existing rules are mostly based upon past experience and empirical studies of what is. What might be – going beyond what we have observed and explained of yesterday and today to help design...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what might be. We...

  20. Proving Properties of Rule-Based Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waldinger, Richard J; Stickel, Mark E

    1990-01-01

    Rule-based systems are being applied to tasks of increasing responsibility. Deductive methods are being applied to their validation, to detect flaws in these systems and enable us to use them with more...

  1. 77 FR 50084 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...; preliminary ruling February 2, 2012. A-201-837/A-570-954/C-570-955: Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico and the...: August 9. 2012. Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  2. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Claveau, Vincent

    2008-11-19

    Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI), a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  3. 75 FR 27200 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... the rules reflected in this Order will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number...., primary or secondary services), the basic principle is the equality of right to operate. Accordingly...

  4. CBP Customs Rulings Online Search System (CROSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CROSS is a searchable database of CBP rulings that can be retrieved based on simple or complex search characteristics using keywords and Boolean operators. CROSS has...

  5. Feynman rules for a whole Abelian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.

    2012-10-01

    Feynman rules for an abelian extension of gauge theories are discussed and explicitly derived. Vertices with three and four abelian gauge bosons are obtained. A discussion on an eventual structure for the photon is presented.

  6. Feynman rules for a whole Abelian model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)

    2012-09-24

    Feynman rules for an abelian extension of gauge theories are discussed and explicitly derived. Vertices with three and four abelian gauge bosons are obtained. A discussion on an eventual structure for the photon is presented.

  7. 12 CFR 23.20 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General rule. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) a national bank may invest in tangible or intangible personal property, including vehicles, manufactured homes, machinery, equipment, furniture, patents...

  8. EPA Approves Okla. Drinking Water Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Dec. 22, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved the state of Oklahoma's revised rule for regulating total coliform in drinking water. With this approval, the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) ha

  9. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various automated techniques can be used to generalise from phonemic lexicons through the extraction of grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets. These techniques are particularly useful when developing pronunciation models for previously unmodelled languages...

  10. RISK ASSESSMENT SUPPORTING THE FINAL RULE FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis evaluates potential risks due to release of solvents from laundry sludge and disposable wipes sent to a landfill. Receptors for air and groundwater in lined and unlined landfills were evaluated. The potential solvent concentrations were calculated to determine the solvent loadings from the wipes and sludge. The mass based solvent quantity loadings were compared to the risk based loadings to determine the risk potential for specific solvents. This risk analysis also addressed previous peer reviewers’ and general public comments on the initial risk assessment conducted for the proposed rule. The final rule, supported by the risk assessment, will be prepared after the consideration of all comments for the proposed rule and the risk analysis Notice of Data Availability. The risk analysis will be used to support the development of a final rule for solvent-contaminated wipes. To ensure the adequacy of the modeling and solvent concentrations, the analysis was peer reviewed by external reviewers.

  11. International Criminal Procedure: Principles and Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, G.; Friman, H.; Linton, S; Vasiliev, S.V.; Zappalà, S.

    2013-01-01

    Identifies and crystallizes the rules and principles of international criminal procedure, based on painstaking analysis of existing case law and practice Provides a comprehensive overview of the procedural law of international criminal tribunals from Nuremberg to the recently established Cambodian

  12. Growth Prospects in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Algeria analyzes the growth prospects of the Algerian economy. Drawing on the findings of the empirical growth literature, the paper combines growth accounting and cross-country growth regressions to examine the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors in driving economic growth. It reviews the past growth performance in Algeria and explores the reasons underpinning the recent pickup in nonhydrocarbon GDP growth. The paper also analyzes labor market devel...

  13. Exercice de prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Francis; Hilal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Après avoir situé la réalité actuelle du quartier de Fontaine-d'Ouche dans l'histoire des transformations urbaines de l'agglomération dijonnaise, les auteurs proposent un exercice de prospective qui prend en compte une batterie d'hypothèses de changement pour construire des images du quartier à l'horizon 2040.

  14. Deuteron bremsstrahlung-weighted photonuclear sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohigas, O.; Lipparini, E.

    1987-11-01

    The various contributions to the deuteron bremsstrahlung-weighted photonuclear sum rule sigma/sub -1/ are analyzed. It is shown that the unretarded normal L = 1 sum rule is model independent and that retardation, higher multipoles, and interaction effects are negligible. An accurate estimation of sigma/sub -1/ is provided by the knowledge of the charge deuteron radius and of the spin gyromagnetic factors of the proton and of the neutron.

  15. A parametric representation of ruled surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Prosalidou, E.; Hanna, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple parametric system to generate an almost complete set of ruled surfaces that may be used to describe building geometry. The major classes of regular, named ruled surfaces can be generated from a limited set of curves. Each of these is shown to be reducible to a transformation of a single standard curve, a helix, and therefore represented by a limited set of six parameters. Six extra parameters can position each surface on a global coordinate system. The representat...

  16. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is...

  17. Health care for homeless veterans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    This final rule establishes regulations for contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The HCHV program assists certain homeless veterans in obtaining treatment from non-VA community-based providers. The final rule formalizes VA's policies and procedures in connection with this program and clarifies that veterans with substance use disorders may qualify for the program.

  18. Appreciative Socialization Group: Rules of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Simona USURELU; Sandu, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Appreciative socialization group is the result of a strong collaboration between a NGO from Iasi, Romania, active volunteers and service users involved (disabled persons). In this paper we aim to offer the rules of implementation of this model. It is important to respect some rules in order to obtain the desired result – social integration of disabled persons in our case. Apprecitive socialization group is based on a number of elements taken from the literature that treats this subject, and a...

  19. Extraction in Dutch with Lexical Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rentier, G

    1994-01-01

    Unbounded dependencies are often modelled by ``traces'' (and ``gap threading'') in unification-based grammars. Pollard and Sag, however, suggest an analysis of extraction based on lexical rules, which excludes the notion of traces (P&S 1994, Chapter 9). In parsing, it suggests a trade of indeterminism for lexical ambiguity. This paper provides a short introduction to this approach to extraction with lexical rules, and illustrates the linguistic power of the approach by applying it to particularly idiosyncratic Dutch extraction data.

  20. REVIEW OF RULE MODIFICATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Arias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children's needs and interests, preventing injuries. Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60% achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83% analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5% did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46% examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players' and coaches' opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification.

  1. Organizational Power and Information Security Rule Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Kolkowska, Ella; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2011-01-01

    Part 6: Policy Compliance and Obligations; International audience; This paper analyzes power relationships and the resulting failure in complying with information security rules. We argue that inability to understand the intricate power relationships in the design and implementation of information security rules leads to a lack of compliance with the intended policy. We conduct the argument through an empirical, qualitative case study set in a Swedish Social Services organization. Our finding...

  2. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  3. Rules of Thumb for Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Glenn; Fudenberg, Drew

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies agents who consider the experiences of their neighbors in deciding which of two technologies to use. We analyze two learning environments, one in which the same technology is optimal for all players and another in which each technology is better for some of them. In both environments, players use exogenously specified rules of thumb that ignore historical data but may incorporate a tendency to use the more popular technology. In some cases these naive rules can lead to fair...

  4. Circuit Tolerance Design Using Belief Rule Base

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Bin Xu; Zheng Liu; Yu-Wang Chen; Dong-Ling Xu; Cheng-Lin Wen

    2015-01-01

    A belief rule-based (BRB) system provides a generic nonlinear modeling and inference mechanism. It is capable of modeling complex causal relationships by utilizing both quantitative information and qualitative knowledge. In this paper, a BRB system is firstly developed to model the highly nonlinear relationship between circuit component parameters and the performance of the circuit by utilizing available knowledge from circuit simulations and circuit designers. By using rule inference in the ...

  5. Comparison of the revised Geneva score with the Wells rule for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, F A; Kruisman, E; Spaan, J; Nijkeuter, M; Righini, M; Aujesky, D; Roy, P M; Perrier, A; Le Gal, G; Huisman, M V

    2008-01-01

    The revised Geneva score, a standardized clinical decision rule in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), was recently developed. The Wells clinical decision is widely used but lacks full standardization, as it includes subjective clinician's judgement. We have compared the performance of the revised Geneva score with the Wells rule, and their usefulness for ruling out PE in combination with D-dimer measurement. In 300 consecutive patients, the clinical probability of PE was assessed prospectively by the Wells rule and retrospectively using the revised Geneva score. Patients comprised a random sample from a single center, participating in a large prospective multicenter diagnostic study. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The overall prevalence of PE was 16%. The prevalence of PE in the low-probability, intermediate-probability and high-probability categories as classified by the revised Geneva score was similar to that of the original derivation set. The performance of the revised Geneva score as measured by the AUC in a ROC analysis did not differ statistically from the Wells rule. After 3 months of follow-up, no patient classified into the low or intermediate clinical probability category by the revised Geneva score and a normal D-dimer result was subsequently diagnosed with acute venous thromboembolism. This study suggests that the performance of the revised Geneva score is equivalent to that of the Wells rule. In addition, it seems safe to exclude PE in patients by the combination of a low or intermediate clinical probability by the revised Geneva score and a normal D-dimer level. Prospective clinical outcome studies are needed to confirm this latter finding.

  6. Analysis of Rules for Islamic Inheritance Law in Indonesia Using Hybrid Rule Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosyi’ah, S.; Irfan, M.; Maylawati, D. S.; Mukhlas, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of human civilization in Indonesia, the changes and reform of Islamic inheritance law so as to conform to the conditions and culture cannot be denied. The distribution of inheritance in Indonesia can be done automatically by storing the rule of Islamic inheritance law in the expert system. In this study, we analyze the knowledge of experts in Islamic inheritance in Indonesia and represent it in the form of rules using rule-based Forward Chaining (FC) and Davis-Putman-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithms. By hybridizing FC and DPLL algorithms, the rules of Islamic inheritance law in Indonesia are clearly defined and measured. The rules were conceptually validated by some experts in Islamic laws and informatics. The results revealed that generally all rules were ready for use in an expert system.

  7. Data-driven adaptive selection of rule quality measures for improving rule induction and filtration algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marek; Wróbel, Łukasz

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a proposal of a rule induction algorithm selecting a rule quality measure adaptively. The quality measure plays the role of an optimization criterion of the generated rules. Nine quality measures applied by the algorithm are presented and discussed in the paper. It is shown experimentally that the proposed algorithm provides us with obtaining a classifier of the best quality. During experiments, three criteria of the classifier quality were considered: overall accuracy, balanced accuracy (average accuracy of decision classes), and complexity of the classifier (understood to mean the number of induced rules). The experiments were carried out on 34 data sets coming from the UCI machine learning repository. Moreover, a proposal of four-rule filtration algorithms is presented in the paper. Their task is to limit the number of rules in the classifier. In particular, filtration influence on the classifier quality is studied.

  8. Federal Rule of Evidence 412 and Military Rule of Evidence 412: Are They Serving Their Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    evidentiary rules, which permitted a wide ranging inquiry into the rape victim’s sex life, but they also hoped to provide a model rule for jurisdictions without...Bocchino, supra note 3; Rothstein,Evidence Workshop, New Federal Ev ence Rule 412 on Sex Victim’s Character, 15 Crim. Law Bull. 353 (1979) hereinafter...victim’s prior extramarital, premarital or unconventional sexual activity distracts the jury to such a degree that the victim becomes the person on

  9. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  10. The validation of a diagnostic rule for gout without joint fluid analysis: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhorst, L.B.; Janssens, H.J.; Fransen, J.; Janssen, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gold standard for diagnosing gout is the identification of MSU crystals in joint fluid. In secondary care, the facilities or expertise to analyse joint fluid are not always available and gout is diagnosed clinically. To improve the predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of gout in

  11. Prospective bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  12. Official News relating to CERN Safety Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Safety Rules listed below have been published on the HSE website (see here) and entered into force on the 9 June 2015:   Safety Regulation SR-M “Mechanical equipment”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M_ENv2.htm; this SR-M (version 2) cancels and replaces SR-M (version 1) and the corresponding provisions of General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 “Special Equipment” (version 1).   General Safety Instruction GSI-M-1 “Lifting equipment and accessories”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M-1_ENv2.htm; this GSI-M-1 (version 2) cancels and replaces GSI-M1 (version 1). Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-1 “Slings and lifting chains”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-1_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-2 “Cranes, bridge cranes, gantry cranes and power-driven hoists”: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SSI-M-1-2_EN.htm; Specific Safety Instruction SSI-M-1-3 “Non-f...

  13. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rear...

  14. Rule-making, rule breaking? Law breaking by government in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, L.W.J.C.; van Montfort, A.J.G.M.; Doig, A.; Clark, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns a relatively novel issue: rule breaking and unlawful conduct by government bodies; to which degree does it occur, what is the nature of this misconduct, what are the underlying motives, and what are the consequences and possible solutions? Rule and law breaking is harmful for

  15. 18 CFR 385.2201 - Rules governing off-the-record communications (Rule 2201).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... decline to engage in permitted off-the-record communications, or where not required by any law, statute or...-record communications (Rule 2201). 385.2201 Section 385.2201 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... PROCEDURE Off-the-Record Communications; Separation of Functions § 385.2201 Rules governing off-the-record...

  16. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  17. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  18. 19 CFR 181.131 - Rules of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules of origin. 181.131 Section 181.131 Customs... (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.131 Rules of origin. (a) The regulations effective October 1, 1995, implementing the rules of origin provisions of General Note 12, HTSUS...

  19. NAGWS Volleyball Rulebook, 1993. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993

    The National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Volleyball Rules are based on the United States Volleyball Rules, which in turn are adopted from the rules and interpretations of the International Volleyball Federation Rules. Following a foreword by Robertha Abney, NAGWS President, the publication is organized into six sections as…

  20. 26 CFR 1.927(e)-1 - Special sourcing rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts and the transfer pricing rules of section 925 are used to determine the commission... income earned by such person if the pricing rule under section 994 that corresponds to the rule used... section 482 pricing rule under section 925(a)(3) applies. (2) Grouping of transactions. If, for purposes...

  1. 75 FR 14259 - Transportation Conformity Rule PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 93 Transportation Conformity Rule PM2.5 and PM10 Amendments; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 93 RIN 2060-AP29 Transportation Conformity Rule PM 2.5 and PM 10... amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on May 15, 2009...

  2. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 91.515 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules. (a...

  3. The Rules of the Game—The Rules of the Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    of the game manager in order to implement the rules and provide a world for the other players. In online role-playing games, a programmed system simulates the rule system as well as part of the game manager’s tasks, while the rest of the activity is up to the players to define. Some aspects may translate more......This article presents a critical view of the concept of rules in game studies on the basis of a case study of role-playing across media. Role-playing in its traditional form is a complex activity including a game system and a number of communicative conventions where one player takes the role...... or less unproblematically across media, others are transformed by the introduction of the programmed system. This reveals some important perspectives on the sort of rules that can be simulated in a programmed system and what this means to the concept of rules in game studies....

  4. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1st January 1996 are modified as follows as of 1st July 2006: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme-reorganisation of the Fellowship Programme-modification of Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions-new definition of disability and associated benefits-revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board-bringing together of the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification No.16) are available from Departmental secretariats. In addition, the Staff Rules and Regulations can be consulted on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 2)-July 2006 Protection of members o...

  5. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2006: The modifications are listed below: Financial and social conditions for Paid Associates, Fellows and Students (introduction of a new payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme - reorganization of the Fellowship Programme - modification of the Student subsistence rates) Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability (clarification of the scope of the relevant provisions - new definition of disability and associated benefits - revised role of the Joint Advisory Rehabilitation and Disability Board - bringing together the relevant provisions). Copies of this update (modification# 16) are available in departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Administrative Circular ...

  6. Cryogenic Safety Rules and Guidelines at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    CERN defines and implements a Safety Policy that sets out the general principles governing safety at CERN. As an intergovernmental organisation, CERN further establishes its own Safety Rules as necessary for its proper functioning. In this process, it takes into account the laws and regulation of the Host States (France and Switzerland), EU regulations and directives, as well as international regulations, standards and directives. For the safety of cryogenic equipment, this is primarily covered by the Safety Regulation for Mechanical Equipment and the General Safety Instruction for Cryogenic Equipment. In addition, CERN has also developed Safety Guidelines to support the implementation of these safety rules, covering cryogenic equipment and oxygen deficiency hazard assessment and mitigation. An overview of the cryogenic safety rules and these safety guidelines will be presented.

  7. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  8. Bayes’ Rule for Clinicians: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F Westbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayes’ Rule is a way of calculating conditional probabilities. It is difficult to find an explanation of its relevance that is both mathematically comprehensive and easily accessible to all readers. This article tries to fill that void, by laying out the nature of Bayes’ Rule and its implications for clinicians in a way that assumes little or no background in probability theory. It builds on Meehl & Rosen’s (1955 classic paper, by laying out algebraic proofs that they simply allude to, and by providing extremely simple and intuitively accessible examples of the concepts that they assumed their reader understood, and provides examples of how the rule applies in a variety of clinical settings.

  9. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2004: • Preliminary note - Terminology realignment following the restructuring of the Organization (page - i -) • Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) • Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) • Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) • Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2003/2004, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2003 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 3/2004, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  10. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  11. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2005 : Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2004/2005, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2004 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2005, are available in the departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  12. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows : as from 1 July 2002 Article R IV 1.41 - Method of adjustment of the amount of subsistence indemnity (page 53) as from 1 January 2003 Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73) Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74) Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81) Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2002/2003, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2002 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2003, are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  13. Fuzzy Rule Suram for Wood Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Zakarias

    2017-12-01

    Implemented of fuzzy rule must used a look-up table as defuzzification analysis. Look-up table is the actuator plant to doing the value of fuzzification. Rule suram based of fuzzy logic with variables of weather is temperature ambient and humidity ambient, it implemented for wood drying process. The membership function of variable of state represented in error value and change error with typical map of triangle and map of trapezium. Result of analysis to reach 4 fuzzy rule in 81 conditions to control the output system can be constructed in a number of way of weather and conditions of air. It used to minimum of the consumption of electric energy by heater. One cycle of schedule drying is a serial of condition of chamber to process as use as a wood species.

  14. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Mylona, Vassiliki; Savva, Athina; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Raftogiannis, Maria; Georgitsi, Marianna; Linnér, Anna; Adamis, George; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Chrisofos, Michael; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Kotzampassi, Katerina; Koratzanis, George; Koupetori, Marina; Kritselis, Ioannis; Lymberopoulou, Korina; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Androniki; Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas; Mega, Anna; Prekates, Athanassios; Routsi, Christina; Gogos, Charalambos; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-08-08

    Early risk assessment is the mainstay of management of patients with sepsis. APACHE II is the gold standard prognostic stratification system. A prediction rule that aimed to improve prognostication by APACHE II with the application of serum suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) is developed. A prospective study cohort enrolled 1914 patients with sepsis including 62.2% with sepsis and 37.8% with severe sepsis/septic shock. Serum suPAR was measured in samples drawn after diagnosis by an enzyme-immunoabsorbent assay; in 367 patients sequential measurements were performed. After ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis a prediction rule for risk was developed. The rule was validated in a double-blind fashion by an independent confirmation cohort of 196 sepsis patients, predominantly severe sepsis/septic shock patients, from Sweden. Serum suPAR remained stable within survivors and non-survivors for 10 days. Regression analysis showed that APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Four strata of risk were identified: i) APACHE II APACHE II APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml with mortality 51.7%. This prediction rule was confirmed by the Swedish cohort. A novel prediction rule with four levels of risk in sepsis based on APACHE II score and serum suPAR is proposed. Prognostication by this rule is confirmed by an independent cohort.

  15. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices.

  16. Hund's rule Magnetism in C60 ions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lueders, Martin; Manini, Nicola; Gattari, Paolo; Tosatti, Erio

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of Hund's rule magnetism in C60(n+-) molecular ions, by computing the ground-state spin for all charge states n from -3 to +5. The two competing interactions, electron-vibration (e-v, including Jahn Teller, favoring low spin) and electron-electron (e-e, including Hund-rule exchange, favoring high spin), are accounted for based on previously computed ab-initio coupling parameters. Treating the ion coordinates as classical, we first calculate and classify the stati...

  17. Ten proposed rules of numerical diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Arnold

    Diagrams have been used for 3 centuries to present numerical information succinctly. Yet no complete, specific rules are available for their preparation, similar to the rules of grammar, syntax, and spelling of language. Some guidance is offered in the dozen books on graphics published in the United States in the past 40 years, and fragments appear in textbooks and manuals. But none of these is complete or consistent, and each offers at least one glaring contravention of the basic tenets of mathematics and logic.

  18. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, A.; Mueller, E.H. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; von Hippel, G.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Horgan, R.R. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, CMS

    2009-04-15

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic Programming Approach for Construction of Association Rule Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-11-18

    In the paper, an application of dynamic programming approach for optimization of association rules from the point of view of knowledge representation is considered. The association rule set is optimized in two stages, first for minimum cardinality and then for minimum length of rules. Experimental results present cardinality of the set of association rules constructed for information system and lower bound on minimum possible cardinality of rule set based on the information obtained during algorithm work as well as obtained results for length.

  20. An Assessment of Fiscal Rules in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kell

    2001-01-01

    The paper assesses the United Kingdom's golden rule and debt rule against "ideal characteristics" of fiscal rules. It concludes that they are clearly defined; transparent in institutional arrangements and measurement; adequate to ensure sustainability; and strike a good balance between flexibility and enforceability. The rules could be strengthened by clarifying the benchmark embodied in the debt rule and the modalities of the "value for money" criterion for investment. Overall, the fiscal fr...

  1. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  2. Organisational Rules in Schools: Teachers' Opinions about Functions of Rules, Rule-Following and Breaking Behaviours in Relation to Their Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan; Aydin, Inayet; Erdogan, Cetin; Akin, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine teachers' opinions about functions of school rules, reasons for rule-breaking and results of rule-breaking in relation to their locus of control, gender, age, seniority and branch. 350 public elementary school teachers in Ankara are included in the correlational survey model study. According to the…

  3. A Concrete View of Rule 110 Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cook

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rule 110 is a cellular automaton that performs repeated simultaneous updates of an infinite row of binary values. The values are updated in the following way: 0s are changed to 1s at all positions where the value to the right is a 1, while 1s are changed to 0s at all positions where the values to the left and right are both 1. Though trivial to define, the behavior exhibited by Rule 110 is surprisingly intricate, and in (Cook, 2004 we showed that it is capable of emulating the activity of a Turing machine by encoding the Turing machine and its tape into a repeating left pattern, a central pattern, and a repeating right pattern, which Rule 110 then acts on. In this paper we provide an explicit compiler for converting a Turing machine into a Rule 110 initial state, and we present a general approach for proving that such constructions will work as intended. The simulation was originally assumed to require exponential time, but surprising results of Neary and Woods (2006 have shown that in fact, only polynomial time is required. We use the methods of Neary and Woods to exhibit a direct simulation of a Turing machine by a tag system in polynomial time.

  4. On the Functional Diversity of Phonological Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, R. W. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shows that a phonological description that recognizes the functional variety of phonological rules is more illuminating than one in which data are handled merely as the output of a set of completely undifferentiated processes. Emphasizes the value of distinguishing motivated and unmotivated processes in phonology. (Author/RM)

  5. New rules revamp national security prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Following the collapse of recent prosecutions of Chinese-American scientists on national security grounds, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) has issued new rules on such lawsuits that will require top officials in Washington to review and supervise all cases that implicitly involve spying - rather than leaving decisions to local prosecutors.

  6. How suboptimal are linear sharing rules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Astrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Aase

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze criteria for portfolio choice when two investors are forced to invest in a common portfolio and share the proceeds by a linear sharing rule. A similar situation with many investors is typical for defined contribution pension schemes. The restriction impli...

  7. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this

  8. 24 CFR 100.140 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules. 100.140 Section 100.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF...

  9. 12 CFR 3.3 - Transitional rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other qualifying intangible assets, these intangibles may not exceed 25 percent of Tier 1 capital. After... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Authority and Definitions § 3.3 Transitional rules. Intangible assets, other than mortgage...

  10. New developments in FeynRules

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The program FeynRules is a Mathematica package developed to facilitate the implementation of new physics theories into high-energy physics tools. Starting from a minimal set of information such as the model gauge symmetries, its particle content, parameters and Lagrangian, FeynRules provides all necessary routines to extract automatically from the Lagrangian (that can also be computed semi-automatically for supersymmetric theories) the associated Feynman rules. These can be further exported to several Monte Carlo event generators through dedicated interfaces, as well as translated into a Python library, under the so-called UFO model format, agnostic of the model complexity, especially in terms of Lorentz and/or color structures appearing in the vertices or of number of external legs. In this work, we briefly report on the most recent new features that have been added to FeynRules, including full support for spin-3/2 fermions, a new module allowing for the automated diagonalization of the particle spectrum and...

  11. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  12. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  13. 77 FR 23176 - Revisions to Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives... the rights of all participants, including affected mail users. In this proceeding, the Commission... within 90 days of filing and would remove the formal hearing requirement from N-case procedural rules.\\7...

  14. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  15. Intentions Help Children Learn Meaningful Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patael, Smadar; Diesendruck, Gil

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the roles of pattern detection capacities and understanding of intentions in children's learning of linguistic rules. We taught two-year-olds a Hebrew morphological distinction between noun and verb forms using two different training protocols. The protocols were identical in all parameters except that only in an…

  16. Classification error of the thresholded independence rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Britta Anker; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    We consider classification in the situation of two groups with normally distributed data in the ‘large p small n’ framework. To counterbalance the high number of variables we consider the thresholded independence rule. An upper bound on the classification error is established which is taylored...... to a mean value of interest in biological applications....

  17. Woodward–Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward–Hoffmann Rules. A simple procedure for determining whether a pericyclic reaction is thermally allowed is described. The focus is on the potential aromaticity of the transition state of the process, which is inferred from the topological features of the interact- ing orbitals and the number of electrons involved.

  18. 7 CFR 3560.157 - Occupancy rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Multi-Family Housing Occupancy § 3560.157 Occupancy... access. A copy of these rules must be attached to the tenant's lease upon initial occupancy. At a minimum... office locations, hours, and emergency telephone numbers; (8) The restrictions on storage and...

  19. 77 FR 39101 - Rules Relating to Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... the Final Rule would be inappropriate and that there is an insufficient record to support such an... Commission has delegated, without power of redelegation, the authority to initiate investigations. A... permission to compel testimony to a specific individual to provide accountability and ensure that information...

  20. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Appliance Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... appliances the figure is 500 employees). Lamp catalog sellers qualify as small businesses if their sales are...

  1. UTILITY OF THE TEN PER CENT RULE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-01

    Nov 1, 2001 ... Objective: To measure asymmetry in grip strength between hands in left, right and mixed handers and to test utility of the ten per cent rule. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Subjects: One hundred and seventy six healthy volunteers (102 males and ...

  2. Dynamic Rule Encryption for Mobile Payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Husni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend of financial transactions by using a mobile phone or mobile payment increases. By using the mobile payment service, users can save money on mobile phone (handset and separate from the pulse. For protecting users, mobile payment service providers must complete the mobile payment service with the transaction security. One way to provide transaction security is to utilize a secure mobile payment application. This research provides a safety feature used for an Android-based mobile payment application. This security feature is making encryption rules dynamically named Dynamic Rule Encryption (DRE. DRE has the ability to protect data by means of encrypting data with dynamic rules, and DRE also has a token function for an authentication. DRE token raised with dynamic time-based rules. Here, the time is used as a reference with the order of the day in the year (day of the year. The processes of the DRE’s encryption, decryption, and the DRE’s functionality as the token are discussed in this paper. Here, the Hamming distance metric is employed for having maximum differences between plaintext and ciphertext.

  3. 78 FR 63875 - Progress Reports Rules Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau..., Justice. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) removes from... filed quarterly or monthly, inmate program completion certificates are filed when the inmate completes...

  4. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversCancer: End-of-Life Issues ... Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Insurance & Bills Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan’s Rules Health Insurance: Understanding ...

  5. Corporate governance rules and insider trading profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cziraki, P.; de Goeij, P.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate patterns of abnormal stock performance around insider trades on the Dutch market. Listed firms in the Netherlands have a long tradition of limiting shareholders’ rights. Using a change in corporate governance regulations as a natural experiment, we show that governance rules have a

  6. 77 FR 66052 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... challenging exclusive contracts involving cable-affiliated programming; and amendments to its rules to ensure that buying groups utilized by small and medium-sized multichannel video programming distributors..., identified by MB Docket No. 12-68, by any of the following methods: Federal Communications Commission's Web...

  7. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... inflammation, and, other bilateral evidence of abuse indicative of soring including, but not limited to...

  8. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  9. A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

  10. 78 FR 8362 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Association (APGA) ( 560904-00004); Earthjustice ( 560904-00009); Goodman Manufacturing ( 560904-00010... confusion, Goodman recommended changing the term ``condensing unit'' in the Rule to ``outdoor section'' and.../comments/regionaldisclosuresanpr/00003.html . Finally, one manufacturer, Goodman, opposed the proposal to...

  11. Methods and Concepts for Business Rules Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet

    2014-01-01

    The main question in this PhD thesis is: How can Business Rules Management be configured and valued in organizations? A BRM problem space framework is proposed, existing of service systems, as a solution to the BRM problems. In total 94 vendor documents and approximately 32 hours of semi-structured

  12. Interactive Thesaurus Navigation: Intelligence Rules OK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of building intelligent rule- or weight-based algorithms into general-purpose software for interactive thesaurus navigation. Previous research is surveyed; practical investigations in thesaurus navigation and query enhancement are described; and implications for automatic or intelligent thesaurus navigation are…

  13. 75 FR 55269 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (the ``Commission'' or ``FTC'') is giving notice...

  14. The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, Stanislaw

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled. The scope of nomenclature is limited to common functional groups that are covered by undergraduate courses in colleges and universities. (Contains 1…

  15. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  16. Haldane's rule in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Giesbers, M. C. W. G.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    Haldane's Rule (HR), which states that 'when in the offspring of two different animal races one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterozygous (heterogametic) sex', is one of the most general patterns in speciation biology. We review the literature of the past 15 years and find that

  17. The rules of the Rue Morgue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzi, M. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    This paper, it is evident, is mostly a joke, based on the fascinating (but not original) consideration of any failure analysis as a detective story. The Poe`s tale is a perfect instrument (but surely not the only possible one) for playing the game. If any practical application of ``The Rules of the Rue Morgue`` may be expected, it is on the possibility of defining what leaves us unsatisfied when a Failure Analyst`s result sounds out of tune. The reported Violations to the Dupin Postulate summarize the objections that the author would like to repeat for his own analyses, and for those cases in which he is required to review the work of other. On the constructive side, the proposed Rules, it has been repeatedly said, are common sense indications, and are surely not exhaustive, on a practical ground. Skill, patience, luck and memory are also required, but, unfortunately, not always and not together available. It should be of the greatest aid for the Failure Analyst community, in any case, that each public report could point out how it obeyed to a widely accepted set of failure analysis rules. Maybe -- why not? -- the Rules of the Rue Morgue. As a last consideration, for concluding the joke, the author invites his readers to open the original Poe`s tale at the very beginning of the story, when Monsieur Dupin is introduced. Thinking of the Failure Analyst as a member of the excellent family of the Scientists, many of us will sigh and smile.

  18. 77 FR 39112 - State Official Notification Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...'' language from the Final Rule and suggested that the exception to the ten-day notification requirement... theories relied upon, and adding additional parties to an action. This list of material changes is not... Housing and Urban Development, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Department of Justice, and the...

  19. 76 FR 45402 - Rules of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 102 Rules of Origin CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 0 to 140, revised as of April 1, 2011, on page 578, in Sec. 102...

  20. observation of Meyer–Neldel rule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Meyer–Neldel rule. ANJANI KUMAR and A KUMAR. ∗. Department of Physics, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur, India. MS received 04 December 2013; revised 09 April 2014. Abstract. The present paper reports the measurements of space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) in glassy. Se90Sb4Ag6 alloy.

  1. 77 FR 3191 - Rules of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... tools such as advanced key word searches, Boolean connectors, Bayesian logic, concept searches, predictive coding, and other advanced analytics. Fourth, because ESI may be readily altered, it must be... technological advance in data storage or production to render a Rule provision obsolete. The Commission expects...

  2. Interactive Synthesis of Code Level Security Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    systems such as robots and satellite systems, and an explosion in the Internet of Things ( IoT ). One of the ways to reducing vulnerabilities is to use...synthesizing rules for safety and security properties of autonomous systems or and IoT devices. These systems often interact with the physical world and

  3. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.

  4. A Robustness Study of Fuzzy Control Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This simulation study investigates how different types of rule bases affect the control of different types of plant. In Simulink three nonlinear control surfaces have been tested and compared to a linear surface. It is recommended to be aware of the shape of the control surface, and carefully...

  5. Dynamical analysis of LVQ type learning rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anarta; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Cottrell, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Learning vector quantization (LVQ) constitutes a powerful and simple method for adaptive nearest prototype classification which has been introduced based on heuristics. Recently, a mathematical foundation by means of a cost function has been proposed which, as a limit case, yields a learning rule

  6. Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    model is developed to optimize simultaneously both the conventional rule curve and the hedging rule. In the compound model, a simple genetic algorithm is coupled with a simulation program, including an inner linear programming algorithm. In this way, operational policies are imposed by priority concepts......As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...

  7. prospective mathematics and physics teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospective mathematics and physics teachers. Claudio Fazio and Filippo Spagnolo spagnolo@math.unipa.it. We present a study on the conceptions of Italian prospective mathematics and physics teachers with respect to modelling activities. Common ground for both the mathematician and the physicist, these activities are ...

  8. Cellular scaling rules of insectivore brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons, but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically. Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores, however, offer a noteworthy exception in that neuronal density increases linearly with increasing structure mass. This implies that the average neuronal cell size decreases with increasing olfactory bulb mass in order to accommodate greater neuronal density, and represents the first documentation of a brain structure gaining neurons at a greater rate than mass. This might allow insectivore brains to concentrate more neurons within the olfactory bulbs without a prohibitively large and metabolically costly increase in structure mass.

  9. Exploring Consumer Behavior: Use of Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Turčínek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on problematic of use of association rules in exploring consumer behavior and presents selected results of applied data analyses on data collected via questionnaire survey on a sample of 1127 Czech respondents with structure close to representative sample of population the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey deals with problematic of shopping for meat products. The objective was to explore possibilities of less frequently used data-mining techniques in processing of customer preference. For the data analyses, two methods for generating association rules are used: Apriori algorithm and FP-grow algorithm. Both of them were executed in Weka software. The Apriori algorithm seemed to be a better tool, because it has provided finer data, due to the fact that FP-growth algorithm needed reduction of preference scale to only two extreme values, because the input data must be binary. For consumer preferences we also calculated their means. This paper explores the different preferences and expectations of what customers’ favorite outlet should provide, and offer. Customers based on the type of their outlet loyalty were divided into five segments and further explored in more detail. Some of the found best association rules suggest similar patterns across the whole sample, e.g. the results suggest that the respondents for whom a quality of merchandise is a very important factor typically also base their outlet selection on freshness of products. This finding applies to all types of retail loyalty categores. Other rules seem to indicate a behavior more specific for a particular segment of customers. The results suggest that application of association rules in customer research can provide more insight and can be a good supplementary analysis for consumer data exploration when Likert scales were used.

  10. Viewing the cathedral from behind the color line: property rules, liability rules, and environmental racism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godsil, Rachel D

    2004-01-01

    ... exposure to environmental hazards. She further argues that common law courts and a Resident's Choice Rule, which allows residents to aggregate their preferences to decide whether to enjoin a polluter from operating or to receive...

  11. Unexpected rules using a conceptual distance based on fuzzy ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Said Hamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of data mining methods is that they generate a notably large number of rules that are often obvious or useless or, occasionally, out of the user’s interest. To address such drawbacks, we propose in this paper an approach that detects a set of unexpected rules in a discovered association rule set. Generally speaking, the proposed approach investigates the discovered association rules using the user’s domain knowledge, which is represented by a fuzzy domain ontology. Next, we rank the discovered rules according to the conceptual distances of the rules.

  12. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Prospective validation of a prognostic model for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in late preterm infants: a multicenter birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Koffijberg, H.; Nibbelke, E.E.; Rovers, M.M.; Bont, L.; Liem, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to update and validate a prediction rule for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (WGA). STUDY DESIGN: The RISK study consisted of 2 multicenter prospective birth cohorts in 41 hospitals. Risk factors were

  14. The new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule using troponin as the only biomarker: an external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Louise; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Than, Martin; Brown, Anthony F T; Hammett, Christopher J; Lamanna, Arvin; Flaws, Dylan F; Chu, Kevin; Fowles, Lindsay F; Parsonage, William A

    2014-02-01

    To externally evaluate the accuracy of the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule and to assess the diagnostic accuracy using either sensitive or highly sensitive troponin assays. Prospectively collected data from 2 emergency departments (EDs) in Australia and New Zealand were analysed. Based on the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule, low-risk patients were identified using electrocardiogram results, cardiac history, nitrate use, age, pain characteristics and troponin results at 2 hours after presentation. The primary outcome was 30-day diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including acute myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated to assess the accuracy of the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule using either sensitive or highly sensitive troponin assay results. Of the 1635 patients, 20.4% had an ACS diagnosis at 30 days. Using the highly sensitive troponin assay, 212 (13.0%) patients were eligible for early discharge with 3 patients (1.4%) diagnosed with ACS. Sensitivity was 99.1% (95% CI 97.4-99.7), specificity was 16.1 (95% CI 14.2-18.2), positive predictive values was 23.3 (95% CI 21.1-25.5) and negative predictive values was 98.6 (95% CI 95.9-99.5). The diagnostic accuracy of the rule was similar using the sensitive troponin assay. The new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule should be used for the identification of low risk patients presenting to EDs with symptoms of possible ACS, and will reduce the proportion of patients requiring lengthy assessment; however we recommend further outpatient investigation for coronary artery disease in patients identified as low risk. © 2013.

  15. Offshore oil prospects improve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The issues, prospects, and environmental concerns about drilling for offshore oil and gas are being seen in a different light than at any other time during the past decade. Exploration drilling on offshore locations is proceeding at a high rate, and environmental concerns, while recognized as real, appear to be a lot less worrisome than might have been predicted a decade ago. Part of the reason for the changes in levels of concern results from the close monitoring programs that have been in effect for the past few years. Paul R. Ryan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently described exploration activities on Georges Bank: “We now have the results of the first year of monitoring, and, although eight wells are considered a minimal observational test, there were no biological changes in the benthic community that could be attributed to drilling activity.” (Oceanus, 26, 2, 1983). The U.S. Geological Survey studied the Georges Bank drilling activities as well. Barium from drilling muds was detected at the sites, but in decreasing concentrations at distances away from drilling rigs. There was no evidence that the discharges caused biological changes. According to Ryan: “Postdrilling concentrates of barium were found to be within the range of predilling concentrations measured at other locations on the Bank. Concentrations of other metals measured were low and characteristic of unpolluted, coarse-grained sediment in other Continental Shelf areas.”

  16. Rule Making and Rule Breaking: Game Development and the Governance of Emergent Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Whitson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of ‘control’ in games often center on players and their myriad attempts to push back upon the systems that seek to constrain them. The fact that players resist the constraints imposed upon them is not surprising, nor is it surprising that counterplay and control are such rich topics for game studies academics. In this article, I argue that players are invited by games to bend the rules. It is in the very nature of play to find the movement between the rules, and for many players the ‘fun’ in play is the inherent challenge of attempting to master, defeat, or remake games’ formal structures. These rationalities of play preclude blind obedience to the rules and have distinct implications for how games are governed. While there have been numerous studies of players who bend or break the rules (Consalvo, 2007; Foo and Koivisto, 2004; Dibbell, 1998; Kolko and Reid, 1998; Williams, 2006; Mnookin, 1997 and players who alter and re-make the rules in their role of co-producers (Sotamaa, 2009; Kücklich, 2005; Humphreys, 2005; Taylor, 2006b, there is little research on game development companies and their attempts to harness these rationalities of play and uphold the rules beyond the reflexive writings of game designers themselves (Curtis, 1992; Morningstar and Farmer, 1991; Koster, 2002.

  17. Moral empiricism and the bias for act-based rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies on rule learning show a bias in favor of act-based rules, which prohibit intentionally producing an outcome but not merely allowing the outcome. Nichols, Kumar, Lopez, Ayars, and Chan (2016) found that exposure to a single sample violation in which an agent intentionally causes the outcome was sufficient for participants to infer that the rule was act-based. One explanation is that people have an innate bias to think rules are act-based. We suggest an alternative empiricist account: since most rules that people learn are act-based, people form an overhypothesis (Goodman, 1955) that rules are typically act-based. We report three studies that indicate that people can use information about violations to form overhypotheses about rules. In study 1, participants learned either three "consequence-based" rules that prohibited allowing an outcome or three "act-based" rules that prohibiting producing the outcome; in a subsequent learning task, we found that participants who had learned three consequence-based rules were more likely to think that the new rule prohibited allowing an outcome. In study 2, we presented participants with either 1 consequence-based rule or 3 consequence-based rules, and we found that those exposed to 3 such rules were more likely to think that a new rule was also consequence based. Thus, in both studies, it seems that learning 3 consequence-based rules generates an overhypothesis to expect new rules to be consequence-based. In a final study, we used a more subtle manipulation. We exposed participants to examples act-based or accident-based (strict liability) laws and then had them learn a novel rule. We found that participants who were exposed to the accident-based laws were more likely to think a new rule was accident-based. The fact that participants' bias for act-based rules can be shaped by evidence from other rules supports the idea that the bias for act-based rules might be acquired as an overhypothesis from the

  18. 16 CFR 437.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nondeceptive information orally, visually, or in separate literature so long as such information is not... oral, written, or visual representation to a prospective business opportunity purchaser which states a... representation is made, such representation is relevant to the geographic market in which the business...

  19. Personalization of Rule-based Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Han, SangYong

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays Web users have clearly expressed their wishes to receive personalized services directly. Personalization is the way to tailor services directly to the immediate requirements of the user. However, the current Web Services System does not provide any features supporting this such as consideration of personalization of services and intelligent matchmaking. In this research a flexible, personalized Rule-based Web Services System to address these problems and to enable efficient search, discovery and construction across general Web documents and Semantic Web documents in a Web Services System is proposed. This system utilizes matchmaking among service requesters', service providers' and users' preferences using a Rule-based Search Method, and subsequently ranks search results. A prototype of efficient Web Services search and construction for the suggested system is developed based on the current work. PMID:27879827

  20. Cost effective robust rule calibration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeff P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main calibration services of African NMIs (National Metrology Institutes is the measurement of tapes and rules. This is mainly regulated by legal metrology and OIML (International Organisation of Legal Metrology specifications are therefore referenced. Specifically, OIML R-35 is the standard to which rules or line scales must conform. The accuracy of most African NMIs systems however, cannot prove conformance to this specification. This article will detail the development of a new, cost effective, line scale calibration system, which will have accuracy better than the specification prescribed. The system was locally developed and its design is based on off-the-shelf components and open source software. It is also ready-for-upgrade to an absolute system. The system and details of the line detection algorithm will be presented.

  1. Trade and investment rules for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Rules that govern energy trade is an issue that has generated increasing concern everywhere, from the standpoint of both the security of supply for consumers and security of demand for suppliers. This concern reflects the importance of rules that comprehensively address the needs from supply and demand point of view and integrate the international fabric of energy trade. The GATT and the WTO Agreement define trans-border movement of energy but leave many aspects unclear, particularly as efforts accelerate to control carbon emissions. This timely report by a WEC Task Force of experts with legal standing in the energy business identifies the most pressing issues relating to energy trade and suggests actions and measures which, if implemented, would provide clarity and answer many questions. More importantly, these measures would strengthen the WTO and coming rounds of negotiations.

  2. Pervasive Gaming: Formats, Rules, And Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kampmann Walther

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Gaming (PG denotes a noteworthy change in the history and nature of computer games. By intentionally merging virtual and physical space, pervasive gaming not only extends the magic circle of play; it further challenges our conception of game rules, game mechanics, and game entities. This paper introduces and discusses some of the key characteristics of this novel trend in computer games. Following a short description of the significant features of pervasive computing, Walther explicates pervasive gaming in relation to time, space, and presence (or immersion. Then I position four axes or zones of pervasive gaming: mobility, distribution, persistence, and transmediality. Further, I describe and analyse three essential units of PG (rules, entities, and mechanics, and finally, I speculate about the role of space in PG by differentiating between tangible space, information space, and accessibility space.

  3. TOMML: A Rule Language for Structured Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Reilles, Antoine

    We present the TOM language that extends JAVA with the purpose of providing high level constructs inspired by the rewriting community. TOM bridges thus the gap between a general purpose language and high level specifications based on rewriting. This approach was motivated by the promotion of rule based techniques and their integration in large scale applications. Powerful matching capabilities along with a rich strategy language are among TOM's strong features that make it easy to use and competitive with respect to other rule based languages. TOM is thus a natural choice for querying and transforming structured data and in particular XML documents [1]. We present here its main XML oriented features and illustrate its use on several examples.

  4. Personalization of Rule-based Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Han, Sang Yong

    2008-04-04

    Nowadays Web users have clearly expressed their wishes to receive personalized services directly. Personalization is the way to tailor services directly to the immediate requirements of the user. However, the current Web Services System does not provide any features supporting this such as consideration of personalization of services and intelligent matchmaking. In this research a flexible, personalized Rule-based Web Services System to address these problems and to enable efficient search, discovery and construction across general Web documents and Semantic Web documents in a Web Services System is proposed. This system utilizes matchmaking among service requesters', service providers' and users' preferences using a Rule-based Search Method, and subsequently ranks search results. A prototype of efficient Web Services search and construction for the suggested system is developed based on the current work.

  5. Rules for success in environmental negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.G.; Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecological Science Center of the National Biological Service conducted a series of case studies of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license consultations. The goal of these studies was to test hypotheses about factors that contribute to success in interagency negotiations. Based on their analysis of six case studies, the researchers constructed a list of ten "rules for success." Examples include: Analyze the incentives of each party to negotiate, paying special attention to parties who gain by not negotiating; Clarify the technical issues so that all agree and they coincide with resource management objectives; and Make sure the final agreement is feasible from both a physical and a policy perspective so that it can actually be implemented. These rules can be used to plan for negotiations and to diagnose ongoing negotiations.

  6. Tougher rules for mercury and other toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A new rule on mercury and air toxics standards, issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 21 December, will reduce emissions of heavy metals and acid gases from power plants. The rule, which gives existing sources of pollution up to 4 years to comply with the new standards, will affect about 1400 existing "units," including 1100 coal-fired units and 300 oilfired units, at about 600 power plants. EPA notes that more than half of all coal-fired plants already deploy pollution-control technologies. Power plants are the largest U.S. source of several pollutants—accounting for about 50% of mercury emissions and 77% of acid gas emissions—and emit the largest amounts of arsenic and other toxics, according to EPA.

  7. Sum rules and scaling in nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Mark G., E-mail: kuz@wsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States); Pérez-Moreno, Javier [Department of Physics, Skidmore College, 815 North Broadway, Saratoga Springs, NY 12886 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States); Shafei, Shoresh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Nonlinear optics is a mature field characterized by a wealth of phenomena that are well understood. The microscopic origins of these phenomena are known to be in the quantum process of light–matter interactions; yet, no general prescription is available for optimizing the nonlinear response. It is even more difficult to understand the important features of a complex system that lead to the best response. This paper reviews work on how scaling, with the use of sum rules, can be applied to identify universal properties associated with a large nonlinear-optical response. An analysis using sum rules and scaling unifies our understanding of the nonlinear-optical response of a broad class of quantum systems through the scale-invariant intrinsic nonlinearities.

  8. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 January 2002: Annex R A 1 - Scale of basic salaries (page 73). Annex R A 2 - Scale of stipends paid to fellows (page 74). Annex R A 4 - Family allowance and child allowance (page 81). Annex R A 8.01 - Reimbursement of education fees for the academic year 2001/2002, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2001 (page 81). Copies of this update, announced in Weekly Bulletin 4/2002, are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web HERE Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  9. Whitelisting and the Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2016-01-01

    , Best Practices, Benchmarks and Standards. The chapter shows that these lists stake out regulatory space, establish regulatory relations and prioritize potential (they do work). In the process, they contribute to a regulatory topology where evidence is devalued, conventional legal expertise......Leander’s chapter argues that whitelists in commercial security are establishing and consolidating a rule of law marked by managerialism. It closely describes the significance of the mundane, seemingly innocuous whitelists. Whitelists have proliferated as part of governance through Codes of Conduct...

  10. Rules for Leadership. Improving Unit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    gratefully recognize Emile "Chum" Robert . Walter Ulmer. and Albert Akers for very generously providing assistance to me in writing this book. Their...these rules are utilitarian , they are, owing to the interactive nature of leadership, necessarily somewhat complex. The disconcerting fact is that...circumstances. Valley Forge, Pickett’s Charge and the 20th Maine’s defense at Gettysburg, Alvin York, Audie Murphy, and the Chosin Reservoir are

  11. Cellular scaling rules for primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2007-01-01

    Primates are usually found to have richer behavioral repertoires and better cognitive abilities than rodents of similar brain size. This finding raises the possibility that primate brains differ from rodent brains in their cellular composition. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of ...

  12. Termination of dependently typed rewrite rules

    OpenAIRE

    Jouannaud, Jean-Pierre; Li, Jian-Qi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Our interest is in automated termination proofs of higher-order rewrite rules in presence of dependent types modulo a theory T on base types. We first describe an original transformation to a type discipline without type dependencies which preserves non-termination. Since the user must reason on expressions of the transformed language, we then introduce an extension of the computability path ordering CPO for comparing dependently typed expressions named DCPO. Using the...

  13. Evolutionary assembly rules for fish life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charnov, E.L.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    history that maximizes Darwinian fitness in non-growing populations. We merge this M, W α power function with other power functions to produce general across-species scaling rules for yearly reproductive allocation, reproductive effort and age at first reproduction in fish. We then suggest a new way...... to classify habitats (or lifestyles) as to the life histories they should contain, and we contrast our scheme with the widely used Winemiller-Rose fish lifestyle classification...

  14. Online association rule mining over fast data

    OpenAIRE

    Ölmezoğulları, E.; Arı, İsmail

    2013-01-01

    Due to copyright restrictions, the access to the full text of this article is only available via subscription. To extract useful and actionable information in real-time, the information technology (IT) world is coping with big data problems today. In this paper, we present implementation details and performance results of ReCEPtor, our system for "online" Association Rule Mining (ARM) over big and fast data streams. Specifically, we added Apriori and two different FP-Growth algorithms insi...

  15. The risk-adjusted monetary policy rule

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Taisuke; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Macroeconomists are increasingly using nonlinear models to account for the effects of risk in the analysis of business cycles. In the monetary business cycle models widely used at central banks, an explicit recognition of risk generates a wedge between the inflation-target parameter in the monetary policy rule and the risky steady state (RSS) of inflation - the rate to which inflation will eventually converge - which can be undesirable in some practical applications. We propose a simple modif...

  16. Departure from the onset-onset rule

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Siu

    1994-01-01

    Using a signal-detection task, the generality of Turvey's (1973) onset-onset rule was tested in four experiments. After seeing, in succession, (1) one or two letters (target display), (2) a multiletter detection display, and (3) a mask display, subjects decided whether or not the letter or letters in the target display reappeared in the succeeding detection display at different levels of detection-display duration in various situations. The subjects' sensitivity was inconsistent with the onse...

  17. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  18. Rule of Law. Peculiarities of Kosovo System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliriana ISLAMI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a general call, of every international institution, meaning EU, and other international mechanism requiring and basing their policies on the principle of conditionality (Pippan, 2004 by urging states to undertake steps to fulfill the whole range of political and economic conditions in return for partnership, membership or monetary aid. Conditionality is screened through the new lenses of order and stability based on rule of law, democracy, free market economy, and respect for human rights and minority rights, envisaged as Western values. (Copenhagen Criteria, 1993 To achieve this aim the rule of law is considered as occupying a unique position in a democratic society, therefore it is called upon states to create conditions for reforms on a judiciary as the traditional mechanism to decide on disputes, to protect citizens from the arbitrary political affiliation or private individuals. As such, it fights corruption too. (Un Judge Simply said it is required from the states to create conditions to achieve the independent judiciary, through which democratic society can be created. As such, these analyses give hints on the issue of rule of law from the transitional phase of UNMIK to Kosovar Institution elucidating the presence of the EU EULEX Mission, too. Therefore, in the case of Kosovo the challenge of the judiciary system was twofold concerning UNMIK and EU Mission and the establishment of the Kosovo Constitution from another side.

  19. A Local Learning Rule for Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Takuya; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2016-06-01

    Humans can separately recognize independent sources when they sense their superposition. This decomposition is mathematically formulated as independent component analysis (ICA). While a few biologically plausible learning rules, so-called local learning rules, have been proposed to achieve ICA, their performance varies depending on the parameters characterizing the mixed signals. Here, we propose a new learning rule that is both easy to implement and reliable. Both mathematical and numerical analyses confirm that the proposed rule outperforms other local learning rules over a wide range of parameters. Notably, unlike other rules, the proposed rule can separate independent sources without any preprocessing, even if the number of sources is unknown. The successful performance of the proposed rule is then demonstrated using natural images and movies. We discuss the implications of this finding for our understanding of neuronal information processing and its promising applications to neuromorphic engineering.

  20. 39 CFR 954.2 - Scope of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.2 Scope of rules. The rules of practice shall... Periodicals mailing privileges arising under former title 39 U.S.C. 4351, 4352, 4353, 4354, 4355, 4356, and...

  1. A Survey of NDT Committee Rules and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Kent R.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on a survey of participant attitudes toward National Debate Tournament rules on NDT Committee authority, topicality standards, qualification methods, and disclosing decisions. Findings suggest that attitudes should be measured before NDT rules are adapted. (PD)

  2. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions on which the ruling was based. If, in the opinion of any Customs Service field office by whom the... information sufficient to permit the ruling letter in question to be identified. (d)-(e) ...

  3. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  4. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  5. Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessments and Corrective Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed the Revised Total Coliform Rule Assessment and Corrective Actions Guidance Manual for public water systems (e.g., owners and operators) to assist in complying with the requirements of the Revised Total Coliform Rule.

  6. Total Coliform Rule Distribution System Advisory Committee (TCRDSAC) Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provide information about the TCRDSAC, including its charter, processes and recommendations. The Agency used the Advisory Committee recommendations to develop proposed and final rules that revised the Total Coliform Rule.

  7. Six simple rules: how to manage complexity without getting complicated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morieux, Yves; Tollman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Provides managers with six simple rules to manage organizational complexity. The authors show why and how the rules work, enabling managers to reinvigorate employees and foster autonomy and cooperation...

  8. Rule based systems for big data a machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Han; Cocea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The ideas introduced in this book explore the relationships among rule based systems, machine learning and big data. Rule based systems are seen as a special type of expert systems, which can be built by using expert knowledge or learning from real data. The book focuses on the development and evaluation of rule based systems in terms of accuracy, efficiency and interpretability. In particular, a unified framework for building rule based systems, which consists of the operations of rule generation, rule simplification and rule representation, is presented. Each of these operations is detailed using specific methods or techniques. In addition, this book also presents some ensemble learning frameworks for building ensemble rule based systems.

  9. 76 FR 31222 - Identification of Enforceable Rules and Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... authority to enforce in some circumstances the Federal Trade Commission's Telemarketing Sales Rule and its...--Telemarketing Sales Rule 2. 16 CFR Part 313--Privacy of Consumer Financial Information 3. 16 CFR Part 320...

  10. Students Learn by Doing: Teaching about Rules of Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda J.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies situation in which consumers are likely to substitute rules of thumb for research, reviews rules of thumb often used as substitutes, and identifies teaching activities to help students learn when substitution is appropriate. (JOW)

  11. 7 CFR 110.8 - Rules of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING ON RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDES BY CERTIFIED APPLICATORS; SURVEYS AND REPORTS § 110.8 Rules of... ruling by the Presiding Officer or a party who alleges a deprivation of rights, may appeal the Presiding...

  12. Interactions between parental alcohol-specific rules and risk personalities in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Pronk, Thomas; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of an important context variable (alcohol-specific parental rules) and an important person variable (risky personality traits) and their interaction on prospective adolescent drinking. Participants were 252 adolescents, 67.9% female, between 13 and 16 years old. Data were collected via online assessments during 2 years with four time points of assessments. We examined membership of alcohol use trajectories as a function of parental alcohol-specific rules, moderated by risk-associated personality traits. Permissive parental rules predicted early onset and trajectories of heavy drinking. High scores on Sensation Seeking and Hopelessness also predicted early onset and heavy drinking, but there was no evidence for moderation. The influence of parental rule setting and risk personality was confirmed, but no evidence was found that the impact of risk personality on adolescent drinking is moderated by parental rules. Implications of these findings, and limitations of the study, are discussed. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  14. A retrospective study of two populations to test a simple rule for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohar, Jill A; Yawn, Barbara P; Ruppel, Gregg L; Donohue, James F

    2016-06-04

    Chronic lung disease is common and often under-diagnosed. To test a simple rule for conducting spirometry we reviewed spirograms from two populations, occupational medicine evaluations (OME) conducted by Saint Louis and Wake Forest Universities at 3 sites (n = 3260, mean age 64.14 years, 95 % CI 58.94-69.34, 97 % men) and conducted by Wake Forest University preop clinic (POC) at one site (n = 845, mean age 62.10 years, 95 % CI 50.46-73.74, 57 % men). This retrospective review of database information that the first author collected prospectively identified rates, types, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value for lung function abnormalities and associated mortality rate found when conducting spirometry based on the 20/40 rule (≥20 years of smoking in those aged ≥ 40 years) in the OME population. To determine the reproducibility of the 20/40 rule for conducting spirometry, the rule was applied to the POC population. A lung function abnormality was found in 74 % of the OME population and 67 % of the POC population. Sensitivity of the rule was 85 % for an obstructive pattern and 77 % for any abnormality on spirometry. Positive and negative predictive values of the rule for a spirometric abnormality were 74 and 55 %, respectively. Patients with an obstructive pattern were at greater risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.39 [confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.93] vs. normal) and death (hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95 % CI 1.20-1.84) than subjects with normal spirometry. Restricted spirometry patterns were also associated with greater risk of coronary disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.7 [CI 1.23-2.35]) and death (Hazard ratio 1.40, 95 % CI 1.08-1.72). Smokers (≥ 20 pack years) age ≥ 40 years are at an increased risk for lung function abnormalities and those abnormalities are associated with greater presence of coronary heart disease and increased all-cause mortality. Use of the 20/40 rule could provide a

  15. 49 CFR 5.33 - Adoption of final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of final rules. 5.33 Section 5.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures § 5.33 Adoption of final rules. Final rules are prepared by representatives of the office concerned and the Office of the...

  16. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-01-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the

  17. Greedy algorithms withweights for construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-09-10

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of the total weight of attributes occurring in partial association rules. We consider mainly greedy algorithms with weights for construction of rules. The paper contains bounds on precision of these algorithms and bounds on the minimal weight of partial association rules based on an information obtained during the greedy algorithm run.

  18. 27 CFR 70.701 - Rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specific rulings applying the principles of a published TTB Ruling to the facts of their particular cases..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Rules.... (2) Where required by 5 U.S.C. 553, the Administrator publishes in the Federal Register general...

  19. 26 CFR 1.994-2 - Marginal costing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.994-2 Marginal costing rules. (a) In general... to § 1.994-1(c)(7) used by the taxpayer for purposes of applying the intercompany pricing rules of... to the maximum amount permitted to be received under the intercompany pricing rules of section 994...

  20. Performance analysis of modified algorithm for finding multilevel association rules

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Arpna; Jain, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel association rules explore the concept hierarchy at multiple levels which provides more specific information. Apriori algorithm explores the single level association rules. Many implementations are available of Apriori algorithm. Fast Apriori implementation is modified to develop new algorithm for finding multilevel association rules. In this study the performance of this new algorithm is analyzed in terms of running time in seconds.

  1. Online Dispatching Rules For Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOn-line vehicles dispatching rules are widely used in many facilities such as warehouses to control vehicles' movements. Single-attribute dispatching rules, which dispatch vehicles based on only one parameter, are used commonly. However, multi-attribute dispatching rules prove to be

  2. Incremental Maintenance Of Association Rules Under Support Threshold Change

    OpenAIRE

    Tobji, Mohamed Anis Bach; Gouider, Mohamed Salah

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of association rules is an interesting problem. Several incremental maintenance algorithms were proposed since the work of (Cheung et al, 1996). The majority of these algorithms maintain rule bases assuming that support threshold doesn't change. In this paper, we present incremental maintenance algorithm under support threshold change. This solution allows user to maintain its rule base under any support threshold.

  3. 78 FR 66643 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 19 RIN 2020-AA49 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule AGENCY... final rule that amends the Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule. This action is mandated by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 (DCIA) to adjust for inflation certain statutory civil...

  4. Understanding Electronic AKI Alerts: Characterization by Definitional Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Holmes

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: Rule 1 could only be invoked for stage 1 alerts and was associated with acute on chronic kidney disease acquired in hospital. Rule 2 was also associated with hospital-acquired AKI and had the highest mortality and nonrecovery. Rule 3 was the commonest cause of an alert and was associated with community-acquired AKI.

  5. 18 CFR 385.1105 - Intervention (Rule 1105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intervention (Rule 1105... Under the NGPA § 385.1105 Intervention (Rule 1105). (a) A motion to intervene in an adjustment proceeding, in conformity with Rule 214 (intervention) must be filed within 15 days after publication in the...

  6. 18 CFR 385.605 - Arbitration (Rule 605).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration (Rule 605... Stipulations § 385.605 Arbitration (Rule 605). (a) Authorization of arbitration. (1) The participants may at any time submit a written proposal to use binding arbitration under the provisions of Rule 605 to...

  7. 76 FR 41075 - Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules and Procedures AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is making an amendment to its regulations by removing Part 251 Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Rules of...

  8. 45 CFR 13.2 - When these rules apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When these rules apply. 13.2 Section 13.2 Public... TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.2 When these rules apply. These rules apply to adversary adjudications before the Department. ...

  9. 33 CFR 83.01 - Application (Rule 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is no conflict with Canadian law. (b) International Regulations. (1) These Rules constitute special rules made by an appropriate authority within the meaning of Rule 1(b) of the International Regulations. (2) All vessels complying with the construction and equipment requirements of the International...

  10. 17 CFR 200.67 - Power to adopt rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rules should never tend to stifle or discourage legitimate business enterprises or activities, nor... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power to adopt rules. 200.67... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.67 Power to adopt rules. In exercising...

  11. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and condition...

  12. 19 CFR 181.94 - Nonconforming requests for advance rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. 181.94 Section 181.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. A person submitting a request for an advance ruling that does not...

  13. 19 CFR 177.3 - Nonconforming requests for rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for rulings. 177.3 Section 177.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.3 Nonconforming...

  14. Providing Automatic Support for Heuristic Rules of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Demeyer, Serge; Bosch, H.G.P.; Bosch, Jan

    In method-based software development, software engineers create artifacts based on the heuristic rules of the adopted method. Most CASE tools, however, do not actively assist software engineers in applying the heuristic rules. To provide an active support, the rules must be formalized, implemented

  15. Target-Based Maintenance of Privacy Preserving Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Madhu V.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of association rule mining, the state-of-the-art in privacy preserving data mining provides solutions for categorical and Boolean association rules but not for quantitative association rules. This research fills this gap by describing a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to protect input data privacy while preserving…

  16. A Classification of Modification Categories for Business Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam Leewis; Koen Smit; dr. Martijn Zoet

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied Business rules play a critical role in an organization’s daily activities. With the increased use of business rules (solutions) the interest in modelling guidelines that address the manageability of business rules has increased as well. However, current research on modelling

  17. Rules of Thumb from the Literature on Research and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Morris K.

    Practical advice on frequently asked questions dealing with research and evaluation methodology is presented as rules of thumb, with citations to the author's sources. A statement in the literature is considered a rule of thumb if it meets one of the following criteria: (1) it is specifically called a rule of thumb; (2) it contains numbers in…

  18. 24 CFR 5.318 - Discretionary pet rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.318 Discretionary pet rules. Pet rules promulgated by project owners and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discretionary pet rules. 5.318...

  19. Unconscious Priming According to Multiple S-R Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated if unconscious primes can be processed according to different stimulus-response (S-R) rules simultaneously. Participants performed two different S-R rules, such as judging a digit as smaller or larger than five and judging a letter as vowel or consonant. These S-R rules were administered in random order and announced…

  20. Development of decision making: sequential versus integrative rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated

  1. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade Commission... July 11, 2011, the Commission recently adopted its Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules... submitted in connection with the Commission's Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules...

  2. 32 CFR 776.26 - Conflict of interest: General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest: General rule. 776.26... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.26 Conflict of interest: General rule. (a) Conflict of... representation of that client may be materially limited by the covered attorney's responsibilities to another...

  3. [Usefulness of clinical prediction rules for ruling out deep vein thrombosis in a hospital emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Jiménez, Francisco; Rosa-Jiménez, Ascensión; Lozano-Rodríguez, Aquiles; Santoro-Martínez, María Del Carmen; Duro-López, María Del Carmen; Carreras-Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of the most familiar clinical prediction rules in combination with D-dimer testing to rule out a diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a hospital emergency department. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the case records of all patients attending a hospital emergency department with suspected lower-limb DVT between 1998 and 2002. Ten clinical prediction scores were calculated and D-dimer levels were available for all patients. The gold standard was ultrasound diagnosis of DVT by an independent radiologist who was blinded to clinical records. For each prediction rule, we analyzed the effectiveness of the prediction strategy defined by "low clinical probability and negative D-dimer level" against the ultrasound diagnosis. A total of 861 case records were reviewed and 577 cases were selected; the mean (SD) age was 66.7 (14.2) years. DVT was diagnosed in 145 patients (25.1%). Only the Wells clinical prediction rule and 4 other models had a false negative rate under 2%. The Wells criteria and the score published by Johanning and colleagues identified higher percentages of cases (15.6% and 11.6%, respectively). This study shows that several clinical prediction rules can be safely used in the emergency department, although none of them have proven more effective than the Wells criteria.

  4. Food labeling; calorie labeling of articles of food in vending machines. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the vending machine food labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is establishing requirements for providing calorie declarations for food sold from certain vending machines. This final rule will ensure that calorie information is available for certain food sold from a vending machine that does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article, or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase. The declaration of accurate and clear calorie information for food sold from vending machines will make calorie information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices. This final rule applies to certain food from vending machines operated by a person engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines. Vending machine operators not subject to the rules may elect to be subject to the Federal requirements by registering with FDA.

  5. Model for prediction of pediatric OSA: Proposal for a clinical decision rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certal, Victor; Silva, Hélder; Carvalho, Carlos; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Azevedo, Inês; Winck, João; Capasso, Robson; Camacho, Macario

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a syndrome frequently diagnosed in children; however, it lacks optimal diagnostic methods. This study aimed to provide a clinical decision rule for predicting pediatric OSA using commonly available clinical information. A prospective cohort study. Children between the ages of 3 to 6 years-old, referred for an otorhinolaryngology consultation due to clinical suspicion of OSA, were recruited from January to June 2014. At baseline age, weight, height, gender, body mass index, Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) scores, tonsil size, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were assessed. A logistic regression modeling was used with backward stepwise elimination to develop a prediction model. Sixty-seven children were included with a mean age of 4.51 years. Of the 67 children included in this study, 25 (37.3%) subjects were diagnosed with pediatric OSA. Significant predictors of pediatric OSA in the final model (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) included PSQ score (5.12; 3.3-6.5), ODI (1.34; 1.0-1.79) and tonsil size (6.7; 3.22-9.75). The final decision rule had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 86%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.897. The proposed clinical decision rule, based on three readily available variables, is a promising discriminating instrument for prediction of OSA among children between 3 and 6 years. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Predicting pressure ulcers: cases missed using a new clinical prediction rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Lisette; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bousema, Mente T; Buskens, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a study describing patients with pressure ulcers that were incorrectly classified as 'not at risk' by the prediction rule and comparing them with patients who were correctly classified as 'not at risk'. Patients admitted to hospital are at risk of developing pressure ulcers. Although the majority of pressure ulcers can be predicted using a recently developed prediction rule, up to 30% of patients with pressure ulcers may still be misclassified. Between January 1999 and June 2000 a prospective cohort study was conducted in two large hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients admitted to neurology, internal, surgical, and elder care wards for more than 5 days were included (n = 1229), and were examined weekly. Information on potential prognostic determinants for pressure ulcers mentioned in the literature was recorded. Outcome was defined as occurrence of a pressure ulcer grade 2 or worse during hospital admission. Patients who developed pressure ulcers experienced more problems with 'friction and shear' and underwent surgery more often and longer. Also, they were more often admitted because of malignant conditions. We found no specific characteristics that clearly distinguished patients with pressure ulcers that were incorrectly classified as 'not at risk' by the prediction rule from patients who were correctly classified as 'not at risk'. It appears difficult to improve further on the prediction of pressure ulcers using available clinical information.

  7. 77 FR 21065 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 721 and 799 RIN 2070-AJ66 Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and..., 2012, to give the public an opportunity to comment on a proposed test rule for 23 high production... opportunity to present oral comment was offered in the proposed rule and, in response to that offer, a request...

  8. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; health insurance market rules. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and catastrophic plans, consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The final rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable requirements of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This final rule also amends the standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the timeline for states to propose state-specific thresholds for review and approval by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

  9. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A.; von Hippel, G. M.; Horgan, R. R.; Müller, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. Program summaryProgram title: HiPPY, HPsrc Catalogue identifier: AEDX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv2 (see Additional comments below) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 513 426 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 893 707 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, Fortran95 Computer: HiPPy: Single-processor workstations. HPsrc: Single-processor workstations and MPI-enabled multi-processor systems Operating system: HiPPy: Any for which Python v2.5.x is available. HPsrc: Any for which a standards-compliant Fortran95 compiler is available Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes RAM: Problem specific, typically less than 1 GB for either code Classification: 4.4, 11.5 Nature of problem: Derivation and use of perturbative Feynman rules for complicated lattice QCD actions. Solution method: An automated expansion method implemented in Python (HiPPy) and code to use expansions to generate Feynman rules in Fortran95 (HPsrc). Restrictions: No general restrictions. Specific restrictions are discussed in the text. Additional comments: The HiPPy and HPsrc codes are released under the second version of the GNU General Public Licence (GPL v2). Therefore anyone is

  11. Expression of myriapod pair rule gene orthologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ralf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmentation is a hallmark of the arthropods; most knowledge about the molecular basis of arthropod segmentation comes from work on the fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this species a hierarchic cascade of segmentation genes subdivides the blastoderm stepwise into single segment wide regions. However, segmentation in the fly is a derived feature since all segments form virtually simultaneously. Conversely, in the vast majority of arthropods the posterior segments form one at a time from a posterior pre-segmental zone. The pair rule genes (PRGs comprise an important level of the Drosophila segmentation gene cascade and are indeed the first genes that are expressed in typical transverse stripes in the early embryo. Information on expression and function of PRGs outside the insects, however, is scarce. Results Here we present the expression of the pair rule gene orthologs in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda. We find evidence that these genes are involved in segmentation and that components of the hierarchic interaction of the gene network as found in insects may be conserved. We further provide evidence that segments are formed in a single-segment periodicity rather than in pairs of two like in another myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. Finally we show that decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation in Glomeris appears already at the level of the PRGs. Conclusions Although the pair rule gene network is partially conserved among insects and myriapods, some aspects of PRG interaction are, as suggested by expression pattern analysis, convergent, even within the Myriapoda. Conserved expression patterns of PRGs in insects and myriapods, however, may represent ancestral features involved in segmenting the arthropod ancestor.

  12. Optimal Hedging Rule for Reservoir Refill Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W.; Zhao, J.; Lund, J. R.; Zhao, T.; Lei, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops an optimal reservoir Refill Hedging Rule (RHR) for combined water supply and flood operation using mathematical analysis. A two-stage model is developed to formulate the trade-off between operations for conservation benefit and flood damage in the reservoir refill season. Based on the probability distribution of the maximum refill water availability at the end of the second stage, three zones are characterized according to the relationship among storage capacity, expected storage buffer (ESB), and maximum safety excess discharge (MSED). The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the model show that the optimality of the refill operation involves making the expected marginal loss of conservation benefit from unfilling (i.e., ending storage of refill period less than storage capacity) as nearly equal to the expected marginal flood damage from levee overtopping downstream as possible while maintaining all constraints. This principle follows and combines the hedging rules for water supply and flood management. A RHR curve is drawn analogously to water supply hedging and flood hedging rules, showing the trade-off between the two objectives. The release decision result has a linear relationship with the current water availability, implying the linearity of RHR for a wide range of water conservation functions (linear, concave, or convex). A demonstration case shows the impacts of factors. Larger downstream flood conveyance capacity and empty reservoir capacity allow a smaller current release and more water can be conserved. Economic indicators of conservation benefit and flood damage compete with each other on release, the greater economic importance of flood damage is, the more water should be released in the current stage, and vice versa. Below a critical value, improving forecasts yields less water release, but an opposing effect occurs beyond this critical value. Finally, the Danjiangkou Reservoir case study shows that the RHR together with a rolling

  13. Bodychecking rules and concussion in elite hockey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Donaldson

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion. We determined whether recent rule changes regulating contact to the head introduced in 2010-11 and 2011-12 have been effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL. A league with a longstanding ban on hits contacting the head, the Ontario Hockey League (OHL, was also studied. A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the 2009-10 to 2011-12 seasons was performed using official game records and team injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3 seasons analyzed was 5.23 per 100 NHL regular season games and 5.05 per 100 OHL regular season games (IRR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50. When injuries described as concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8.8 and 7.1 per 100 games respectively (IRR 1.23; 95% CI 0.81, 1.32. The number of NHL concussions or suspected concussions was lower in 2009-10 than in 2010-11 (IRR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83, but did not increase from 2010-11 to 2011-12 (IRR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80, 1.38. 64.2% of NHL concussions were caused by bodychecking, and only 28.4% of concussions and 36.8% of suspected concussions were caused by illegal incidents. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the risk of players suffering these injuries.

  14. Extracting rules from neural networks as decision diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, Jan; Zurada, Jacek M

    2011-12-01

    Rule extraction from neural networks (NNs) solves two fundamental problems: it gives insight into the logic behind the network and in many cases, it improves the network's ability to generalize the acquired knowledge. This paper presents a novel eclectic approach to rule extraction from NNs, named LOcal Rule Extraction (LORE), suited for multilayer perceptron networks with discrete (logical or categorical) inputs. The extracted rules mimic network behavior on the training set and relax this condition on the remaining input space. First, a multilayer perceptron network is trained under standard regime. It is then transformed into an equivalent form, returning the same numerical result as the original network, yet being able to produce rules generalizing the network output for cases similar to a given input. The partial rules extracted for every training set sample are then merged to form a decision diagram (DD) from which logic rules can be extracted. A rule format explicitly separating subsets of inputs for which an answer is known from those with an undetermined answer is presented. A special data structure, the decision diagram, allowing efficient partial rule merging is introduced. With regard to rules' complexity and generalization abilities, LORE gives results comparable to those reported previously. An algorithm transforming DDs into interpretable boolean expressions is described. Experimental running times of rule extraction are proportional to the network's training time.

  15. Sum rules in extended RPA theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1988-11-28

    Different moments m/sub k/ of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed.

  16. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V

    1970-01-01

    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  17. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  18. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark condensate contribut...

  19. Deficit Limits, Budget Rules, and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Manasse

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a simple model for discussing the effects of deficit limits and budget rules on fiscal policy. I find that limits on deficit- output ratios provide incentives to implement procyclical policies when the economy is in intermediate states, and countercyclical policies only in very “good” and very “bad” economic times. As a result, fiscal “reaction functions” are not monotonically related to the state of the economy. Deficit limits are found to exert discipline only provided th...

  20. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  1. A Mathematical Analysis of Air Traffic Priority Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes priority rules, such as those in Part 91.113 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Such rules determine which of two aircraft should maneuver in a given conflict scenario. While the rules in 91.113 are well accepted, other concepts of operation for NextGen, such as self separation, may allow for different priority rules. A mathematical framework is presented that can be used to analyze a general set of priority rules and enables proofs of important properties. Specific properties considered in this paper include safety, effectiveness, and stability. A set of rules is said to be safe if it ensures that it is never the case that both aircraft have priority. They are effective if exactly one aircraft has priority in every situation. Finally, a set of rules is called stable if it produces compatible results even under small changes to input data.

  2. Definition of Business Rules Using Business Vocabulary and Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hypský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the definition of business rules using business vocabulary and semantics. At the beginning business rules, business vocabulary and semantics of business rules are specified. There is also outlined the current state of research on this topic. Then the definition and formalization of business rules using semantics and business vocabulary is described. Based on these proposed procedures was created a tool that implements and simulate these processes. The main advantage of this tool is “Business Rules Layer”, which implements business rules into the system but is separated from this system. Source code of the rules and the system are not mixed together. Finally, the results are evaluated and future development is suggested.

  3. Governing the Rule-Making of Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    Based on PHD thesis. In western societies, organic agriculture is highly institutionalised as an approach to sustainable farming. In this development, a vast number of standards and rules have been constructed by rather diverse rule-makers. Despite EU's attempt to harmonise rules and standards...... for organic agriculture, the diversity of rule-makers has resulted in differences in standards and problems of inefficient markets. This book addresses this issue by providing an increased understanding of how such rule-making activities are created nationally. The analysis is based on a comparative study...... of Denmark and Sweden. Although the cases illustrate two modes of governance: in the former, rule-making is formally internalized in the State and in the latter, in a private-interest organization, a similar set of stakeholders participate in the actual rule-making processes. The analysis provides...

  4. Boosting association rule mining in large datasets via Gibbs sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guoqi; Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna; Sun, Xiaoying; Wu, Yuehua

    2016-01-01

    Current algorithms for association rule mining from transaction data are mostly deterministic and enumerative. They can be computationally intractable even for mining a dataset containing just a few hundred transaction items, if no action is taken to constrain the search space. In this paper, we develop a Gibbs-sampling–induced stochastic search procedure to randomly sample association rules from the itemset space, and perform rule mining from the reduced transaction dataset generated by the sample. Also a general rule importance measure is proposed to direct the stochastic search so that, as a result of the randomly generated association rules constituting an ergodic Markov chain, the overall most important rules in the itemset space can be uncovered from the reduced dataset with probability 1 in the limit. In the simulation study and a real genomic data example, we show how to boost association rule mining by an integrated use of the stochastic search and the Apriori algorithm. PMID:27091963

  5. Neural Representations of Hierarchical Rule Sets: the Human Control System Represents Rules Irrespective of the Hierarchical Level They Belong to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Doris; Görgen, Kai; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2017-11-07

    Humans use rules to organize their actions to achieve specific goals. While simple rules that link a sensory stimulus to one response may suffice in some situations, often the application of multiple, hierarchically-organized rules is required. Recent theories suggest that progressively higher level rules are encoded along an anterior-to-posterior gradient within PFC. While some work supports the existence of such a functional gradient, other studies argue for a lesser degree of specialization within PFC.We used fMRI to investigate whether rules at different hierarchical levels are represented at distinct locations in the brain or encoded by a single system. Thirty-seven male and female participants represented and applied hierarchical rule sets containing one lower-level stimulus-response rule and one higher-level selection rule. We used multivariate pattern analysis to directly investigate the representation of rules at each hierarchical level in absence of information about rules from other levels or other task-related information, thus providing a clear identification of low- and high-level rule representations.We could decode low- and high-level rules from local patterns of brain activity within a wide frontoparietal network. However, no significant difference existed between regions encoding representations of rules from both levels, except for precentral gyrus that represented only low-level rule information. Our findings show that the brain represents conditional rules irrespective of their level in the explored hierarchy, and thus that the human control system did not organize task representation according to this dimension. Our paradigm represents a promising approach to identify critical principles that shape this control system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTSeveral recent studies investigating the organization of the human control system propose that rules at different control levels are organized along an anterior-to-posterior gradient within PFC. In this

  6. Prediction of Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms in Youth Using a Neuroimaging Decision Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Gregory; Byczkowski, Terri; Ho, Mona; Babcock, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of risk strata generated by a neuroimaging rule, developed to assess risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI), to predict postconcussive symptoms in youth with an acute mild traumatic brain injury. We performed a prospective cohort study of youth aged 5 to 17 years presenting to an emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of mild traumatic brain injury. Risk strata (very low, intermediate, and at risk) of ciTBI were determined in ED by criteria set forth by the neuroimaging rule. Postconcussive symptoms were assessed using the Health and Behavior Inventory (HBI) in the ED and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injury. General linear models were used to examine the relationship between the HBI score at 1 week and risk strata. Repeated measures analysis was used to measure change in HBI over time. Of the 120 participants, 46 were categorized by the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) rule as very low risk, 39 as intermediate risk, and 35 as at risk for ciTBI. Adjusted mean HBI scores (95% confidence intervals) at 1 week were 18.0 (13.9, 22.2) for at risk, 13.8 (9.9, 17.6) for intermediate risk, and 17.1 (13.4, 20.8) for very low risk. Risk strata were not significantly associated with the adjusted HBI score at 1 week (P = .17). While adjusted HBI scores declined significantly over time (P < .0001), the trajectories of the HBI score over time did not differ significantly by risk strata (P = .68). Risk of ciTBI as determined by factors within a neuroimaging rule alone is insufficient to predict children with persistent postconcussive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The SCRAP Rule: The derivation and internal validation of a clinical decision rule for computed tomography of the chest in blunt thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrastre, Julien; Upadhye, Suneel; Worster, Andrew; Lin, Daren; Kahnamoui, Kamyar; Patterson, Heather; Sanaee, Layli; Clayden, Rob

    2012-11-01

    To derive and internally validate a clinical decision rule that will rule out major thoracic injury in adult blunt trauma patients, reducing the unnecessary use of chest computed tomographic (CT) scans. Data were retrospectively obtained from a chart review of all trauma patients presenting to a Canadian tertiary trauma care centre from 2005 to 2008, with those from April 2006 to March 2007 being used for the validation phase. Patients were included if they had an Injury Severity Score > 12 and chest CT at admission or a documented major thoracic injury noted in the trauma database. Patients with penetrating injury, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤ 8, paralysis, or age SCRAP). In the validation group, the same five variables had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 96.2-100%), a specificity of 44.7% (95% CI 39.5-44.7%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.00 (95% CI 0.00-0.10). In major blunt trauma with a GCS score > 8, the SCRAP variables have a 100% sensitivity for major thoracic injury in this retrospective study. These findings need to be prospectively validated prior to use in a clinical setting.

  8. A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaar, Annelie; Maas, Mario; Rijn, Rick R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Walenkamp, Monique M.J.; Bentohami, Abdelali; Goslings, J.C. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steyerberg, Ewout W. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jager, L.C. [University of Amsterdam, Emergency Department, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sosef, Nico L. [Spaarne Hospital, Department of Surgery, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Velde, Romuald van [Tergooi Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Hilversum (Netherlands); Ultee, Jan M. [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schep, Niels W.L. [University of Amsterdam, Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maasstadziekenhuis Rotterdam, Department of Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    In most hospitals, children with acute wrist trauma are routinely referred for radiography. To develop and validate a clinical decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required. We prospectively developed and validated a clinical decision rule in two study populations. All children who presented in the emergency department of four hospitals with pain following wrist trauma were included and evaluated for 18 clinical variables. The outcome was a wrist fracture diagnosed by plain radiography. Included in the study were 787 children. The prediction model consisted of six variables: age, swelling of the distal radius, visible deformation, distal radius tender to palpation, anatomical snuffbox tender to palpation, and painful or abnormal supination. The model showed an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83). The sensitivity and specificity were 95.9% and 37.3%, respectively. The use of this model would have resulted in a 22% absolute reduction of radiographic examinations. In a validation study, 7/170 fractures (4.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-8.3%) would have been missed using the decision model. The decision model may be a valuable tool to decide whether radiography in children after wrist trauma is required. (orig.)

  9. Official News relating to CERN Safety Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Safety Rules listed below have been published on the official CERN Safety Rules website (see here).   Safety Regulation SR-WS Works and services: this SR-WS (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites”. General Safety Instruction GSI-WS-1 Safety coordination for works and services: this GSI-WS-1 (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS39 “Notice of Start of Works (AOC)” and of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites” ​Specific Safety Instruction SSI-WS-1-1 Safety coordinator for category 1 operations: this SSI-WS-1-4 (version 1) will cancel and replace the corresponding provisions of Safety Instruction IS50 “Safety Coordination on CERN Worksites”.​ ​ In order to limit the impact on the end-of-year technical st...

  10. TEDxCERN breaks the rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.   TEDxCERN broke all the rules this year - starting with its choice of venue. The CMS construction hall at Point 5 was converted into a gala-centre, complete with soundstage and dance floor. It was a stunning transformation that also brought to life the hall’s to-scale photo of the CMS detector. The image served as the back-drop to a light-projection show entitled “Turbulence” by artist François Moncarey (see the video). From star-singer Imogen Heap to CERN’s own Edda Gschwendtner, the line-up of speakers was as diverse as it was educational. They discussed using tangible interfaces that allow human interaction via e-devices and the potential of 3D technology as a means of revo...

  11. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2005 Internal taxation of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits (New articles IV 2.01, R IV 2.01 to 2.04 pages 56 bis & 56 ter; Annex R A 1 bis page 73 bis) 1 September 2005 Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01 page 81) for the academic year 2005/2006 1 November 2005 Age limit (Article R II 6.04 page 37) 1 January 2006 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 page 73 & Annex R A 2 page 74 respectively). Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4 page 76) New contract policy for staff members (Articles R II 1.19 & 1.20 page 15, R II 1.23 page 16, II 6.01 page 36, R II 6.02 & R II 6.06 page 37, VIII 1.03 page 68, R A 9.01 page 83). Copies of this update (modification # 15) are available in departmental secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at the following addr...

  12. Compaction and flow rule of oxide nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltachev, G. Sh.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Maximenko, A. L.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Shtern, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Al2O3 ceramics have attracted considerable interest for use in a wide range of optical, electronic and structural applications. The fabrication of these ceramics using powder metallurgy processes requires the development of theoretical approaches to the compaction of nanopowders. In this work, we investigate the compaction processes of two model granular systems imitating Al2O3 nanosized powders. System I is a loosely aggregated powder, and system II is a powder strongly inclined to agglomeration (for instance, calcined powder). The processes of isostatical (uniform), biaxial, and uniaxial compaction as well as uniaxial compaction with simultaneous shear deformation are studied. The energy parameters of compaction such as the energy change of elastic interparticle interactions and dispersion interactions, dissipative energy losses related to the processes of interparticle friction, and the total work of compaction are calculated for all the processes. The nonapplicability of the associated flow rule to the description of deformation processes of oxide nanopowders is shown and an alternative plastic flow rule is suggested. A complete system of determining the relationship of the flow including analytical approximations of yield surfaces is obtained.

  13. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  14. Subcellular localization prediction through boosting association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yongwook; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    2012-01-01

    Computational methods for predicting protein subcellular localization have used various types of features, including N-terminal sorting signals, amino acid compositions, and text annotations from protein databases. Our approach does not use biological knowledge such as the sorting signals or homologues, but use just protein sequence information. The method divides a protein sequence into short $k$-mer sequence fragments which can be mapped to word features in document classification. A large number of class association rules are mined from the protein sequence examples that range from the N-terminus to the C-terminus. Then, a boosting algorithm is applied to those rules to build up a final classifier. Experimental results using benchmark datasets show our method is excellent in terms of both the classification performance and the test coverage. The result also implies that the $k$-mer sequence features which determine subcellular locations do not necessarily exist in specific positions of a protein sequence. Online prediction service implementing our method is available at http://isoft.postech.ac.kr/research/BCAR/subcell.

  15. FISCAL RULES AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, against the background experience of countries which have known consecutive periods of fiscal instability, place all more often the problem of consolidating public finances and establish a sustainable and stable fiscal policies that respect fiscal responsibility criteria. Government decisions have a role well determined in critical periods of the economy and their approach with the purpose of putting in practice, dictate the future of entire generations. A way to counteract negative effects of the crisis and of the various factors that affecting the economy, is undoubtedly the increase of domestic supply. But in business reform process, it is also necessary to take into account a good instrumentation of fiscal budgetary policy, imposing the need to provide particular attention to the mechanisms of public finances and the specific instruments (expenditure, budget, revenue, public debt. The aim of this paper is to show the degree of compliance with the principles of fiscal responsibility, emphasizing which is the degree of convergence on fiscal responsibility. The methodology used is qualitative, which concerns the analysis on the contents of a series key documents: Statute of fiscal rules in the EU member states 28, the origin of fiscal rules and corroboration with specific elements of the public administration system, all this documents, enabling to build a index which validates the hypothesis of this research.

  16. Cutkosky rules for superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, Roji [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

    2016-10-06

    Superstring field theory expresses the perturbative S-matrix of superstring theory as a sum of Feynman diagrams each of which is manifestly free from ultraviolet divergences. The interaction vertices fall off exponentially for large space-like external momenta making the ultraviolet finiteness property manifest, but blow up exponentially for large time-like external momenta making it impossible to take the integration contours for loop energies to lie along the real axis. This forces us to carry out the integrals over the loop energies by choosing appropriate contours in the complex plane whose ends go to infinity along the imaginary axis but which take complicated form in the interior navigating around the various poles of the propagators. We consider the general class of quantum field theories with this property and prove Cutkosky rules for the amplitudes to all orders in perturbation theory. Besides having applications to string field theory, these results also give an alternative derivation of Cutkosky rules in ordinary quantum field theories.

  17. Inferring individual rules from collective behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeman, Ryan; Li, Yue-Xian; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Social organisms form striking aggregation patterns, displaying cohesion, polarization, and collective intelligence. Determining how they do so in nature is challenging; a plethora of simulation studies displaying life-like swarm behavior lack rigorous comparison with actual data because collecting field data of sufficient quality has been a bottleneck. Here, we bridge this gap by gathering and analyzing a high-quality dataset of flocking surf scoters, forming well-spaced groups of hundreds of individuals on the water surface. By reconstructing each individual's position, velocity, and trajectory, we generate spatial and angular neighbor-distribution plots, revealing distinct concentric structure in positioning, a preference for neighbors directly in front, and strong alignment with neighbors on each side. We fit data to zonal interaction models and characterize which individual interaction forces suffice to explain observed spatial patterns. Results point to strong short-range repulsion, intermediate-range alignment, and longer-range attraction (with circular zones), as well as a weak but significant frontal-sector interaction with one neighbor. A best-fit model with such interactions accounts well for observed group structure, whereas absence or alteration in any one of these rules fails to do so. We find that important features of observed flocking surf scoters can be accounted for by zonal models with specific, well-defined rules of interaction. PMID:20616032

  18. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  19. Domestic kraudfandinh: problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mihalchuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The description kraudfandinh as an innovative tool to attract private investment in promising business projects as a special type of financing over the Internet. Powered its classification and kraud lists of successful projects, clearly illustrated by comparison of the normal business process to create a product and a similar process using kraudfandinh, given the differences between them and the main advantages. Based on the summaries of the literature and current practices of foreign companies and kraud platforms, defined the prospects of its application by domestic enterprises in various industries, proved its positive impact on the economy of Ukraine. The main problem of the use of this instrument in the domestic business, according to national circumstances, given their explanations. Described the prospects for its implementation at Ukrainian enterprises in terms of economic instability. The characteristic of the first Ukrainian kraudfandinh platforms by their future prospects in this direction

  20. From Rule of Law to Rule of Love: towards Plato‟s Ideal State - the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pervading highhandedness and insensitivity in governance, the consequent suffering of the masses and a global order that has virtually reverted to the Hobbesian state of nature, confirm the Biblical averment that “when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.” Inspired by this timeless, instructive and worrisome ...