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Sample records for c-infected individuals maintaining

  1. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  2. Hepatitis B and C infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan E Buskin; Elizabeth A Barash; John D Scott; David M Aboulafia; Robert W Wood

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort.METHODS: The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29 490 HIVinfected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S.metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69 487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004.ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses.RESULTS: Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years.HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001).Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001).Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease.Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented.CONCLUSION: Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority.

  3. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane L.; de Almeida, Adilson J.; Miguel, Juliana C.; Cruz, Helena M.; Portilho, Moyra M.; de P. Scalioni, Letícia; Marques, Vanessa A.; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Melo Villar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  4. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  5. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane L; de Almeida, Adilson J; Miguel, Juliana C; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Scalioni, Letícia de P; Marques, Vanessa A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-03-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) METHODS: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) RESULTS: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  6. 20 CFR 200.5 - Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of privacy of records maintained... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.5 Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals. (a... as his full name, date of birth, and social security number. The system manager shall respond to...

  7. Human APOBEC3G-mediated hypermutation is associated with antiretroviral therapy failure in HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Shet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human APOBEC3G/F (hA3G/F restricts retroviral replication through G-to-A hypermutations, which can generate drug-resistant progenies in vitro. The clinical relevance is still inconclusive. To bridge this gap, we aim to study the role of these hypermutations in evolution of drug resistance; we characterised hA3G/F-mediated hypermutations in the RT region of the pol gene of patients with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART. Methods: In 88 HIV-1-positive individuals, drug resistance genotyping was carried out in plasma virus and provirus by population sequencing. Hypermutations were determined by three different approaches using Hypermut 2.0 software, cluster analysis and APOBEC3G-mediated defectives indices. Clinical and demographic characteristics of these individuals were studied in relation to these hypermutations. Results: hA3G/F-mediated hypermutated sequences in proviral DNA, but not in plasma virus, were identified in 11.4% (10/88 subjects. Proviral hypermutations were observed more frequently in patients with ART failure than in ART-naïve individuals (p=0.03. In therapy failure patients, proviral hypermutation were associated with greater intra-compartmental genetic diversity (p<0.001. In therapy-naïve individuals, hypermutated proviral DNA with M184I and M230I mutations due to the editing of hA3G, had stop codons in the open reading frames and the same mutations were absent in the plasma virus. Only a limited concordance was found between the drug resistance mutations in plasma RNA and proviral DNA. Conclusions: hA3G lethal hypermutation was significantly associated with ART failure in Indian HIV-1 subtype C patients. It is unlikely that viral variants, which exhibit hypermutated sequences and M184I and/or M230I, will mature and expand in vivo.

  8. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  9. Regulatory T cells expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals maintain phenotype, TCR repertoire and suppressive capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Angin

    Full Text Available While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region, characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.

  10. Topiramate impairs cognitive function in methadone-maintained individuals with concurrent cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Olga; Umbricht, Annie; Bigelow, George E; Strain, Eric C; Johnson, Matthew W; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2015-03-01

    Topiramate is being investigated as a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addictive disorders. However, its cognitive side effects raise concerns about its use, especially in populations with cognitive impairment, such as persons with chronic substance use disorders. This study investigated topiramate's cognitive effects in individuals dually dependent on cocaine and opioids as part of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of topiramate for cocaine dependence treatment. After 5 weeks of stabilization on daily oral methadone (M = 96 mg), participants were randomized to topiramate (n = 18) or placebo (n = 22). Cognitive testing took place at 2 time points: study weeks 4 through 5 to assess baseline performance and 10 to 13 weeks later to assess performance during stable dosing (300 mg topiramate or placebo). All participants were maintained on methadone at both testing times, and testing occurred 2 hours after the daily methadone plus topiramate/placebo administration. The topiramate and placebo groups did not differ on sex, level of education, premorbid intelligence, methadone dose, or illicit drug use. Topiramate slowed psychomotor and information processing speed, worsened divided attention, reduced n-back working memory accuracy, and increased the false alarm rate in recognition memory. Topiramate had no effects on visual processing, other measures of psychomotor function, risk-taking, self-control, Sternberg working memory, free recall, and metamemory. These findings indicate that topiramate may cause cognitive impairment in this population. This effect may limit its acceptability and use as a treatment in individuals with chronic opioid and cocaine use disorders, among whom preexisting cognitive impairments are common. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25365653

  11. Maintaining Motivation and Regulating Emotion: Measuring Individual Differences in Academic Volitional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Erin J.; Garcia, Teresa

    An instrument was developed to measure the resourcefulness and self-directedness of students in maintaining their motivation on academic goal tasks. The Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory (AVSI) is a self-report instrument designed to assess the management of emotion and motivation by college students during the goal-striving process. An…

  12. Topiramate impairs cognitive function in methadone-maintained individuals with concurrent cocaine dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Rass, Olga; Umbricht, Annie; Bigelow, George E.; Strain, Eric C.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.

    2014-01-01

    Topiramate is being investigated as a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addictive disorders. However, its cognitive side effects raise concerns about its use, especially in populations with cognitive impairment, such as persons with chronic substance use disorders. This study investigated the topiramate's cognitive effects in individuals dually dependent on cocaine and opioids as part of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of topiramate for the cocaine dependence treatme...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. New treatment strategies for hepatitis c infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C infection can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellularcarcinoma and it is an important cause ofmortality and morbidity. Achieving a sustained virologicalresponse has been the major aim for decades. Interferontreatment was the primarily developed therapy againstthe infection. Addition of the guanosine analog ribavirinto stop viral RNA synthesis increased the responserates as well as the adverse effects of the treatment.The increasing demands for alternative regimens led tothe development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Theapproval of sofosbuvir and simeprevir signaled a new eraof antiviral treatment for hepatitis C infection. Althoughthe majority of studies have been performed with DAAsin combination with interferon and resulted in a decreasein treatment duration and increase in response rates, theresponse rates achieved with interferon-free regimensprovided hope for patients ineligible for therapy withinterferon. Most DAA studies are in phase Ⅱ leading tophase Ⅲ. In the near future more DAAs are expectedto be approved. The main disadvantage of the therapyremains the cost of the drugs. Here, we focus on newtreatment strategies for hepatitis C infection as well asagents targeting hepatitis C virus replication that are inclinical development.

  15. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, M; Jacob, K; Zachoval, R

    1999-08-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C infection without signs of photosensitivity, using an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method. Increased total porphyrin excretion was found in 41 patients, with predominant excretion of coproporphyrins (whole study group: mean 146 microg/g creatinine, interquartile range 76-186; normal coproporphyrin, heptacarboxyporphyrin III increased) but the total porphyrin excretion was only slightly elevated in this case. In the whole group, total urinary porphyrin excretion correlated well with serum bilirubin and was inversely correlated with albumin and thrombin time. In conclusion, secondary coproporphyrinuria occurs frequently in heptatitis C infection, whereas in Germany, preclinical porphyria cutanea tarda seems to be rare in these patients. PMID:10536928

  16. Patient concerns regarding chronic hepatitis C infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuk, G Y; Gutkin, A; Wong, S G; Kaita, K D E

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients with chronic hepatitis C infections is often limited to discussions regarding how the virus is transmitted and what can be done to decrease the risk of transmission to others. The purpose of the present study was to document the principal concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C, and thereby enhance counselling strategies and content. Seventy newly diagnosed and 115 follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were initially asked in an open-ended manner (volunteered concerns) and then to prioritize from a prepared list of seven potential concerns (prioritized concerns), to identify those concerns that were of utmost importance to them. The most common volunteered concerns of newly diagnosed patients in decreasing order were: disease progression (27%), premature death (19%), infecting family members (13%), side-effects of treatment (11%) and miscellaneous others. In decreasing order, prioritized concerns included: infecting family members, development of liver cancer, infecting others, development of cirrhosis, social stigma of having liver disease, need for liver transplant and loss of employment. The principal volunteered and prioritized concerns of follow-up patients were similar to those of newly diagnosed patients. Volunteered and prioritized concerns were relatively consistent across the different genders, age groups, ethnic backgrounds, education level, marital status, employment, modes of viral acquisition and in the case of follow-up patients, duration of follow-up. These results indicate that health care providers who focus counselling efforts exclusively on viral transmission are unlikely to address other important concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:15655048

  17. Effect of PTSD diagnosis and contingency management procedures on cocaine use in dually cocaine and opioid-dependent individuals maintained on LAAM: A retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, M.; McGaugh, J.; Feldman, Z; Poling, J.; Oliveto, A.

    2010-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial retrospectively examined the effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and contingency management (CM) on cocaine use in opioid and cocaine dependent individuals maintained on high or low-dose LAAM randomly assigned to CM or a yoked-control condition. Cocaine-positive urines decreased more rapidly over time in those without PTSD versus those with PTSD in the non-contingency condition. In participants with PTSD, CM resulted in fewer cocaine positive urines ...

  18. Original article Determinants of personality in the scope of motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding therapy

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    Jan Chodkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The results of numerous studies indicate strong associations of personality with the occurrence, and also with the treatment, of alcohol dependence. However, there is no agreement regarding the role of particular dimensions of temperament and character in the course of, and for the results of, alcohol rehabilitation therapy. The objective of the present research was to investigate the relationships between the dimensions of temperament and character as they are presented by Robert Cloninger and motivation for maintaining abstinence in the case of male alcohol-dependent individuals concluding the therapy. Participants and procedure Eighty-nine male alcohol-dependent individuals, concluding alcohol rehabilitation therapy in an outpatient setting, were studied. The following research tools were applied: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI of R. Clo­ninger in the Polish adaptation of E. Hornowska (2003, and the Motivation for Maintaining Abstinence Inventory, the author of which is M. Ziółkowski. Results Two clusters, differing in the aspect of motivation for maintaining abstinence after the conclusion of the treatment, were distinguished: of individuals manifesting weaker motivation (n = 39 and those manifesting stronger motivation (n = 50. The patients with stronger motivation manifested the following major features: a lower level of harm avoidance, a higher level of reward dependence, and a higher level of cooperativeness. Conclusions Personality as it is presented by Cloninger manifests connections with motivation for maintaining abstinence. The research confirms the need for diagnosing addicted patients in the scope of temperament and character traits.

  19. Consensus guidelines for the management of hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    At prevalence of 2.7% in the early 1990's, it is estimated that approximately 500,000 people in Saudi Arabia have been exposed to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Over 80% of such individuals remain infected and most of them progress to chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis, and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of newly acquired hepatitis C infection in Saudi Arabia has declined with the recent reported prevalence of approximately 1%. This decline is largely due to the early implementation of testing of blood donors for HCV. However, it is pertinent that measures are taken to identify patients already infected and offer treatment to those with good prognostic factors. Hepatitis C genotype 4, the most predominant genotype in Saudi Arabia (62%) has been resistant to conventional interferon (IFN) therapy and sustained response rate to combination therapy with IFN plus ribavirin (RBV) has been poor. The recently completed Ministry of Health (MOH) clinical trial reports improved sustained virological response (SVR) rate of 65.2% among week 12 early responders of HCV genotype 4 chronic hepatitis patients using pegylated (PEG)-IFN alfa-2a (40 KD) plus RBV. This encouraging process calls for a change in patient management towards a more community-based approach. With the aim of assessing these changes and defining a management strategy for HCV infected patients in Saudi Arabia, a consensus conference was held and consensus guidelines issued. The final recommendation will be made available to all MOH, tertiary and non-government hospitals in the Kingdom to provide uniform care to all CHC patients. Based on the SVR of the above mentioned clinical trial, the committee recommends treatment for patients with histologically proven CHC, with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and positive HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA). Patients with normal serum ALT may not be treated if liver histology is normal or reveals only minimal changes. Patients with decompensated

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demitrost Laloo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C is an emerging disease with different studies showing varying prevalence rates across India. In several studies, prevalence of hepatitis C infection was found to be higher in diabetics than nondiabetics. However, none has been reported from India. Objectives: The aim was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study of all T2DM patients attending endocrine clinic in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from October 2011 to September 2013. Subjects and Methods: All T2DM patients included and exclusion criteria are patients with other forms of diabetes, liver failure, renal failure, malignancy or other chronic illness. Patient′s age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, history of risk factors, etc., collected and investigated for blood glucose fasting and prandial levels, transaminases levels, hepatitis C virus (HCV screening, etc., Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using  Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20; appropriate test used where applicable. Results: Out of the 192 T2DM patients screened, prevalence rate of HCV sero-positivity is found to be 5.7% (11/192, higher in males. History of jaundice in the past was the only significant history among sero-positive patients. Transaminases levels are significantly higher in sero-postive cases. They had higher fasting and postprandial blood glucose, fasting glucose levels being significantly higher. Conclusion: Our study shows a slightly higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetics.

  1. Dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Ward, H; Kattakuzhy, S; Wilson, E; Kottilil, S

    2016-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is the first pan-genotypic direct acting antiviral agent to be approved. This article provides an overview of the pharmacology of sofosbuvir and ribavirin and a comprehensive summary of the phase 2 and 3 studies supporting dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. With the production of generic formulations of sofosbuvir, we anticipate this regimen leading the first wave for widespread, IFN-free treatment and becoming first line for all genotypes (including genotype 1) for much of the world-in particular in developing and middle income countries. We discuss the continued challenges with this regimen including among patients with decompensated liver disease and post-liver transplant, and renal failure. We address concerns of emerging resistance. We also discuss the future prospects including the global uptake of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for the treatment of all genotypes.

  2. Meaning of Adherence in Hepatitis C-Infected Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Frances H; Barnes, Donelle M

    2016-01-01

    Among United States (U.S.) veterans, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infection is three times that of the general U.S. population. Treatment success is proportionate to the degree of treatment adherence. There has been little research dedicated to the systematic exploration of issues related to treatment adherence. The purpose of this study was to describe factors that influenced adherence in infected military veterans. Phenomenological research emphasizes a rich description. A convenience sample of 21 veterans was recruited from a clinic in north Texas. One-time in-depth interviews explored reasons for remaining in treatment despite difficult side effects. Analysis included immersion, data transformation, thematic analysis, and summary. Cognitive strategies to stay on medication include making a commitment to treatment, "not ready to leave this world," conserving energy and staying busy, looking forward, and starting over. Veterans utilize previously learned military discipline to stay on medications and follow providers' orders. They are not ready to die and have plans for life after treatment. Patient education should focus on side effect management, rather than on genotypes or viral load. Treatment teams should include substance abuse specialists and gastroenterology providers. Future studies need to develop a measurement tool for adherence during antiviral treatment. PMID:26825560

  3. Epidemiology of hepetitis C infection, ERHA/HSE Eastern region.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meara, M O

    2007-02-01

    Hepatitis C became statutorily notifiable in Ireland on 1 January 2004. Prior to 2004, only hepatitis A and hepatitis B were notifiable as distinct types of hepatitis. A third category notifiable under the Infectious Diseases Regulations 1981 was "viral hepatitis unspecified". The majority of cases notified under this heading were thought to be due to infection with hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Between January 1 2004 and December 31 2005, the Department of Public Health HSE Eastern Region, received notification of 2,014 cases of HCV infection (2004, 941 cases, 2005 1,073 cases). This report outlines basic demographic details on cases notified and comments on missing data. Peak age band at notification for males and females is in the 25-29 year old age group where 538 (26.7%) were notified. Thirty cases notified (1.5%) were under 15 years of age. Drug misuse has been confirmed as a risk factor for 1247 (61.9%) of cases notified, and may be a risk factor in a large percentage of the reminder where risk factor data are unknown. Problems with completeness of notification have been identified. Enhanced surveillance of all hepatitis C infections is a prerequisite for future service planning.

  4. Social Role-Play Games Vs Individual Perceptions of Conservation and PES Agreements for Maintaining Rubber Agroforests in Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Meine van Noordwijk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives can both support and undermine social norms compatible with environmental service enhancement. External co-investment—e.g., through incentives from programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD and eco-certification—needs to synergize with local efforts by understanding local dynamics and conditions for free and prior informed consent. We assessed the perceptions and behavior of rubber agroforest farmers under existing conservation agreements as a step toward institutionalized reward schemes for agro-biodiversity using questionnaires and role-playing games (RPG. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply such a combination of methods to explore the perceptions of payments for environmental services (PES. Results revealed a strong conservation belief system and social norms in the research site, with indications that individual interest in converting old rubber agroforest to oil palm, with consequent private gain and loss of local social agro-biodiversity benefits, is suppressed in the social context of a role-playing game. In the game, all financial bids by external agents to secure an oil palm foothold in the village, were rejected despite indications of declining income in the village. Agents promoting an eco-certification scheme in the RPG had success and the responses obtained in the game can assist in the actual rollout of such a scheme without creating unrealistic expectations of its financial benefits. Co-investment schemes that require higher levels of trust and clarity of performance measures will have to address the potential discrepancy between individual preferences and community-level planning and decisions, while recognizing that social norms color the responses of individuals when presented with alternatives.

  5. Iterative reconstruction and individualized automatic tube current selection reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in 320-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the effect of two iterative reconstruction algorithms (AIDR and AIDR3D) and individualized automatic tube current selection on radiation dose and image quality in computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Materials and methods: In a single-centre cohort study, 942 patients underwent electrocardiogram-gated CTCA using a 320-multidetector CT system. Images from group 1 (n = 228) were reconstructed with a filtered back projection algorithm (Quantum Denoising Software, QDS+). Iterative reconstruction was used for group 2 (AIDR, n = 379) and group 3 (AIDR3D, n = 335). Tube current was selected based on body mass index (BMI) for groups 1 and 2, and selected automatically based on scout image attenuation for group 3. Subjective image quality was graded on a four-point scale (1 = excellent, 4 = non-diagnostic). Results: There were no differences in age (p = 0.975), body mass index (p = 0.435), or heart rate (p = 0.746) between the groups. Image quality improved with iterative reconstruction and automatic tube current selection [1.3 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.2–1.4), 1.2 (1.1–1.2) and 1.1 (1–1.2) respectively; p < 0.001] and radiation dose decreased [274 (260–290), 242 (230–253) and 168 (156–180) mGy cm, respectively; p < 0.001]. Conclusion: The application of the latest iterative reconstruction algorithm and individualized automatic tube current selection can substantially reduce radiation dose whilst improving image quality in CTCA

  6. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  7. False-positive reaction between syphilis and hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, E; Ozerol, I H; Senol, M; Kizilkaya, N; Sahin, K; Ozbilge, H

    1997-11-01

    There are limited data about false-positive reactions against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in syphilitic patients and false-positive reactions against syphilis in the patients with HCV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the false-positivity of syphilis in patients with HCV infection, the false-positivity of anti-HCV in patients with syphilis and the validity of the serological tests in such patients. Fifty patients with positive anti-HCV, 21 patients with positive VDRL and 50 healthy subjects were studied. Syphilis serology was determined by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and microhemagglutination for T. pallidum (MHA-TP) test. Hepatitis C serology was determined by a second generation ELISA (Ortho Diagnostics) test for HCV antibody, and anti-HCV positive patients were tested for HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All assays were performed on all subjects. Not only the false-positive VDRL reaction in the patients with HCV infection but also false-positive anti-HCV tests in syphilitic patients have been observed. Four patients with syphilis had positive anti-HCV and negative HCV-RNA, whereas 10% (5 of 50) of patients with hepatitis C infection had positive VDRL and these patients were negative for MHA-TP test. The rates of false-positivity of VDRL and anti-HCV were higher than within the control group (p anti-HCV in syphilitic patients and positive VDRL in chronic hepatitis C may be false-positive results with regard to the reaginic tests. Therefore, therapeutic measures should not be initiated without confirmation with a treponemal test or PCR. VDRL and HCV-ELISA tests may be interacted with IgM or IgG antibodies. This relationship should be investigated in further studies. PMID:9434808

  8. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older people, living in nursing homes, are exposed to diverse situations, which may be associated with loss of dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is preserved in such context. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been...... studied from both the residents´ and the care pro-viders´ perspective. However, most of these studies pertain to experiences in the dying or the illness context. Knowledge is scarce about how older people experience their dig-nity within their everyday lives in nursing homes. Aim To illuminate the meaning...... of maintaining dignity from the perspective of older people living in nursing homes Method. This qualitative study is based on individual interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandinavia. A phenomenolog-ical-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur was used...

  9. Sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in combination for the treatment of hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Adhoute, Xavier; Ansaldi, Christelle; Oules, Valérie; Benali, Souad; Portal, Isabelle; Castellani, Paul; Halfon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Sofsobuvir is the first-in-class NS5B nucleotide inhibitor to be launched as a treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Its viral potency, pan genotypic activity and high barrier to resistance make it the ideal candidate to become a backbone for several IFN-free regimens. Ledipasvir is a NS5A inhibitor with multi genotypic activity but modest barrier to resistance. The once-daily fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir is the first-in-market single-tablet regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C infection. Recent data demonstrated that this FDC alone, or in combination with ribavirin, is able to achieve HCV cure of at least 90% or more among genotype 1,4, 5 and 6 patients. This combination appears to be suboptimal in genotype 3 patients and other direct acting antiviral combinations with sofosbuvir will help to fulfill this gap in the near future. The safety profile of the fixed dose combination is good. Resistance is not an issue with sofosbuvir but may be a significant issue with regards to ledipasvir for those rare individuals who harbor baseline HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants that conferred a high resistance level. The rational for using FDCs and the available clinical data are reviewed.

  10. Hepatitis C infection and outcomes in the Scottish haemophilia population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Tait, R C; Kerr, R; Ludlam, C A; Lowe, G D O; Murray, W; Watson, H G

    2013-11-01

    Patients with bleeding disorders previously frequently became infected with hepatitis C virus. We identified the number of patients infected in Scotland and assessed several aspects of the outcomes of HCV infection and its treatment comparing these with cohorts infected for other reasons. We calculated the number of individuals infected in Scotland (cohort A) starting with the total number of patients treated in Scottish haemophilia centres registered on the UKHCDO database between 1970 and 1989. Cases were then removed or added based on additional information from centre records. A second cohort B, consisted of 255 patients from cohort A and 47 patients HCV infected outside Scotland, but with follow-up data from Scottish centres around their HCV infection. We estimate that 455 patients with bleeding disorders became infected by coagulation factor provided by NHS Scotland. In 302 individuals with documented HCV infection, rates of natural clearance (17.4%), genotype spread (64% genotype 1) and responses to antiviral therapy (14.5% with monotherapy; 38.8% with combination therapy) were similar to those in other cohorts. Thirty-four liver biopsies were performed without adverse event and liver transplantation has been performed in 11 patients, seven for liver failure, four for hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 455 patients with bleeding disorders became HCV infected in Scotland before 1989. The natural history of HCV infection and responses to treatment are similar to those in other HCV-infected cohorts. Liver transplantation has been used successfully for the treatment of end-stage liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Transmission of single and multiple viral variants in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Novitsky

    Full Text Available To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1,2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution of maximum and mean genetic distances, analysis of Poisson fitness, shape of highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA were utilized for resolving multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission in a set of viral quasispecies collected within 50 days post-seroconversion (p/s in 25 HIV-infected individuals with estimated time of seroconversion. The decision on multiplicity of HIV infection was made based on the model's fit with, or failure to explain, the observed extent of viral sequence heterogeneity. The initial analysis was based on phylogeny, inter-patient distribution of maximum and mean distances, and Poisson fitness, and was able to resolve multiplicity of HIV transmission in 20 of 25 (80% cases. Additional analysis involved distribution of individual viral distances, highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of tMRCA, and resolved 4 of the 5 remaining cases. Overall, transmission of a single viral variant was identified in 16 of 25 (64% cases, and transmission of multiple variants was evident in 8 of 25 (32% cases. In one case multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission could not be determined. In primary HIV-1 subtype C infection, samples collected within 50 days p/s and analyzed by a single-genome amplification/sequencing technique can provide reliable identification of transmission multiplicity in 24 of 25 (96% cases. Observed transmission frequency of a single viral variant and multiple viral variants were within the ranges of 64% to 68%, and 32% to 36%, respectively.

  12. Factors Associated with Hepatitis C Infection among Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram W Abd El-Wahab

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial for developing appropriate prevention strategies. There are few community-based studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis C infection in Egypt, which could not provide enough information. Clear identification of past and current risk factors for infection is of utmost importance so that intervention programs can be appropriately focused. This study aims to provide up-to-date information about changes in the incidence of individual risk factors for HCV infection transmission in Egypt.A total of 396 chronic HCV patients on follow-up treatment at liver center in El-Qabbary General Hospital in Alexandria were evaluated retrospectively regarding the potential iatrogenic, community acquired and behavioral HCV risk factors. Risk factors for HCV transmission were found in all study populations.At least three identifiable risk factors were reported by each participant. Some behavioral and community-acquired exposures that entail several risky behaviors particularly, unsafe sexual practices were exclusively established among males. We report a significant decline in prevalence of HCV transmission through blood transfusion, parenteral treatment, hospitalization, surgery, non medicalized circumcision, Hijiama done by informal practitioner, tattooing, folk body piercing and threading, sharing hygiene and sharp items, and the use of communal barber or manicure sets among younger age cluster.The pattern of risk differed among older patients compared to younger age group suggesting improved medical care and infection control measures and raised public health awareness regarding the different modes of viral transmission.

  13. Chronic hepatitis B and C infection in the United States: a review of current guidelines, disease burden and cost effectiveness of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpel, Dost; Baichoo, Esha; Dieterich, Douglas T

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C infection are the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver related death in the world and in the United States respectively. Screening guidelines have been developed based on estimated prevalence determined by NHANES data. However, individuals with the most risk of chronic infection (incarcerated, homeless, immigrants, nursing home residents, and hospitalized persons) are underrepresented in this cohort leading to an underestimation of the true prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C infection. This has led to recent updates in the screening guidelines. This review examines the change in the guidelines, the likely true seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, as well as the burden of chronic infection in this population. PMID:27043049

  14. Reverse Transcriptase drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 Subtype C infected patients on ART in Karonga District, Malawi

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bansode, Vijay B

    2011-10-13

    Abstract Background Drug resistance testing before initiation of, or during, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not routinely performed in resource-limited settings. High levels of viral resistance circulating within the population will have impact on treatment programs by increasing the chances of transmission of resistant strains and treatment failure. Here, we investigate Drug Resistance Mutations (DRMs) from blood samples obtained at regular intervals from patients on ART (Baseline-22 months) in Karonga District, Malawi. One hundred and forty nine reverse transcriptase (RT) consensus sequences were obtained via nested PCR and automated sequencing from blood samples collected at three-month intervals from 75 HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals in the ART programme. Results Fifteen individuals showed DRMs, and in ten individuals DRMs were seen from baseline samples (reported to be ART naïve). Three individuals in whom no DRMs were observed at baseline showed the emergence of DRMs during ART exposure. Four individuals who did show DRMs at baseline showed additional DRMs at subsequent time points, while two individuals showed evidence of DRMs at baseline and either no DRMs, or different DRMs, at later timepoints. Three individuals had immune failure but none appeared to be failing clinically. Conclusion Despite the presence of DRMs to drugs included in the current regimen in some individuals, and immune failure in three, no signs of clinical failure were seen during this study. This cohort will continue to be monitored as part of the Karonga Prevention Study so that the long-term impact of these mutations can be assessed. Documenting proviral population is also important in monitoring the emergence of drug resistance as selective pressure provided by ART compromises the current plasma population, archived viruses can re-emerge

  15. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE...... events. Previous antiviral therapy (treatment-naive patients, relapsers, or nonresponders), patient characteristics, treatment regimen, methodological quality, and duration of follow-up were extracted. We included 72 trials with a total of 9991 enrolled patients. Treatment with ribavirin plus interferon...

  16. Should We Consider Patients with Coexistent Hepatitis B or C Infection for Orthotopic Heart Transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation (HTX is the gold standard surgical treatment for patients with advanced heart failure. The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in HTX recipients is over 10%. Despite its increased prevalence, the long-term outcome in this cohort is still not clear. There is a reluctance to place these patients on transplant waiting list given the increased incidence of viral reactivation and chronic liver disease after transplant. The emergence of new antiviral therapies to treat this cohort seems promising but their long-term outcome is yet to be established. The aim of this paper is to review the literature and explore whether it is justifiable to list advanced heart failure patients with coexistent hepatitis B/C infection for HTX.

  17. Hepatitis C Infection in the General Population of Iran: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Moayed Alavian; Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Mohammad Ali Shahbabaie; Amir Bahrami Ahmadi; Ali Kabir

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: There is no overall estimate of hepatitis C infection (HCV) in Iran. We reviewed all of the published and unpublished evidence related to HCV infection in Iran in order to accurately estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in the Iranian general population to inform future health system programs. .Methods: In this systematic review, all papers, medical congresses, HCV-related reports, projects of Iranian research centers and medical universities, reports from the Deputy ...

  18. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Infection and Associated Factors in Addicts Imprisoned at Khezrabad Prison, Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abdolmanafi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though incarcerated populations are at a high risk of developing hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, prisoners are not routinely screened for HCV infection. Approximately, 1 in 4 of the nearly 2 million prisoners in the U.S. is infected with HCV. Injection drug abusers are currently the main risk group. Among intravenous drug abusers over the world, the prevalence of HCV varies from 50-90% with an annual incidence of 10-30%. Prisons are a high risk environment for hepatitis C infection because of high incidence of drug abuse and high risk sexual activities. Serologic evidences show that HCV infection is present in one out of every three prisoners. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C infection and its associated factors among addicted prisoners in Khezrabad prison of Sari. Methodss: This was a cross – sectional study done in September 2001 at the Khezrabad prison for addicts in Sari. 312 addicts participated in the study and were selected by simple random sampling method. Their blood samples were tested by third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3: sensitivity 100%, specificity 100% at Sari's blood transfusion center. The data was collected via a questionnaire and interview. 230 prisoners (74% completed the questionnaires. Associated factors of Hepatitis C infection were compared in 82 anti-HCV positive addicts (the affected group and 148 anti-HCV negative addicts (the unaffected group. There were no significant differences about confounding variables between the two groups. Statistical analysis was done by , t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 312 addicted prisoners, 96 (30.8% were anti-HCV positive. Major associated factors with Hepatitis C infection in the affected group included; duration of addiction (mean 174 months, duration of imprisonment (mean 48 months, methods of drug usage (injection 82% and intranasal 44%, length of alcohol consumption for more

  19. Evaluation of viral load in saliva from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Santos, Renata L; de Deus, Dayse M V; de Almeida Lopes, Edmundo P; Duarte Coêlho, Maria R C; de Castro, Jurema F L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the HCV-RNA in saliva and plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis C infections, as well as check the level of viral load in sex groups (age, ethnicity and virus subtypes). Whole saliva and blood from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections attended at the department of gastroenterology from University Hospital. The HCV-RNA load was performed by qRT-PCR using Sybr Green I master mix. HCV-RNA was detected in 80% (56/70) of patients in saliva and 92.85% (65/70) in plasma. The median of the viral load in the plasma was of 4.87 log10, and in saliva, it was 3.32log10, (p = 0.0005). Female patients and black patients exhibited a negative correlation between the HCV-RNA load in saliva vs. the HCV-RNA load in plasma (r = -0.3172, CI95% -0.6240 to -0.03736, p = 0.0491) and (r = -0.3141; IC95% -0.6069 to -0.05926; p = 0.0209), respectively. HCV-RNA was detected and quantified in saliva samples, and according to the quantification levels, saliva may be a possible transmission source of HCV, particularly in women and people of black ethnicity who develop chronic HCV infections.

  20. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  1. Maintaining Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  2. Direct bonded space maintainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period.

  3. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  4. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population.

  5. Systemic Immune Activation Profiles of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Children and Their Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinyiko G. Makhubele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about immune activation profiles of children infected with HIV-1 subtype C. The current study compared levels of selected circulating biomarkers of immune activation in HIV-1 subtype C-infected untreated mothers and their children with those of healthy controls. Multiplex bead array, ELISA, and immunonephelometric procedures were used to measure soluble CD14 (sCD14, beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, CRP, MIG, IP-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. Levels of all 6 biomarkers were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected mothers and, with the exception of MIG, in their children (P<0.01–P<0.0001. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART and maternal smoking on these biomarkers were also assessed. With the exception of TGF-β1, which was unchanged in the children 12 months after therapy, initiation of ART was accompanied by decreases in the other biomarkers. Regression analysis revealed that although most biomarkers were apparently unaffected by smoking, exposure of children to maternal smoking was associated with a significant increase in IP-10. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers of immune activation are elevated in HIV-infected children pre-ART and decline, with the exception of TGF-β1, after therapy. Although preliminary, elevation of IP-10 in smoke-exposed infants is consistent with a higher level of immune activation in this group.

  6. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  7. Hepatitis C Infection in the General Population of Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is no overall estimate of hepatitis C infection (HCV in Iran. We reviewed all of the published and unpublished evidence related to HCV infection in Iran in order to accurately estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in the Iranian general population to inform future health system programs. .Methods: In this systematic review, all papers, medical congresses, HCV-related reports, projects of Iranian research centers and medical universities, reports from the Deputy for Health Affairs (published or unpublished, and online theses about HCV in Iran were included. We selected descriptive and analytic cross-sectional studies and surveys related to the prevalence of HCV infection in the Iranian general population between 2001 and 2008 that have sufficiently declared objectives, proper sampling methods with identical and valid measurement instruments for all study subjects and proper analysis methods regarding sampling design and demographic adjustments. We used a survey data analysis method to estimate the national prevalence rate..Results: From the 6,431 studies we investigated, eight eligible studies reported a prevalence of HCV infection in the general population. They were from six (out of 30 provinces, in which about 43 percent of the country's population lives. We calculated that the HCV infection prevalence rate in Iran is 0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.59%..Conclusions: In comparison with similar studies, the prevalence of HCV infection in Iran is low. This might be a result of having prevention programs for high-risk groups and strict blood screening programs.

  8. Origin and dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengli Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the geographical origin and evolution dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India. DESIGN: Ninety HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 subtype C sequences from India were compared with 312 env gp120 reference subtype C sequences from 27 different countries obtained from Los Alamos HIV database. All the HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 sequences from India were used for the geographical origin analysis and 61 subtype C env gp120 sequences with known sampling year (from 1991 to 2008 were employed to determine the origin of HIV infection in India. METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 env sequences was used to investigate the geographical origin and tMRCA of Indian HIV-1 subtype C. Evolutionary parameters including origin date and demographic growth patterns of Indian subtype C were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under relaxed molecular clock models. FINDINGS: The majority of the analyzed Indian and South African HIV-1 subtype C sequences formed a single monophyletic cluster. The most recent common ancestor date was calculated to be 1975.56 (95% HPD, 1968.78-1981.52. Reconstruction of the effective population size revealed three phases of epidemic growth: an initial slow growth, followed by exponential growth, and then a plateau phase approaching present time. Stabilization of the epidemic growth phase correlated with the foundation of National AIDS Control Organization in India. INTERPRETATION: Indian subtype C originated from a single South African lineage in the middle of 1970s. The current study emphasizes not only the utility of HIV-1 sequence data for epidemiological studies but more notably highlights the effectiveness of community or government intervention strategies in controlling the trend of the epidemic.

  9. Orbital Pseudotumor as a Rare Extrahepatic Manifestation of Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Misselwitz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is frequently accompanied by immune-related extrahepatic manifestations affecting the skin, kidneys, central and peripheral nervous system and exocrine glands. We present the case of a 40-year-old man with left-sided ptosis, exophthalmos and headache. MRI demonstrated left-sided orbital pseudotumor with lacrimal and retro-orbital contrast enhancement extending to the cavernous sinus and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Immunological tests of serum and cerebrospinal fluid identified hepatitis C virus (HCV as a potential causative agent but did not indicate any additional infectious, malignant or immunological disorder. Hepatological evaluation revealed no signs of advanced liver disease. After initial spontaneous improvement, the patient subsequently developed vestibulocochlear failure with gait disorder, tinnitus and transient left-parietal sensory loss. Lacrimal biopsy demonstrated lymphocytic infiltrate, prompting steroid treatment. After initial improvement, steroids could not be tapered below 40 mg daily for several months due to recurrent symptoms. Twelve months after the initial presentation, the patient’s chronic HCV infection was successfully treated with sofosbuvir, simeprevir and ribavirin and he remains now free of symptoms without steroids. In patients with chronic hepatitis C, lymphocytic infiltrate of the salivary and lacrimal glands is a frequent phenomenon. However, the extent of the lymphocytic infiltrate beyond the lacrimal gland to the tip of the orbit, cavernous sinus and vestibulocochlear nerve as in our patient is highly unusual. For all symptomatic extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C infection, treatment of HCV as the underlying immune stimulus is recommended, and it helped to control the symptoms in our patient. In addition, long-term follow-up for recurrent lymphocyte infiltrate and development of lymphoma is warranted.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, S; Guerra, I; Dusheiko, G

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection has significantly improved with the introduction of first-generation protease inhibitors. However, there remains a need for effective treatments for patients infected with other genotypes, for nonresponders and patients unsuitable for interferon. Sofosbuvir is the first nucleotide polymerase inhibitor with pan-genotypic activity. Sofosbuvir-based regimens have resulted in >90% sustained virological response across treatment-naïve genotype 1-6 patients in five phase III clinical trials of sofosbuvir administered with ribavirin or pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir within the current licensed indication, for genotype 1-6 in the UK. A Markov model followed a cohort of 10 000 patients over lifetime, with approximately 20% initiating treatment for compensated cirrhosis. Sofosbuvir-regimens were compared to telaprevir, boceprevir, pegylated interferon and ribavirin, or no treatment. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3.5%. The cost perspective utilized costs applicable to the National Health Service in the UK. Sofosbuvir proved to be cost-effective in most patient populations with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) at £11 836/QALY and £7292/QALY against telaprevir and boceprevir, respectively. In genotype 3, sofosbuvir had a weighted ICER of £18 761/QALY. Sofosbuvir-based regimens are a cost-effective option for the majority of hepatitis C-infected patients in the United Kingdom although the incremental cost-effectiveness varies by genotype and regimen. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin is an alternative regimen for patients unsuitable for interferon.

  11. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  12. Modified bonded bridge space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegeois, F; Limme, M

    1999-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth can create the need for space maintenance and restoration of function. This article presents a fixed bonded space maintainer, which allows space to be maintained with economy of dental tissues.

  13. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wal Gerrit; Hirasing Remy A; Henneman Lidewij; Timmermans Danielle RM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of ...

  14. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......The paper focuses on the unemployed individual and her position in local activation practice. The overall aim is to analyse the role of individualisation of local activation policy in the construction of social citizenship in Sweden. More specifically, we ask: To what extent do clients have......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C infections induce distinct immunologic imprints in peripheral mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottilil, S; Yan, MY; Reitano, KN; Zhang, X; Lempicki, R; Roby, G; Daucher, M; Yang, J; Cortez, KJ; Ghany, M; Polis, MA; Fauci, AS

    2009-01-01

    Co-infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is present in one-third of all Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected (HIV) individuals in the United States and is associated with rapid progression of liver fibrosis and poor response to pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups of individuals who are mono- or co-infected with HIV and HCV. Data showed that HIV and HCV viremia up-regulate genes associated with immune activation and immunoregulatory pathways. HCV viremia is also associated with abnormalities in all peripheral immune cells, suggesting a global effect of HCV on the immune system. Interferon-α-induced genes were expressed at a higher level in PBMCs from HIV-infected individuals. HCV and HIV infections leave distinct profiles or gene expression of immune activation in PBMCs. HIV viremia induces an immune activated state; by comparison, HCV infection induces immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory pathways that may contribute to progression of liver fibrosis. An aberrant type-I IFN response seen exclusively in HIV-infected individuals could be responsible for the poor therapeutic response experienced by HIV/HCV co-infected individuals receiving interferon-α based current standard of care. PMID:19551908

  16. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  17. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  18. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  19. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  20. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Xue

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  1. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    OpenAIRE

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature ...

  2. Hepatitis C infection: A multi-faceted systemic disease with clinical, patient reported and economic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Birerdinc, Aybike; Henry, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) affects approximately 170-200 million individuals globally. HCV is one of the primary causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis and has been identified as the leading indication for liver transplantation in most Western countries. Because HCV is a systemic disease with hepatic, extrahepatic, economic and patient reported consequences, it is important for healthcare practitioners to understand the comprehensive and multi-faceted picture of this disease. In this context, it is important to fully appreciate the impact of HCV on the individual patient and the society. With the recent advent of the new generation of direct antiviral agents, the long standing goal of eradicating HCV in most infected patients has been accomplished. Therefore, now more than ever, it is critical to assess the total benefits of sustained virological response in a comprehensive manner. This should not be limited to the clinical benefits of HCV cure, but also to account for the improvement of patient reported health and economic outcomes of HCV cure. It is only through this comprehensive approach to HCV and its treatment that we will understand the full impact of this disease and the tremendous gains that have been achieved with the new antiviral regimens.

  3. Hepatitis C infection: A multi-faceted systemic disease with clinical, patient reported and economic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Birerdinc, Aybike; Henry, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) affects approximately 170-200 million individuals globally. HCV is one of the primary causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis and has been identified as the leading indication for liver transplantation in most Western countries. Because HCV is a systemic disease with hepatic, extrahepatic, economic and patient reported consequences, it is important for healthcare practitioners to understand the comprehensive and multi-faceted picture of this disease. In this context, it is important to fully appreciate the impact of HCV on the individual patient and the society. With the recent advent of the new generation of direct antiviral agents, the long standing goal of eradicating HCV in most infected patients has been accomplished. Therefore, now more than ever, it is critical to assess the total benefits of sustained virological response in a comprehensive manner. This should not be limited to the clinical benefits of HCV cure, but also to account for the improvement of patient reported health and economic outcomes of HCV cure. It is only through this comprehensive approach to HCV and its treatment that we will understand the full impact of this disease and the tremendous gains that have been achieved with the new antiviral regimens. PMID:27641981

  4. Rapid Development of Advanced Liver Fibrosis after Acquisition of Hepatitis C Infection during Primary HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinusi, Anu; Kleiner, David; Wood, Brad; Polis, Michael; Masur, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report the first reported case of a 61-year-old MSM who was diagnosed with syphilis, primary HIV infection, and acute hepatitis C (HCV) within the same time period who rapidly developed significant liver fibrosis within 6 months of acquisition of both infections. It has been well described that individuals with primary HIV infection have an increase in activated CD8+ T cells, which causes a state of immune activation as was evident in this patient. Acquisition of HCV during this time could have further skewed this response resulting in massive hepatocyte destruction, inflammation, and subsequent liver fibrosis. Recent literature suggest that MSM with primary HIV infection have higher rates of acquisition of HCV than other HIV-positive cohorts and HCV acquisition can occur very soon after acquiring HIV. This case of rapid hepatic fibrosis progression coupled with the increasing incidence of HCV in individuals with primary HIV infection demonstrates a need for this phenomenon to be studied more extensively. PMID:19519227

  5. Trends in hepatitis C infection among hemodialysis patients in Senegal: Results of a decade of prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidy Mohamed Seck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is an emerging public health issue in Africa. At end-stage renal disease (ESRD, patients need hemodialysis (HD, which may expose them to blood transmitted infections, such as the hepatitis C virus (HCV. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest HCV prevalence in the world, but data on HD patients is scarce and shows an exceptionally high rate in Senegal. To assess the efficacy of preventive measures in reducing HCV infection among dialysis patients, we retrospectively conducted a cross-sectional study in three Senegalese HD centers, including all HD patients who performed HCV serology between 1 st and 31 st August 2011. The demographical, clinical, and biological data were collected for each patient. We included 106 patients with a mean age of 43.4 ± 15.8 years (range from 18 to 80 years, with 52.8% males. HD vintage was 60.5 ± 15 months (range from six to 206 months. The main causes of kidney disease included nephrosclerosis (36% and diabetes (24%. The prevalence of HCV was 5.6%, with one patient co-infected with the hepatitis B virus. After adjusting for age and sex, HD vintage was the only risk factor for HCV infection, while nutritional status and the number of blood transfusions did not significantly correlate with HCV infection. We conclude that during the past decade, the prevalence of HCV infection in HD patients living in Senegal has declined considerably, mainly because of improved transfusion measures and better clinical practice in the HD centers. Such efforts should be maintained and reinforced to reduce the seroprevalence of HCV infection.

  6. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility.

  7. Dendritic cells: The warriors upfront-turned defunct in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meenakshi; Sachdeva; Yogesh; K; Chawla; Sunil; K; Arora

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection causes tremendousmorbidity and mortality with over 170 million people infected worldwide. HCV gives rise to a sustained, chronic disease in the majority of infected individuals owing to a failure of the host immune system to clear the virus. In general, an adequate immune response is elicited by an efficient antigen presentation by dendritic cells(DCs), the cells that connect innate and adaptive immune system to generate a specific immune response against a pathogen. However, HCV seems to dysregulate the activity of DCs, making them less proficient antigen presenting cells for the optimal stimulation of virusspecific T cells, hence interfering with an optimal antiviral immune response. There are discordant reports on the functional status of DCs in chronic HCV infection(CHC), from no phenotypic or functional defects to abnormal functions of DCs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms behind the impairment of DC function are even so not completely elucidated during CHC. Understanding the mechanisms of immune dysfunction would help in devising strategies for better management of the disease at the immunological level and help to predict the prognosis of the disease in the patients receiving antiviral therapy. In this review, we have discussed the outcomes of the interaction of DCs with HCV and the mechanisms of DC impairment during HCV infection with its adverse effects on the immune response in the infected host.

  8. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  9. Bulkloading and Maintaining XML Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.R.; Kersten, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The popularity of XML as a exchange and storage format brings about massive amounts of documents to be stored, maintained and analyzed -- a challenge that traditionally has been tackled with Database Management Systems (DBMS). To open up the content of XML documents to analysis with declarative quer

  10. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  11. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for chronic hepatitis C infection in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on screening to detect the estimated 2 million Americans unaware of their chronic hepatitis C infections. Advisory groups differ, recommending birth-cohort screening for baby boomers, screening only high-risk individuals, or no screening. We assessed one-time risk assessment and screening to identify previously undiagnosed 40-74 year-olds given newly available hepatitis C treatments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Markov model evaluated alternative risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening and treatment strategies. Risk factors included drug use history, blood transfusion before 1992, and multiple sexual partners. Analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided sex-, race-, age-, and risk-factor-specific hepatitis C prevalence and mortality rates. Nine strategies combined screening (no screening, risk-factor guided screening, or birth-cohort screening and treatment (standard therapy-peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, Interleukin-28B-guided (IL28B triple-therapy-standard therapy plus a protease inhibitor, or universal triple therapy. Response-guided treatment depended on HCV genotype. Outcomes include discounted lifetime costs (2010 dollars and quality adjusted life-years (QALYs. Compared to no screening, risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for 50 year-olds gained 0.7 to 3.5 quality adjusted life-days and cost $168 to $568 per person. Birth-cohort screening provided more benefit per dollar than risk-factor guided screening and cost $65,749 per QALY if followed by universal triple therapy compared to screening followed by IL28B-guided triple therapy. If only 10% of screen-detected, eligible patients initiate treatment at each opportunity, birth-cohort screening with universal triple therapy costs $241,100 per QALY. Assuming treatment with triple therapy, screening all individuals aged 40-64 years costs less than $100,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness of one-time birth

  13. Control Inflation while Maintain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dragged by the U.S.subprime crisis and the soaring oil price, the global economy is slowing down,causing problems to China, the country which has continuously achieved miraculous economic growth.Apart from the accumulation of high inflation and risks of overheated economy, China is attacked by serious natural disasters ever since the beginning of 2008,including the snow disaster, the earthquake and the flood.It is obviously that China's priority now is to bring inflation under control so as to maintain the stable growth of economy.

  14. Hepatitis C Infection: Its Sequelaie and Outcomes – State-of-the-Art Workshop, September 24 to 25, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Association for Study of the Liver (CASL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a state-of the- art workshop held in September 1998 on the “Natural History and Outcome of Hepatitis C Infection”. Sixteen Canadian and two internationally renowned hepatologists were invited. A practical classification of HCV infection served as a framework for the meeting. The concepts of modelling of chronic disease, the epidemiology of HCV infection before the introduction of anti-HCV testing, and the outcome of various forms of chronic hepatitis C in adults and children were presented. Lectures on the outcome of HCV cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, the role of liver transplantation, the influence of host factors on outcome, iron overload in chronic hepatitis C and possible modification of the natural history by antiviral therapy were followed by discussion and consensus statements pertaining to each presentation. “The European Experience in Assessing Chronic Hepatitis C” was presented by Prof G Dusheiko from the United Kingdom, and Prof Leonard Seeff from the National Institutes of Health (United States presented “The Epidemiology and Outcome of Hepatitis C Infection in the United States and the World”.

  15. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  16. Intellectualization of Design Technique for Product Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Quan; SONG Yi-gang; CHENG Zhong-hua

    2004-01-01

    The basis of the two guideline lectures for maintainability design,namely "maintainability design criterions" and "cases compilation of maintainability design technique",an intellectualized architecture for combining rule-based reasoning(RBR)and case-based reasoning(CBR),is presented in this paper by analyzing from maintainability design procedure to the thought of our solving the maintainability design problem.Furthermore,the domain model and reasoning process is introduced and a representation of maintainability domain knowledge is given.Finally,the computer-aided engineering system for maintainability design(MCAES)which is based on intellectualized architecture is reported;its function and implementation is described.

  17. Software Code Maintainability : A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Seref

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software Maintainability is one of the most important quality attributes. To increase quality of a software, to manage software more efficient and to decrease cost of the software, maintainability, maintainability estimation and maintainability evaluation models have been proposed. However, the practical use of these models in software engineering tools and practice remained little due to their limitations or threats to validity. In this paper, results of our Literature Review about maintainability models, maintainability metrics and maintainability estimation are presented. Aim of this paper is providing a baseline for further searches and serving the needs of developers and customers.

  18. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  19. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  1. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infection in Hemodialysis Patients of Rasht (Center of Guilan Province, Northern Part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei

    2009-02-01

    .Conclusions: This project suggests that hepatitis C infection has a high prevalence in dialysis patients and Anti-HCV Ab test should be performed before scheduling them. Although some references refuse to suggest isolation of dialysis settings for this group of patients, strategies such as closed control of services given to these patients such as blood transfusion and also training the personnel of hemodialysis units for infection prevention seems to be necessary.

  3. Assessment of FIV-C infection of cats as a function of treatment with the protease inhibitor, TL-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rozières Sohela

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus, and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. In this study, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy using a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which causes a severe acute phase immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality rates. Results Twenty cats were infected with uncloned FIV-C and half were treated with TL-3 while the other half were left untreated. Two uninfected cats were used as controls. The general health and the immunological and virological status of the animals was monitored for eight weeks following infection. All infected animals became viremic independent of TL-3 treatment and seven of 20 FIV-C infected animals developed severe immunodepletive disease in conjunction with significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher viral RNA loads as compared to asymptomatic animals. A marked and progressive increase in CD8+ T lymphocytes in animals surviving acute phase infection was noted, which was not evident in symptomatic animals (p ≤ 0.05. Average viral loads were lower in TL-3 treated animals and of the 6 animals requiring euthanasia, four were from the untreated cohort. At eight weeks post infection, half of the TL-3 treated animals and only one of six untreated animals had viral loads below detection limits. Analysis of protease genes in TL-3 treated animals with higher than average viral loads revealed sequence variations relative to wild type protease. In particular, one mutant, D105G, imparted 5-fold resistance against TL-3 relative to wild type protease. Conclusions The findings indicate that the protease inhibitor, TL-3, when administered orally as a monotherapy, did not prevent viremia in cats infected with high dose FIV-C. However, the modest lowering of viral loads with TL-3 treatment, the greater survival rate in symptomatic animals of

  4. Progression of biopsy-measured liver fibrosis in untreated patients with hepatitis C infection: non-Markov multistate model analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacchetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrosis stages from liver biopsies reflect liver damage from hepatitis C infection, but analysis is challenging due to their ordered but non-numeric nature, infrequent measurement, misclassification, and unknown infection times. METHODS: We used a non-Markov multistate model, accounting for misclassification, with multiple imputation of unknown infection times, applied to 1062 participants of whom 159 had multiple biopsies. Odds ratios (OR quantified the estimated effects of covariates on progression risk at any given time. RESULTS: Models estimated that progression risk decreased the more time participants had already spent in the current stage, African American race was protective (OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.95, p = 0.018, and older current age increased risk (OR 1.33 per decade, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.54, p = 0.0002. When controlled for current age, older age at infection did not appear to increase risk (OR 0.92 per decade, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.79, p = 0.80. There was a suggestion that co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus increased risk of progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment beginning in 1996 (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 4.4, p = 0.059. Other examined risk factors may influence progression risk, but evidence for or against this was weak due to wide confidence intervals. The main results were essentially unchanged using different assumed misclassification rates or imputation of age of infection. DISCUSSION: The analysis avoided problems inherent in simpler methods, supported the previously suspected protective effect of African American race, and suggested that current age rather than age of infection increases risk. Decreasing risk of progression with longer time already spent in a stage was also previously found for post-transplant progression. This could reflect varying disease activity, with recent progression indicating

  5. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    is distributed on the individual flats. Today, most blocks of flats have individual heat meters to save energy and to ensure a fair distribution of the cost. If all flats have the same indoor temperature, the distribution is correct. In practice, the inhabitants of the different flats maintain different indoor...... temperatures. The result is that heat flows between individual flats. This decreases the energy consumption in the flat where the owner maintains a lower temperature. The neighbouring flats will have higher energy consumption. Calculations were performed for Danish blocks of flats from 1920, 1940, 1960...

  6. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  7. Individualizing anaemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M

    2010-12-01

    Individualized strategies for managing renal anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) need to be advanced. Recent outcomes from clinical studies prompted a narrowing of the guideline-recommended haemoglobin target (11-12 g/dL) due to increased mortality and morbidity when targeting higher haemoglobin concentrations. Maintaining a narrow target is a clinical challenge, as haemoglobin concentration tends to fluctuate. The goal of individualized treatment is to achieve the haemoglobin target at the lowest ESA dose while avoiding significant fluctuations in haemoglobin concentrations and persistently low or high concentrations. This may require changes to the ESA dose and dosing frequency over the course of treatment.

  8. Prevalence, incidence density, and genotype distribution of GB virus C infection in a cohort of recently HIV-1-infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa M Giret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies elsewhere have indicated that GB virus C (GBV-C infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 due to similar transmission routes of both viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence density and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study population included 233 patients from a cohort primarily comprised of homosexual men recently infected with HIV-1 in São Paulo, Brazil. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in plasma samples by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and quantified by real-time PCR. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. HIV viral load, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29 in the study group. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection and Glycoprotein E2 antibody presence regarding age, sex, HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ and CD8+T cell counts and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. An inverse correlation was observed between GBV-C and HIV-1 loads at enrollment and after one year. Also, a positive but not significant correlation was observed between GBV-C load and CD4+ T lymphocyte. Phylogenetic analysis of the GBV-C isolates revealed the presence of genotype 1 and genotype 2, these sub classified into subtype 2a and 2b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: GBV-C infection is common in recently HIV -1 infected patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the predominant genotype is 2b. This study provides the first report of the GBV-C prevalence at the time of diagnosis of HIV-1 and the incidence density of GBV-C infection in one year.

  9. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  10. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  11. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  12. Entrepreneurial Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Halbinger, Maria

    2014-01-01

    New ventures are central to an economy’s welfare and substantial promoters of technological change and innovation. Extant research has identified individuals and their role in entrepreneurial processes as the core pillars of entrepreneurship. This PhD dissertation aims to refine our understanding of the fundamental relationship between individuals and their entrepreneurial activities. In order to empirically test the hypotheses built, the analyses are based on a unique dataset ...

  13. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  14. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  15. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  16. Maintaining compassion and preventing compassion fatigue: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Anna Charlotte; Finlay, Fiona Olwen

    2016-08-01

    Compassion is innate in us as human beings. Compassion can be defined as a deep awareness of the suffering of another individual, coupled with the wish to relieve it. It has been increasingly topical, recently, in situations where an apparent breathtaking absence of compassion has allowed great harm to come to patients. So, how do we sustain compassion and prevent this loss? Central to our ability to maintain compassion is how we look after ourselves and those in our teams. PMID:26510446

  17. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  18. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C INFECTION IN A RURAL VILLAGE OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad BHATE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are among the principal causes of severe liver disease. There is limited data of epidemiology of Hepatitis B in community, more so in rural population. Objective - To find the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in community and study the risk factors for their transmission. Methods - This was a community based cross sectional study. A total of 1833 randomly selected subjects from a rural area were interviewed for risk factors for transmission and tested for markers of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. All the positive card tests were confirmed by ELISA. Results - Out of 2400 subjects, rate for participation was 76.38%. None of the subjects was positive for anti hepatitis C virus antibody. Point prevalence for HBsAg positivity was 0.92. Being healthcare worker and having tattoo were significantly associated with HBsAg positive results. Nose and ear piercing was reported by almost. History of blood or blood product transfusion, I/V drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, unsafe Injections, hemodialysis and any h/o surgery was not associated with HBsAg positivity. Conclusion - Health care workers are at high risk for transmission of hepatitis B. Educating common people regarding mode of transmission of Hepatitis B and C will help to reduce their transmission.

  19. Characterizing the emergence and persistence of drug resistant mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infections using 454 ultra deep pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of HIV-1 RNA in the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ARTs is well documented while less is known about the role of historical viruses stored in the proviral DNA. The primary focus of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity and evolution of HIV drug resistant variants in an individual’s provirus during antiretroviral therapy using next generation sequencing. Methods Blood samples were collected prior to antiretroviral therapy exposure and during the course of treatment from five patients in whom drug resistance mutations had previously been identified using consensus sequencing. The spectrum of viral variants present in the provirus at each sampling time-point were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing from multiple combined PCR products. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs was characterized at each time-point. Results Low abundance drug resistant viruses were identified in 14 of 15 sampling time-points from the five patients. In all individuals DRMs against current therapy were identified at one or more of the sampling time-points. In two of the five individuals studied these DRMs were present prior to treatment exposure and were present at high prevalence within the amplified and sequenced viral population. DRMs to drugs other than those being currently used were identified in four of the five individuals. Conclusion The presence of DRMs in the provirus, regardless of their observed prevalence did not appear to have an effect on clinical outcomes in the short term suggesting that the drug resistant viral variants present in the proviral DNA do not appear to play a role in the short term in facilitating the emergence of drug resistance.

  20. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  1. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159291.html Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency' Rate of oxygen consumption differs little between active ... body is like a car with a fuel efficiency level," Ortega said in a Humboldt State news ...

  2. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  3. Sources and Information: Maintaining Institutional Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jim; Zwemer, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of ERIC materials dealing with the community college mission, educational quality, maintaining an effective faculty, effects and management of retrenchment, and the state role in community college education. (LAL)

  4. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the e...

  5. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining ...

  6. Incrementally Maintaining Classification using an RDBMS

    OpenAIRE

    Koc, Mehmet Levent; Ré, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of imprecise data has motivated both researchers and the database industry to push statistical techniques into relational database management systems (RDBMSs). We study algorithms to maintain model-based views for a popular statistical technique, classification, inside an RDBMS in the presence of updates to the training examples. We make three technical contributions: (1) An algorithm that incrementally maintains classification inside an RDBMS. (2) An analysis of the above a...

  7. Maintaining Arc Consistency with Multiple Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lecoutre, Christophe; Likitvivatanavong, Chavalit; Shannon, Scott; Yap, Roland; Zhang, Yuanlin

    2008-01-01

    International audience Exploiting residual supports (or residues) has proved to be one of the most cost-effective approaches for Maintaining Arc Consistency during search (MAC). While MAC based on optimal AC algorithm may have better theoretical time complexity in some cases, in practice the overhead for maintaining required data structure during search outweighs the benefit, not to mention themore complicated implementation. Implementing MAC with residues, on the other hand, is trivial. I...

  8. Individual responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Paul Marinescu

    2005-01-01

    When, and how far, should individuals assume responsibility for their own disadvantages themselves, and when, in contrast to this, is it right for society as a collective body to try to remedy or mitigate disadvantage? Some theorists argue that in so far as disadvantages result from voluntary choices, they should be borne by the agents themselves and do not raise a case of justice for public assistance. This criterion is plausible in some cases but far from self-evident in others. In reality,...

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection and associated factors in people living with HIV in Midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Alberto Alves Brandão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and analyze sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with such co-infection. A cross-section study was performed in 495 individuals treated at a public center in the city of Goiânia. Participants were interviewed and blood collected for evaluation of serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. The rate of exposure to HBV was 33.5% (95% CI 29.4-37.9. Nineteen patients (3.8% were diagnosed as HBV carriers, of whom 68.4% were HBV DNA positive. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 9.7% (95% CI 7.3-12.7. Genotype 1a was identified in 72.7% of the PCR samples positive for HCV. Co-infection by all three viruses was 4.4% (95% CI 2.9-6.8. Being, male, aged ≥40 years, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD, and having homosexual practices were independently associated with the presence of markers of HBV exposure. A history of injectable drugs use and STDs showed association with HCV seropositivity. Approximately 50% of participants were not aware of their HBV and HCV serostatus. The results obtained may contribute to assess the burden of viral hepatitis in people living with HIV and to guiding preventive measures for more vulnerable groups.

  10. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  11. Maintaining strategic momentum : The CEO's agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Maljers (Floris); C.W.F. Baden-Fuller (Charles); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe question of how the CEO of a large complex organization maintain strategic momentum is addressed. This represents a great challenge when there are no obvious external threats, and no obvious reasons for having a concerted action. The inherent tensions which exist between stability an

  12. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  13. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  14. Reliability, availability, and maintainability: a key issue for ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2006-06-01

    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and extremely sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. Component and system reliability does not only influence the acquisition costs of a product, it also defines the necessary maintenance work and the required logistic support. Taking the long operational life time of an ELT into account, reliability and maintainability are some of the main contributors to the system life cycle costs. Reliability and maintainability are key characteristics of any product and have to be designed into it from the early beginning; they can neither be tested into a product nor introduced by numerous maintenance activities. This presentation explains the interconnections between Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and outlines the necessary RAMS and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) processes and activities during the entire life cycle of an ELT and an ELT instrument from the initial planning to the eventual disposal phase.

  15. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  16. The randomized complexity of maintaining the minimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Chaudhuri, Shiva; Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for FindMin. If F......The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for Find......Min. If FindMin is replaced by a weaker operation. FindAny, then it is shown that a randomized algorithm with constant expected cost per operation exists; in contrast, it is shown that no deterministic algorithm can have constant cost per operation. Finally, a deterministic algorithm with constant amortized...

  17. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Dwight E.

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

  18. Censored Data Analysis Reveals Effects of Age and Hepatitis C Infection on C-Reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Adult Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Ely

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein, a conserved acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver and involved in inflammation, infection, and tissue damage, is an informative biomarker for human cardiovascular disease. Out of 258 captive adult common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes assayed for CRP, 27.9% of the data were below the quantitation limit. Data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and results compared to other methods for handling censored data (including deletion, replacement, and imputation. Kaplan-Meier results demonstrated a modest age effect and a strong effect of HCV infection in reducing CRP but did not allow inference of reference intervals. Results of other methods varied considerably. Substitution schemes differed widely in statistical significance, with estimated group means biased by the size of the substitution constant, while inference of unbiased reference intervals was impossible. Single imputation gave reasonable statistical inferences but unreliable reference intervals. Multiple imputation gave reliable results, for both statistical inference and reference intervals, and was comparable to the Kaplan-Meier standard. Other methods should be avoided. CRP did not predict cardiovascular disease, but CRP levels were reduced by 50% in animals with hepatitis C infection and showed inverse relationships with 2 liver function enzymes. Results suggested that hsCRP can be an informative biomarker of chronic hepatic dysfunction.

  19. 丙型肝炎感染的危险因素调查研究%The research of risk factors for hepatitis c infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继旭; 罗安云; 王明桃; 庞红艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors for hepatitis c infection. Method The 1 000 cases of patients treated in our hospital were selected during the period of January in 2013 to June in 2014,with a questionnaire related to hepatitis c infection,and blood samples were collected for detection of anti HCV and HCV - RNA content detection,the results positive or negative were observed,positive results showed that the patients were infected,the SPSS17. 0 software was used to deal with data obtained for statistical analysis,there was statisti-cal significance if P ﹤ 0. 05. The single factor analysis,multiple factors Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the factors asso-ciated with HCV infection,the OR and its 95% confidence interval were used to express risk values. Results Drug use,sexual partners fixed or not,the blood supply situation,tattoos,blood transfusion history,history of surgery and unsafe injections of these factors for anti -HCV positive proportion were statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 001),OR of these factors were 2. 253,1. 372,10. 451,2. 589,5. 503,1. 951, 1. 672,and 95% confidence interval of these factors were(1. 520 ~ 4. 384),(1. 164 ~ 2. 036),(6. 152 ~ 19. 865),(1. 682 ~ 5. 273), (3. 523 ~ 9. 177),(1. 303 ~ 2. 731),(1. 127 ~ 2. 563),these factors were related to the independent factors effect on hepatitis c infection, blood transfusion and blood supplying was the main influence factors. Conclusion Drug use,blood supply,tattoos,history of blood transfu-sion,surgical history,unsafe injections and sexual partners,these factors are the independent factors affecting hepatitis c infection,focus of hepatitis c prevention should be to ensure the safety of blood supply,it is necessary to strengthen the management of hospitals and public places,and increase propaganda and education of healthy life in people.%目的:研究影响丙型肝炎感染的危险因素。方法:选取2013年1月~2014年6月期间接受治疗的部分患者1000例

  20. The research of risk factors for hepatitis c infection%丙型肝炎感染的危险因素调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继旭; 罗安云; 王明桃; 庞红艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the risk factors for hepatitis c infection. Method The 1 000 cases of patients treated in our hospital were selected during the period of January in 2013 to June in 2014,with a questionnaire related to hepatitis c infection,and blood samples were collected for detection of anti HCV and HCV - RNA content detection,the results positive or negative were observed,positive results showed that the patients were infected,the SPSS17. 0 software was used to deal with data obtained for statistical analysis,there was statisti-cal significance if P ﹤ 0. 05. The single factor analysis,multiple factors Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the factors asso-ciated with HCV infection,the OR and its 95% confidence interval were used to express risk values. Results Drug use,sexual partners fixed or not,the blood supply situation,tattoos,blood transfusion history,history of surgery and unsafe injections of these factors for anti -HCV positive proportion were statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 001),OR of these factors were 2. 253,1. 372,10. 451,2. 589,5. 503,1. 951, 1. 672,and 95% confidence interval of these factors were(1. 520 ~ 4. 384),(1. 164 ~ 2. 036),(6. 152 ~ 19. 865),(1. 682 ~ 5. 273), (3. 523 ~ 9. 177),(1. 303 ~ 2. 731),(1. 127 ~ 2. 563),these factors were related to the independent factors effect on hepatitis c infection, blood transfusion and blood supplying was the main influence factors. Conclusion Drug use,blood supply,tattoos,history of blood transfu-sion,surgical history,unsafe injections and sexual partners,these factors are the independent factors affecting hepatitis c infection,focus of hepatitis c prevention should be to ensure the safety of blood supply,it is necessary to strengthen the management of hospitals and public places,and increase propaganda and education of healthy life in people.%目的:研究影响丙型肝炎感染的危险因素。方法:选取2013年1月~2014年6月期间接受治疗的部分患者1000例

  1. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  2. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  3. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  4. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  5. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  6. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  7. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  8. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  9. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  10. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  11. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  12. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  13. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use. PMID:21329438

  14. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  15. Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping

  16. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D

    2015-04-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts. PMID:25829801

  17. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Schioler; Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-01-01

    Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activi...

  18. Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms are associated with progression of liver fibrosis in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Senait Mengsteab; Carmen G. Tag; Chun-Fang Gao; Claus Hellerbrand; Frank Lammert; Axel M. Gressner; Ralf Weiskirchen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Considerable attention is focused on polymorphisms in the gene encoding transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),a multifunctional cytokine that is in turn a potent growth inhibitor involved in wound healing and differentiation. In humans, it promotes the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis,atherosclerosis, cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, keloid disease, and hypertrophic scarring. For this reason, much emphasis has been placed on studies elucidating the impact of TGF-β1 and its gene variations for the susceptibility and pathogenesis of these diseases.Unfortunately, some studies have serious limitations.METHODS: We have recently described a high-throughput method for investigation the Arg25Pro polymorphism of human TGF-β1 gene and showed that the frequency of the Pro25 allele is significantly associated with hepatic fibrogenesis. In this report, we describe two novel LightCyder (LC) techniques that facilitate the examination of the two other known alterations in the coding region of TGF-β1.We investigated whether these polymorphisms contribute to hepatitis-induced progression of fibrogenesis in Chinese and Caucasians.RESULTS: In the Chinese ancestry, the gene polymorphisms at codons 25 and 263 were not found and the genetic variant at codon 10 is unlikely to confer susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis. Contrarily, in Caucasians TGF-β1 allelic variations are more frequent and the presence of prolines either in codon 25 or 10 is associated with the interindividual variability in developing more severe fibrosis during chronic hepatitis C infection.CONCLUSION: In summary, these results confirm the hypothesis that TGF-β1 polymorphisms are associated with fibrosis progression in Caucasians chronically infected with hepatitis C.

  19. Pegylated interferon induced interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with hepatitis C infection Neumonitis intersticial secundaria a tratamiento con interferón pegilado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torres Macho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. The most common side effects of interferon therapy are flu-like symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Pneumonitis is a less frequent complication associated with non-negligible mortality. We herein report a case of interferon associated pneumonitis in a patient with non-severe clinical symptoms and a normal chest radiography. Physicians should be aware of this entity during the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms in patients receiving treatment with interferon due to its high morbimortality and good resolution and outcome after drug withdrawal.El interferón pegilado asociado a ribavirina es el tratamiento de elección en los pacientes con infección por hepatitis C crónica. Los efectos secundarios más comunes son los síntomas gripales y las alteraciones psiquiátricas. La neumonitis es una complicación poco frecuente, pero se asocia con una mortalidad no despreciable. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con neumonitis intersticial asociada a interferón que presentaba signos y síntomas clínicos sutiles y una radiografía de tórax sin alteraciones. Se debe de tener presente esta entidad en el diagnóstico diferencial de los síntomas respiratorios en pacientes que reciben tratamiento con interferón debido a su elevada morbi-mortalidad y a su evolución favorable tras la retirada del fármaco.

  20. The impact of IL-6 and IL-28B gene polymorphisms on treatment outcome of chronic hepatitis C infection among intravenous drug users in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradarić, Nikola; Forempoher, Gea; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2016-01-01

    Background Several genes and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with either spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C infection or better treatment-induced viral clearance. We tested a cohort of intravenous drug users (IVDU) diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) for treatment response and its association with the SNPs in the interleukin-6 (rs1800795-IL6) and the interleukin-28B (rs12979860-IL28B) genes. Methods The study included 110 Croatian IVDU positive for anti-HCV antibody. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based approach. Patients were treated by standard pegylated-interferon/ribavirin and followed throughout a period of four years, during which sustained virological response (SVR) was determined. All data were analysed with statistical package SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) and PLINK v1.07 software. Results Patients showed a significantly better response to treatment according to the number of copies of the C allele carried at rs1800795-IL6 (P = 0.034). All but one of the patients with CC genotype achieved SVR (93%), whereas the response rate of patients with GG genotype was 64%. The association of rs1800795-IL6 with SVR status remained significant after further adjustment for patients’ age, fibrosis staging, and viral genotype (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.16–4.68, P = 0.019). Distributions of allele frequencies at the locus rs12979860-IL28B among the study cohort and the underlying general population were suggestive of a protective effect of CC genotype in acquiring chronic hepatitis C in the Croatian IVDU population. Discussion The rs1800795-IL6 polymorphism is associated with positive response to treatment in IVDU patients positive for HCV infection. A protective role of rs12979860-IL28B CC genotype in acquiring chronic hepatitis C is suggested for Croatian IVDU population.

  1. The micro and the macro: How discourse of control maintains HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Vania; McKinlay, Andy; McVittie, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we examine how HIV/AIDS caregivers negotiate stigma in their discourse of providing care to HIV-positive individuals. Using interview data, we demonstrate how participants employed discourse of control in attempting to avoid and counter HIV-related stigma: participants rejected fear of associating with HIV-positive individuals by drawing on their knowledge of HIV transmission and their ability to control and avoid infection. Such discourses backfire, however, as the concept of HIV infection being controllable and thus avoidable maintains accountability for the disease. Thus, participants' micro discourse of control can maintain the macro discourse that produces HIV-related stigma. PMID:24648322

  2. The micro and the macro: How discourse of control maintains HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Vania; McKinlay, Andy; McVittie, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we examine how HIV/AIDS caregivers negotiate stigma in their discourse of providing care to HIV-positive individuals. Using interview data, we demonstrate how participants employed discourse of control in attempting to avoid and counter HIV-related stigma: participants rejected fear of associating with HIV-positive individuals by drawing on their knowledge of HIV transmission and their ability to control and avoid infection. Such discourses backfire, however, as the concept of HIV infection being controllable and thus avoidable maintains accountability for the disease. Thus, participants' micro discourse of control can maintain the macro discourse that produces HIV-related stigma.

  3. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  4. Maintaining Traceability in an Evolving Distributed Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, I.; Wartel, R.

    2015-12-01

    The management of risk is fundamental to the operation of any distributed computing infrastructure. Identifying the cause of incidents is essential to prevent them from re-occurring. In addition, it is a goal to contain the impact of an incident while keeping services operational. For response to incidents to be acceptable this needs to be commensurate with the scale of the problem. The minimum level of traceability for distributed computing infrastructure usage is to be able to identify the source of all actions (executables, file transfers, pilot jobs, portal jobs, etc.) and the individual who initiated them. In addition, sufficiently fine-grained controls, such as blocking the originating user and monitoring to detect abnormal behaviour, are necessary for keeping services operational. It is essential to be able to understand the cause and to fix any problems before re-enabling access for the user. The aim is to be able to answer the basic questions who, what, where, and when concerning any incident. This requires retaining all relevant information, including timestamps and the digital identity of the user, sufficient to identify, for each service instance, and for every security event including at least the following: connect, authenticate, authorize (including identity changes) and disconnect. In traditional grid infrastructures (WLCG, EGI, OSG etc.) best practices and procedures for gathering and maintaining the information required to maintain traceability are well established. In particular, sites collect and store information required to ensure traceability of events at their sites. With the increased use of virtualisation and private and public clouds for HEP workloads established procedures, which are unable to see 'inside' running virtual machines no longer capture all the information required. Maintaining traceability will at least involve a shift of responsibility from sites to Virtual Organisations (VOs) bringing with it new requirements for their

  5. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  6. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  7. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  8. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  9. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may c

  10. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role.

  11. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role. PMID:21371222

  12. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  13. Fuzzy Maintainability Model for Object Oriented Software System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumi Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years for achieving considerable success in software system, maintainability plays a very crucial role and it is considered as an important quality characteristics. In this paper a maintainability model has been proposed to compare maintainability of object-oriented software system. Attempts have been made on software developed in different programming languages to make comparison of maintainability pattern using AHP and Fuzzy Index method.

  14. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.11 Maintaining records of disclosure. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purposes of each...

  15. Tim-3 alters the balance of IL-12/IL-23 and drives TH17 cells: role in hepatitis B vaccine failure during hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia M.; Ma, Cheng J.; Guang Y Li; Wu, Xiao Y.; Thayer, Penny; Greer, Pamela; Smith, Ashley M.; High, Kevin P.; Moorman, Jonathan P.; Zhi Q Yao

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection given their shared risk factors and increased liver-related morbidity and mortality upon super-infection. Vaccine responses in this setting are often blunted, with poor response rates to HBV vaccinations in chronically HCV-infected individuals compared to healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated the role of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3)-mediated immune ...

  16. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  17. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product.At last, a case study is given based upon the main landing gear system of a certain type civil aircraft, and the result indicates that the model is suitable for maintainability qualitative evaluation and can support maintainability concurrent design.

  18. 32 CFR 505.5 - Individual access to personal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... child's rights of access under this part, unless the records were created or maintained pursuant to...— (i) Maintained and discarded solely at the discretion of the author; (ii) Created only for the author... subject to provisions of the Act. (f) Denial or limitation of individual's right to access. (1) Even...

  19. Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance ... Share Compartir Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and ...

  20. Tim-3 alters the balance of IL-12/IL-23 and drives TH17 cells: role in hepatitis B vaccine failure during hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia M; Ma, Cheng J; Li, Guang Y; Wu, Xiao Y; Thayer, Penny; Greer, Pamela; Smith, Ashley M; High, Kevin P; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q

    2013-04-26

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection given their shared risk factors and increased liver-related morbidity and mortality upon super-infection. Vaccine responses in this setting are often blunted, with poor response rates to HBV vaccinations in chronically HCV-infected individuals compared to healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated the role of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3)-mediated immune regulation in HBV vaccine responses during HCV infection. We found that Tim-3, a marker for T cell exhaustion, was over-expressed on monocytes, leading to a differential regulation of IL-12/IL-23 production which in turn TH17 cell accumulation, in HCV-infected HBV vaccine non-responders compared to HCV-infected HBV vaccine responders or healthy subjects (HS). Importantly, ex vivo blockade of Tim-3 signaling corrected the imbalance of IL-12/IL-23 as well as the IL-17 bias observed in HBV vaccine non-responders during HCV infection. These results suggest that Tim-3-mediated dysregulation of innate to adaptive immune responses is involved in HBV vaccine failure in individuals with chronic HCV infection, raising the possibility that blocking this negative signaling pathway might improve the success rate of HBV immunization in the setting of chronic viral infection. PMID:23499521

  1. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  2. Maintaining staff competence-a NPP operator viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a nuclear power plant operator, it is crucial to guarantee the safe and economic operation of the power plant as well as to look after the general acceptability of nuclear power. As to human resources management, this requires continuous maintenance and enhancement of the performance of the individuals and organisation. To this end, several development projects have recently been implemented by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, which consists of twin 840 MWe BWR units that commenced their operation in 1978 and 1980. Systematic initial and continuing training programmes are needed to maintain the technical and managerial skills and know-how at a high level. The present stabile state of nuclear power, i.e. operation of ageing plants with personnel ageing as well, requires a variety of actions to reinforce the training efforts. At Olkiluoto NPP, we have carried out an extensive modernization programme that allowed the personnel to strengthen their knowledge and supplement it with the most recent results of development. We have also closely monitored the NPP development projects of the vendors, which has added to the preservation of know-how and understanding of advanced nuclear power technology. We have close contacts to the research institutes and universities, and have performed R and D activities to limited extent. In addition to the projects mentioned above, a co-ordinated development programme, 'TVO 2002', was initiated last year. The main objective of this programme is to ensure the functional preconditions and the competitiveness of the company in a changing environment. The management and operational procedures will be developed in such a way that the goals set for year 2002 will be achieved. The programme is organised as ten projects, which cover a variety of development subjects. One of the focal areas includes projects that can be characterised with the words 'Survey of competencies' and 'Preservation of know

  3. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  4. A process to maintain the quality of a computerized knowledge base.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperman, G. J.; Fiskio, J. M.; Karson, A.

    1999-01-01

    As part of a project to develop knowledge-based reminders for the outpatient setting, we developed a process to help maintain the quality of the knowledge base. The knowledge engineering process involved many parties, including several domain experts, a knowledge engineer, and a programmer and a process was necessary to assure that information transfer among individuals did not become confused. An MS Access database was created to store, among other data, textual versions of the rules as they...

  5. Clues to maintaining calorie restriction? Psychosocial profiles of successful long-term restrictors

    OpenAIRE

    Belsky, ACI; Epel, ES; Tomiyama, AJ

    2014-01-01

    To combat the obesity epidemic, interventions and treatments often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years - members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, ...

  6. Establishing and Maintaining Treatment Effects with Less Intrusive Consequences VIA a Pairing Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Vorndran, Christina M; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2006-01-01

    The generality and long-term maintenance of a pairing procedure designed to improve the efficacy of less intrusive procedures were evaluated for the treatment of problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement exhibited by 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Results suggested that a less intrusive procedure could be established as a conditioned punisher by pairing it with an effective punisher contingent on problem behavior. Generalization across multiple therapists was demo...

  7. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  8. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  9. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2014-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...

  10. Towards Musical Individuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Min Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Jungian theory, heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism, the developmental stages of human life are symbolized as a circle that represents the wholeness, and the open ended process towards the wholeness is called Individuation. Within the circle there are two stages; the Morning and the Afternoon of Life, and the latter begins at the age of 35, an age at which individuation begins and one that I have reached and passed. Thus, it seemed to be a perfect time for me to begin my own journey towards individuation, especially musical individuation since music had always been such a central part of my life. The first step of individuation is to be aware of one’s individual, social, cultural unconscious forces that affect conscious thoughts and behavior. Thus, my musical individuation began with my attempts to be aware of the unconscious forces beneath my conscious thoughts and behaviors.

  11. An apparent lack of epidemiologic association between hepatitis C virus knowledge and the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a national survey in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam Chemaitelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Egypt has by far the largest hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence in the world with 14.7% of the population being antibody positive for HCV. The aim of this study was to examine the association between knowledge of HCV and HCV antibody positivity among the Egyptian population. METHODS: We characterized different measures of HCV knowledge and examined their associations with HCV prevalence, by analyzing a nationally representative database using standard epidemiologic methods. The database, the 2008 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, included demographic, health, and HCV biomarker information for a sample of over 12,000 individuals. RESULTS: Basic knowledge of HCV was found to be high, but multiple gaps were identified in the specific knowledge of HCV and its modes of transmission. There was no statistically significant difference in HCV prevalence between those who have heard of HCV infection and those who have not (14.4% vs. 15.9%, p>.05. Similar results were found for the other HCV knowledge measures including those specific to HCV modes of transmission and to the sources of information for HCV awareness. Logistic regression analyses did not demonstrate an association between HCV knowledge and HCV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide support for an effect of awareness on reducing the risk of HCV infection in Egypt. Public health messages directed at the lay public may not provide sufficient empowerment for individuals to avoid HCV infection, and should be complemented with prevention programs to promote and strengthen infection control in the settings of exposure, particularly in health care facilities.

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 Usage in a Cohort of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Subjects with Progressive HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Jakobsen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV is responsible for most HIV-1 cases worldwide. Although the pathogenesis of C-HIV is thought to predominantly involve CCR5-restricted (R5 strains, we do not have a firm understanding of how frequently CXCR4-using (X4 and R5X4 variants emerge in subjects with progressive C-HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular determinants of coreceptor switching by C-HIV variants. Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs (n = 300 cloned sequentially from plasma of 21 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve subjects who experienced progression from chronic to advanced stages of C-HIV infection, and show that CXCR4-using C-HIV variants emerged in only one individual. Mutagenesis studies and structural models suggest that the evolution of R5 to X4 variants in this subject principally involved acquisition of an "Ile-Gly" insertion in the gp120 V3 loop and replacement of the V3 "Gly-Pro-Gly" crown with a "Gly-Arg-Gly" motif, but that the accumulation of additional gp120 "scaffold" mutations was required for these V3 loop changes to confer functional effects. In this context, either of the V3 loop changes could confer possible transitional R5X4 phenotypes, but when present together they completely abolished CCR5 usage and conferred the X4 phenotype. Our results show that the emergence of CXCR4-using strains is rare in this cohort of untreated individuals with advanced C-HIV infection. In the subject where X4 variants did emerge, alterations in the gp120 V3 loop were necessary but not sufficient to confer CXCR4 usage.

  13. Use of porous space maintainers in staged mandibular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Allan M; Spicer, Patrick P; Shah, Sarita R; Tatara, Alexander M; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Wong, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    The success of mandibular reconstructions depends not only on restoring the form and function of lost bone but also on the preservation of the overlying soft tissue layer. In this case study, 5 porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers fabricated via patient-specific molds were implanted initially to maintain the vitality of the overlying oral mucosa during staged mandibular reconstructions. Three of the 5 patients healed well; the other 2 patients developed dehiscences, likely due to a thin layer of soft tissue overlying the implant. The results presented provide evidence that a larger investigation of space maintainers fabricated using this method is warranted.

  14. Use of non-antiretroviral drugs among individuals with and without HIV-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the use of non-antiretroviral drugs in the HIV-infected compared to the general population. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified all HIV-infected individuals older than 18 years at HIV diagnosis who received care in Denmark through 1995-2013 and reported...... no injection drug abuse or hepatitis C infection. Population controls were identified from The Danish Civil Registration System and matched on age and gender (5:1). We analyzed the proportion of individuals who redeemed 0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or 10 or more non-antiretroviral drugs. Data were analyzed according...... to calendar time, age, time from initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and stratified by gender, geographical origin and route of HIV transmission. We further analyzed the use of the 25 most used non-antiretroviral drug classes. RESULTS: We identified 4,928 HIV-infected individuals (median...

  15. Individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dømgaard, Mikala; Bagger, Malene; Rhee, Nicolai Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    hypoglycemia include maintaining higher blood glucose levels (45.7%) and reducing physical activity (15.7%). Few people take sick leave as a result of hypoglycemia, but prolonged mental recovery ≥4 h following an episode of mild or severe hypoglycemia was reported by 8.7 and 31.0%, respectively. 26......-sectional survey of Danish Diabetes Association members was conducted to investigate individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 3117/9951 individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) (32.2%) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (67.8%) completed the survey. The calculated incidence rates of self...

  16. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements... organizing and storing records; (b) Maintain electronic, audiovisual and cartographic, and microform records in accordance with 36 CFR parts 1236, 1237, and 1238 of this subchapter, respectively; (c)...

  17. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  18. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  19. Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness and Response Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... died. Having upsetting thoughts or pictures in your mind of what happened. They can pop into your ...

  20. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program

  1. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  2. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters as of May 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  3. Band and loop space maintainer--made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, U A; Loius, J; Sajeev, R; Peter, J

    2004-09-01

    Space maintainers have been used in Pediatric Dentistry for many years. The use of these appliances, however, in terms of indications, contraindications, design and construction has gained little attention from researchers. This paper highlights the construction of a new technique of fabrication of band and loop space maintainer. The advantages of this new Direct technique or Single sitting technique over the conventional technique are discussed.

  4. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), whi...

  5. Plant Layout Method Considering Material Handling Cost and Maintainability

    OpenAIRE

    Fujihara, Yutaka; Osaki, Hirokazu

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method using simulated annealing(SA) and genetic algorithm(GA) to solve the plant layout problem in which the layout is evaluated by material handling cost and maintainability. In the former study about facility layout problem, it was either the minimization of the objeective function consisting of transport cost or the maximization of the objective function consisting of closeness rating. In this paper, both transport cost and maintainability were included in the object...

  6. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  7. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  8. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  9. High frequency of transmitted HIV-1 Gag HLA class I-driven immune escape variants but minimal immune selection over the first year of clade C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gounder

    Full Text Available In chronic HIV infection, CD8+ T cell responses to Gag are associated with lower viral loads, but longitudinal studies of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell-driven selection pressure in Gag from the time of acute infection are limited. In this study we examined Gag sequence evolution over the first year of infection in 22 patients identified prior to seroconversion. A total of 310 and 337 full-length Gag sequences from the earliest available samples (median = 14 days after infection [Fiebig stage I/II] and at one-year post infection respectively were generated. Six of 22 (27% individuals were infected with multiple variants. There was a trend towards early intra-patient viral sequence diversity correlating with viral load set point (p = 0.07, r = 0.39. At 14 days post infection, 59.7% of Gag CTL epitopes contained non-consensus polymorphisms and over half of these (35.3% comprised of previously described CTL escape variants. Consensus and variant CTL epitope proportions were equally distributed irrespective of the selecting host HLA allele and most epitopes remained unchanged over 12 months post infection. These data suggest that intrapatient diversity during acute infection is an indicator of disease outcome. In this setting, there is a high rate of transmitted CTL escape variants and limited immune selection in Gag during the first year of infection. These data have relevance for vaccine strategies designed to elicit effective CD8+ T cell immune responses.

  10. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Worcester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication training, breaks, and altering the non-preferred stimulus are discussed as effective treatments for escape-maintained behaviors. Similarities between treatment and implications for practitioners are discussed.

  11. Reduced reactivation from dormancy but maintained lineage choice of human mesenchymal stem cells with donor age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Dexheimer

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are promising for cell-based regeneration therapies but up to date it is still controversial whether their function is maintained throughout ageing. Aim of this study was to address whether frequency, activation in vitro, replicative function, and in vitro lineage choice of MSC is maintained throughout ageing to answer the question whether MSC-based regeneration strategies should be restricted to younger individuals. MSC from bone marrow aspirates of 28 donors (5-80 years were characterized regarding colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F numbers, single cell cloning efficiency (SSCE, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization, Oil Red O content, proteoglycan- and collagen type II deposition were quantified. While CFU-F frequency was maintained, SSCE and early proliferation rate decreased significantly with advanced donor age. MSC with higher proliferation rate before start of induction showed stronger osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. MSC with high osteogenic capacity underwent better chondrogenesis and showed a trend to better adipogenesis. Lineage choice was, however, unaltered with age. CONCLUSION: Ageing influenced activation from dormancy and replicative function of MSC in a way that it may be more demanding to mobilize MSC to fast cell growth at advanced age. Since fast proliferation came along with high multilineage capacity, the proliferation status of expanded MSC rather than donor age may provide an argument to restrict MSC-based therapies to certain individuals.

  12. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  13. Different effects of a CD14 gene polymorphism on disease outcome in patients with alcoholic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Meiler; M Mühlbauer; M Johann; A Hartmann; B Schnabl; N Wodarz; G Schmitz; J Sch(o)lmerich; C Hellerbrand

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clinical and experimental data suggest that gut-derived endotoxins are an important pathogenic factors for progression of chronic liver disease. Recently, a C-T (-159)polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD14 gene was detected and found to confer increased CD14 expression and to be associated with advanced alcoholic liver damage. Here, we investigated this polymorphism in patients with less advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD)and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: CD14 genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis in (a) 121 HCV patients, (b) 62 patients with alcohol-associated cirrhosis (Alc-Ci), (c) 118 individuals with heavy alcohol abuse without evidence of advanced liver damage (Alc-w/o Ci), and (d) 247 healthy controls.Furthermore, serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and transaminases were determined.RESULTS: The TT genotype was significantly more frequent in Alc-Ci compared to Alc-w/o Ci or controls (40.3% vs 23.7% or 24.0%, respectively). In Alc-w/o Ci,serum levels of transaminases did not differ significantly between patients with different CD14 genotypes. In HCV patients, TT-homozygotes had significantly higher sCD14 levels and sCD14 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. However,no association was found between CD14 genotypes and histological staging or grading.CONCLUSION: Considering serum transaminases as surrogate markers for alcoholic liver damage, the CD14 polymorphism seems to exhibit different effects during the course of ALD. Differences in genotype distribution between cirrhotic HCV patients and alcoholics and the known functional impact of this polymorphism on CD14 expression levels further indicate differences in the pathophysiological role of CD14 and CD14-mediated lipopolysaccharides signal transduction with regard to the stage as well as the type of the underlying liver disease.

  14. How individual species structure diversity in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Thorsten; Gunatilleke, C. V. Savitri; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. Nimal; Huth, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    A persistent challenge in ecology is to explain the high diversity of tree species in tropical forests. Although the role of species characteristics in maintaining tree diversity in tropical forests has been the subject of theory and debate for decades, spatial patterns in local diversity have not been analyzed from the viewpoint of individual species. To measure scale-dependent local diversity structures around individual species, we propose individual species–area relationships (ISAR), a sp...

  15. Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanth, M; M Vidya; Nandaprasad Shetty; Karkera, Bhavana V.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life. Aims and Objectives: The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individu...

  16. Life on Earth is an individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology. PMID:26907555

  17. Life on Earth is an individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology.

  18. Maintaining Discovered Frequent Itemsets: Cases for Changeable Database and Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU XiaoPing(杜孝平); TANG ShiWei(唐世渭); Akifumi Makinouchi(牧之内顕文)

    2003-01-01

    Mining frequent itemsets from large databases has played an essential role inmany data mining tasks. It is also important to maintain the discovered frequent itemsets forthese data mining tasks when the database is updated. All algorithms proposed so far for the maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets are only performed with a fixed minimum support,which is the same as that used to obtain the discovered frequent itemsets. That is, users cannot change the minimum support even if the new results are unsatisfactory to the users. In thispaper two new complementary algorithms, FMP (First Maintaining Process) and RMP (Repeated Maintaining Process), are proposed to maintain discovered frequent itemsets in the case that new transaction data are added to a transaction database. Both algorithms allow users to change theminimum support for the maintenance processes. FMP is used for the first maintaining process, andwhen the result derived from the FMP is unsatisfactory, RMP will be performed repeatedly untilsatisfactory results are obtained. The proposed algorithms re-use the previous results to cut downthe cost of maintenance. Extensive experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of the algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are very resultful compared with the previous mining and maintenance algorithms for maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets.

  19. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  20. Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karltun, J; Vogel, K; Bergstrand, M; Eklund, J

    2016-09-01

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD. PMID:27184316

  1. Against Individual Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bown, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I discuss reasons for viewing creativity more as a social process than as an individual act. These reasons include the subjectivity of evaluation in attributing creativity, the potentially arbitrary relationship between individuals and creativity at the cultural level, the importance of the capacity for preserving cultural information over and above the capacity to innovate, the role of objects, institutions and interaction in sparking creativity, and the social constructedness ...

  2. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-individual drain systems. 63.136 Section 63.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain system... paragraph, the owner or operator shall operate and maintain on each opening in the individual drain system...

  3. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D

    1984-02-01

    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours.

  4. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  5. New requirements for hospitals to maintain tax-exempt status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela C; Noe, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Tax-exempt hospitals are now facing more legislative requirements to maintain tax-exempt status. This article outlines each of these requirements imposed by the Patient Protection Act of 2010. Health care administrators, executives, and consultants must be aware of these new laws to ensure each facility is capable of maintaining tax-exempt status. Despite the issuance of new requirements, a conclusive definition of charity does not exist. Therefore, the debate surrounding charity care and the justification for tax-exempt status will continue. PMID:22515041

  6. Sharing the sandbox: Evolutionary mechanisms that maintain bacterial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruger, Eric; Waters, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are now known to participate in an extensive repertoire of cooperative behaviors such as biofilm formation, production of extracellular public-goods, group motility, and higher-ordered multicellular structures. A fundamental question is how these cooperative tasks are maintained in the face of non-cooperating defector cells. Recently, a number of molecular mechanisms including facultative participation, spatial sorting, and policing have been discovered to stabilize cooperation. Often these different mechanisms work in concert to reinforce cooperation. In this review, we describe bacterial cooperation and the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain it.

  7. Fiber-reinforced composites as a fixed space maintainer in case of primary tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Tandon, Shobha

    2011-01-01

    Restorative dentistry is continually changing, with ground-breaking treatments developing based on new materials, techniques, and technologies. Composite materials are a leading example, and the introduction of fiber reinforcement has further increased the possible uses of composites in restorative dentistry. Maintaining arch length during primary, mixed, and early permanent dentition is essential for the development of occlusion. In an effort to prevent future problems, appliances may be placed to retain space resulting from early loss of teeth. In case of primary teeth loss, fixed space maintainers are being used, but these are time consuming to fabricate, and incorporated wires may lead to soft tissue trauma. This clinical case uses fiber-reinforced composite as a space maintainer, thus reducing the time required to complete treatment. In spite of best efforts of practicing dentists, there still remains a large percentage of the population who do not present for treatment, except with pain or other condition. Unfortunately some of those individuals are children, who are not in a position to make the difficult decision to visit the dentist independently. Often by the time they are examined, there is no chance of saving the involved tooth, necessitating extraction and space maintenance. To prevent closure of space and arch length deficiency, appliances may be placed to retain space. Different appliances may be used for space maintenance, such as the removable and fixed space maintainers, but they are difficult and time consuming to construct. Also, the attention span of a child patient is insufficient for this treatment protocol. Considering these difficulties, the clinician could choose the option of a space maintainer, which is less time consuming to fabricate, and for which patient acceptance is optimal.

  8. Prevalência de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C em pacientes com diabetes melito tipo 2 Prevalence of hepatitis C infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Parolin

    2006-06-01

    diabetes mellitus has been suggested and a higher prevalence of HCV antibodies has been found among type 2 diabetic when compared with normal controls. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in diabetic patients in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 145 type 2 and 104 type 1 diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic unit of an university hospital were consecutively tested for anti-HCV, using a fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The control group was constituted by 16,720 volunteer blood donors attending the blood bank of the same hospital during the period of the study. Diabetic patients were also evaluated for clinical, biochemical (aminotransferase levels and demographic variables and previous exposure to risk factors for hepatitis C infection. RESULTS: A higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection was observed in type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with blood donors. Although anti-HCV prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients was higher than found in type 1, it did not reach statistical significance. Both diabetic groups were predominantly female, and as expected, type 2 diabetic were older than type 1. Race distribution, duration of the disease, and previous exposure to hepatitis C risk factors were similar in both groups, but type 2 diabetic subjects had higher median levels of alanine aminotransferase than type 1. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection was detected in type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with blood donors in our region, in accordance with study data from different populations. If all type 2 diabetic patients should undergo regular screening for hepatitis C infection remains a question.

  9. Reduced Personal Space in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Asada

    Full Text Available Maintaining an appropriate distance from others is important for establishing effective communication and good interpersonal relations. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disorder associated with social difficulties, and it is thus worth examining whether individuals with ASD maintain typical or atypical degrees of social distance. Any atypicality of social distancing may impact daily social interactions. We measured the preferred distances when individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals approached other people (a male experimenter and objects (a coat rack with clothes or when other people approached them. Individuals with ASD showed reduced interpersonal distances compared to TD individuals. The same tendency was found when participants judged their preferred distance from objects. In addition, when being approached by other people, both individuals with ASD and TD individuals maintained larger interpersonal distances when there was eye contact, compared to no eye contact. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have a relatively small personal space, and that this atypicality exists not only for persons but also for objects.

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  11. Maintaining Functional Safety under an Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Ängskog, Per; Oakes, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The importance of protection against IEMI effects in civilian applications is growing rapidly as more and more societal infrastructure is equipped with electronic devices. This paper discusses methods to help maintaining functional safety in the event of an IEMI attack. QC 20160104

  12. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  13. Beijing's Convention and Exhibition Industry Maintains Good Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Jiuling

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Beijing's conven-tion and exhibition industry has maintained a good development momentum with expanding scale and improving facilities, becoming an inseparable part of the city's modern service sector.The development of the convention and exhibition industry has played an active role in perfecting the capital's functions, optimizing the industrial structure and enhancing the city's radiation capabilities.

  14. Maintaining Legitimacy: Controversies, Orders of Worth and Public Justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriotta, G.; Gond, J.-P.; Schultz, F.

    2011-01-01

    We build on Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification to account for the ways in which different stakeholder groups actively engage with discourses and objects to maintain the legitimacy of institutions that are relevant to their activity. We use this framework to analyse a controversy emergi

  15. [Maintaining the proper distance for nurses working in the home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must be able to respond to many different situations which require technical knowledge and self-control. Particularly when working in the patient's home, nurses must know how to maintain a proper distance to protect themselves from burnout. In this respect, the practice analysis constitutes an adapted support tool. PMID:27393988

  16. 77 FR 44503 - Maintaining Access to Emergency Liquidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... monitoring tools are designed to enhance the liquidity risk management framework and improve the banking... maintain an adequate liquidity risk management process raises safety and soundness concerns. See 75 FR... Interagency Policy Statement on Funding and Liquidity Risk Management (Liquidity Policy Statement),\\5\\...

  17. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  18. Free-end space maintainers: design, utilization and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbería, Elena; Lucavechi, Tania; Cárdenas, Dora; Maroto, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Primary molars are a determining factor in the development of occlusion. Given their importance, when restorative treatment is notfeasible and a primary molar must be extracted, the practitioner should keep in mind the risk of losing space, and the consequent malocclusion. Preservation of the space can eliminate or reduce the needforprolonged orthodontic treatment. For that reason, there are various kinds of space maintainers and the pediatric dentist must decide which one to utilize, on the basis of general and local factors related to the child In the selection of a treatment option for space maintenance, the greatest complications occur when the first permanent molar has not yet erupted A large variety of appliances have been devised to deal with this situation. This article proposes the use of a removable space maintainer that is open on one end and can be employed to guide the first permanent molar, maintaining the integrity of the mucous membrane and serving as a prosthetic appliance, preventing the complications and contraindications often caused by sub-gingival maintainers.

  19. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

  20. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  1. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  2. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  3. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... that Beck’s thesis about the individualization and democratization of poverty is based on narrow income based definitions and that (possible) empirical verification depends on the definitions of poverty and approaches used to examine poverty. My analyses show that the dynamic perspective (using income...

  4. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  5. Ageing and the cost of maintaining coloration in the Australian painted dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Friesen, Christopher R; Sudyka, Joanna; Rollings, Nicky; Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Mark R; Olsson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    There is now good evidence in several taxa that animal coloration positively reflects an individual's antioxidant capacity. However, even though telomeres, a marker of ageing, are known to be vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks, no studies have ever assessed whether colour fading reflects the rate of biological ageing in any taxa. Here, we measured colour fading, telomere erosion (a measure of biological ageing) and ROS levels in painted dragons. We show that individuals that were better at maintaining their coloration during the three months of the study suffered a higher cost in terms of telomere erosion, but overall ROS levels measured at the start of the study were not significantly related to colour maintenance and telomere shortening. We therefore suggest that colour maintenance is a costly phenomenon in terms of telomere erosion, and that overall ROS levels do not seem to be a crucial component linking ornamental coloration and telomere erosion in our study system.

  6. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering. PMID:22301457

  7. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering.

  8. Individual and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    and organizational analysis We discuss more general problems with collectivism in the social sciences by focusing on specific problems in extant organizational analysis We introduce microfoundations to the literature by explicating the underlying theoretical foundations of the origins of individual action...

  9. Individual Folk Anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jean L.

    An individual folk anthology unit covering eight topics is described in this paper. The eight topics include (1) I have an identity, (2) my interesting name, (3) mandalas and sentences, (4) rhythms and rhymes of old times, (5) myths of my childhood, (6) folk legends/old and new, (7) aspects of folklore, and (8) slang. The activities accompanying…

  10. Responding to Individual Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel

    1990-01-01

    Effective teachers of students with disabilities respond successfully to students' individual needs by ensuring that students understand the purpose of their activities, by presenting students with variety and choice, by encouraging them to reflect upon and review their learning, by making flexible use of time and resources, and by implementing…

  11. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  12. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  13. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  14. The importance of university research in maintaining the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the university in maintaining and revitalizing the nuclear option should have four goals. First, it must attract highly skilled students who have an interest in math and science and help foster their interest in nuclear science and engineering. Next, it must present a state-of-the-art educational program that contains meaningful research to maintain these students. The third goal of nuclear engineering departments is to provide the nontechnical student a fair assessment of benefits and risks associated with commercial nuclear power relative to other sources of electricity. Lastly, it must effectively communicate to all students a compelling vision of nuclear power as a vital energy resource that will grow. The most difficult role for the university is to successfully convey a future for those in the nuclear science and engineering program

  15. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  16. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  17. Experimental control for initiating and maintaining rotation of parametric pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, V.; Najdecka, A.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the authors have studied experimentally the control methods of a parametric pendulum excited harmonically to initiate and maintain a period one rotation - the most superior response for energy harvesting. For initiating the period one rotation inherent in the system, first the bang-bang method is applied. Then a new method where velocity is monitored is proposed and applied and finally the time-delayed feedback method with multi-switching is considered. Ultimately the problem of maintaining the rotation of the pendulum is addressed. For first time, robustness and sensitivity of the latter method to change of frequency and amplitude of excitation and added noise are studied. Finally, it has been demonstrated how the delayed feedback method can be applied in a system of two pendula to ensure synchronized rotation.

  18. An intervention to help older adults maintain independence safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H; Coleman, Marilyn; Benson, Jacquelyn J; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A; Stowe, James D; Porter, Eileen J

    2013-05-01

    Older adults who live alone are at risk for problems (e.g., falling, sudden illness). To maintain themselves safely at home they may benefit from planning to prevent problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to train family members or friends as to how to help older adults who were living alone make plans to maintain independence safely in their homes and to make behavioral and household changes to enhance safety. Support network members of 19 older adults randomly assigned to the intervention group were taught to use multiple segment vignettes to assist the older adults in creating plans for living safely. Older adults in the control group (n = 21) were asked to engage in an unstructured discussion about home safety with their network members. Older adults in the intervention group developed safer plans and made more household and behavioral changes than did control group adults.

  19. Comprehensive Complexity-Based Failure Modeling for Maintainability and Serviceability

    OpenAIRE

    Meselhy, K. T.; ElMaraghy, H. A.; ElMaraghy, W. H.

    2009-01-01

    Failures are the primary triggers for repair and maintenance actions. A clear definition of failure events is important in order to improve maintainability and serviceability. A comprehensive complexity-based mathematical definition of failure is introduced. The applicability of the developed failure model to different complexity definitions is discussed. A new metric is introduced to capture the change in complexity associated with function degradation. A case study is present...

  20. Maintaining Program Understanding - Issues, Tools, and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas; Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    . One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document decisions and rationales behind a program as informal textual explanations---internal documentation. The starting point of this paper is a particular paradigm for program documentation called Elucidative Programming. As the first...... contribution of this paper, three key documentation issues are identified on the basis of the experience with Elucidative Programming. Documentation motifs represent thematic elements of software, which typically transverse the structure of the source program files. Documentation proximity characterizes...

  1. Maintaining NASTRAN :the politics and technics of aerospace computing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Minghui

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a process of how NASA maintained the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. Chapter one addresses my theoretical concern and suggests to learn from both critical theorists and social constructivists. Chapters Two and Three tell the story of NASA and NASTRAN, a computer program developed by NASA for solving problems of airframes and space structures. The story of NASA and NASTRAN demonstrates a structural imbalance between social groups of NAS...

  2. Creating, Maintaining and Managing an Information Security Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerström, Alex

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade a new threat to information security within an organisation has risen: data loss by personnel mistakes or maliciousness now rank among the top threats to a company's data. By creating a strong information security culture, the management can reduce the risk of data loss. This thesis investigates how to create, maintain and manage an information security culture. Literature analysis, interviews with management members at KPMG, the company for which this thesis was written, a...

  3. Human Sclera Maintains Common Characteristics with Cartilage throughout Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Seko; Noriyuki Azuma; Yoriko Takahashi; Hatsune Makino; Toshiyuki Morito; Takeshi Muneta; Kenji Matsumoto; Hirohisa Saito; Ichiro Sekiya; Akihiro Umezawa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have dem...

  4. How can Indonesia maintain creditworthiness and noninflationary growth ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chhibber, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    Despite external shocks, Indonesia has maintained creditworthiness through swift adjustment. Indonesia's flexible economic management and clear policy signals have lent stability to the economy, in contrast to the stop and go reforms, uncertainty, and constant debt renegotiations in many high debt countries. The authors use an econometrically estimated macroeconomic model to analyze open economy adjustment in Indonesia - particularly the interaction between the exchange rate, the interest rat...

  5. Maintaining the Brain: Insight into Human Neurodegeneration From Drosophila Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Lessing, Derek; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has brought significant advances to research in neurodegenerative disease, notably in the identification of genes that are required to maintain the structural integrity of the brain, defined by recessive mutations that cause adult-onset neurodegeneration. Here, we survey these genes in the fly and classify them according to five key cell biological processes. Over half of these genes have counterparts in mouse or human that are also associated with neurod...

  6. Rewarding Peer Reviewers: Maintaining the Integrity of Science Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N.; Voronov, Alexander A.; Kitas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and ass...

  7. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Egija eZaura; Nicu, Elena A; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Bart JF Keijser

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis – a microbial shift towards a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are p...

  8. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poor...

  9. Knowledge management: knowledge and competence maintaining; problematics; Fast reactor example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this expose are examined two representative aspects, with a first part reserved to the general problematics of the knowledge and competence maintaining as it looks at Framatome, in its activities of pressurized water boiler supplier (PWR) and as provider of nuclear services, and a second part treating the solutions used by the different actors intervening in fast neutrons reactors, that is to say, the Cea, Framatome and EDF. (N.C.)

  10. Strategies for maintaining penile size following penile implant

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, King Chien Joe; Gerald B Brock

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Loss of penile size is a common complaint that can negatively affect patient satisfaction rates following successful penile prosthetic implant surgery. Objective The aim of this review is to describe the various strategies that have been used to maintain penile length or girth after the insertion of a penile prosthetic implant. Methods An extensive systematic literature review was performed, based on a search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 2002 to 2012. The...

  11. Evidence for selection maintaining MHC diversity in a rodent species despite strong density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations. PMID:27225422

  12. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  13. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  14. Sovereignty, individuality, and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans must acknowledge that the biosphere is the essential support for all living organisms. In order to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must proceed beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism, homocentrism, and biocentrism to ecocentrism. National states, with present policies, are a major obstacle to sustainable use of the planet. However, there is some evidence that the individual has increasing sovereignty at the expense of both nation states and the environment. Still, the primary obstacle to sustainability is inherent in the present system of sovereign nation states. The basic question is how much sovereignty must nation-states and individuals relinquish to preserve the health of Earth's biospheric life support system. A free and open exchange of thoughts on this subject is long overdue. To acheive sustainable use of the planet, humankind must view its identity within the context of the interdependent web of life.

  15. Predictors of maintained high-risk behaviors among impoverished women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B

    1995-01-01

    The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed.

  16. Space maintainer effects on intercanine arch width and length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, M; Haydar, S; Unsal, B; Turk, T

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of space maintainers in intercanine arch width and length, twenty cases, characterized with the early loss of mandibular primary molars were selected and divided into two groups. The treatment group used removable space maintainers, while the other ten cases served as the control group. The first dental casts of the treatment and control groups were obtained when the primary canines were in the mouth. After the eruption of permanent canines second dental casts were obtained in both groups. Six measurements were made on the dental casts of each patient. No parameter was found to be statistically significant in the treatment group. In the control group the increase in intercanine arch width and perimeter were found to be statistically significant. Also the increase at the buccal and lingual bone measurements were found to be statistically significant. These results showed that space maintainers might cease the increase in intercanine arch width and length during the transition period between the primary and permanent canines.

  17. Catecholamine-induced excitation of nociceptors in sympathetically maintained pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørum, Ellen; Ørstavik, Kristin; Schmidt, Roland; Namer, Barbara; Carr, Richard W; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Hilliges, Marita; Handwerker, Hermann; Torebjörk, Erik; Schmelz, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Sympathetically maintained pain could either be mediated by ephaptic interactions between sympathetic efferent and afferent nociceptive fibers or by catecholamine-induced activation of nociceptive nerve endings. We report here single fiber recordings from C nociceptors in a patient with sympathetically maintained pain, in whom sympathetic blockade had repeatedly eliminated the ongoing pain in both legs. We classified eight C-fibers as mechano-responsive and six as mechano-insensitive nociceptors according to their mechanical responsiveness and activity-dependent slowing of conduction velocity (latency increase of 0.5+/-1.1 vs. 7.1+/-2.0 ms for 20 pulses at 0.125 Hz). Two C-fibers were activated with a delay of several seconds following strong endogenous sympathetic bursts; they were also excited for about 3 min following the injection of norepinephrine (10 microl, 0.05%) into their innervation territory. In these two fibers, a prolonged activation by injection of low pH solution (phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, 10 microl) and sensitization of their heat response following prostaglandin E2 injection were recorded, evidencing their afferent nature. Moreover, their activity-dependent slowing was typical for mechano-insensitive nociceptors. We conclude that sensitized mechano-insensitive nociceptors can be activated by endogenously released catecholamines and thereby may contribute to sympathetically maintained pain. No evidence for ephaptic interaction between sympathetic efferent and nociceptive afferent fibers was found. PMID:16997471

  18. Helium POT System for Maintaining Sample Temperature after Cryocooler Deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, B. J.

    2006-04-01

    A system for maintaining a sample at a constant temperature below 10 K after deactivating the cooling source is demonstrated. In this system, the cooling source is a 4 K GM cryocooler that is joined with the sample through an extension that consists of a helium pot and a thermal resistance. Upon stopping the cryocooler, the power applied to a heater located on the sample side of the thermal resistance is decreased gradually to maintain an appropriate temperature rise across the thermal resistance as the helium pot warms. The sample temperature is held constant in this manner without the use of solid or liquid cryogens and without mechanically disconnecting the sample from the cooler. Shutting off the cryocooler significantly reduces sample motion that results from vibration and expansion/contraction of the cold-head housing. The reduction in motion permits certain procedures that are very sensitive to sample position stability, but are performed with limited duration. A proof-of-concept system was built and operated with the helium pot pressurized to the cryocooler's charge pressure. A sample with 200 mW of continuous heat dissipation was maintained at 7 K while the cryocooler operated intermittently with a duty cycle of 9.5 minutes off and 20 minutes on.

  19. Maintaining Mobile Network Coverage Availability in Disturbance Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonas Säe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance and disaster scenarios prevent the normal utilization of mobile networks. The aim of this study is to maintain the availability of cellular networks in disturbance scenarios. In order to extend the disaster time functionality, energy usage optimization is needed to maintain reasonable coverage and capacity. Simulations performed with different network layouts show the effects of choosing only a portion of evolved node B (eNB macrosites to operate at a time. Different sets of three to nine three-sectored eNB sites are selected to study how the network would perform with a limited number of eNB sites. Simulation results show how the mobile network availability duration can be sustained by selecting a set of eNB sites to operate at a time and still maintain a reasonable service level and availability in disturbance scenarios. An increase of 100% to 500% can be achieved in the duration of “backup coverage” in cellular networks with backup batteries when the percentage of active eNB sites is reduced down to 20%.

  20. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  1. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  2. Effects of mazindol on behavior maintained or occasioned by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, R S; Balster, R L

    1993-01-01

    The effects of mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine were studied in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine, and in rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Non-contingent intravenous drug injections were administered to monkeys responding under a session consisting of a 5-min period during which lever-pressing produced food reinforcement and a 60-min session in which responding produced i.v. cocaine infusions (10 or 33 micrograms/kg per infusion). Acute i.v. injections of cocaine (0.1-1.7 mg/kg), D-amphetamine (0.1-1 mg/kg) and the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor mazindol (0.03-0.56 mg/kg) given 5 min before the session decreased self-administration of cocaine, but also decreased rates of behavior maintained by the presentation of food. In both rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained procedure, mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine substituted for cocaine in a dose-related manner. Despite a lack of selectivity to decrease cocaine self-administration as compared to behavior maintained by food, the present data provide some rationale for further consideration of mazindol as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant abuse, due to its relatively low abuse liability and cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:8436063

  3. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  4. Law and individuality

    OpenAIRE

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-01-01

    The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law concepti...

  5. Individual Career Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Paul; Teliceanu Viorel Gabriel; Chiriac Marius

    2011-01-01

    Individual career planning defines a complex and customized process, run in parallel on two temporal axes. The management of developing a career management is a challenge to every inidivid because the levers used are not standardized and can be adapted to any employer from the labor market An optimal behavior in short-term career management requires both deep knowledge of active methods for career development and their efficient handling. Professional succes can be ensured by a correct correl...

  6. Do individual directors matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Paper 1: Pilot study of Swiss firms Abstract Using a fixed effects approach, we investigate whether the presence of specific individuals on Swiss firms’ boards affects firm performance and the policy choices they make. We find evidence for a substantial impact of these directors’ presence on their firms. Moreover, the director effects are correlated across policies and performance measures but uncorrelated to the directors’ background. We find these results interesting but conclude t...

  7. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  8. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  9. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant......The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...

  10. Recomendaciones de expertos sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hepatitis C crónica en el medio penitenciario Expert recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saiz de la Hoya-Zamácola

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC en las prisiones españolas es muy elevada (38,5%. Las características de los pacientes infectados, especialmente la elevada coinfección con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, hacen probable que la morbilidad y mortalidad producida por enfermedad hepática grave secundaria a esta infección aumente de forma considerable en los próximos años. Un grupo de expertos multidisciplinar con experiencia con pacientes internados en prisiones españolas ha sido invitado a establecer una serie de recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hepatitis C en las prisiones españolas.The prevalence of HCV infection in Spanish prisons is very high (38.5%. The characteristics of the infected patients, particularly the high rate of HIV coinfection, makes it very likely that the morbidity and mortality produced by serious liver disease secondary to this infection will increase considerably in the coming years. A group of Spanish experts with experience in patients who are inmates has been invited to establish a series of recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in Spanish prisons.

  11. Ability to maintain internal arousal and motivation modulates brain responses to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.

  12. Individualism and Collectivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萌

    2014-01-01

    The world could be analyzed in many dimensions, like rich and poor, peace and warfare, equal and oppressive, but one of the most important dimensions may be the difference between different societies of individualist and collectivist. This arti-cle is trying to discuss is the difference between individualism and collectivism in the western and eastern cultures, and also will explain and discuss it in some aspects, such as their viewpoint, their attitude on self-enhancement and self-criticism, and the goal setting and motivation, and take some cases which some researches and psychologists did and some cases found for example to de-scribe it. Also it presents that social orientation and environment, and culture background will take important role to impact peo-ple’s mind and choice on individualism and collectivism. No matter individual or collective, it all have advantage and disadvan-tage for each, it needs comprehensive evaluation for differential environment which can obtain relative reasonable conclusion.

  13. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props and those that hinder (burdens behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological, social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600

  14. Two Stage Repair of Composite Craniofacial Defects with Antibiotic Releasing Porous Poly(methyl methacrylate) Space Maintainers and Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Patrick

    Craniofacial defects resulting from trauma and resection present many challenges to reconstruction due to the complex structure, combinations of tissues, and environment, with exposure to the oral, skin and nasal mucosal pathogens. Tissue engineering seeks to regenerate the tissues lost in these defects; however, the composite nature and proximity to colonizing bacteria remain difficult to overcome. Additionally, many tissue engineering approaches have further hurdles to overcome in the regulatory process to clinical translation. As such these studies investigated a two stage strategy employing an antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainer fabricated with materials currently part of products approved or cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration, expediting the translation to the clinic. This porous space maintainer holds the bone defect open allowing soft tissue to heal around the defect. The space maintainer can then be removed and one regenerated in the defect. These studies investigated the individual components of this strategy. The porous space maintainer showed similar soft tissue healing and response to non-porous space maintainers in a rabbit composite tissue defect. The antibiotic-releasing space maintainers showed release of antibiotics from 1-5 weeks, which could be controlled by loading and fabrication parameters. In vivo, space maintainers releasing a high dose of antibiotics for an extended period of time increased soft tissue healing over burst release space maintainers in an infected composite tissue defect model in a rabbit mandible. Finally, stabilization of bone defects and regeneration could be improved through scaffold structures and delivery of a bone forming growth factor. These studies illustrate the possibility of the two stage strategy for repair of composite tissue defects of the craniofacial complex.

  15. Individualism in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Proposing models built upon unrealistic assumptions poses a serious issue for social sciences in general –but not for economics. Since Friedman’s methodological insights (1953) assumptions about the agent of the model are irrelevant as long as it has enough predictive power. The latter becomes...... particularly problematic when econometric models have been introduced in areas like education or healthcare instead of commodities markets. Despite recent efforts from behavioral economics proposing more realistic assumptions (see Camerer, 1999), one idea remains untouched: agents are always individuals......). This revision aims to dialogue with the ever-increasing participation of economics in the social discussion, supplementing rather than excluding its ideas....

  16. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  17. Maintaining Students’ Involvement in a Math Lecture Using Countdown Timers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krizzel A. Aban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Involving students in a lecture is an important but not an easy task that every lecturer must encourage. This task becomes even greater in a math class that is composed of eighty to a hundred sixty students. In 2007, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB started offering some of its basic math courses in lecture-recitation set-up. This shift and many other factors drove most math instructors of UPLB to widely use presentation software, such as the PowerPoint (PPT, to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators. On the other hand, adding countdown timers strategically on some parts of the discussion seems to lessen such negative effects. This study determined the effectiveness of using countdown timers in maintaining students’ involvement in a lecture of MATH 27 (Analytic Geometry and Calculus II, a course in UPLB commonly taken by sophomore students. Results show that the effectiveness of countdown timers, as perceived by the students, is independent to students’ genders and degree programs, but is dependent to the colleges where the students belong to. Also, some effects of countdown timers are significantly correlated to various data from students’ profiles. It was concluded in the study that the use of countdown timers is effective in maintaining student’s involvement in MATH 27 lectures and might also be useful in other math lecture classes

  18. Maintaining health, comfort and productivity in heat waves

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to summarize what is known about human response to heat and to use this knowledge to provide guidance on how to maintain the health, comfort and performance of people in heat waves. Design: The use of power and especially water are critical to providing cooling. A practical method of cooling people in a water bath is described. A warm bath slowly cooled will provide effective cooling but not thermal trauma. Result: It is concluded that for sedentary and li...

  19. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  20. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 and Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: (a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and (b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  1. Color polymorphism in an aphid is maintained by attending ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Saori; Murakami, Taiga; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2016-09-01

    The study of polymorphisms is particularly informative for enhancing our understanding of phenotypic and genetic diversity. The persistence of polymorphism in a population is generally explained by balancing selection. Color polymorphisms that are often found in many insects and arthropods are prime examples of the maintenance of polymorphisms via balancing selection. In some aphids, color morphs are maintained through frequency-dependent predation by two predatory insects. However, the presence of color polymorphism in ant-attended aphids cannot be explained by traditional balancing selection because these aphids are free from predation. We examined the selective advantages of the existence of two color (red and green) morphs in the ant-attended aphid, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola, in fields. We measured the degree of ant attendance on aphid colonies with different proportions of color morphs. The results show that the ants strongly favor aphid colonies with intermediate proportions of the two color morphs. The relationship between the degree of ant attendance and the proportion of color morphs in the field is convex when aphid colony size and ant colony size are controlled. This function has a peak of approximately 65% of green morphs in a colony. This system represents the first case of a balancing polymorphism that is not maintained by opposing factors but by a symbiotic relationship. PMID:27617289

  2. Extending Access Management to maintain audit logs in cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the most often talked about security risks in cloud computing, like, security and compliance, viability, lack of transparency, reliability and performance issues. Bringing strong auditability in cloud services can reduce these risks to a great extent. Also, auditing, both internally and externally is generally required and sometimes unavoidable looking into the present day competition in the business arena. Auditing in web based and cloud based usage environments focuses mainly on cost of a service which determines the overall expenditure of the user organization. However, the expenditure can be controlled by a collaborative approach between the provider company and the user organization by constantly monitoring the end user access and usage of subscribed cloud services. Though, many cloud providers will claim of having a robust auditable feature, the generic verifiability with sustainable long term recording of usage logs do not exist at all. Certain access management models can be perfectly extended to maintain audit logs for long terms. However, maintaining long term logs certainly has storage implications, especially with larger organizations. The storage implications need to be studied.

  3. Multiple Relationships : Maintaining Professional Identity in Rural Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Brownlee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.

  4. Landscape irrigation management for maintaining an aquifer and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent Forrest; Mancini, Mattia; West, Grant

    2015-09-01

    Expanding irrigated agriculture and dryer climatic conditions has led to large-scale withdrawals of groundwater and the decline in shallow aquifers. Policy makers must wrestle with the challenge of maintaining economic growth while conserving the groundwater resource. A spatially explicit landscape level model analyzes consequences of optimally chosen crop mix patterns on an aquifer and economic returns. The model of the groundwater use incorporates irrigation needs of the crops grown, initial aquifer thickness, hydro-conductivity of the aquifer, and distance to surrounding grid cells. The economic model incorporates the site specific yield, crop mix, and irrigation practice investments to predict economic returns. A tradeoff occurs between the volume of the aquifer and economic returns due to groundwater withdrawal for irrigation, but the farm's ability to grow profitable lower irrigation crops dampens the intensity of this tradeoff. Allowing for multiple unconventional irrigation practices that are yield increasing and water conserving significantly increases the economic returns of a given crop mix while maintaining the aquifer.

  5. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Keijser, Bart J F

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis-a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance toward the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research.

  6. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egija eZaura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis – a microbial shift towards a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance towards the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research.

  7. Trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Chen, Hong-Bin; Yan, Hao; Mo, Li-Hua; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. The regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. This study aims to elucidate the role of the TWIK-related potassium channel-1 (Trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. In this study, the levels of Trek1 were assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by the Ussing chamber system. The results showed that Trek1 was detected in the human and rat nasal epithelia, which were significantly lower in patients and rats with allergic rhinitis than that in healthy controls. Exposure to the signature T helper 2 cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, markedly suppressed the expression of Trek1 in the nasal mucosa via up regulating the expression of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)1. The IL-4-induced rat nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction could be blocked by HDAC1 inhibitor (Trichostatin A), or sodium butyrate, or administration of Clostridium Butyricum. We conclude that Trek1 is critical to maintain the nasal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25778785

  8. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  9. Corticosteroids Are Essential for Maintaining Cardiovascular Function in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Myers, Page H; Foley, Julie F; Willis, Monte S; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in the release of hormones from the adrenal glands, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The physiological association between corticosteroids and cardiac disease is becoming increasingly recognized; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. To determine the biological effects of corticosteroids on the heart, we investigated the impact of adrenalectomy in C57BL/6 male mice. Animals were adrenalectomized (ADX) at 1 month of age and maintained for 3-6 months after surgery to evaluate the effects of long-term adrenalectomy on cardiac function. Morphological evaluation suggested that ADX mice showed significantly enlarged hearts compared with age-matched intact controls. These changes in morphology correlated with deficits in left ventricular (LV) function and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in ADX mice. Correlating with these functional defects, gene expression analysis of ADX hearts revealed aberrant expression of a large cohort of genes associated with cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Combined corticosterone and aldosterone replacement treatment prevented the emergence of cardiac abnormalities in ADX mice, whereas corticosterone replacement prevented the effects of adrenalectomy on LV function but did not block the emergence of ECG alterations. Aldosterone replacement did not preserve the LV function but prevented ECG abnormalities. Together, the data indicate that adrenal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids either directly or indirectly have selective effects in the heart and their signaling pathways are essential in maintaining normal cardiac function. PMID:27219275

  10. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

  11. Reliability, maintainability, and availability engineering for integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P.Y.; Mavec, J.; Wolosewicz, R.M.; Calm, J.M.; Chopra, P.S.

    1979-12-01

    The reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) engineering methodologies for integrated community energy systems (ICES) are reported. Since the tangible and intangible costs of a system failure may outweigh the benefits of the ICES approaches, RMA consideration must be an integral part of ICES engineering. The effectiveness of system planning and design depends on component reliability information and on forecasts of community load profiles. Supply subsystems must provide sufficient capacity to meet demands in spite of maintenance and unscheduled outages. This allowance is the major task of probabilistic system planning. Because reliability and maintainability performance is partially a random process, probabilistic methodology is required for analysis and comparison. Portions of a community energy system being modified or expanded may already be in use before additional portions reach the design stage. This situation presents an opportunity to extend the RMA assessment of the existing system and to improve the additions that will be made to it. RMA engineering is essential to all phases of planning, design, construction, and operation of ICES. The methodologies presented provide a systematic, disciplined approach to predict and analyze RMA, to determine corrective actions necessary, and to achieve performance goals.

  12. Comparisons of Interventions for Rumination Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca A.; Phillips, Katrina J.; Mudford, Oliver C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of four antecedent treatments for rumination was compared for two individuals with autism, severe intellectual disabilities and long histories (at least 20 years) of rumination. Comparisons of increased meal size, supplemental feedings, fixed-time provision of peanut butter, and liquid rescheduling found liquid rescheduling to be…

  13. Maintaining the Median in Early Childhood Educational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    2005-01-01

    History shows that educational systems and educational theorists have consciously or unconsciously structured the education of young children toward one end or the other of the continuum between "internals" and "externals". Systems in which teacher-guided learning was based on efforts to satisfy individual needs, systems that encouraged…

  14. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective

  15. Sociable mobile robots through self-maintained energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...

  16. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members

  17. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  18. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, K S

    2010-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi) wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  19. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  20. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  1. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  2. Methods of achieving and maintaining an appropriate caesarean section rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.

  3. Neural correlates of establishing, maintaining, and switching brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Rothbart, Mary K; Posner, Michael I

    2012-06-01

    Although the study of brain states is an old one in neuroscience, there has been growing interest in brain state specification owing to MRI studies tracing brain connectivity at rest. In this review, we summarize recent research on three relatively well-described brain states: the resting, alert, and meditation states. We explore the neural correlates of maintaining a state or switching between states, and argue that the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum play a critical role in state maintenance, whereas the insula has a major role in switching between states. Brain state may serve as a predictor of performance in a variety of perceptual, memory, and problem solving tasks. Thus, understanding brain states is critical for understanding human performance.

  4. JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented arch...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications.......Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server......-oriented architecture that coherently supports general aspects of modern web applications, including dynamic XML construction, session management, data persistence, caching, and authentication, but it also simplifies programming of server-push communication and integration of XHTML-based applications and XML-based web...

  5. Propagation of Optical Pulses in Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ariel; Olivares, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The propagation of Gaussian optical pulses through optical PM-HiBi (Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent) fibers is analyzed and simulated. Based upon a model of propagation as described by Marcuse, et al., [1] and Sunnerud, et al., [2], and the use of PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) compensators and emulators used by Kogelnik, et al. [2], [3] and Lima, et al. [4], we construct a simple model that allows graphical representation of the distortion experienced by optical pulses when propagating in a PM-HiBi fiber for different initial polarizations. The results of our analysis have the benefit of being identical to the more elaborate models of [1], [2], while also providing the additional advantage of simple graphical representation.

  6. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  7. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen;

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results...... in a state change (e.g., division). Coupling inexpensive open source hardware with sensing and feedback allows for replicable real-time manipulation and monitoring of nonequilibrium systems that would be otherwise tedious, expensive, and error-prone. This system is a first step towards the practical...

  8. Optimal design of a maintainable cold-standby system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiyang [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France)]. E-mail: Haiyang.YU@utt.fr; Yalaoui, Farouk [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chatelet, Eric [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chu Chengbin [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)

    2007-01-15

    This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility.

  9. Maintaining photonic quantum polarisation entanglement in nanoscale waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Ren, Xi-Feng; Xiong, Xiao; Cai, Yong-Jing; Guo, Guo-Ping; Tong, Li-Min; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the maintaining of quantum polarisation entanglement in both a nanoscale dielectric tapered fibre and a plasmonic waveguide. Entangled photons are coupled into these waveguides, and quantum state tomography is used to verify that the transmitted states have fidelities of 0.958 and 0.932 with the maximally polarisation entangled state Phi^{+}, respectively. Furthermore, the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality tests performed, resulting in values of$2.588\\pm0.141>2 and 2.495\\pm0.147>2, respectively, demonstrate the violation of the hidden variable model. Our investigations pave the way toward a quantum near-field micro/nano-scope, which can realize high spatial resolution, ultra-sensitive, fibre-integrated, and plasmon-enhanced detection, as well as bridge nanophotonics and quantum metrology.

  10. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen;

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  11. Human sclera maintains common characteristics with cartilage throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Seko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated microarray data of cultured human infant scleral cells. Hierarchical clustering was performed to group scleral cells and other mesenchymal cells into subcategories. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed similarity between scleral cells and auricular cartilage-derived cells. Cultured micromasses of scleral cells exposed to TGF-betas and BMP2 produced an abundant matrix. The expression of cartilage-associated genes, such as Indian hedge hog, type X collagen, and MMP13, was up-regulated within 3 weeks in vitro. These results suggest that human 'sclera'-derived cells can be considered chondrocytes when cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study shows a chondrogenic potential of human sclera. Interestingly, the sclera of certain vertebrates, such as birds and fish, is composed of hyaline cartilage. Although the human sclera is not a cartilaginous tissue, the human sclera maintains chondrogenic potential throughout evolution. In addition, our findings directly explain an enigma that the sclera and the joint cartilage are common targets of inflammatory cells in rheumatic arthritis. The present global gene expression database will contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of developmental diseases such as high myopia.

  12. Distributed Amplify and Forward Cooperation While Maintaining Transmission Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study proposes a novel Distributed Amplify and-Forward (DAF cooperative scheme, achieving higher diver¬sity order and yet maintaining the same transmission freedom as the conventional Amplify-and-Forward (AF scheme. In the DAF scheme, a user’s transmitted symbols are partitioned into several sequences in order to be relayed by different users. Approach: In the cooperative network, each user still uses half of their transmission for relaying others’ signals. But instead of relaying one user’s entire transmitted sequence, it helps different users for the relaying. Theoretical analysis of the DAF scheme is carried out in order to justify its advantages over the existing schemes. The outage behavior and Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT analyses of the DAF scheme are presented. Results: Through outage behavior analysis, it is shown the DAF scheme achieves substantial diversity gains over the AF scheme. Furthermore, the DMT analysis justices both the scheme’s achievable diversity gains and its ability to maintain the same multiplexing gain as the AF scheme. The theoretical analyses are then extended to a general cooperative network consisting of N (N≥2 relays, showing the diversity order can be increased with respect to the number of relays but not at the expense of each user’s multiplexing gain. Conclusion: Finally, a practical coded cooperative system that integrates the DAF scheme with the concatenated Reed-Solomon Convolution Codes (RSCC is proposed, validating the achievable performance gain offered by the DAF scheme.

  13. ′Metal to resin′: A comparative evaluation of conventional band and loop space maintainer with the fiber reinforced composite resin space maintainer in children

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, A.; Samadi, F.; J N Jaiswal; Saha, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To compare the clinical efficacy of two space maintainers namely, conventional band and loop and Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin (FRCR) space maintainers . Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 5 to 8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. FRCR space maintainer was placed in one quadrant and in the other quadrant band and loop space maintainer was cemented. All the patients were recalled...

  14. Law and individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law conceptions is an acknowledgement of the all-pervading influence of modern nominalism. This orientation was characterised by employing two related distinctions, namely the distinction between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge, and that between rationalism and irrationalism. From a systematic point of view, various aspectual terms provide a frame of reference for the idea of a law of nature as a compound basic concept of science. Special attention is given to the nature of normative principles and physical laws. In the last part of the article, these perspectives are applied to a brief assessment of differences and similarities in the thought of Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.

  15. Hysterical individual criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Rezaeifard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, mental disorders and their association with crime, psychologists and lawyers, has attracted one of the biggest problems is that criminal behavior, any attempt to understand it requires the efforts of a wide range of scientific fields. In this regard, hysteria disorder, has a role, and disorders that are essential for its treatment of psychiatric, drug therapy is used, the incidence of mental illness, especially hysterical disorders, central nervous system, the especially the brain, the highest role in the patient's mental equilibrium. The etiology of hysterical disorders, diseases can be organ, social and environmental factors, the role of religion, incidents and accidents, including heredity and genetics. Preventing the hysterical disorders, this study has taken into consideration. Hysterical about individual criminal responsibility, which is divided into different types, we can say that basically hysterical, has full responsibility to be apart of hysteria, the a plurality of character that, in the judgment of insanity, and the person returns absolved from criminal responsibility, as well as safeguarding measures and educational judgment, the perpetrators of these patients can be looked at.

  16. MHI's activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  17. Activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  18. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  19. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  20. The socio-cultural landscape, individual resources and optimal functioning : A metatheoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Resent conceptualisation of happiness and optimal functioning maintain that it entail the realisation of social human qualities – the virtues. This thesis describes and discusses some of the positions that positive psychology has been concerned with regarding these virtuous qualities, but also regarding the relationship between the individual and the society. Positive psychology maintains, firstly, that there is a virtuous human nature. Secondly that the individual cannot adapt to any circums...

  1. How to maintain nuclear competence and knowledge management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    possible measures envisaged at European level should especially support those candidate countries that are using nuclear power. All states must have their own access to the appropriate nuclear education and research programmes. This support is important for the whole European nuclear community to ensure the continued safe operation and decommissioning of nuclear plants in the future. Another aspect to be taken fully into consideration is the fact that assuring nuclear education and training and maintaining nuclear competence necessitates the existence of a significant infrastructure. This costly infrastructure has lasted several decades but over the past few years has undergone many changes in response to the needs of a changing nuclear sector. An appropriate infrastructure, which meets future needs, has to be maintained, but this has to be in a sustainable way and with the necessary means. Steps need to be taken to proactively define what are an appropriate infrastructure and the possible measures, which can be used to ensure its continued support. (authors)

  2. Serum amyloid A inhibits osteoclast differentiation to maintain macrophage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiseon; Yang, Jihyun; Park, Ok-Jin; Kang, Seok-Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Serum amyloid A is an acute phase protein that is elevated under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, the serum levels of serum amyloid A are associated with the progression of inflammatory arthritis; thus, serum amyloid A might be involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effects of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation and function. When bone marrow-derived macrophages, as osteoclast precursors, were stimulated with serum amyloid A in the presence of M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoclast differentiation and its bone-resorption activity were substantially inhibited. TLR2 was important in the inhibitory effect of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation, because serum amyloid A stimulated TLR2. The inhibitory effect was absent in bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TLR2-deficient mice. Furthermore, serum amyloid A inhibited the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation, but prevented downregulation of IFN regulatory factor-8, a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. In contrast, serum amyloid A sustained the endocytic capacity of bone marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to induce the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Taken together, these results suggest that serum amyloid A, when increased by inflammatory conditions, inhibits differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, likely to maintain macrophage function for host defense.

  3. Reliability and maintainability analysis of electrical system of drum shearers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYED Hadi Hoseinie; MOHAMMAD Ataei; REZA Khalokakaie; UDAY Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and maintainability of electrical system of drum shearer at Parvade.l Coal Mine in central Iran was analyzed. The maintenance and failure data were collected during 19 months of shearer operation. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the data were independent and identically distributed (iid) and therefore the statistical techniques were used for modeling. The data analysis show that the time between failures (TBF) and time to repair (TTR) data obey the lognormal and Weibull 3 parameters distribution respectively. Reliability-based preventive maintenance time intervals for electrical system of the drum shearer were calculated with regard to reliability plot. The reliability-based maintenance intervals for 90%, 80%, 70% and 50% reliability level are respectively 9.91, 17.96, 27.56 and 56.1 h. Also the calculations show that time to repair (TTR) of this system varies in range 0.17-4 h with 1.002 h as mean time to repair (MTTR). There is a 80% chance that the electrical system of shearer of Parvade.l mine repair will be accomplished within 1.45 h.

  4. RELIABILITY MODELING OF A MAINTAINED SYSTEM WITH WARRANTY AND DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Niwas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a maintained system with the concept of warranty and degradation. Repair and preventive maintenance (PM costs are carried by the manufacturer during warranty while the cost of repair will be charged to the user beyond warranty. There is single repairman who is always available with the system for PM, repair and replacement of the unit. During warranty, unit goes under PM and works as new after PM. The unit beyond warranty works with some reduced capacity after its repair and so is called a degraded unit. Degraded unit is replaced by new unit after its failure. The time to failure of the system follows negative exponential distribution while repair, replacement and PM time distributions are taken as arbitrary. The expressions for reliability, mean time to system failure (MTSF, availability and profit function have been determined by using supplementary variable technique. Using Abel’s lemma, steady state behaviour of the system has been examined. Numerical results for reliability and profit function are also evaluated for particular values of various parameters and repair cost.

  5. Mosquito C-type lectins maintain gut microbiome homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rudian; Liu, Jianying; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    The long-term evolutionary interaction between the host immune system and symbiotic bacteria determines their cooperative rather than antagonistic relationship. It is known that commensal bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms to manipulate the mammalian host immune system and maintain homeostasis. However, the strategies employed by the microbiome to overcome host immune responses in invertebrates still remain to be understood. Here, we report that the gut microbiome in mosquitoes utilizes C-type lectins (mosGCTLs) to evade the bactericidal capacity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Aedes aegypti mosGCTLs facilitate colonization by multiple bacterial strains. Furthermore, maintenance of the gut microbial flora relies on the expression of mosGCTLs in A. aegypti. Silencing the orthologues of mosGCTL in another major mosquito vector (Culex pipiens pallens) also impairs the survival of gut commensal bacteria. The gut microbiome stimulates the expression of mosGCTLs, which coat the bacterial surface and counteract AMP activity. Our study describes a mechanism by which the insect symbiotic microbiome offsets gut immunity to achieve homeostasis. PMID:27572642

  6. Customer retention: maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    The current market environment in the electricity industry is one of changing regulations with many of the rules being developed. There is a great deal of customer confusion and uncertainty with some customers unaware of their contestable status and many are insecure about mixing retail and distribution supplies. This paper discusses customer retention and maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market. It draws on some conclusions from a survey released by the Australian Chamber of Manufacturers entitled `Customer feedback on Victoria`s competitive electricity market`. An overview is presented of the retail market in Australia which is one of very strong price-based competition, with as yet little differentiation. A process is described for retaining customers which involves asking the customer what he/she wants in a language which they understand. The best way to determine customer needs is through a combination of internal and external sources. Enhancing customer loyalty and differentiating and marketing the product are also discussed. As the market matures, customer retention and satisfaction will be based on value added services at a reasonable cost. (author). 6 figs.

  7. Maintaining relationships with your patients by maximizing your online presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, John; Kaaihue, Maarit

    2011-01-01

    Medical practices that take full advantage of today's online consumer-driven culture will leave other practices in their wake. With today's modern consumers looking to the Internet more and more for finding medical solutions for their family, it is imperative that your practice uses all of the tools available for creating and maintaining its online presence. We all know that having a functional Web site these days is a necessity for practically any business in any industry; however, taking your online presence further by using a few techniques can set up your practice for great success. Your online marketing should help your practice with managing patient relationships at all levels. To best reach this goal, continually analyzing data and updating your online marketing approach will help further drive leads and conversions. Using a few search engine optimization techniques as well as optimal design and marketing methods will allow you to more easily find prospective patients, build trust and credibility with your current patients, and manage your reputation.

  8. Microstructure and properties of novel polarization maintaining fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-cheng; LIU Li-hua; XUE Jian-jun; XIAO Tian-peng; LIANG Le-tian; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2005-01-01

    An improved type of elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber was developed by using a modified chemical vapor deposition method with special treatment. Different from conventional elliptical jacket, the shape of the stress jacket was transmuted. The cross-section of fiber consists of 5 layers: substrate, outer cladding, stress jacket, inner cladding and core. The cross sectional component distribution was investigated by electron probe microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum. The finite element method was used to calculate the stress birefringence. Based on the analyses of the microstructure, the technological process is improved. The temperature cycling test of the fiber wound into gyroscope coils was performed. The results show that the fiber possesses superior performance at high and low temperatures compared with other fibers. The high homogeneity is achieved by well-controlled modified chemical vapor deposition process. A homogeneous length of 8 km fiber is obtained. With advantages in homogeneity and length, the fiber has great potential in applications such as fiber gyroscopes, fiber hydrophone and other optical fiber sensors.

  9. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-22

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  10. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  11. Individual health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German statutory health insurance (GKV reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK, individual health services (IGeL are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions: The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS, the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods: The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results: 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by

  12. [School absenteeism: Preliminary developments and maintaining persisting challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A first step when considering school absenteeism is to understand the meaning and definition of the term. School absenteeism encompasses several terms such as school refusal, truancy and school phobia, all of which have been used inconsistently and confusingly in the past. Furthermore, the question of how many days of absence can be seen as problematic remains unclear. Due to these definitional problems, available data is inconsistent. Therefore, the prevalence rates of school absenteeism can only be estimated (about 5 % of all students). School absenteeism affects not only individual students, but also family, school and society structures. In order to establish appropriate support and intervention programs, a multimodal as well as an individual approach should be considered to address this interdependency. The primary goal, however, should be the students’ resumption of a regular school attendance, which requires a strong cooperation between parents, schools, youth welfare services and psychotherapeutic offers. If therapeutic interventions are required, it is highly recommended to start with outpatient treatment. If school attendance still remains irregular an inpatient treatment should follow. PMID:27008900

  13. Advocating Students’Individual Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任锡平

    2014-01-01

    A new approach formed with the application of modern teaching facilities makes English teaching and learning more collaborative and individualized through using computers, the Internet, and multimedia. Therefore, students ’individual English learning, teaching and learning environment, and conditions that students need in their individual learning are discussed.

  14. The Science of the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  15. Human STEAP3 maintains tumor growth under hypoferric condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, Taichi, E-mail: tisobe@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Eishi, E-mail: e-baba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arita, Shuji, E-mail: arita.s@nk-cc.go.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Komoda, Masato, E-mail: komoda@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tamura, Shingo, E-mail: tamshin@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: t-w-r@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ariyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: hariyama@kyumed.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takaishi, Shigeo, E-mail: takaishi@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kusaba, Hitoshi, E-mail: hkusaba@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); and others

    2011-11-01

    Iron is essential in cellular proliferation and survival based on its crucial roles in DNA and ATP synthesis. Tumor cells proliferate rapidly even in patients with low serum iron, although their actual mechanisms are not well known. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of efficient tumor progression under the hypoferric condition, we studied the roles of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate family member 3 (STEAP3), which was reported to facilitate iron uptake. Using Raji cells with low STEAP3 mRNA expression, human STEAP3-overexpressing cells were established. The impact of STEAP3 expression was analyzed about the amount of iron storage, the survival under hypoferric conditions in vitro and the growth of tumor in vivo. STEAP3 overexpression increased ferritin, an indicator of iron storage, in STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells. STEAP3 gave Raji cells the resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis. These STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells preserved efficient growth even in hypoferric mice, while parental Raji cells grew less rapidly. In addition, iron deficiency enhanced STEAP3 mRNA expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, human colorectal cancer tissues exhibited more STEAP3 mRNA expression and iron storage compared with normal colon mucosa. These findings indicate that STEAP3 maintains iron storage in human malignant cells and tumor proliferation under the hypoferric condition. -- Highlights: {yields} STEAP3 expression results in increment of stored intracellular iron. {yields} Iron deprivation induces expression of STEAP3. {yields} Colorectal cancer expresses STEAP3 highly and stores iron much. {yields} STEAP3 expressing tumors preserves growth even in mice being hypoferremia.

  16. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (fire-induced mortality of perennial vegetation in ungrazed compared to grazed treatments. Our results demonstrate that prior disturbances exert a strong influence on the response of plant communities to subsequent disturbances and suggest that low-severity disturbances may be needed in some plant communities to increase their resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems. PMID:19769101

  17. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism. PMID:26902078

  19. Management of wound infection after lumbar arthrodesis maintaining the instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determinate whether a surgical protocol with immediate extensive debridement, closed irrigation system and antibiotic therapy would be effective to achieve healing of deep wound infection without removing the instrumentation.METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 19 patients presenting degenerative spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis, who developed infection after posterior lumbar arthrodesis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a microbial culture from subfascial lumbar fluid and/or blood. Patients were treated with a protocol of wound exploration, extensive flushing and debridement, placement of a closed irrigation system that was maintained for five days and intravenous antibiotics. The instrumentation system was not removed.RESULTS: Mean age was 59.31 (±13.17 years old and most patients were female (94.7%; 18/19. The mean period for the identification of the infection was 2 weeks and 57.9% underwent a single wound exploration. White blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein showed a significant decrease post-treatment when compared to pre-treatment values. A significant reduction of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein was also observed at the final evaluation. No laboratory test was useful to predict the need for more than one debridement.CONCLUSION: Patients with wound infection after instrumentation can be treated without removal of the instrumentation through wound exploration, extensive flushing, debridement of necrotic tissue, closed irrigation system during 5 days and proper antibiotic therapy. The blood tests were not useful to predict surgical re-interventions.

  20. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  1. Motivations for Individualization of Punishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Naderi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Motivated by Individualization -defense to penalties, seeks to answers to this question whether principle Individualization penalty, can be recognized as a legal principle? Individualization penalty means: Differentiate between the delinquents and determine the penalty imposed or alternately follows the character of the offender and the punishment that is imposed on him. In this research Western of Jurists the views (of Individualization motivations to penalties have been investigated. Now, to the motivations study of the Individualization we explain penalties.

  2. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  3. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human neutrophils is maintained by complex III activity in the absence of supercomplex organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram J van Raam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils depend mainly on glycolysis for their energy provision. Their mitochondria maintain a membrane potential (Deltapsi(m, which is usually generated by the respiratory chain complexes. We investigated the source of Deltapsi(m in neutrophils, as compared to peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and HL-60 cells, and whether neutrophils can still utilise this Deltapsi(m for the generation of ATP. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual activity of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes was significantly reduced in neutrophils, except for complex II and V, but Deltapsi(m was still decreased by inhibition of complex III, confirming the role of the respiratory chain in maintaining Deltapsi(m. Complex V did not maintain Deltapsi(m by consumption of ATP, as has previously been suggested for eosinophils. We show that complex III in neutrophil mitochondria can receive electrons from glycolysis via the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle. Furthermore, respiratory supercomplexes, which contribute to efficient coupling of the respiratory chain to ATP synthesis, were lacking in neutrophil mitochondria. When HL-60 cells were differentiated to neutrophil-like cells, they lost mitochondrial supercomplex organisation while gaining increased aerobic glycolysis, just like neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: We show that neutrophils can maintain Deltapsi(m via the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, whereby their mitochondria play an important role in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis, rather than producing energy themselves. This peculiar mitochondrial phenotype is acquired during differentiation from myeloid precursors.

  4. Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the fantasy activity of 16 individuals who were seeking online peer-support and advice for maladaptive daydreaming (MD). MD is an under-researched mental activity described as persistent vivid fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with important areas of functioning. We employed a grounded theory methodology that yielded seven common themes presented as a sequential descriptive narrative about the nature, precursors, and consequences of MD. The presented "storyline" included the following themes: (1) daydreaming as an innate talent for vivid fantasy; (2) daydreaming and social isolation-a two-way street; (3) the role of trauma in the development of MD; (4) the rewards of daydreaming; (5) the insatiable yearning for daydreaming; (6) shame and concealment; (7) unsuccessful treatment attempts. A main conclusion of our study is that there is an urgent need for early identification of MD and its correct diagnoses in adulthood. PMID:27002749

  5. SOCIAL NETWORKING AND INDIVIDUAL OUTCOMES: INDIVIDUAL DECISIONS AND MARKET CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannides, Yannis M.; Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines social interactions when social networking is endogenous. It employs a linear-quadratic model that accommodates contextual e®ects, and endogenous local inter- actions, that is where individuals react to the decisions of their neighbors, and endogenous global ones, where individuals react to the mean decision in the economy, both with a lag. Unlike the simple V AR(1) structural model of individual interactions, the planner's problem here involves intertemporal optimization ...

  6. Postural Control of Healthy Elderly Individuals Compared to Elderly Individuals with Stroke Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Filippo, Thais Raquel; Imamura, Marta; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    A stroke and aging process can modify the postural control. We aimed to compare the postural control of health elderly individuals to that of individuals with stroke sequelae. This cross-sectional transversal study was made with individuals capable of walking without any assistance and that were considered clinically stable. The study had 18 individuals in the group with stroke sequelae (SG) and 34 in the healthy elderly control group (CG). The participants were evaluated for the timed up and go test (TUG) and force platform. The SG showed the worst results in relation to the time of execution of the TUG and the force platform evaluation. The displacement of center of pressure was worse for both groups in the eyes-closed situation, especially in the anteroposterior direction for the CG. The GS showed worse results in the static and dynamic postural control. The healthy elderly showed more dependence on sight to maintain their static balance and there was no difference in the balance tests in relation to the side affected by the stroke.

  7. Maintaining quality control in a nontraditional nuclear technology degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regents College, created by the Board of Regents of the University of The State on New York in 1971, has been offering, since January 1985, AS and BS degrees in nuclear technology. The impetus for establishing the nuclear technology degrees came from nuclear utility management and had to do with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed rule regarding degreed operators on shift. There are a variety of ways to earn credits in Regents College degree programs: (1) college courses taken for degree-level credit from regionally accredited colleges; (2) courses sponsored by business, industry, or government that have been evaluated and recommended for credit by the New York National or American Council on Education (ACE's) Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI); (3) military education that has been evaluated by ACE PONSI; (4) approved college-proficiency examinations; and (5) special assessment: an individualized examination of college-level knowledge gained from experience or independent study. Nuclear technology students primarily use college course work, evaluated military education, and proficiency examinations to complete degree programs. However, an increasing number of utilities are having training programs PONSI evaluated, resulting in an increased use of these courses in the nuclear technology degrees. Quality control is a function of several factors described in the paper

  8. Mass production of individual feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, David

    2006-01-01

    Learning to program is intrinsically difficult. In addition there is a trend towards increased student diversity and larger class sizes. Student diversity increases the need for individual attention for each student, while increased class sizes decreases the amount of time a lecturer has to provide this attention. This thesis investigates an approach to help provide each student with detailed individual feedback. This feedback is important where individual attention is lacking. We used tw...

  9. KEDUDUKAN INDIVIDU DALAM HUKUM INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heribertus Jaka Triyana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking of the role of person or individuals in international law has become more significant due to the development of branches of international law; the international criminal law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law. This essay focuses on issue of law enforcement of individuals responsibility toward international wrongful acts, mechanisms and their futher development. Historical development is used as a point of view in this essay to reach conclusion of the role of individuals in international law.

  10. Categorical apparatus of individual marketing

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Reshetnikova; Yu.A. Eremenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the essence of individual marketing and its interconnection with relationship marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing based on a study of the marketing genesis and the evolution of the process of individual communication between buyer and seller. We consider relationship marketing as the most general notion that involves individual marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing. Relationship marketing is to ...

  11. The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

    2004-06-30

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h

  12. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  13. Manipulating the gut microbiota to maintain health and treat disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intestinal microbiota composition varies between healthy and diseased individuals for numerous diseases. Although any cause or effect relationship between the alterations in the gut microbiota and disease is not always clear, targeting the intestinal microbiota might offer new possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of disease. Objective: Here we review some examples of manipulating the intestinal microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants. Results: Prebiotics are best known for their ability to increase the number of bifidobacteria. However, specific prebiotics could potentially also stimulate other species they can also stimulate other species associated with health, like Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii, the Roseburia/Enterococcus rectale group, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Probiotics have beneficial health effects for different diseases and digestive symptoms. These effects can be due to the direct effect of the probiotic bacterium or its products itself, as well as effects of the probiotic on the resident microbiota. Probiotics can influence the microbiota composition as well as the activity of the resident microbiota. Fecal microbial transplants are a drastic intervention in the gut microbiota, aiming for total replacement of one microbiota by another. With numerous successful studies related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection, the potential of fecal microbial transplants to treat other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders is under investigation. Conclusions: Improved knowledge on the specific role of gut microbiota in prevention and treatment of disease will help more targeted manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are necessary to see the (long term effects for health of these interventions.

  14. Individual dynamic lighting control in a daylit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Asta; Christoffersen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to observe individual preferences for dynamic lighting, individual control and possibly achieve energy savings in a daylit space. The dynamics in this study are modifications of light level and correlated colour temperature (CCT) from the electric lighting system......, whereas questionnaires were used to evaluate user satisfaction. The study shows that subjects tended to choose a preferred CCT level, which they maintained to some extent during the day; the subjects did not regulate according to a fixed light level throughout the day. Energy savings were not accomplished...

  15. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  16. ′Metal to resin′: A comparative evaluation of conventional band and loop space maintainer with the fiber reinforced composite resin space maintainer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the clinical efficacy of two space maintainers namely, conventional band and loop and Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin (FRCR space maintainers . Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 5 to 8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. FRCR space maintainer was placed in one quadrant and in the other quadrant band and loop space maintainer was cemented. All the patients were recalled at 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th months for evaluation of both types of space maintainer. Patient acceptability, time taken, and clinical efficacy was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi- square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Patient acceptability was greater in Group I (FRCR in comparison to Group II (band and loop space maintainer. The time taken by Group I was significantly lower as compared to that of Group II. In Group I, debonding of enamel, composite was the most common complication leading to failure followed by debonding of fiber composite. In Group II, cement loss was the most common complication leading to failure followed by slippage of band and fracture of loop. The success rates of Groups I and Group II weares 63.3% and 36.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that FRCRFiber Reinforced Composite Resin (Ribbond space maintainers can be considered as viable alternative to the conventional band and loop space maintainers.

  17. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  18. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  19. Physical Activity as a Strategy for Maintaining Tobacco Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary; Muňoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor; Gorecki, Julie; Hu, Dixie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives For smoking cessation, physical activity (PA) may help manage withdrawal symptoms, mood, stress, and weight; yet studies of PA as an aid for smoking cessation have been mixed. This study examined: (1) the impact of an extended relapse prevention program on increasing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in adults enrolled in a tobacco cessation treatment trial; (2) whether changes in MVPA were associated with sustained abstinence from smoking; and (3) mechanisms by which MVPA may support sustained abstinence from smoking. Method In a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003-2006 in San Francisco, California, 407 adult smokers received a 12 week group-based smoking cessation treatment with bupropion and nicotine patch with the quit date set at week 3. At week 12, participants were randomized to no further treatment or to 40 weeks of bupropion or placebo with or without an 11-session relapse prevention intervention of which 2 sessions (held at weeks 16 and 20) focused on PA. Participants receiving the PA intervention (n=163) received a pedometer, counseling to increase steps 10% biweekly towards a 10,000 steps/day goal, and personalized reports graphing progress with individualized goals. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed weekly minutes of MVPA at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Sustained abstinence from tobacco at week 24 was validated with expired carbon monoxide. Results In a repeated mixed model analysis, intervention participants significantly increased their MVPA relative to control participants, F(1,475)=3.95, p=.047. Pedometer step counts also increased significantly, t(23)=2.36, p=.027, though only 15% of intervention participants provided 6 weeks of pedometer monitoring. Controlling for treatment condition, increased MVPA predicted sustained smoking abstinence at week 24, odds ratio=1.84 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.05). Among participants with sustained abstinence, increased MVPA was associated with increased vigor (r=0.23, p=.025

  20. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  1. 34 CFR 607.31 - How does a grantee maintain its eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a grantee maintain its eligibility? 607.31... Grantee Meet? § 607.31 How does a grantee maintain its eligibility? (a) A grantee shall maintain its... set forth in its grant application including, if applicable, the institution's success...

  2. 34 CFR 606.31 - How does a grantee maintain its eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a grantee maintain its eligibility? 606.31... Conditions Must a Grantee Meet? § 606.31 How does a grantee maintain its eligibility? (a) A grantee shall maintain its eligibility under the requirements in § 606.2, except for § 606.2(a)(3) and (4), for...

  3. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  4. Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Aplin, LM; Farine, DR; Mann, RP; Sheldon, BC

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. Howeve...

  5. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  6. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... the model arrived at on a dataset collected among individuals engaged in knowledge sharing in two competing firms. Results of the LISREL analysis show that the use of rewards affects attitudes toward knowledge sharing negatively, while the use of reciprocal schemes and communication mechanisms have...

  7. Evolution of identity signals: frequency-dependent benefits of distinctive phenotypes used for individual recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael J; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2009-12-01

    Identifying broad-scale evolutionary processes that maintain phenotypic polymorphisms has been a major goal of modern evolutionary biology. There are numerous mechanisms, such as negative frequency-dependent selection, that may maintain polymorphisms, although it is unknown which mechanisms are prominent in nature. Traits used for individual recognition are strikingly variable and have evolved independently in numerous lineages, providing an excellent model to investigate which factors maintain ecologically relevant phenotypic polymorphisms. Theoretical models suggest that individuals may benefit by advertising their identities with distinctive, recognizable phenotypes. Here, we test the benefits of advertising one's identity with a distinctive phenotype. We manipulated the appearance of Polistes fuscatus paper wasp groups so that three individuals had the same appearance and one individual had a unique, easily recognizable appearance. We found that individuals with distinctive appearances received less aggression than individuals with nondistinctive appearances. Therefore, individuals benefit by advertising their identity with a unique phenotype. Our results provide a potential mechanism through which negative frequency-dependent selection may maintain the polymorphic identity signals in P. fuscatus. Given that recognition is important for many social interactions, selection for distinctive identity signals may be an underappreciated and widespread mechanism underlying the evolution of phenotypic polymorphisms in social taxa. PMID:19744121

  8. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-02-23

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage.

  9. Xanthogranulomatous panniculitis of the head of an aquarium-maintained California moray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Tuttle, Allison D; Frasca, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    An aquarium-maintained male California moray Gymnothorax mordax had a symmetrical enlargement of the soft tissues of the head dorsal to the cranium for 2 years prior to its death. This individual was anesthetized for radiographic and ultrasonographic examination of the lesion, and blood was collected for plasma biochemical analytes and lipid profiles. Radiographs and ultrasound of the lesion demonstrated a symmetrical and homogeneous soft tissue density that was consistent with adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride values appeared elevated; therefore, the animal's diet was amended to decrease fat consumption. Triglyceride values decreased after dietary changes were made; however, values for cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins fluctuated but remained largely unchanged. Histopathological assessment of the lesion revealed localized xanthogranulomatous inflammation of hypodermal adipose tissue. The etiology of the lesion in this animal was never determined. This paper describes the first documented case of localized xanthogranulomatous panniculitis in a California moray and demonstrates the need for additional research on specific dietary requirements, species-specific physiological differences, and lesions involving the adipose tissue of morays in comparison with other teleost species.

  10. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  11. Strong natural selection on juveniles maintains a narrow adult hybrid zone in a broadcast spawner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Carlos; Hellberg, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection can maintain and help form species across different habitats, even when dispersal is high. Selection against inferior migrants (immigrant inviability) acts when locally adapted populations suffer high mortality on dispersal to unsuitable habitats. Habitat-specific populations undergoing divergent selection via immigrant inviability should thus show (1) a change in the ratio of adapted to nonadapted individuals among age/size classes and (2) a cline (defined by the environmental gradient) as selection counterbalances migration. Here we examine the frequencies of two depth-segregated lineages in juveniles and adults of a Caribbean octocoral, Eunicea flexuosa. Distributions of the two lineages in both shallow and deep environments were more distinct when inferred from adults than juveniles. Despite broad larval dispersal, we also found an extremely narrow hybrid zone (<100 m), with coincident clines for molecular and morphological characters of the host coral and its algal symbiont. Effective dispersal estimates derived from the hybrid zone are remarkably small (<20 m) for a broadcast spawner. The large selection coefficient against mismatched genotypes derived from cohort data is consistent with that from field transplant experiments. Narrow hybrid zones and limited effective dispersal may be a common outcome of long periods of postsettlement, prereproductive selection across steep ecological gradients. Strong diversifying selection provides a mechanism to explain the prevalence of depth-segregated sibling species in the sea.

  12. Clues to maintaining calorie restriction? Psychosocial profiles of successful long-term restrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incollingo Belsky, Angela C; Epel, Elissa S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2014-08-01

    To combat the obesity epidemic, interventions and treatments often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years - members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, we measured diet, eating behaviors, and personality traits comparing calorie restrictors with two age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched comparison groups (normal weight and overweight/obese). We first tested whether the CR group restricted calories without indications of eating disorder pathology, and second, what crystallized psychosocial characteristics set them apart from their nonrestricting comparisons. Results indicated the CR group averaged 10 years of CR but scored lower than comparison groups on measures of disordered eating (p disordered eating. Since modifying trait factors may be unrealistic, there may be psychosocial boundaries to the capacity for sustaining CR. Paralleling a movement toward personalized medicine, this study points toward a personalized behavioral medicine model in behavioral nutrition and treatment of overweight/obesity. PMID:24747211

  13. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  14. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Babu, Gkl; Sunny, R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  15. Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hemanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life. Aims and Objectives: The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individuals after obtaining digital photographic images of the rugae. Materials and Methods: The intra oral photographs of 100 individuals were taken using a SLR digital camera. The custom made external attachment was attached to the camera to standardize all the photographs. A special software was designed called the Palatal Rugae Comparison Software (PRCS Version 2.0 to match the clinical photographs. Five evaluators including 3 dentists, 1 computer professional, and 1 general surgeon were asked to match the rugae pattern using the software. The results were recorded along with time taken by each operator to match all the photos using software. Results: The software recorded an accuracy of 99% in identification of individuals. Conclusion: The present study supports the fact of individuality of the rugae. Computerized method has given very good results to support the individualization of rugae. Through our study, we feel that palatal rugae patterns will be of great use in the future of forensic odontology.

  16. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. PMID:26935188

  17. ISIS Individualized Support In Sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Hummel, H. G. K. (2007). ISIS Individualized Support In Sequencing. Presentation given during the PIP meeting on March 22, 2007. Open University of the Netherlands: Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  18. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. PMID:23845164

  19. Succession planning and individual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudreau, Kelly A; Hardy, Jacalyn

    2006-06-01

    The authors present a framework for a succession planning and individual development initiative implemented in a Veterans Health Administration facility. Foundational strategic goals and a conceptual framework in the Veterans Affairs system provide the structure for the 3 facility-level succession planning and individual development programs. Outcomes of the programs are promising with 2 of 3 programs demonstrating clear succession planning outcomes and the other one showing positive preliminary results.

  20. Individual focus and knowledge contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adamic, Lada A.; Wei, Xiao; Yang, Jiang; Gerrish, Sean; Nam, Kevin K.; Clarkson, Gavin S.

    2010-01-01

    Before contributing new knowledge, individuals must attain requisite background knowledge or skills through schooling, training, practice, and experience. Given limited time, individuals often choose either to focus on few areas, where they build deep expertise, or to delve less deeply and distribute their attention and efforts across several areas. In this paper we measure the relationship between the narrowness of focus and the quality of contribution across a range of both traditional and ...

  1. Corporate versus individual: moral responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Conceição

    2003-01-01

    There is a clear tendency in contemporary political/legal thought to limit agency to individual agents, thereby denying the existence and relevance of collective moral agency in general, and corporate agency in particular. This tendency is ultimately rooted in two particular forms of individualism – methodological and fictive (abstract) – which have their source in the Enlightenment. Furthermore, the dominant notion of moral agency owes a lot to Kant whose moral/legal philosophy is grounded e...

  2. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiologi...

  3. Individual and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Society's demands for individual and corporate social responsibility as an alternative response to market and distributive failures are becoming increasingly prominent. We first draw on recent developments in the 'psychology and economics' of prosocial behavior to shed light on this trend, which reflects a complex interplay of genuine altruism, social or self image concerns, and material incentives. We then link individual concerns to corporate social responsibility, contrasting three possibl...

  4. On Thoreau’s Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2013-01-01

    Henry David Thoreau, the most influential American writer, naturalist, philosopher in 19th century, who was also an important representative figure of the American Transcendentalism Movement, the outcast of social mainstream thoughts. For over 150 years, his thoughts have inspired people to seek a return to nature. As for his attitude towards life, he believed that hu⁃man beings should live in their own way, listen to their own heart, and do what they believe is right. The purpose of this essay is to analysize Thoreau’s idea of Individualism and his involvement in the crucial social issues. The analysis will first consider the na⁃ture of individualism and make distinction between Thoreau’s individualism and individualism in American society. Then it will present an intensive study of Thoreau’s embracing of some notions of individualism in Civil Disobedience and Walden. And the effects of his individualism have given to society not only in America but in other countries.

  5. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  6. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  7. Categorical apparatus of individual marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Reshetnikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the essence of individual marketing and its interconnection with relationship marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing based on a study of the marketing genesis and the evolution of the process of individual communication between buyer and seller. We consider relationship marketing as the most general notion that involves individual marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing. Relationship marketing is to be viewed as establishing long-term relationships between seller and buyer on mutually beneficial basis. The emergence of information technologies and their widespread use in business has a significant impact on relationship marketing and led to the concept of CRM. The results of the analysis. We consider CRM as business strategy which is based on information technologies and designed to provide long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with customers through client-oriented approach and the creation of high customer value to the product and company. CRM and CRM-systems that are designed to work with customers' databases and are operating with huge volumes of information for marketing purposes have contributed to the realization of the principles of individual marketing. Conceptual approaches to the definition of the concepts of «individual marketing» and CRM allow us to identify common and distinctive features as well as the interdependency between them. It is appropriate to talk about CRM as the concept which is broader than individual marketing. CRM focuses on relationships with customers, and the main objective of it is to establish long-term relationships for mutual benefit, while individual marketing needs to be supported by resources and technologies to create a specific product that is able to meet the particular individual needs of customers. It should be noted that the practical implementation of the principles of CRM is possible when using an

  8. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  9. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30). PMID:24378502

  10. Individualizing Instruction: Nine Ways to Individualize MACBETH or Anything Else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffert, Beatrice G.

    This paper describes a model for individualized instruction, in which instruction is seen as a flexible series of interactions between three factors: the student, the content, and the strategy for teaching. The model is based on the student's active involvement in the content and on the teacher's facilitation of student learning. The paper shows…

  11. Structure, Individuality and Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stachel, J

    2005-01-01

    After reviewing various interpretations of structural realism, I adopt here a definition that allows both relations between things that are already individuated (which I call ``relations between things'') and relations that individuate previously un-individuated entities ("things between relations"). Since both space-time points in general relativity and elementary particles in quantum theory fall into the latter category, I propose a principle of maximal permutability as a criterion for the fundamental entities of any future theory of ``quantum gravity''; i.e., a theory yielding both general relativity and quantum field theory in appropriate limits. Then I review of a number of current candidates for such a theory. First I look at the effective field theory and asymptotic quantization approaches to general relativity, and then at string theory. Then a discussion of some issues common to all approaches to quantum gravity based on the full general theory of relativity argues that processes, rather than states ...

  12. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  13. INDIVIDUAL VERSUS CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Cristian Muşetescu

    2012-01-01

    We explore the basic elements that lay at the foundation of the concept of “corporate social responsibility”. We argue that the debate on the “social responsibility” of artificial or legal (that is, non-natural) persons is a result of the logical error of conceptual realism. Its fault is to extrapolate the rights and obligations of human individuals to corporations that are nothing but social and contractual arrangements between individuals. Such an error has been nurtured by other types of r...

  14. Immune tolerance maintained by cooperative interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells shapes a diverse TCR repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eBest

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The T cell population in an individual needs to avoid harmful activation by self-peptides while maintaining the ability to respond to an unknown set of foreign peptides. This property is acquired by a combination of thymic and extra-thymic mechanisms. We extend current models for the development of self/non-self discrimination to consider the acquisition of self-tolerance as an emergent system level property of the overall T cell receptor repertoire. We propose that tolerance is established at the level of the antigen presenting cell/T cell cluster, which facilitates and integrates co-operative interactions between T cells of different specificity. The threshold for self-reactivity is therefore imposed at a population level, and not at the level of the individual T cell/antigen encounter. Mathematically, the model can be formulated as a linear programming optimisation problem, which can be implemented as a multiplicative update algorithm which shows a rapid convergence to a stable state. The model constrains self-reactivity within a predefined threshold, but maintains the diversity and cross reactivity which are key characteristics of human T cell immunity. We show further that the size of individual clones in the model repertoire remains heterogeneous, and that new clones can establish themselves even when the repertoire is stable. Our study combines the salient features of the danger model of self/non-self discrimination with the concepts of quorum sensing, and extends repertoire generation models to encompass the establishment of tolerance. Furthermore, the dynamic and continuous repertoire reshaping which underlies tolerance in this model suggests opportunities for therapeutic intervention to achieve long-term tolerance following transplantation.

  15. Maintaining Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's GDP grew 9.2 percent in 2011,a remarkable achievement outshining many other countries.However,the current condition of the national economy is less than appealing.The sequential quarterly GDP growth rates for 2011 stood at 9.7 percent,9.5 percent,9.1 percent and 8.9 percent,showing a trend of deceleration.A consensus has been made that stabilizing growth should be the primary goal for China's economic development.

  16. Maintaining Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Some analysts question whether rural spending on consumer goods will continue to grow faster than in urban areas Amyriad of policies that the Chinese Government introduced to boost rural spending have

  17. Space maintainer for the loss of a permanent molar in the adolescent patient: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemeyer, R G; Glavich, G G

    1996-01-01

    An adolescent patient who loses a permanent first molar presents a clinical challenge for the practitioner. The ideal space maintainer should not only maintain the edentulous space, but it should also maintain inter-arch integrity. An esthetic, inexpensive unilateral space maintainer has been designed for the replacement of a permanent first molar in an adolescent patient. The appliance has demonstrated high patient satisfaction, as well as, a good clinical result. This appliance is designed to remain in place until the patient is old enough to receive an implant or a more permanent prosthetic replacement.

  18. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...

  19. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  20. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  1. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  2. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  3. Quality assurance in individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement and assessment of radiation dose to the individual radiation worker, called 'Individual monitoring', is one of the most important aspects of radiation protection. International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-75) has outlined three main objectives of personal monitoring viz assessment of the effectively equivalent dose to demonstrate compliance with managerial and regulatory requirements; to contribute to control of operation and design of facilities and in case of accidental overexposure, to provide valuable information for the initiation and support of any health surveillance and treatment. To meet these objectives, it is essential that the measurements are reliable and accurate as defined by National and International Standards. This requires setting up of well defined internal as well as external quality assurance protocol in the individual monitoring program. External quality assurance program is meant to provide a reliable and qualitative as well as quantitative assessment of the service provided by the service provider. In India, individual monitoring is based on CaSO4:Dy based TLD badge and the task of conducting external quality assurance (QA) is being performed by RP and AD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The paper presents the methodology of Quality assurance, Performance evaluation standards and criteria. It discusses the results and important observations of last few QA cycles conducted for all the TLD Labs. The quality assurance check has indicated that the performance of all the Labs is satisfactory in accordance with ANSI as well as Trumpet curve methodology. It provided feedback on further improvements in the quality

  4. ENVISAT Radar Altimeter Individual Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanifé, O. Z.; Roca, M.; Rémy, F.; Legrèsy, B.; Chapron, B.; Laxon, S.; Pilar Milagro, M.; Benveniste, J.

    2006-07-01

    A unique feature of the ENVISAT RA-2 is to provide bursts of individual, unav eraged Ku band echo s ample data in phase (I) and quadrature (Q), at the full rate 1800 Hz. This data offers a unique possibility to assess the full capabilities of altimeter measurements. Both technically and scientifically, much can be expected fro m these bursts o f individual echoes, e.g., speckle characteristics over different altimeter scen es, o cean , ice, land, but also, potential blurring effects associat ed with range windo w changes during the 100 echoes on-board av eraging. Moreover, for the first time in altimetry fro m space, investigations can be carried on the direct use of phase information from backscatter signals. ENVISAT RA-2 also features a second frequency in S band. The co mbination bet ween absolutely calibrated Ku and S b and d ata can yield interesting improvement for wind speed, wav e period, g as exchang e estimates , etc. ESA has launched a study on this topic to seed the use of individual echoes by s cientists. This study is reaching completion and reconstructed echoes will be made available for the first time to the scientific community. Results fro m the technical and s cientific application of individual echoes will be pres ented.

  5. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other...

  6. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayeh eAledavood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  7. Technical analysis and individual investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Shefrin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We find that individual investors who use technical analysis and trade options frequently make poor portfolio decisions, resulting in dramatically lower returns than other investors. The data on which this claim is based consists of transaction records and matched survey responses of a sample of Dut

  8. An Individualized Library Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappas, Bess

    This individualized program developed for students in grades 4-6 at Herman Hesse Elementary School in Georgia, is designed to provide the students with the basic library skills needed to make them independent learners in the media center. Activity sheets for student use comprise the major portion of the document. (Author/AWP)

  9. The Individual's Right to Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2008-01-01

    in collective agrements. This kind of innovation has been highly controversial in the union movement, but in 2007, the bargaining parties in manufacturing decided to take something of a leap ahead with respect to opportunities of individual choice by employees. The paper will describe the novel employee rights...

  10. Why Individual Investors want Dividends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, M.; Robinson, C.; Veld, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    The question of why individual investors want dividends is investigated by submitting a questionnaire to a Dutch consumer panel.The respondents indicate that they want dividends, partly because the transaction costs of cashing in dividends are lower than the transaction costs involved in selling sha

  11. Maintaining hexapod range while co-pointing the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, A.; Thompson, D.; Kuhn, O. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope on Mt Graham in Arizona consists of two 8.4 m telescopes mounted on a common gimbal. Each independent telescope has hexapods controlling the position of individual optical elements. These can be used to drive each telescope to point to a common target (or known offsets to these) as is required for many of the observational modes of the telescope. The hexapods have a limited range of travel, particularly the primary mirror hexapods. This paper discusses the approach that has been taken to achieve optical co-pointing while maintaining the maximum possible range of travel in the hexapods. The approach described here is, starting with collimated but not co-pointed telescopes, to first calculate a coma-free rotation of the optical elements that will equalize the percentage consumption of range on pairs of hexapod elements that affect {X,Y} pointing; i.e. {X, Ry} and {Y, Rx} respectively. On a collimated telescope this results in a state which maximizes the available range of travel of the hexapods for a given set of initial hexapod values. Next a further calculation step is taken which achieves optical co-pointing. This step takes into account what range of travel is available for each hexapod for the given "range-balanced" starting point, then allocates a percentage of the required optical copointing to each telescope so as to maximize the available range of hexapod travel on each side. This technique has been applied successfully to both the prime-focus and "bent-Gregorian" modes of the telescope.

  12. Coralline algae in a naturally acidified ecosystem persist by maintaining control of skeletal mineralogy and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, G.; Gambi, M. C.; Micheli, F.; Kroeker, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine calcifiers, the trade-offs among different sublethal responses within individual species and the emergent effects of these trade-offs must be determined in an ecosystem setting. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide a model to test the ecological consequences of such sublethal effects as they are important in ecosystem functioning, service provision, carbon cycling and use dissolved inorganic carbon to calcify and photosynthesize. Settlement tiles were placed in ambient pH, low pH and extremely low pH conditions for 14 months at a natural CO2 vent. The size, magnesium (Mg) content and molecular-scale skeletal disorder of CCA patches were assessed at 3.5, 6.5 and 14 months from tile deployment. Despite reductions in their abundance in low pH, the largest CCA from ambient and low pH zones were of similar sizes and had similar Mg content and skeletal disorder. This suggests that the most resilient CCA in low pH did not trade-off skeletal structure to maintain growth. CCA that settled in the extremely low pH, however, were significantly smaller and exhibited altered skeletal mineralogy (high Mg calcite to gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate)), although at present it is unclear if these mineralogical changes offered any fitness benefits in extreme low pH. This field assessment of biological effects of OA provides endpoint information needed to generate an ecosystem relevant understanding of calcifying system persistence. PMID:27733544

  13. Maintaining rotational equilibrium during object manipulation: linear behavior of a highly non-linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We address issues of simultaneous control of the grasping force and the total moment of forces applied to a handheld object during its manipulation. Six young healthy male subjects grasped an instrumented handle and performed its cyclic motion in the vertical direction. The handle allowed for setting different clockwise (negative) or counterclockwise torques. Three movement frequencies: 1, 1.5 and 2 Hz, and five different torques: −1/3, −1/6, 0, 1/6 and 1/3 Nm, were used. The rotational equilibrium was maintained by two means: (1) Concerted changes of the moments produced by the normal and tangential forces, specifically anti-phase changes of the moments during the tasks with zero external torque and in-phase changes during the non-zero-torque tasks, and (2) Redistribution of the normal forces among individual fingers such that the agonist fingers—the fingers that resist external torque—increased the force in phase with the acceleration, while the forces of the antagonist fingers—those that assist the external torque—especially, the fingers with the large moment arms, the index and little fingers, stayed unchanged. The observed effects agree with the principle of superposition—according to which some complex actions, for example, prehension, can be decomposed into elemental actions controlled independently—and the mechanical advantage hypothesis according to which in moment production the fingers are activated in proportion to their moment arms with respect to the axis of rotation. We would like to emphasize the linearity of the observed relations, which was not prescribed by the task mechanics and seems to be produced by specific neural control mechanisms. PMID:16328302

  14. Sox11 is required to maintain proper levels of Hedgehog signaling during vertebrate ocular morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Pillai-Kastoori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine. We further demonstrate that the elevated Hedgehog signaling in Sox11-deficient zebrafish was caused by a large increase in shha transcription; indeed, suppressing Shha expression rescued the ocular phenotypes of sox11 morphants. Conversely, over-expression of sox11 induced cyclopia, a phenotype consistent with reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog. We screened DNA samples from 79 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC and identified two novel heterozygous SOX11 variants in individuals with coloboma. In contrast to wild type human SOX11 mRNA, mRNA containing either variant failed to rescue the lens and coloboma phenotypes of Sox11-deficient zebrafish, and both exhibited significantly reduced transactivation ability in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, decreased gene dosage from a segmental deletion encompassing the SOX11 locus resulted in microphthalmia and related ocular phenotypes. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role for Sox11 in controlling Hedgehog signaling, and suggests that SOX11 variants contribute to pediatric eye disorders.

  15. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  16. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    HB Braz; MMT Rocha; MFD Furtado

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the mortality and average survival rates of captive female Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis snakes maintained for venom production. Also, two factors likely to reduce captive survival were studied - body condition at admission and seasonality. Mortality peaks occurred during the second month in captivity. More than half the individuals were dead at the end of the third month. This suggests that the first three months in captivity are the most critical in t...

  17. China Maintains World No.1in Terms of Auto Production and Sales in2010%China Maintains World No.1in Terms of Auto Production and Sales in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Figures from the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers show that the auto industry of China maintained the development tendency of the last year in2010 under the accumulation effect of many consumption encouraging policies such as purchase tax concession,old for new service,car subsidy program for rural areas,energy-saving products discount,both the auto production and the sales exceeding 18 million units,maintaining its position as the world No.1,achieving 18.2647 million units and 18.0619 million units respectively,with an increase of 32.44% and 32.37% on a year-on-year basis.

  18. Autoantibody profile in individuals with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Luciana Marconcini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoantibodies are often produced during infection with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV, but it remains controversial whether they influence the biochemical profile and histological features of this disease. Therefore, this current study sought to describe these autoantibodies and evaluate their impact on the clinical and histological presentation of hepatitis C. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study assessed patients with HCV (RNA+ from October 2011 to July 2012. Results This study included 66 patients, with a mean age of 53.2±10.5 years. Of these patients, 60.6% were male, and 54.3% presented with genotype 1. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSA were detected in 24% of the patients; of these, 7.6% were anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA+, 26.7% were anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA+ and 6.8% were liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM1+. With respect to the thyroid autoantibodies, 7.4% were anti-peroxidase (ATPO+ antibodies, and none were anti-thyroglobulin (ATG+ antibodies. Regarding celiac disease autoantibodies, 5.8% were endomysial antibodies (EMA+, and no transglutaminase (TTG+ antibodies were detected. Cryoglobulins were found in 2.1% of patients. When NOSA+ individuals were compared to patients without the presence of NOSAs, they exhibited higher median alkaline phosphatase (0.7 vs. 0.6 xULN; p=0.041, lower median platelet counts (141,500.0 vs. 180,500.0/mm 3 ; p=0.036, lower mean prothrombin activity (72.6±11.5% vs. 82.2±16.0%; p=0.012 and an increased prevalence of significant fibrosis (E≥2 (45.5% vs. 18.2%; p=0.012. There was also a tendency for a greater proportion of NOSA+ cases to have marked periportal activity (APP≥3 (44.5% vs. 15.6%; p=0.087. Conclusions In addition to the high prevalence of autoantibodies associated with HCV infection, it was observed that NOSA positivity was associated with a more severe histological and biochemical profile of hepatitis C infection.

  19. Parental Choice of Schools in an Area Containing Grant-Maintained Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a survey comparing parents' views of four British schools, two grant maintained (GM) and two local education authority (LEA) maintained. LEA school supporters believe these schools assess students more regularly and feature sound homework and uniform policies. GM school advocates believe their children will enjoy a pupil-centered…

  20. 77 FR 27533 - Application for Presidential Permit To Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Keystone Pipeline, L.P. TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, L.P. has applied for a Presidential Permit to... Application for Presidential Permit To Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the Border of... Presidential Permit to Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the Border of the United...

  1. The use of space maintainers at a UK pediatric dentistry department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudeimat, M A; Fayle, S A

    1999-01-01

    Space maintainers have been in use in pediatric dentistry for many years. The use of these appliances, however, in terms of indications, contraindications, design, and construction, has gained little attention from researchers. It is clearly essential that when space maintainers are fitted, it is the result of careful planning and appropriate prescriptions.

  2. On the impact of DSL tools on the maintainability of language implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klint, P.; Storm, T. van der; Vinju, J.J.; Brabrand, C.; Moreau, P.-E.

    2010-01-01

    Does the use of DSL tools improve the maintainability of language implementations compared to implementations from scratch? We present empirical results on aspects of maintainability of six implementations of the same DSL using different languages (Java, JavaScript, C#) and DSL tools (ANTLR, OMeta,

  3. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  4. Simultaneous demodulation of polarization mode coupling and fiber Bragg grating within a polarization maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanshuang; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Jun; Canning, John; Peng, G. D.; Chen, Yujin; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a simultaneous demodulation scheme of polarization mode coupling and fiber Bragg grating in a polarization maintaining fiber based on a white light interferometer. A polarization maintaining fiber with two inscribed fiber Bragg gratings is used to demonstrate the feasibility.

  5. Follower Reactions to Male and Female Leaders Who Maintain or Lose Reward Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurma, William E.; Wright, Beverly C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated effects on group member satisfaction and communication behavior when male and female leaders either maintained or lost reward power during problem-solving sessions. Found group member communication was more substantive and positive when leaders maintained reward power than when they lost it; communication behavior was also affected by…

  6. 77 FR 22578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Information Program on Clinical Trials: Maintaining a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Program on Clinical Trials: Maintaining a Registry and Results Databank SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Information Program on Clinical Trials: Maintaining a Registry... Collection: The National Institutes of Health operates ClinicalTrials.gov , which was established as...

  7. 77 FR 6808 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Information Program on Clinical Trials; Maintaining a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... on Clinical Trials; Maintaining a Registry and Results Databank Summary: In compliance with the... Program on Clinical Trials: Maintaining a Registry and Results Databank. Type of Information Collection... Information Collection: The National Institutes of Health operates ClinicalTrials.gov , which was...

  8. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  9. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia.

  10. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  11. INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE IN CHANGE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational changes in which great human efforts have been invested, as well as financial resources and time, in reality often result in low or only short-term effects. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the highest possible level of communication with employees in order to proactively overcome individual resistance. The scope of the primary research for this study demonstrates the analysis of the questionnaire results which was obtained from 30 Croatian managers and their experience with individual resistance to changes. The survey showed four types of largest barriers in Croatian organizations. The main conclusion is that managers in this country lack the knowledge of operating in a challenging competitive environment.

  12. Diversity of Individual Mobility Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering human mobility patterns is of fundamental importance to the understanding of epidemic spreading, urban transportation and other socioeconomic dynamics embodying spatiality and human travel. The observed scaling laws for aggregated data require a theoretical explanation of their underlying mechanism. According to the direct travel diaries of volunteers, we show the absence of scaling properties in the displacement distribution at the individual level, which unfortunately provides a complete contrast to most inferences and assumptions in the literature. The aggregated displacement distribution follows a power law with an exponential cutoff, which is analytically explained by the mixture nature of human travel under Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Our analysis provides an alternative way to bridge diverse patterns at the individual level and scaling laws at the population level.

  13. The place for individual conscience

    OpenAIRE

    Kissling, F.

    2001-01-01

    From a liberationist, feminist, and Catholic point of view, this article attempts to understand the decision of abortion. People are constantly testing their principles and values against the question of abortion. Advances in technology, the rise of communitarianism and the rejection of individualism, and the commodification of children are factors in the way in which the abortion debate is being constructed in society. The paper offers solutions to end the ugliness of the abortion debate by ...

  14. Individual Search and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    GOYAL, Sanjeev; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Weitzel, Utz; Buskens, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The explosion in online social networks motivates an enquiry into their structure and their welfare effects. A central feature of these networks is information sharing: online social networks lower the cost of getting information from others. These lower costs affect the attractiveness of individual search vis-a-vis a reliance on social networks. The paper reports the findings of an experiment on these effects. Our experiment shows that online networks can have large effects. Information acqu...

  15. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  16. Why Individual Investors Want Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, M.; C. Robinson; Veld, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    The question of why individual investors want dividends is investigated by submitting a questionnaire to a Dutch consumer panel.The respondents indicate that they want dividends, partly because the transaction costs of cashing in dividends are lower than the transaction costs involved in selling shares.The results are inconsistent with the uncertainty resolution theory of Gordon (1961, 1962) and the agency theories of Jensen (1986) and Easterbrook (1984).In contrast, a very strong confirmatio...

  17. Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background During last decade the use of ECG recordings in biometric recognition studies has increased. ECG characteristics made it suitable for subject identification: it is unique, present in all living individuals, and hard to forge. However, in spite of the great number of approaches found in literature, no agreement exists on the most appropriate methodology. This study aimed at providing a survey of the techniques used so far in ECG-based human identification. Specifically, a pattern re...

  18. Violations of Personal Space by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Ralph Adolphs

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance) from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4-18 years) for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766) more often violated the space of others c...

  19. Maintainability - a means to improve the maintenance and availability performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose in this paper is to attract attention of nuclear power plant owners and their suppliers to the subjects of plant maintenance and maintainability. It is firmly believed by the authors that these characteristics must be considered on equal footing with safety, performance, quality, reliability, and costs during the plant design phase. Operating experience trends from a number of existing plants, as they grew older, indicates that plant availability is decreasing and the maintenance costs are increasing, significantly because the plant maintainability was inadequately considered during their design. Also, very little, if any, consideration was given to facilitate work relating to plant refurbishment / life extension thus causing longer refurbishment outages with higher attendant costs. Further, the energy generated from nuclear generation, when not available, is generally replaced by the energy from the fossil plants with high fuelling costs and adverse environmental effects. Also, to maintain electrical power system reliability, additional generation reserves must be provided which further add to the costs. This paper identifies incentives for improved plant maintainability in terms of higher plant availability, lower life cycle costs, improved safety and radiation dose expenditure. It identifies fundamental principles such as design simplicity, use of standard and / or modular designs, better plant lay-out and access to equipment, trained / qualified staff, etc. for incorporating maintainability in design. In order to optimize maintenance effort, control maintenance costs, the paper espouses maintainability as a key parameter of design and proposes a system's approach to design integrating maintainability and maintenance support planning tasks with design activities. These tasks involve: Performing appropriate maintainability engineering tasks in design. This for example will include: review of past experience, definition of plant and equipment

  20. Maintaining consistent traceability in high precision isotope measurements of CO2: verifying atmospheric trends of δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-S. Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining consistent traceability of high precision measurements of CO2 isotopes is critical in being able to observe accurate atmospheric trends of δ13C (CO2. Although a number of laboratories/organizations around the world have been involved in baseline measurements of atmospheric CO2 isotopes for several decades, the reports on their traceability measures are rare. In this paper, a principle and an approach for the traceability maintenance of high precision isotope measurements (δ13C and δ18O in atmospheric CO2 is described. The uncertainties of the traceability have been estimated based on the history of annual calibrations over the last 10 yr. The overall uncertainties of CO2 isotope measurements for individual ambient samples carried out by our program at Environment Canada are estimated (excluding the uncertainty associated with the sampling. The values are 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ in δ13C and δ18O, respectively, close to the WMO targets for data compatibility. The annual rate of change in δ13C of the primary anchor used in our program (which is the laboratory standard linking ambient measurements back to the primary VPDB scale is close to zero (−0.0016 ± 0.0012‰ per year over the period of 10 yr (2001–2011. The average annual decreasing rate of δ13C in air CO2 measurements at Alert over the period from 1999 to 2010 has been confirmed and verified, which is −0.025 ± 0.003‰ per year. The total change of δ13C in the annual mean value during this period is ∼−0.27‰. The concept of "Big Delta" is introduced and its role in maintaining traceability of the isotope measurements is described and discussed extensively. Finally, the challenges and a strategy for maintaining traceability are also discussed and suggested.

  1. Brain tumor stem cells maintain overall phenotype and tumorigenicity after in vitro culturing in serum-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland; Sandberg, Cecilie; Olstorn, Havard; Varghese, Mercy; Brandal, Petter; Ramm-Pettersen, Jon; Murrell, Wayne; Langmoen, Iver Arne

    2010-01-01

    Traditional in vitro culturing of tumor cells has been shown to induce changes so that cultures no longer represent the tumor of origin. Serum-free culturing conditions are used in a variety of cancers to propagate stem-like cells in vitro. Limited reports, however, exist on the effects of such propagation. We have compared cells from brain tumor biopsies cultivated under serum-free conditions at passages 2 and 10 to describe the effects of in vitro culturing. We were able to establish cell lines from 7 of 10 biopsies from patients with glioblastoma. The cell lines adapted to conditions and had 2.2 times increased population doubling rate at later passages. Karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that all examined cell lines had cytogenetic aberrations commonly found in glioblastomas, and there were only minor differences between tumor and early and late passages in the same culture. Whole-transcriptome analysis shows that tumors had interindividual differences. Changes in the overall expression patterns through passaging were modest, with a significant change in only 14 genes; the variation among cultures was, however, reduced through passages. The ability to differentiate differed among tumors but was maintained throughout passaging. The cells initiated tumors upon transplantation to immunodeficient mice with differing phenotypes, but a given cell culture maintained tumor phenotype after serial cultivation. The cultures established maintained individual characteristics specific to culture identity. Thus, each cell culture reflects an image of the tumor—or a personalized model—from which it was derived and remains representative after moderate expansion. PMID:20843775

  2. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  3. The Microbiome: The Trillions of Microorganisms That Maintain Health and Cause Disease in Humans and Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, A; Proctor, L M; Surette, M G; Suchodolski, J S

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome is the complex collection of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites, colonizing the human and animal mucosal surfaces, digestive tract, and skin. It is now well known that the microbiome interacts with its host, assisting in digestion and detoxification, supporting immunity, protecting against pathogens, and maintaining health. Studies published to date have demonstrated that healthy individuals are often colonized with different microbiomes than those with disease involving various organ systems. This review covers a brief history of the development of the microbiome field, the main objectives of the Human Microbiome Project, and the most common microbiomes inhabiting the human respiratory tract, companion animal digestive tract, and skin in humans and companion animals. The main changes in the microbiomes in patients with pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous lesions are described. PMID:26220947

  4. Five-year summary report of an experimental dairy herd maintained on the Nevada Test Site 1971--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, maintains an experimental dairy herd in Area 15 of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's Nevada Test Site. This report covers the period January 1, 1971, through December 31, 1975, giving the status of the herd for this period of time. Improvements, changes, and additions made on the facilities, the production and reproduction statistics of individual cows and the herd, and summaries of metabolism studies that involved the dairy herd are also covered in this report. Data are included from studies on the tissue distribution of tracer doses of 238Pu and /sup 129m/Tl in selected cattle

  5. On the establishing and reinforcing effects of termination of demands for destructive behavior maintained by positive and negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, C C; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W; Ruyter, J M; Gulotta, C S

    1998-01-01

    The results of functional analyses suggested that the destructive behavior of two individuals was sensitive to escape and attention as reinforcement. In an instructional context, we evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with functional reinforcers when destructive behavior produced a break. For one participant we also evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with functional reinforcers when destructive behavior produced no differential consequence (escape extinction). We hypothesized that destructive behavior failed to decrease in an instructional context when compliance resulted in a break because presentation of a break evoked attention-maintained destructive behavior. The results of a reinforcer assessment supported this hypothesis by demonstrating that demands functioned as positive reinforcement when no alternative activities were available. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of establishing operations in determining the appetitive or aversive properties of stimuli when destructive behavior is multiply controlled.

  6. Who is maintaining weight in a middle-aged population in Sweden? A longitudinal analysis over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Stig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has primarily been addressed with interventions to promote weight loss and these have been largely unsuccessful. Primary prevention of obesity through support of weight maintenance may be a preferable strategy although to date this has not been the main focus of public health interventions. The aim of this study is to characterize who is not gaining weight during a 10 year period in Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted in adults aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years during the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Height, weight, demographics and selected cardiovascular risk factors were collected on each participant. Prevalences of obesity were calculated for the 40, 50 and 60 year olds from the cross-sectional studies between 1990 and 2004. In the longitudinal study, 10-year non-gain (lost weight or maintained body weight within 3% of baseline weight or weight gain (≥ 3% was calculated for individuals aged 30, 40, or 50 years at baseline. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict weight non-gain. Results There were 82,927 adults included in the cross-sectional studies which had an average annual participation rate of 63%. Prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI in kg/m2 ≥ 30] increased from 9.4% in 1990 to 17.5% in 2004, and 60 year olds had the highest prevalence of obesity. 14,867 adults with a BMI of 18.5–29.9 at baseline participated in the longitudinal surveys which had a participation rate of 74%. 5242 adults (35.3% were categorized as non-gainers. Older age, being female, classified as overweight by baseline BMI, later survey year, baseline diagnosis of diabetes, and lack of snuff use increased the chances of not gaining weight. Conclusion Educational efforts should be broadened to include those adults who are usually considered to be at low risk for weight gain – younger individuals, those of normal body weight, and those without health

  7. 7 CFR 1.119 - Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individual to whom it pertains. 1.119 Section 1.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... individual to whom it pertains. No agency shall disclose any record which is contained in a system of records it maintains, by any means of communication to any person, or to another agency outside USDA,...

  8. 47 CFR 0.554 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in a system of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of record information or for access to such information shall be delivered to the business address of... individuals as to whether it maintains information about them in a system of records and, subject to the... individual may inquire into information contained in any or all systems of records described in the...

  9. Rationale for individualizing haemophilia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Benny; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Elezović, Ivo; Felder, Markus; Lambert, Thierry; Morfini, Massimo; Remor, Eduardo; Salaj, Peter; Santagostino, Elena; Šalek, Silva Z; Ljung, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype of haemophilia A and B, it is now recognized that disease severity (based on factor VIII/IX activity) may no longer be the most appropriate guide for treatment and that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is unlikely to achieve optimal therapy. Based on the present literature and consensus views of a group of experts in the field, this article highlights key gaps in the understanding of the diverse relationships between bleeding phenotype and factors such as joint health, genetic susceptibility, laboratory parameters, quality of life and management of pain. Early prophylaxis is a potential 'gold standard' therapy and issues surrounding inhibitor development, variations in its clinical use and long-term outcomes are discussed. Comprehensive treatment should be individualized for all patients (including those with mild or moderate haemophilia and carriers). Wherever possible all patients should be given prophylaxis. However, adult patients with a milder haemophilia phenotype may be candidates for ceasing prophylaxis and switching to on-demand treatment. Regardless, all treatment (on-demand and prophylaxis) should be tailored towards both the patient's personal needs and their clinical profile. In addition, as the associations between risk factors (psychosocial, condition-related and treatment-related) and clinical features are unique to each patient, an individualized approach is required to enable patients to alter their behaviour in response to them. The practical methodologies needed to reach this goal of individualized haemophilia care, and the health economic implications of this strategy, are ongoing topics for discussion. PMID:25396764

  10. Individual Determinants of Inventor Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin;

    patent data. In addition, it adds inventor characteristics that have been largely neglected in existing studies on inventor productivity, such as the breadth of work experience, divergent thinking skills, cognitive problem-solving skills, the use of knowledge sourced from networks within and outside......This report offers new insights into the drivers of inventor productivity at the individual level. It includes well-known drivers, such as inventor age and education, and controls for inventor team size, and firm/applicant information, as well as period and technology field effects derived from...

  11. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...

  12. Caring for the Transgender Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Carol A; Veney, Amy J; Doheny, Margaret OʼBryan

    2016-01-01

    Issues about transgender individuals (TIs) as a disparate population are now being more openly discussed in the general public. However, healthcare providers often express feeling uncomfortable in interacting with TIs because they have not been educated about care of TIs and often base their care on insensitive stereotyping. The purpose of this informational article is to provide a foundation of knowledge for nurses and healthcare professionals for providing competent patient-centered care for TIs. Topics discussed include a description of the transgender population, commonly used terms to describe TIs, health risks and healthcare needs of TIs, and how to provide quality healthcare for TIs.

  13. Individualism-collectivism and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, H C

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing.

  14. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life. PMID:27099213

  15. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura R. STEIN; Alison M. BELL

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior.For example,individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics.A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior.In sticklebacks,fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fimess.In this study,we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior.We recorded visits to nest,total time fanning,and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch,and then allowed the males to breed again.Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the fast clutch,and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch.We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch:for example,total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching,then decreased to approximately zero.Despite these temporal changes,males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass.Moreover,individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time.Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels.Altogether,these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1):45-52,2012].

  16. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1: 45–52, 2012].

  17. Fiber reinforced composite loop space maintainer: An alternative to the conventional band and loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Yeluri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel band and loop appliance is the most commonly used fixed space maintainer in pediatric dentistry. But there are several disadvantages with this appliance such as the need for a cast or a working model, decalcification of the abutment tooth, loosening because of breakage or dissolution of the luting agent, tendency to get embedded in the soft tissue and the possibility of metal allergy. The purpose of this article is to present a simple, laboratory design of a "Fiber Reinforced Composite" (FRC loop space maintainer and discuss the advantages over the traditional band and loop space maintainers.

  18. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam P; Babu GKL; Sunny R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop...

  19. Fiber reinforced composite loop space maintainer: An alternative to the conventional band and loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2012-04-01

    The stainless steel band and loop appliance is the most commonly used fixed space maintainer in pediatric dentistry. But there are several disadvantages with this appliance such as the need for a cast or a working model, decalcification of the abutment tooth, loosening because of breakage or dissolution of the luting agent, tendency to get embedded in the soft tissue and the possibility of metal allergy. The purpose of this article is to present a simple, laboratory design of a "Fiber Reinforced Composite" (FRC) loop space maintainer and discuss the advantages over the traditional band and loop space maintainers.

  20. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  1. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Magnanou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the

  2. Clinical evaluation of simple fixed space maintainers bonded with flow composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sera; Yilmaz, Yucel; Gurbuz, Taskin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of simple fixed space maintainers bonded by using a flow composite resin (Tetric Flow) to prevent space resulting from early extracted primary teeth. For that reason, 64 fixed space maintainers (34 in the lower jaw and 30 in the upper jaw) were applied to 45 patients. The patients followed up for 12 to 18 months. Survival rate, prevention ability of that space, and whether damage to the abutment teeth occurred were evaluated. Five percent of space maintainers were determined to be unsuccessful at the end of the control period. During this period, loss of space among the abutment teeth was found to be statistically insignificant (P > .05). Finally, it was observed that the use of simple fixed space maintainers was successful due to operator experience and the choosing of favorable patient groups.

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Maintained by Dubuque County Assessor's Office, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'Maintained by Dubuque...

  4. Parking lots owned and maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service parking lot inventory includes parking lots owned and maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on National Wildlife Refuges,...

  5. Teacher collaborative curriculum design in technical vocational colleges: a strategy for maintaining curriculum consistency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Albashiry; J.M. Voogt; J.M. Pieters

    2015-01-01

    The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) curriculum requires continuous renewal and constant involvement of stakeholders in the redesign process. Due to a lack of curriculum design expertise, TVET institutions in developing contexts encounter challenges maintaining and advancing the qu

  6. Partnering with Employers to Promote Job Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The current economic climate in the United States and the difficulty employers face in hiring and maintaining a skilled workforce in an increasingly competitive and global economy have generated interest in developing and promoting policies and programs that can most effectively help low-skill individuals gain job skills and move up the economic…

  7. Individual Grassroots Multilingualism in Africa Town in Guangzhou: The Role of States in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huamei

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the first phase of a larger sociolinguistic ethnography, this article explores how individual migrants of African and Chinese backgrounds expand their multilingual repertoires in Africa Town in Guangzhou, China. Focusing on two cases, I demonstrate how they maintain and develop transnational and translocal connections simultaneously…

  8. The role of sustained attention in the production of conjoined noun phrases: An individual differences study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon su

  9. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-01-01

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed.

  10. Space maintainer using fiber-reinforced composite and natural tooth--a non-invasive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayab, Tabassum; Vizhi, Kayal; Srinivasan, Ila

    2011-04-01

    Dental traumatic injuries are widespread in the population and are a frequent pathology among children and teenagers. Dentists and especially pediatric dentists are commonly confronted with managing dental crown root fractures on a regular basis. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) have been used as an alternative to conventional space maintainers in pediatric dentistry. We present here a case of a 11-year-old boy with oblique crown root fracture, treated by placing extracted natural crown with FRC as space maintainer.

  11. Assessing the Capability of Code Smells to Support Software Maintainability Assessments : Empirical Inquiry and Methodological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Code smells are indicators of software design shortcomings that can decrease software maintainability. An advantage of code smells over traditional software measures is that the former are associated with an explicit set of refactoring strategies to improve the existing design. As such, code smell analysis is a promising approach to address both the assessment and the improvement of maintainability. An important challenge in code smell analysis is understanding the interplay between code smel...

  12. The linear system theory's account of behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules.

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, J. J; Wixted, J T

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of linear systems, which has been used successfully to describe behavior maintained by variable-interval schedules, is extended to describe behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules. The result of the analysis is a pair of equations, one of which expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of the mean ratio requirement (n) that the schedule arranges. The other equation expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of re...

  13. Employee turnover and maintaining knowledge continuity in large and small organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Linhartová, Lucie; Urbancová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Determining the causes and consequences of employee turnover is necessary in order to maintain competitive advantage in today’s knowledge economy. For an organisation, an employee’s departure can mean the outflow of the knowledge that he or she possesses, and it is thus necessary to ensure its transfer in order to maintain knowledge continuity. The objective of the present article is to present the results of surveys on the causes of employee turnover and its perception by employers as possib...

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation study on zwitterionic structure to maintain the normal conformations of Glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN; Han; ZHU; HaoMiao; SHEN; Jian

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to normal conformational Glutathione (GSH) and GSH over zwitterionic and hydrophobic surfaces respectively. Conformational analysis of GSH during the simulation time on RMSD, conformational flexibility and dihedral distribution were performed. The results showed that zwitterionic structure maintains the normal conformations of GSH to a better extent, which should be a first good proof of the hypothesis of "maintain of normal structure".

  15. A Comparative Study of Biodegradation of Nickel and Chromium from Space Maintainers: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Ashish; Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Piush; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdeva, Shobhit; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the in vitro biodegradation of nickel and chromium from space maintainers, made of three different companies, i.e (Dantaurum, Rocky mountain and Dtech) in artificial saliva. Materials and methods: The study comprised of 30 space maintainers out of which 10 were fabricated using Dantaurum, 10 using Rocky mountain and 10 using Dtech band materials. Stainless steel wire (Dantaurum, Rocky mountain and Konark) was used for making...

  16. The effects of response cost in the treatment of aberrant behavior maintained by negative reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, K M; Fisher, W W; Adelinis, J D; Wilder, D A

    2000-01-01

    Positive reinforcement contingencies can sometimes be used to decrease problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement (e.g., escape). In the current study, we evaluated the extent to which response cost (i.e., contingent removal of a preferred stimulus) would compete with the negative reinforcer maintaining destructive behavior. The response cost contingency reduced destructive behavior by 87% from baseline levels even though the negative reinforcement contingency (i.e., escape) remain...

  17. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-06-03

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed.

  18. PTM Along Track Algorithm to Maintain Spacing During Same Direction Pair-Wise Trajectory Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Pair-wise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a cockpit based delegated responsibility separation standard. When an air traffic service provider gives a PTM clearance to an aircraft and the flight crew accepts the clearance, the flight crew will maintain spacing and separation from a designated aircraft. A PTM along track algorithm will receive state information from the designated aircraft and from the own ship to produce speed guidance for the flight crew to maintain spacing and separation

  19. Fiber technology in space maintainer: a clinical follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, M S; Siddaramayya, Jayaraman; Sajjanar, Arunkumar B; Godhi, Brinda Suhas; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Krishnam, Raju P

    2013-01-01

    Various space maintainers are used in pediatric dentistry. However, their construction requires time consuming laboratory procedures. Recently fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) has been introduced for various application in dentistry. Polyethylene fibers appear to have the best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, resistance to traction and to impact. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the long-term effect of FRCR space maintainer made with Ribbond(®) bondable reinforcement ribbon in children over a period of 18 months. A total of thirty FRCR space maintainers were applied to 30 children between the age group of 6 to 9 years old, follow-up visits were done at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Maxillary appliances survived more than mandibular appliances. Mean survival time of space maintainer were found to be 12 months (minimum 1 and maximum 18 months). The present study suggested that FRCR space maintainers (Ribbond(®)), which was observed for up to 18 months, can be accepted as a successful alternative to conventional band-loop space maintainer only for short periods.

  20. INDIVIDUAL AGENCY AND LIFE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO TRUJILLO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the project Interpretación desde la Psicología de la calidad de vida y sus dimensiones en adultos mayores de losmunicipios de Soacha y Sibaté (Cundinamarca, Colombia [Interpretation from the psychology of the Quality of Life and itsdimensions in old age adults from the Soacha and Sibaté municipalities (Cundinamarca, Colombia] which had a theoretical modelcomposed for three axels (epistemological, ecological and temporal, emerged some tensions which constitute thequality of life dimensions of the elderly. In the present article one of those tensions is discussed: the one shaped bythe contradictions among the possibilities of the individual agency exercise and the precarious life conditions whichhad characterized the context of development of the old age participants.

  1. Transitions in individuality through symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Sylvie; Kerr, Benjamin; Morris, J Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    When a more complex, functionally integrated entity emerges from the association of simpler, initially independent entities, a major evolutionary transition has occurred. Transitions that result from the association of different species include the evolution of the eukaryotic cell and some obligate mutualisms. Recent studies are revolutionizing our understanding of how these intimate interspecific associations come to be, revealing how and to what extent each partner contributes to the relationship, and how partners mediate conflict. Here, we review work on the evolution of mutualistic symbioses in the context of transitions in individuality and highlight how a better mechanistic understanding of the ecological drivers of host-symbiont interdependencies can help elucidate the evolutionary path to symbiotic organismality. PMID:27131019

  2. The Art of Managing Individuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    by a successful manager and artist. Methodology/Approach – The theoretical starting point of this article is Cassirer’s (1923, 25, 27, 62) philosophy on symbolic forms. The article analyses the symbolic forms embedded in the management discourse practice of art in the way that the concept is unfolded by Kasper......, where all the forms tend to oppress essential aspects of individuality. Kasper Holten integrates the symbolic forms of art and science, which makes him capable of binding to the individual’s life-world. Implications – When analysing Kasper Holten’s views on management, we find features and structures...... for a new management discourse practice which is far better suited to most of the knowledge jobs of our contemporary society than a more conventional management discourse. Originality/Value – Our paper provides a novel insight into the interrelationship between the specific way of using language and the way...

  3. For information: Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The service has noticed that there are dosimeter holders who have changed their activities and thus have no longer need of dosimeter as a permanent basis in their work (persons who go rarely to the controlled areas). The reduction of persons in the regular distribution list of dosimeters will lighten the work of the service (distribution, evaluation and consolidation of doses) as well as the work of the distributors, needless to say the economical input this would have for CERN. For the persons who only need a dosimeter temporarily we would like to remind that there is a quick and simple procedure to have one immediately from the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact the service (dosimetry.service@cern.ch) if you do not need a dosimeter regularly. Thank you for your cooperation. http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  4. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  5. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka eKoren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 seconds excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which twenty musicians and twenty non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and 9 non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non‐musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note

  6. Clinical management considerations for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jeffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may result in significant morbidity, including coronary heart disease (CHD). Treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients is generally based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III goals for individuals without HIV. For individuals with ≥ 2 cardiovascular risk factors, the risk of CHD should be evaluated using the Framingham risk calculator and managed accordingly. Switching to an antiretroviral regimen with a favorable lipid profile should be considered before pharmacologic management if virologic suppression can be maintained. Statins are the first-choice therapy for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but in HIV-infected individuals, special consideration must be given to drug-drug interactions, specifically those between protease inhibitors and statins. Management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals is a challenging but important aspect of chronic disease management. Additional research, specifically related to the role of chronic inflammation, is needed to better define the relationship between HIV infection and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Systematic review of effectiveness of the use calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis for individuals with lactose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Oi-vian, Vivian; 董愛雯

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance is a common condition which individuals are not able to completely digest lactose. Each individual has varying degree of lactose intolerance varying level of symptoms experienced. Due to the symptoms of lactose intolerance, lactose intolerant individuals are likely to eliminate milk and dairy products from their diet. Actually, milk and other dairy products are the preferred food sources of calcium for most people. It is essential to maintain adequate calcium in...

  8. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized...

  9. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302... Individual qualifications. Agency heads are delegated authority to approve the qualifications of individuals appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  10. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when...

  11. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual monitoring. 835.402 Section 835.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external...

  12. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant...

  13. 19 CFR 113.35 - Individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual sureties. 113.35 Section 113.35 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.35 Individual sureties. (a) Number required. If individuals...) Qualifications to act as surety—(1) Residency and citizenship. Each individual surety on a Customs bond must...

  14. A Comparative Study of Biodegradation of Nickel and Chromium from Space Maintainers: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashish; Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Piush; Sachdeva, Shobhit; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the in vitro biodegradation of nickel and chromium from space maintainers, made of three different companies, i.e (Dantaurum, Rocky mountain and Dtech) in artificial saliva. Materials and methods: The study comprised of 30 space maintainers out of which 10 were fabricated using Dantaurum, 10 using Rocky mountain and 10 using Dtech band materials. Stainless steel wire (Dantaurum, Rocky mountain and Konark) was used for making loops and Leone solder and flux was used for soldering. Each group was further divided into four subgroups containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 space maintainers respectively. The space maintainers in each subgroup were placed in separate glass beakers containing 100 ml of artificial saliva at 37°C for 4 weeks. Salivary samples from each beaker was analyzed for nickel and chromium ions separately on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer. Results: Total release of nickel and chromium from all band and loop space maintainers ranged from 0.020 to 1.524 ppm and 0.002 to 0.289 ppm respectively. The release of nickel and chromium between the groups and within the groups was not significant (p space maintainers made of Dantaurum, Rocky mountain and Dtech which could cause any toxicity. How to cite this article: Anand A, Sharma A, Kumar P, Sandhu M, Sachdeva S, Sachdev V. A Comparative Study of Biodegradation of Nickel and Chromium from Space Maintainers: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(1):37-41. PMID:26124579

  15. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

  16. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  17. Individual mobility: issues and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Problems relating to mobility will intensify in developing countries due to explosive growth in motorization. In the Western countries, individual travel needs will change as a result of demographics (e.g. an increase in the elderly population, working women and single person households), and new information and communication technology. Increased congestion and global warming are the principal concerns that impact mobility. To respond to these concerns, significant mobility improvements can be realized by replicating successful mobility strategies that have been implemented in some cities throughout the world. However, a more fundamental reappraisal will be necessary that considers mobility in an overall sustainability context. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) may provide a framework for a new mobility infrastructure that enables implementation of a dynamic transportation system. Such a system can adapt on a real-time basis to customer needs and social concerns. ITS enables pricing and control strategies to be more easily utilized on an episodic basis. Development of a rational approach to sustainable mobility requires the public and private sectors as well as various stakeholders to develop a shared vision of the future, since mobility goes beyond national and competitive interests. (author) 3 figs.

  18. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  19. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  20. Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining platelet count in patients with plasma cell neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Mair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in patients with the plasma cell neoplasm (PCN is rarely discussed in the literature. The puzzling phenomenon, which PCN patients maintaining normal platelet count even when the marrow is mostly replaced by plasma cells, is hardly explored. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the frequency of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN and the relationships between bone marrow (BM plasma cell percentage, plasma cell immunomarkers, the severity of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis, and peripheral blood platelet count in PCN. Materials and Methods: We randomly selected 16 cases of PCN, among which 4 were with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 12 were with plasma cell myeloma. Results: Our study showed that: (1 Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis was present in all the selected cases of PCN and its severity was not correlated with the percentage of the plasma cells in BM; (2 almost all patients maintained normal platelet count even when BM was mostly replaced by plasma cells; (3 immunomarkers of the neoplastic plasma cells were not associated with dysmegakaryocytopoiesis or maintaining of platelet count. The possible mechanisms behind dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining of platelet count were also discussed. Conclusion: Despite the universal presence of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN, the platelet count is maintained at normal range.