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Sample records for c-fos du systeme

  1. Receptor systems mediating c-fos expression within trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animal models of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, D D; Sanchez del Rio, M

    2001-03-01

    In intracranial structures unmyelinated C- and Adelta-fibers of the trigeminal nerve transmit pain stimuli from meninges to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Peripheral nerve endings surround meningeal vessels (the so-called trigeminovascular system) and contain vasoactive neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neurokinin A). Activation of the trigeminovascular system promotes a meningeal sterile inflammatory response through the release of neuropeptides by peripheral endings. Orthodromic conduction along trigeminovascular fibers transmits information centrally with induction of immediate early c-fos gene within post-synaptic Sp5C neurons, as a marker of neuronal activity within central nociceptive pathways. In laboratory animals the system is activated by either electrical stimulation of the TG, chemical stimulation of the meninges, electrical or mechanical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by induction of cortical spreading depression. All these techniques induce c-fos within Sp5C and are used as a rodent/feline model of vascular headache in humans. Up-to-date there is evidence that at least ten receptors (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(lF), 5-HT(2B), NK-1, GABA(A), NMDA, AMPA, class III metabotropic glutamate receptors, and opioids mu receptors) modulate c-fos expression within Sp5C. These receptors represent potential targets for anti-migraine drugs as shown by triptans (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and ergot alkaloids (5-HT(1A1B/1D/1F)). This review discusses the importance of c-fos expression within Sp5C as a marker of cephalic nociception, the different cephalic pain models that induce c-fos within Sp5C, the receptors involved and their potential role as targets for anti-migraine drugs.

  2. Growth of peripheral and central nervous system tumors is supported by cytoplasmic c-Fos in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Silvestre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is also capable of associating to endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER and activating phospholipid synthesis. Herein we examined phospholipid synthesis status in brain tumors from human patients and from NPcis mice, an animal model of the human disease Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human samples, c-Fos expression was at the limit of detection in non-pathological specimens, but was abundantly expressed associated to ER membranes in tumor cells. This was also observed in CNS of adult tumor-bearing NPcis mice but not in NPcis fos(-/- KO mice. A glioblastoma multiforme and a malignant PNS tumor from a NF1 patient (MPNST showed a 2- and 4- fold c-Fos-dependent phospholipid synthesis activation, respectively. MPNST samples also showed increased cell proliferation rates and abundant c-Fos expression. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight a role of cytoplasmic c-Fos as an activator of phospholipid synthesis in events demanding high rates of membrane biogenesis as occurs for the exacerbated growth of tumors cells. They also disclose this protein as a potential target for controlling tumor growth in the nervous system.

  3. Expression and localization of c-Fos and NOS in the central nerve system following esophageal acid stimulation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Shuai; Peng-Yan Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of neurons expressing c-Fos and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central nerve system (CNS) following esophageal acid exposure, and to investigate the relationship between c-Fos and NOS.METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. Hydrochloric acid with pepsin was perfused in the lower part of the esophagus for 60 min. As a control,normal saline was used. Thirty minutes after the perfusion,the rats were killed and brains were removed and processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry.Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) during the experimental procedures were recorded every 10 min.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in BP, HR and RR between the two groups. c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased in rats receiving acid plus pepsin perfusion in amygdala (AM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN),parabrachial nucleus (PBN), nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (NTS/DMV), nucleus ambiguous (NA), reticular nucleus of medulla (RNM) and area postrema (AP). NOS reactivity in this group was significantly increased in PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP. c-Fos and NOS had significant correlation between PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP.CONCLUSION: Acid plus pepsin perfusion of the esophagus results in neural activation in areas of CNS,and NO is likely one of the neurotransmitters in some of these areas.

  4. Expression of c-fos in Rat Brain as a Prelude Marker of Central Nervous System Injury in Response to Methylmercury-stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To probe into the prelude marker of central nervous system injury in response to methyl mercury chloride (MMC) stimulation and the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain induced by MMC. Methods The expression of c-fos mRNA in brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The control group was injected with physiological saline of 0.9%, while the concentrations for the exposure groups were 0.05 and 0.5,5 mg/kg MMC respectively, and the sampling times points were 20, 60, 240, 1440 min. Results The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus increased significantly, the accumulation of mercury in the brain induced by 0.05 mg/Kg MMC for 20 min had no significant difference compared with the control group. The mean value was 0.0044 mg/Kg, while the protein c-FOS expression had significant difference compared with the control group (P<0.01). More sensitive expression occurred in hippocampus and cortex, but not in ependyma. Conclusion The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus can predict the neurotoxicity of MMC in the early time, and immediately early gene (IEG) c-fos participates in the process of brain injury induced by MMC.

  5. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual......Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...

  6. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  7. d-LSD-induced c-Fos expression occurs in a population of oligodendrocytes in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J; Rabin, Richard A; Winter, Jerrold C; Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2008-03-31

    Induction of mRNA or protein for immediate-early genes, such as c-fos, is used to identify brain areas, specific cell types, and neuronal circuits that become activated in response to various stimuli including psychoactive drugs. The objective of the present study was to identify the cell types in the prefrontal cortex in which lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces c-Fos expression. Systemic administration of d-LSD resulted in a dose-dependent increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity. Although c-Fos-positive cells were found in all cortical layers, they were most numerous in layers III, IV, and V. d-LSD-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in cells co-labeled with anti-neuron-specific enolase or anti-oligodendrocyte Oligo1. The Oligo1-labeled cells had small, round bodies and nuclear diameters characteristic of oligodendrocytes. Studies using confocal microscopy confirmed colocalization of c-Fos-labeled nuclei in NeuN-labeled neurons. Astrocytes and microglia labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody and OX-42 antibody, respectively, did not display LSD-induced c-Fos expression. Pyramidal neurons labeled with anti-neurofilament antibody also did not show induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity after systemic d-LSD administration. The present study demonstrates that d-LSD induced expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex occurs in subpopulations of neurons and in oligodendrocytes, but not in pyramidal neurons, astrocytes, and microglia.

  8. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  9. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  10. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yun Ahn; Seongkweon Hong; Jae-Chul Lee; Jeong Yeol Seo; Hyun-Jin Tae; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Joon Ha Park; Dong Won Kim; Jun Hwi Cho; Moo-Ho Won

    2015-01-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disor-ders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cin-gulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histolfuorescence staining. c-Fos-immunore-active cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction.

  11. Brain development is impaired in c-fos -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Fabiola N; Prucca, César G; Etienne, Olivier; D'Astolfo, Diego S; Silvestre, David C; Boussin, François D; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2015-07-10

    c-Fos is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse cellular functions. Its deregulation has been associated to abnormal development and oncogenic progression. c-fos-/- mice are viable but present a reduction in their body weight and brain size. We examined the importance of c-Fos during neocortex development at 13.5, 14.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. At E14.5, neocortex thickness, apoptosis, mitosis and expression of markers along the different stages of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells (NSPCs) differentiation in c-fos-/- and wild-type mice were analyzed. A ~15% reduction in the neocortex thickness of c-fos-/- embryos was observed which correlates with a decrease in the number of differentiated cells and an increase in apoptosis at the ventricular zone. No difference in mitosis rate was observed, although the mitotic angle was predominantly vertical in c-fos-/- embryos, suggesting a reduced trend of NSPCs to differentiate. At E13.5, changes in differentiation markers start to be apparent and are still clearly observed at E16.5. A tendency of more AP-1/DNA complexes present in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex from c-fos-/- embryos with no differences in the lipid synthesis activity was found. These results suggest that c-Fos is involved in the normal development of NSPCs by means of its AP-1 activity.

  12. Overexpression of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Li Yang; Bo Xu; Yu-Gang Song; Wan-Dai Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore dysregulation of c-fos in several human malignancies, and to further investigate the role of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori)-induced gastric precancerosis.METHODS: Four-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were H. pyloriNCTC 11 637 in Brucella broth were inoculated orally into 20 Mongolian gerbils. Another 20 gerbils were inoculated with Brucella broth as controls. 10 of the infected gerbils and 10 of the non- infected control gerbils were sacrificed at 25 and 45 weeks after infection. The stomach of each gerbil was removed and opened for macroscopic observation. The expression of c-fos was analyzed by RTPCR and immunohistochemical studies in H. pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil. Half of each gastric antrum mucosa was dissected for RNA isolation and RTPCR. β-actin was used as the housekeeping gene and amplified with c-fos as contrast. PCR products of c-fos were analyzed by gel image system and the level of c-fos was reflected with the ratio of c-fos/β-actin. The immunostaining for c-foswas conducted using monoclonal antibody of c-fosand the StreptAvidin-Biotin-enzyme Complex kit.RESULTS: H. pyloriwas constantly found in all infected animals in this study. After infection of H. Pylorifor 25 weeks,ulcers were observed in the antral and the body of stomach of 60 % infected animals (6/10). Histological examination showed that all animals developed severe inflammation, especially in the area close to ulcers, and multifocal lymphoid follicles appeared in the lamina propria and submucosa. After infection of H. Pylorifor 45 weeks, severe atrophic gastritis in all infected animals, intestinal metaplasia in 80 % infected animals (8/10) and dysplasia in 60 % infected animals (6/10) could be observed. C-fos mRNA levels were significantlyhigher after infection of H. pylorifor 25 weeks (1.84±0.79),and for 45 weeks (1.59±0.37) than those in control-animals (0.74±0.22, P<0.01). C-fos mRNA levels were increased 2.5-fold by 25th

  13. Using c-fos as a neural marker of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J A

    1998-01-01

    Just over a decade has past since Hunt et al. reported that the gene c-fos and its protein product Fos are expressed in the spinal cord of rats subjected to peripheral noxious stimulation. These authors showed that noxious stimulation (application of radiant heat or mustard oil) to the hind paw resulted in a massive increase in the expression of Fos in neurons in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Since then, there has been an explosion of studies in which c-fos has been used to study nociception (pain), and the number of such studies increases each year. The net result has been to establish c-fos expression as a valuable tool in pain research. Moreover, recent studies have provided evidence identifying the role of c-fos expression in spinal nociceptive processes. However, there are several important limitations to the practice of using c-fos to study nociception, and these limitations can be easily overlooked as the practice graduates to the status of an established technique. The increasing use of c-fos to study nociception necessitates a critical review of the practice, identifying the shortcomings as well as the strengths of this tool.

  14. C-fos and the Digestive Disease%c-fos与消化系疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海玲; 邓春发; 骆黎

    2011-01-01

    to adjust its key active substances. This review reviewed recent research progress of c-fos abnormal expression in the diseases of the digestive system and its biological significance.

  15. Spatial memory extinction: a c-Fos protein mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; Vallejo, G; Arias, J L

    2014-03-01

    While the neuronal basis of spatial memory consolidation has been thoroughly studied, the substrates mediating the process of extinction remain largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the functional contribution of selected brain regions during the extinction of a previously acquired spatial memory task in the Morris water maze. For that purpose, we used adult male Wistar rats trained in a spatial reference memory task. Learning-related changes in c-Fos inmunoreactive cells after training were evaluated in cortical and subcortical regions. Results show that removal of the hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of the previously reinforced escape behavior after 16 trials, without spontaneous recovery 24h later. Extinction was related with significantly higher numbers of c-Fos positive nuclei in amygdala nuclei and prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, the lateral mammillary bodies showed higher number of c-Fos positive cells than the control group. Therefore, in contrast with the results obtained in studies of classical conditioning, we show the involvement of diencephalic structures mediating this kind of learning. In summary, our findings suggest that medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala complex and diencephalic structures like the lateral mammillary nuclei are relevant for the extinction of spatial memory. PMID:24315832

  16. Pim-1 kinase inhibits the activation of reporter gene expression in Elk-1 and c-Fos reporting systems but not the endogenous gene expression: an artifact of the reporter gene assay by transient co-transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the molecular mechanism and signal transduction of pim-1, an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine kinase. This is a true oncogene which prolongs survival and inhibits apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. In order to determine whether the effects of Pim-1 occur by regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we used a transcriptional reporter assay by transient co-transfection as a screening method. In this study, we found that Pim-1 inhibited the Elk-1 and NFkappaB transcriptional activities induced by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in reporter gene assays. However, Western blots showed that the induction of Elk-1-regulated expression of endogenous c-Fos was not affected by Pim-1. The phosphorylation and activation of neither Erk1/2 nor Elk-1 was influenced by Pim-1. Also, in the gel shift assay, the pattern of endogenous NFkappaB binding to its probe was not changed in any manner by Pim-1. These data indicate that Pim-1 does not regulate the activation of Erk1/2, Elk-1 or NFkappaB. These contrasting results suggest a pitfall of the transient co-transfection reporter assay in analyzing the regulation of transcription factors outside of the chromosome context. It ensures that results from reporter gene expression assay should be verified by study of endogenous gene expression.

  17. Dentin bonding agents induce c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2003-01-01

    An important requirement for a dentin bonding agent is biologic compatibility; the bonding agent usually remains in close contact with living dental tissues over a long period of time. Information on the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potentials of dentin bonding agents is rare. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to dentin bonding agents. Therefore, we used primary human gingival fibroblasts to examine the effect of six dentin bonding agents on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to evaluate the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potential of the dentin bonding agents. The levels of mRNA were measured by the quantitative RT-PCR analysis. c-fos and c-jun mRNA expression in dentin bonding agents-treated cells revealed a rapid accumulation of the transcript, a significant signal first was detectable after 1h of exposure. Persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by dentine bonding agents may distribute systemically to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. It would be necessary to identify the severely toxic compounds and replace these substances by better biocompatible components. Otherwise, leaching of those genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity components must be minimized or prevented.

  18. A novel mouse c-fos intronic promoter that responds to CREB and AP-1 is developmentally regulated in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Coulon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The c-fos proto-oncogene is an archetype for rapid and integrative transcriptional activation. Innumerable studies have focused on the canonical promoter, located upstream from the transcriptional start site. However, several regulatory sequences have been found in the first intron. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe an extremely conserved region in c-fos first intron that contains a putative TATA box, and functional TRE and CRE sites. This fragment drives reporter gene activation in fibroblasts, which is enhanced by increasing intracellular calcium and cAMP and by cotransfection of CREB or c-Fos/c-Jun expression vectors. We produced transgenic mice expressing a lacZ reporter controlled by the intronic promoter. Lac Z expression of this promoter is restricted to the developing central nervous system (CNS and the mesenchyme of developing mammary buds in embryos 12.5 days post-conception, and to brain tissue in adults. RT-QPCR analysis of tissue mRNA, including the anlage of the mammary gland and the CNS, confirms the existence of a novel, nested mRNA initiated in the first intron. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for a novel, developmentally regulated promoter in the first intron of the c-fos gene.

  19. C-Fos regulation by the MAPK and PKC pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene encoding c-fos is an important factor in the pathogenesis of joint disease in patients with osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether the signal mechanism of c-fos acts in intervertebral disc (IVD cells. We investigated whether c-fos is activated in relation to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and the protein kinase C (PKC pathway in nucleus pulposus (NP cells. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were used to measure the expression of c-fos in rat IVD cells. Transfections were performed to determine the effects of c-fos on target gene activity. The effect of c-fos protein expression was examined in transfection experiments and in a 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, the most commonly used phorbol ester, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC, causing a wide range of effects in cells and tissues. PMA induced the expression of c-fos gene transcription and protein expression, and led to activation of the MAPK pathways in NP cells. The c-fos promoter was suppressed completely in the presence of the MAPK inhibitor PD98059, an inhibitor of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade, but not in the presence of SKF86002, SB202190, or SP600125. The effects of the PKC pathway on the transcriptional activity of the c-fos were evaluated. PKCγ and PKCδ suppressed the promoter activity of c-fos. Treatment with c-fos inhibited aggrecan and Col2 promoter activities and the expression of these genes in NP cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the MAPK and PKC pathways had opposing effects on the regulation of c-fos in NP cells. Thus, the expression of c-fos can be suppressed in the extracellular matrix of NP cells.

  20. On the functional significance of c-fos induction during the sleep-waking cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, C; Tononi, G

    2000-06-15

    A striking finding in recent years has been that the transition from sleep to waking is accompanied in many brain regions by a widespread activation of c-fos and other immediate-early genes (IEGs). IEGs are induced by various electrical or chemical signals to which neural cells are exposed and their protein products act as transcription factors to regulate the expression of other genes. After a few hours of sleep, the expression of these transcription factors in the brain is absent or restricted to very few cells. However, after a few hours of spontaneous waking or sleep deprivation, the expression of c-fos and other IEGs is high in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, septum, and several thalamic and brainstem nuclei. While cells expressing c-fos during waking are widely distributed, they represent only a subset of all neurons in any given area. These observations raise several questions: Why is c-fos expressed during waking and not during sleep? Is waking always accompanied by c-fos induction? Which subset of cells express c-fos during waking and why only a subset? Once c-fos has been induced, what are the functional consequences of its activation? In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the meaning of c-fos activation in the brain in relation to the sleep-waking cycle and suggest that c-fos induction in the cerebral cortex during waking might be related to the occurrence of plastic phenomena.

  1. Roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Yamashita, Teruhito; Yao, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fang; Xing, Lianping

    2005-01-01

    NF-kappaB and c-Fos are transcription factors that are activated in immune cells and in most other cell types following stimulation by a variety of factors, including cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. They regulate the expression of a large number of genes, and both are activated in osteoclast precursors after RANKL, IL-1, or TNF bind to their respective receptors. However, of these cytokines, only RANKL is required for the induction of osteoclast formation in vivo. Nevertheless, it is likely that IL-1, TNF, and other cytokines participate in the upregulation of osteoclast formation seen in a variety of conditions that affect the skeleton in which cytokine production is increased, including estrogen deficiency and inflammatory bone diseases. In this review, the RANKL/ OPG/RANK system and roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts are reviewed along with our current understanding of how this system may be disrupted in common bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis, and Paget's disease.

  2. Effects of electroacupuncture on c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and brain of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei Wang; Huirong Liu; Guanghong Ding; Yunfei Chen; Huangan Wu; Na Li; Enhua Zhou; Xiudi Qin; Lingsong Yuan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity is the main cause of irritable bowel syndrome, c-Fos is a marker of visceral hypersensitivity in the central nervous system. Electroacupuncture can relieve chronic visceral hypersensitivity in rats, but the mechanism is still unknown.OBJECTIVE: To identify c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity, and to test the effects of electroacupuncture on pain sensitivity in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the Animal Experimental Center, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from January to April, 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 24 neonatal, male, Sprague Dawley rats, aged five days old, were equally and randomly assigned into a normal group, a model group, and an electroacupuncture group. Rabbit anti-rat c-Fos antibody and Evision secondary antibody kits (Sigma, USA), diaminobenzidine kit (Dako, Denmark), and an LD202H electroacupuncture apparatus (Huawei, Beijing, China) were used in this study.METHODS: Neonatal rats from the model and electroacupuncture groups were used to establish rat models of chronic visceral hypersensitivity by the saccule stimulation method. After model establishment, 0.25 mm diameter electric needles were inserted into Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) at a depth of approximately 0.5 cm, with an square wave (alternating current frequency at 100/20 Hz, amplitude ranged 0.2-0.6 ms, intensify at 1 mA) once for 20 minutes, once a day, for seven days. Rats in the normal and model groups were not treated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Following 7 days of treatment, c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry. After the first electroacupuncture treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores were investigated to evaluate the pain threshold for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in rats.RESULTS: Visceral

  3. Sympathetic-correlated c-Fos expression in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsiao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An isolated thoracic spinal cord of the neonatal rat in vitro spontaneously generates sympathetic nerve discharge (SND at ~25°C, but it fails in SND genesis at ≤ 10°C. Basal levels of the c-Fos expression in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C and ~25°C were compared to determine the anatomical substrates that might participate in SND genesis. Cells that exhibited c-Fos immunoreactivity were virtually absent in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C. However, in the spinal cords incubated at ~25°C, c-Fos-positive cells were found in the dorsal laminae, the white matter, lamina X, and the intermediolateral cell column (IML. Cell identities were verified by double labeling of c-Fos with neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. The c-Fos-positive cells distributed in the white matter and lamina X were NeuN-negative or GFAP-positive and were glial cells. Endogenously active neurons showing c-Fos and NeuN double labeling were scattered in the dorsal laminae and concentrated in the IML. Double labeling of c-Fos and ChAT confirmed the presence of active sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs in the IML. Suppression of SND genesis by tetrodotoxin (TTX or mecamylamine (MECA, nicotinic receptor blocker almost abolished c-Fos expression in dorsal laminae, but only mildly affected c-Fos expression in the SPNs. Therefore, c-Fos expression in some SPNs does not require synaptic activation. Our results suggest that spinal SND genesis is initiated from some spontaneously active SPNs, which are capable of TTX- or MECA-resistant c-Fos expression.

  4. LPS-induced c-Fos activation in NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol increases in septic rats are suppressed by bilateral carotid chemodenervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Martin, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Cortés, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered I.P. increases significantly the activation of c-Fos in neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which in turn activates hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The vagus nerve appears to play a role in conveying cytokines signals to the central nervous system (CNS), since -in rodent models of sepsis- bilateral vagotomy abolishes increases in plasmatic glucocorticoid levels, but does not suppress c-Fos NTS activation. Considering that NTS also receives sensory inputs from carotid body chemoreceptors, we evaluated c-Fos activation and plasmatic cortisol levels 90 min after I.P. administration of 15 mg/kg LPS. Experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, in control conditions and after bilateral carotid neurotomy (BCN). LPS administration significantly increases the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol levels in animals with intact carotid/sinus nerves. When LPS was injected after BCN, the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons, and plasmatic cortisol levels were not significantly modified. Our data suggest that carotid body chemoreceptors might mediate CNS activation during sepsis.

  5. Changing the General Factor of Personality and the c-fos Gene Expression with Methylphenidate and Self-Regulation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Micó Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Amigó Borrás, Salvador; CASELLES MONCHO, ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    [EN] A deepening in the biological nature of the general factor of personality (GFP) is suggested: the activation level of the stress system is here represented by the gene expression of c-fos. The results of a single case experimental design are reported. A model of four coupled differential equations that explains the human personality dynamics as a consequence of a single stimulant drug intake has been fitted to psychological and biological experimental data. The stimulant-drug conditi...

  6. c-Fos as a transcription factor: a stressful (re)view from a functional map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K J

    1998-10-01

    This article summarizes the achievements that have been accumulated about the role of c-Fos as a transcription factor and as a functional marker of activated neurons. Since its discovery, more than a decade ago, as an inducible immediate-early gene encoding a transcription factor, or third messenger, involved in stimulus-transcription coupling and mediation of extracellular signals to long-term changes in cellular phenotype, c-fos became the most widely used powerful tool to delineate individual neurons as well as extended circuitries that are responsive to wide variety of external stimuli. There still remain uncertainties as to how general is the c-fos induction in the central neurons, and whether the threshold of c-fos induction is comparable along a certain neuronal circuit. The major limitation of this technology is that c-fos does not mark cells with a net inhibitory synaptic or transcriptional drive, and c-fos induction, as a generic marker of trans-synaptic activation, does not provide evidence for transcriptional activation of specific target genes in a certain cell type of interest. The first part of the review focuses on recent functional data on c-fos as transcription factor, while the second part discusses c-fos as a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-related circuitry.

  7. Recombinant CART peptide induces c-Fos expression in central areas involved in control of feeding behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.;

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus......Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...

  8. c-Fos induction by a 14 T magnetic field in visceral and vestibular relays of the female rat brainstem is modulated by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Kwon, Bumsup; Smith, James C; Houpt, Thomas A

    2010-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that high magnetic fields interact with the vestibular system of humans and rodents. In rats, exposure to high magnetic fields of 7 T or above induces locomotor circling and leads to a conditioned taste aversion if paired with a novel taste. Sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure have been found, such that female rats show more locomotor circling and enhanced conditioned taste aversion compared to male rats. To determine if estrogen modulates the neural response to high magnetic fields, c-Fos expression after 14 T magnetic field exposure was compared in ovariectomized rats and ovariectomized rats with estradiol replacement. Compared to sham exposure, magnetic field exposure induced significantly more c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract and the parabrachial, medial vestibular, prepositus, and supragenualis nuclei. Furthermore, there was a significant asymmetry in c-Fos induction between sides of the brainstem in several regions. In ovariectomized rats, there was more c-Fos expressed in the right side compared to left side in the locus coeruleus and parabrachial, superior vestibular, and supragenualis nuclei; less expression in the right compared to left side of the medial vestibular; and no asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Chronic estradiol treatment modulated the neural response in some regions: less c-Fos was induced in the superior vestibular nucleus and locus coeruleus after estradiol replacement; estradiol treatment eliminated the asymmetry of c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus and supragenualis nucleus, created an asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and reversed the asymmetry in the parabrachial nucleus. These results suggest that ovarian steroids may mediate sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure at the level of visceral and vestibular nuclei of the brainstem.

  9. Induction of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tai, Kuo-Wei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2002-03-01

    An important requirement for a root-canal sealer is biologic compatibility; most evaluations have focused on general toxicological and local tissue irritating properties. There is only scant information about mutagenicity or carcinogenicity testing for root-canal sealer. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Numerous works have extensively investigated the induction mechanisms of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes by these agents; however, little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to root-canal sealers. Therefore, we used osteoblastic cell line U2-OS to examine the effect of zinc-oxide eugenol-based (N2 and Endomethasome), epoxy resin-based (AH Plus), and calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex) root-canal sealers on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to understand in more detail the molecular mechanisms of root-canal sealer-induced genotoxicity. The cytotoxicity decreased in an order of N2 > Endomethasome > AH Plus > Sealapex. In addition, N2, Endomethasome, and AH Plus rapidly induced c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels in cells. However, Sealapex did not induce c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression at detectable levels all time points. Taken together, persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers may be distributed systemically via apex to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. These data should be taken into consideration when choosing a root-canal sealer.

  10. A Simple Method for Immunohistochemical Staining of Zebrafish Brain Sections for c-fos Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Tran, Steven; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) are transcription factors whose own transcription is initiated rapidly, for example, in the brain in response to environmental stimuli. c-fos is an IEG often used as a marker of neuronal activation. c-fos mRNA expression has started to be quantified and localized in the zebrafish brain following environmental manipulations but analysis of the expression of c-fos protein in the zebrafish brain has rarely been attempted. Here, we describe an immunofluorescence staining method for quantifying c-fos protein expression in different regions of the zebrafish brain. In addition, we expose zebrafish to caffeine, a positive control for c-fos activation in the brain. To confirm cell nucleus specific binding of the c-fos antibody, we counterstained brain sections with the nuclear fluorescent stain DAPI. Furthermore, we describe a method for reducing background autofluorescence often observed in zebrafish brain tissue. Our analysis showed that exposure to caffeine increased the number of c-fos protein-positive cells in specific zebrafish brain regions detected by the immunofluorescence method. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of immunofluorescence-based methods in the analysis of neuronal activation in the zebrafish brain, and reinforce the utility of the zebrafish in behavioral neuroscience research.

  11. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitor (PKCI) on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a multisystem disease characterized by extreme radiosensitivity. The recent identification of the gene mutated in AT, ATM, and the demonstration that it encodes a homologous domain of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), the catalytic subunit of an enzyme involved in transmitting signals from the cell surface to the nucleus, provide support for a role of this gene in signal transduction. Although ionizing radiation was known to induce c-fos transcription, nothing is known about how ATM or PKCI mediated signal transduction pathway modulates the c-fos gene transcription and gene expression. Here we have studied the effect of PKCI on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription in normal and AT cells. Normal (LM217) and AT (AT58IVA) cells were transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and the overexpression and integration of PKCI was evaluated by northern blotting and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. 5 Gy of radiation was exposed to LM and AT cells transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and cells were harvested 48 hours after radiation and investigated apoptosis with TUNEL method. The c-fos transcription activity was studied by performing CAT assay of reporter gene after transfection of c-fos CAT plasmid into AT and LM cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time a role of PKCI on. the radiation sensitivity and c-fos expression in LM and AT cells. PKCI increased radiation induced apoptosis in LM cells but reduced apoptosis in AT cells. The basal c-fos transcription activity is 70 times lower in AT cells than that in LM cells. The c-fos transcription activity was repressed by overexpression of PKCI in LM cells but not in AT cells. After induction of c-fos by Ras protein, overexpression of PKCI repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. Overexpression of PKCI increased radiation sensitivity and repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. The results may be a

  12. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... and somatotroph proliferation, can also regulate the expression of c-fos proto-oncogene in primary somatotrophs....

  13. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States)); Janssen, Y.M. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States) Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1993-04-15

    To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Food for song: expression of c-Fos and ZENK in the zebra finch song nuclei during food aversion learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Tokarev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their 'evolutionary history'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding.

  15. c-Fos overexpression increases the proliferation of human hepatocytes by stabilizing nuclear Cyclin D1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meryem G(u)ller; Kahina Toualbi-Abed; Agnès Legrand; Laurence Michel; Alain Mauviel; Dominique Bernuau; Fanny Daniel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of stable c-Fos over-expression on immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) proliferation. METHODS: IHHs Stably transfected with c-Fos (IHH-Fos) or an empty "vector (IHH-C) were grown in me-dium supplemented with 1% serum or stimulated with 10% serum. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counts, 3H-thymidine uptake and flow cytometry analyses. The levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, E, A) cyclin dependent kinases (cdk) cdk2, cdk4, cdk6, and their inhibitors p15, p16, p21, p27, to-tal and phosphorylated GSK-3?and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) were assayed by Western blot-ting. Analysis of Cyclin D1 mRNA levels was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Stability of Cyclin D1 was studied by cycloheximide blockade experiments. RESULTS: Stable c-Fos overexpression increased cell proliferation under low serum conditions and resulted in a two-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine incorpora-tion following serum addition. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that c-Fos accelerated the cell cycle kinetics. Following serum stimulation, Cyclin D1 was more abundantly expressed in c-Fos overexpress-ing cells. Cyclin D1 accumulation did not result from increased transcriptional activation, but from nuclear stabilization. Overexpression of c-Fos correlated with higher nuclear levels of inactive phosphorylated GSK-3? A kinase involved in Cyclin D1 degradation and higher levels of EGF-R mRNA, and EGF-R protein com-pared to IHH-C both in serum starved, and in serum stimulated cells. Abrogation of EGF-R signalling in IHH-Fos by treatment with AG1478, a specific EGF-R tyro-sine kinase inhibitor, prevented the phosphorylation of GSK-3?induced by serum stimulation and decreased Cyclin D1 stability in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Our results clearly indicate a positive role for c-Fos in cell cycle regulation in hepatocytes. Importantly, we delineate a new

  16. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-05-01

    The involvement of the basolateral and the medial amygdala in fear conditioning was evaluated using different markers of neuronal activation. The method described here is a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and c-Fos immunocytochemistry on fresh frozen brain sections. Freezing behavior was used as an index of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. As expected, freezing scores were significantly higher in rats exposed to tone-shock pairings in a distinctive environment (conditioned; COND), as compared to rats that did not receive any shocks (UNCD). CO labeling was increased in the basolateral and medial amygdala of the COND group. Conversely, c-Fos expression in the basolateral and medial amygdala was lower in the COND group as compared to the UNCD group. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was particularly high in the medial amygdala of the UNCD group. The data provided by both techniques indicate that these amygdalar nuclei could play different roles on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17425902

  17. Wounding a fibroblast monolayer results in the rapid induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene.

    OpenAIRE

    Verrier, B; Müller, D; Bravo, R.; Müller, R.

    1986-01-01

    The c-fos gene has previously been shown to be transiently induced within minutes after the stimulation of mouse fibroblasts with growth factors. Induction of c-fos was observed specifically with competence factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), not with progression factors (e.g., platelet-poor plasma), suggesting a role for c-fos in conferring competence on fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we have analyzed c-fos expression in NIH 3T3 cells that were made competent in a different...

  18. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Functional organisation of central cardiovascular pathways: studies using c-fos gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, R A L; Horiuchi, J

    2003-12-01

    Until about 10 years ago, knowledge of the functional organisation of the central pathways that subserve cardiovascular responses to homeostatic challenges and other stressors was based almost entirely on studies in anaesthetised animals. More recently, however, many studies have used the method of the expression of immediate early genes, particularly the c-fos gene, to identify populations of central neurons that are activated by such challenges in conscious animals. In this review we first consider the advantages and limitations of this method. Then, we discuss how the application of the method of immediate early gene expression, when used alone or in combination with other methods, has contributed to our understanding of the central mechanisms that regulate the autonomic and neuroendocrine response to various cardiovascular challenges (e.g., hypotension, hypoxia, hypovolemia, and other stressors) as they operate in the conscious state. In general, the results of studies of central cardiovascular pathways using immediate early gene expression are consistent with previous studies in anaesthetised animals, but in addition have revealed other previously unrecognised pathways that also contribute to cardiovascular regulation. Finally, we briefly consider recent evidence indicating that immediate early gene expression can modify the functional properties of central cardiovascular neurons, and the possible significance of this in producing long-term changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system both in normal and pathological conditions.

  20. Changes in hypothalamic staining for c-Fos following 2G exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Murakami, D. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Tang, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    The static gravitational field of the earth has been an important selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of biological organisms. This is illustrated by the evolution of tetrapods from a water environment where gravitational force was partially negated to a terrestrial environment where gravity is of greater consequence. Terrestrial invasion resulted in a series of new structural, physiological, and behavioral features. Therefore, it is not surprising that alterations in the gravitational field can cause widespread effects in many physiological systems and behaviors. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both exposure to hyperdynamic fields and the microgravity condition of space flight have significant effects on body temperature, heartrate, activity, feeding, drinking, and circadian rhythms. However, it has not been determined whether these physiological adaptations are associated with changes in neural activity within the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. This study examined the changes in body temperature, activity, body weight and food and water intake in rats caused by exposure to a hyperdynamic field. In addition, the immediate early gene activation marker, c-Fos, was used to examine potential protein synthesis changes in the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions.

  1. C-fos protein expression in the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens in the hypoxic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Siniša S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By examining the production of c-Fos protein, we analyzed the response to the ischemic attack in different brain tissue, two of which are regions of the limbic system: the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens. Material and Methods. We used the model of rat brain ischemia - four-vessel occlusion, and Pulsinelli’s method. The rats were treated in two ways, according to which they were divided into two groups: a total ischemia (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery with bilateral ligation of the carotid artery - the so-called R-group rats, and transient ischemic attack (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery, with mutual re-ligation of the carotid arteries in the form of transient ischemia - the so-called T-group rats, which can also be called “pre-conditioned group”. Both groups had their own control group. Conclusion. We have concluded that parts of the brain with an important role for the survival have a strong expression of c-fos gene.

  2. Changing the general factor of personality and the c-fos gene expression with methylphenidate and self-regulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A deepening in the biological nature of the general factor of personality (GFP) is suggested: the activation level of the stress system is here represented by the gene expression of c-fos. The results of a single case experimental design are reported. A model of four coupled differential equations that explains the human personality dynamics as a consequence of a single stimulant drug intake has been fitted to psychological and biological experimental data. The stimulant-drug conditioning and its adaptation to the considered mathematical model is also studied for both kinds of measures. The dynamics of the c-fos expression presents a similar pattern to the dynamics of the psychological measures of personality assessed by the GFP-FAS (Five-Adjective Scale of the General Factor of Personality) as a consequence of a single dose of stimulant drug (methylphenidate). The model predicts similar dynamic patterns for both psychological and biological measures. This study proves that describing mathematically the dynamics of the effects of a stimulant drug as well as the effects of a conditioning method on psychological or subjective variables and on gene expression is possible. It verifies the existence of biological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the General Factor of Personality (GFP).

  3. c-Fos enhances the survival of thymocytes during positive selection by upregulating Bcl-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wang; Yafeng Zhang; Gang Xiao; Xiang Gao; Xiaolong Liu

    2009-01-01

    T cells are derived from progenitor thymocytes, of which only a minority receive the appropriate TCR signal, undergo positive selection and mature. Owing to the very short lifespan of thymocytes, the prerequisite for posi-tive selection is survival. TCR signal-induced Bcl-2 expression is believed to play a dominant role in the survival of positively selecting thymocytes, but how Bcl-2 is directly regulated is unknown. Here we report that the immediate early gene (lEG) c-Fos can stimulate the expression of Bcl-2, depending on a specific AP-l-binding site in the Bcl-2 promoter. In c-Fos transgenic (Fos-Tg) mice, c-Fos binds to this site and promotes the expression of Bcl-2. As a result, Fos-Tg thymocytes exhibited enhanced survival, and more mature single-positive (SP) thymocytes were generated, even on a unique TCR background. The TCR repertoire remained normal in Fos-Tg mice. Our results identified e-Fos as the mediator of the stimulatory effect of TCR signaling on Bcl-2 expression. Therefore, c-Fos, as an IEG, because of its early response ability, can quickly rescue the survival of short-lived thymocytes during positive selection. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism regulating the survival of positively selecting thymocytes.

  4. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne;

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived fro...

  5. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  6. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  7. The reducing agent Dithiothreitol (DTT) increases expression of c-myc and c- fos protooncogenes in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Frandsen, H.;

    1995-01-01

    . The genes were two proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, and the tumour suppressor gene, p53. We observed that the expression of the c-fos and c-myc genes was induced when human bladder epithelial cells were treated with a standard solution of N-OH-PhIP and dithiothreitol (DTT), previously shown to be genotoxic...

  8. [The Role of c-fos in the Production of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and the Related Signal Transduction Pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Quan; Huang, Jun-Qin; Yi, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Jun

    2015-12-01

    As an immediate early gene, c-fos plays a critical role in stimulating the synthesis and release of pituitary FSH via GnRH. To better understanding the mechanism how c-fos works in the transcription of FSHbeta under different frequency of pulsatile GnRH stimulation, this paper reviewed the signal trans- ductions initiated by c-fos in pituitary, which include cAMP pathway, MAPK pathway, Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinases pathway and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway. It will be helpful for research in molecular targeted immunotherapy and eventually effective treatment to the infertility which resulted from defection or mutation of c-fos and c-fos related signal pathway elements.

  9. 不同间歇低氧方式对内皮细胞c-fos mRNA表达水平的影响%Changes of c-fos mRNA in Endothelial Cells Exposed to Various Intermittent Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梦丽; 刘春霞; 冯靖; 曹洁; 陈宝元

    2013-01-01

    目的测定不同程度、频率间歇低氧(IH)条件下,人脐静脉内皮细胞即刻早期基因c-fos mRNA的表达水平。方法在自制细胞培养舱中程控产生预制的IH/ROX(再氧和)暴露环境,将内皮细胞暴露于该环境共60次循环,分为A、B、C组,每组包括5个小组。A组分正常氧组、标准孵箱对照组、持续低氧(CH)组、1.5%O2 IH组、10%O2 IH组。B、C组分别为1.5%O2,10%O2的不同IH频率组,低氧时间均为15 s,循环次数均为60次,ROX时间不同,总循环时间不同,分别为1.5 h组、3 h组、5 h组、6.5 h组、9.5 h共5个小组。采用Real-time PCR方法测定c-fos mRNA的表达水平。结果正常氧组与CH组的c-fos mRNA表达水平差异无统计学意义。1.5%O2 IH组、10%O2 IH组c-fos mRNA表达水平均高于正常氧组,且1.5%O2 IH组高于10%O2 IH组(P<0.01)。在IH程度相同时,随着ROX时间延长,c-fos mRNA表达水平均呈现先逐渐增加,后逐渐下降的规律,5 h组c-fos mRNA表达水平明显高于其余各组(P<0.01)。结论 IH/ROX暴露可诱导内皮细胞即刻早期基因c-fos mRNA表达,这一过程与IH程度及频率密切相关。%Objective To measure the mRNA expression of immediate-early gene c-fos in endothelial cells by the use of different intermittent hypoxia (IH) protocols. Methods A gas control delivery system was homemade, which pro-duced IH/re-oxygenation(ROX) environmental exposure. The endothelial cells were exposed to IH/ROX cycles, and were di-vided into three groups (A, B and C). There were five sub-groups in each group. Group A included intermittent normoxia group, standard incubator control group, continuous hypoxia group (CH), 1.5%O2 IH group and 10%O2 IH group. There were different frequency IH of 1.5%O2 and 10%O2 sub-groups in group B and group C. Hypoxia time was 15 s. The intermittent hypoxia cycle was 60 and the ROX time was different. The total cycle time was different, including 1

  10. β-glucan reduces exercise-induced stress through downregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jae-Deung; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. β-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of β-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of β-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follows: Control, exercise, exercise and 50 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, exercise and 100 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, and exercise and 200 mg/kg β-glucan treatment. Rats in the β-glucan‑treated groups were administered β-glucan at the respective dose once per day for seven days. Rats in the exercise groups performed treadmill running once per day for six days. On the seventh day of the experiment, the time to exhaustion in response to treadmill running was determined for the exercise groups. The expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe and hippocampus was enhanced by exhaustive treadmill running. Administration of β-glucan resulted in an increase in the time to exhaustion and the suppression of the exercise-induced increment in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. In conclusion, β-glucan may exert an alleviating effect on exercise-induced stress through the suppression of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats. PMID:24604295

  11. Using c-fos to study neuronal ensembles in corticostriatal circuitry of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fabio C; Javier Rubio, F; Hope, Bruce T

    2015-12-01

    Learned associations between drugs and environment play an important role in addiction and are thought to be encoded within specific patterns of sparsely distributed neurons called neuronal ensembles. This hypothesis is supported by correlational data from in vivo electrophysiology and cellular imaging studies in relapse models in rodents. In particular, cellular imaging with the immediate early gene c-fos and its protein product Fos has been used to identify sparsely distributed neurons that were strongly activated during conditioned drug behaviors such as drug self-administration and context- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Here we review how Fos and the c-fos promoter have been employed to demonstrate causal roles for Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in conditioned drug behaviors. This work has allowed identification of unique molecular and electrophysiological alterations within Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles that may contribute to the development and expression of learned associations in addiction.

  12. Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casalotti Stefano O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoephedrine is a drug commonly prescribed as a nasal decongestant and bronchodilator and is also freely available in cold remedies and medications. The structural and pharmacological similarity of pseudoephedrine to amphetamine has led to evaluation of its psychomotor stimulant properties within the central nervous system. Previous investigations have shown that the acute responses to pseudoephedrine were similar to those of amphetamine and other psychostimulants. Results This study examined the effect of chronic administration of pseudoephedrine in rat nucleus accumbens and striatum and identified three further similarities to amphetamine. (i Chronic exposure to pseudoephedrine reduced the c-Fos response to acute pseudoephedrine treatment suggesting that pseudoephedrine induced tolerance in the animals. (ii In animals chronically treated with amphetamine or pseudoephedrine the acute c-Fos response to pseudoephedrine and amphetamine was reduced respectively as compared to naïve animals indicating cross-tolerance for the two drugs. (iiiThe known involvement of the dopamine system in the response to amphetamine and pseudoephedrine was further confirmed in this study by demonstrating that pseudoephedrine similarly to amphetamine, but with lower potency, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake in synaptosomal preparations. Conclusion This work has demonstrated further similarities of the effect of pseudoephedrine to those of amphetamine in brain areas known to be associated with drug addiction. The most significant result presented here is the cross tolerance effect of amphetamine and psudoephedrine. This suggests that both drugs induce similar mechanisms of action in the brain. Further studies are required to establish whether despite its considerable lower potency, pseudoephedrine could pose health and addiction risks in humans similar to that of known psychostimulants.

  13. Brainstem Regions Involved in the Expiration Reflex. A c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Jakus, Jan; Murin, Peter; Barani, Helena; Stransky, Albert; Bolser, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was employed to localize brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to the expiration reflex (ER). Twelve spontaneously breathing, non-decerebrate, pentobarbital anesthetized cats were used. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive ERs mechanically induced from the glottis (296±9 ERs) was compared to FLI in 6 control non-stimulated cats. Respiratory rate, arterial blood pre...

  14. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake. PMID:27396908

  15. Anxiety-like behaviour and c-fos expression in rats that inhaled vetiver essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Pongmayteegul, Sirinun; Marsden, Charles A; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver essential oil (VEO) has been used in aromatherapy for relaxation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEO on an anxiety-related behavioural model (the elevated plus-maze, EPM) and immediate-early gene c-fos in amygdala, known to be involved in anxiety. Male Wistar rats were administered diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 30 min or inhalated with VEO (1%, 2.5% or 5% w/w) for 7 min prior to exposure to the EPM. Then, the effects of 2.5% VEO, the anxiolytic dose, on c-fos expression in amygdala were investigated. The rats given either 2.5% VEO or diazepam exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM. VEO and diazepam significantly increased c-fos expression in the lateral division of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeL). Therefore, the anxiolytic properties of VEO might be associated with altering neuronal activation in CeL. However, future studies are needed to investigate the precise mechanism of action of VEO. PMID:25553641

  16. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Notably, the vast majority of individuals with ASD experience some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have recently reported consistent hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is employed as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology of auditory brainstem centers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal neuronal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4- or 16-kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these exposures, we identified significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Additionally, we observed a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:27094734

  17. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2015-12-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Additionally, the vast majority of subjects with ASD suffer some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have previously identified significant hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is utilized as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology in the auditory brainstem. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4 or 16 kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these sound exposures, we found significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Further, we found a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:26518464

  18. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake.

  19. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin

  20. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipigorngoson Suwiwek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham. Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin.

  1. Injections of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala induce anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, F; Lightman, S L; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2006-01-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Previous studies have shown that injections of the anxiety-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor or the related neuropeptide urocortin 1 into the region of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus induce anxiety-like behavior in several behavioral paradigms. Brainstem serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus may be part of a distributed neural system that, together with the basolateral amygdala, regulates acute and chronic anxiety states. We therefore investigated the effect of an acute bilateral injection of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala on behavior in the social interaction test and on c-Fos expression within serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae directed at the region of the basolateral amygdala; 72 h after surgery, rats were injected with urocortin 1 (50 fmol/100 nl) or vehicle (100 nl of 1% bovine serum albumin in distilled water). Thirty minutes after injection, a subgroup of rats from each experimental group was exposed to the social interaction test; remaining animals were left in the home cage. Two hours after injection rats were perfused with paraformaldehyde and brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Acute injection of urocortin 1 had anxiogenic effects in the social interaction test, reducing total interaction time without affecting locomotor activity or exploratory behavior. These behavioral effects were associated with increases in c-Fos expression within brainstem serotonergic neurons. In home cage rats and rats exposed to the social interaction test, urocortin 1 treatment increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive serotonergic neurons within subdivisions of both the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the

  2. Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Andreza B; Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimaraes, Francisco S

    2016-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychoactive compound from Cannabis sativa plant. Given that CBD reduces psychotic symptoms without inducing extrapyramidal motor side-effects in animal models and schizophrenia patients, it has been proposed to act as an atypical antipsychotic. In addition, CBD reduced catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms, including the typical antipsychotic haloperidol. To further investigate this latter effect, we tested whether CBD (15-60mg/kg) would attenuate the catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal striatum induced by haloperidol (0.6mg/kg). We also evaluated if these effects occur through the facilitation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. For this, male Swiss mice were treated with CBD and haloperidol systemically and then subjected to the catalepsy test. Independent groups of animals were also treated with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). As expected, haloperidol induced catalepsy throughout the experiments, an effect that was prevented by systemic CBD treatment 30min before haloperidol administration. Also, CBD, administered 2.5h after haloperidol, reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Haloperidol also increased c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum, an effect attenuated by previous CBD administration. CBD effects on catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression induced by haloperidol were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. We also evaluated the effects of CBD (60nmol) injection into the dorsal striatum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Similar to systemic administration, this treatment reduced catalepsy induced by haloperidol. Altogether, these results suggest that CBD acts in the dorsal striatum to improve haloperidol-induced catalepsy via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:27131780

  3. Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Julie A D; Coke, Tricia; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study uses cellular c-fos activation to assess effects of novel ingestion of fat and sugar on brain dopamine (DA) pathways in rats. Intakes of sugars and fats are mediated by their innate attractions as well as learned preferences. Brain dopamine, especially meso-limbic and meso-cortical projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been implicated in both of these unlearned and learned responses. The concept of distributed brain networks, wherein several sites and transmitter/peptide systems interact, has been proposed to mediate palatable food intake, but there is limited evidence empirically demonstrating such actions. Thus, sugar intake elicits DA release and increases c-fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) from individual VTA DA projection zones including the nucleus accumbens (NAC), amygdala (AMY) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as the dorsal striatum. Further, central administration of selective DA receptor antagonists into these sites differentially reduce acquisition and expression of conditioned flavor preferences elicited by sugars or fats. One approach by which to determine whether these sites interacted as a distributed brain network in response to sugar or fat intake would be to simultaneous evaluate whether the VTA and its major mesotelencephalic DA projection zones (prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC, core and shell of the NAc, basolateral and central-cortico-medial AMY) as well as the dorsal striatum would display coordinated and simultaneous FLI activation after oral, unconditioned intake of corn oil (3.5%), glucose (8%), fructose (8%) and saccharin (0.2%) solutions. This approach is a successful first step in identifying the feasibility of using cellular c-fos activation simultaneously across relevant brain sites to study reward-related learning in ingestion of palatable food in rodents. PMID:27583636

  4. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  5. c-Fos expression in rat brainstem following intake of sucrose or saccharin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Chen; Jianqun Yan; Jinrong Li; Bo Lv; Xiaolin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the activation of brainstem neurons during intake of a sweet tastant is due to orosensory signals or post-ingestive factors,we compared the distribution of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI)in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of brainstem following ingestion of 0.25M sucrose or 0.005 M saccharin solutions.Immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in the middle zone of the PBN and four rostral-caudal subregions of the NST.Intake of sucrose increased the number of FLI neurons in almost every subnucleus of the PBN (F(2,13) =7.610,P =0.023),in addition to the caudal NST at the level of the area postrema (F(2,13) =10.777,P =0.003) and the NST intermediate zone (F(2,13) =7.193,P =0.014).No significantincrease in the number of c-Fos positive neurons was detected in response to saccharin ingestion,although there was a trend towards a modest increase in a few select NST and PBN nuclei.These results suggest that the PBN and NST may be involved in sweet taste perception and modulation of sweet tastant intake,but the significantlyenhanced intensity of Fos expression induced by sucrose indicates that PBN/NST neuronal activity is driven by the integrated effects of sweet taste sensation and post-ingestive signals.

  6. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. PMID:25846435

  7. Piperine alleviates osteoclast formation through the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C; Joubert, Annie; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Increased bone fracture is one of the health risk factors in patients with bone loss related disorders such as osteoporosis and breast cancer metastasis to bone. Over activity of osteoclasts leads to uncoupling of bone remodeling favoring bone loss over bone formation. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL) triggers the differentiation pathway leading to multinucleated osteoclast formation. Modulation of RANKL or its downstream signaling pathways involved in osteoclast formation is of significant interest in the development of anti-resorptive agents. In this study, the effects of piperine, an alkaloid present in Piper nigrum L. on osteoclast formation was investigated. Piperine inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14+ monocytes induced by RANKL and breast cancer cells. Piperine attenuated the p38-mitogen activated protein kinase pathway activation, while the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or NF-κβ pathways downstream of RANKL remained unaffected. Concomitantly, expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), the key transcription factors involved in osteoclastogenesis were remarkably inhibited by piperine. Furthermore, piperine disrupted the actin ring structure and bone resorption, a characteristic hallmark of osteoclasts. Collectively, these results suggested that piperine inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the p38/NFATc1/c-Fos signaling axis.. PMID:26627060

  8. c-fos/c-jun expression and AP-1 activation in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, E; Bellesia, E; Salomoni, P; Croce, M A; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Latorraca, S; Barbieri, D; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Sorbi, S; Franceschi, C

    1996-09-13

    In vitro replicative senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest due to the inability of the cell to induce some key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as c-fos and AP-1, in response to mitogenic stimuli. In vitro replicative senescence and in vivo aging have been assumed to be two related phenomena, likely controlled by overlapping or interacting genes. As a corollary, fibroblasts from centenarians, which have undergone a long process of senescence in vivo should have very limited proliferative capability. On the contrary, in a previous work we found that fibroblasts from centenarians exhibited the same capacity to respond to different mitogenic stimuli as fibroblasts from young donors. Here we provide evidences that the well preserved proliferative response is likely due to the fact that some pivotal regulators- c-fos, c-jun and AP-1-are still fully inducible, despite a long process of in vivo senescence. Our data therefore suggest that in vivo and in vitro aging are separate phenomena whose possible relationships, if any, have to be ascertained very carefully. PMID:8806666

  9. C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Mancillas, J R; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1993-06-01

    Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral pontine tegmentum of the cat induces a state that is comparable to naturally occurring active (REM, rapid eye movement) sleep. We sought to determine, during this pharmacologically induced behavioral state, which we refer to as active sleep-carbachol, the distribution of activated neuron within the pons and medulla using c-fos immunocytochemistry as a functional marker. Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited higher numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons in (1) the medial and portions of the lateral reticular formation of the pons and medulla, (2) nuclei in the dorsolateral rostral pons, (3) various raphe nuclei, including the dorsal, central superior, magnus, pallidus, and obscurus, (4) the medial and lateral vestibular, prepositus hypoglossi, and intercalatus nuclei, and (5) the abducens nuclei. On the other hand, the mean number of c-fos-expressing neurons found in the masseter, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei was lower in carbachol-injected than in control cats. The data indicate that c-fos expression can be employed as a marker of state-dependent neuronal activity. The specific sites in which there were greater numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons during active sleep-carbachol are discussed in relation to the state of active sleep, as well as the functional role that these sites play in generating the various physiological patterns of activity that occur during this state. PMID:8501533

  10. Bombesin stimulation of c-fos and c-myc gene expression in cultured of Swiss 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin has been show to be a potent mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. At nanomolar concentrations it stimulates DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures of 3T3 cells and also induces the expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNA. c-fos mRNA transcripts dramatically increase 15 min after the addition of bombesin, are still abundant after 30-60 min and then decrease. c-myc mRNA induction is detectable later, 1 h after bombesin treatment. Conversely, no changes in c-Ki-ras expression are observed after stimulation with bombesin. These results demonstrate that the increased expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs appears to be a common response to diverse agents that induce DNA synthesis and cell proliferation

  11. ACTIVATION OF CELLS FROM HYPOTHALAMIC STRUCTURES AFTER INJECTION OF ANTIGENS DIFFERENT IN THEIR NATURE (by the c-Fos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Perekrest

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Activation levels of hypothalamic structures (AHN, PVH, DMH, VMH, LHA, PH were analyzed within first hours after injection of antigens [lipopolysaccharide (LPS and bovine serum albumine [BSA]. For all investigated hypothalamic structures, an increase of c-Fos positive cells numbers was observed after injection of the antigens, as compared to the controls. LPS injection caused activation of more multiple neuron populations. AHN, PVH, LHA, and PH structures exhibited the highest levels of c-Fos activation upon LPS application. BSA injection induced activation of lesser cells quantities, but their enrichment in c-Fos protein was higher, thus resulting into increased optical density of VMH, LHA and PH neurons. Hence, the present work has shown that activation pattern of hypothalamic structures differs upon application of antigens that are different by their origin.

  12. Expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes in the uteri of immature mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takayanagi, A; Shimizu, N

    2003-01-01

    We studied the cell-type-specific and temporal expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes after 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulation in the uteri of immature 3-week-old mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES), DES-mice, and the ontogenic expression of these genes in the uteri of DES-mice using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A single E2 injection induced the transient and rapid expression of c-fos mRNA and c-Fos protein in the endometrial epithelium and endothelial cells of the blood vessels in both 3-week-old vehicle-treated controls and DES-mice; a peak of mRNA expression was 2 hours after E2 injection and that of protein expression was 2 to 3 hours after the injection. The expression of c-fos mRNA and protein after E2 stimulation was lower in the DES-mice than in the control animals. There were no significant differences in the c-jun expression patterns in both experimental groups before and after the E2 injection. The E2 injection transiently down-regulated the c-jun expression in the epithelium and up-regulated it in the stroma and myometrium. The uterine epithelium of DES-mice showed much stronger c-Jun immunostaining on days 4 and 10, compared with those of controls. Neonatal DES treatment reduced c-Jun immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium on days 4 and 10, and increased the reaction in the stroma on day 4. These results suggested that the neonatal DES treatment induces permanent changes in the c-fos expression pattern independent of the postpuberal secretion of ovarian steroids. The changes in the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes, particularly during postnatal development, are likely to play important roles in the production of uterine abnormalities in the DES-mice.

  13. Thermal injuries induce gene expression of endogenous c-fos, c-myc and bFGF in burned tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 顾小曼; 孙同柱; 杨银辉; 孙晓庆; 盛志勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression sequence and distribution characteristics of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF ) genes in burned tissues, and to explore the possible effects of changes in the se genes' functions on wound healing. Methods Partial-thickness burns of 30% TBSA were established on backs of Wistar rats. Insitu hybridization and histological methods were used to detect expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF genes in normal and burned tissue at 3 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d , 7 d and 14 d postburn. Results Although expression of c-fos and c-myc genes and bFGF gene could be found in normal skin, the expression of all three were markedly induced by burn wounds and the expression models in sequence and distribution were quite different. Expre ssion of c-fos gene increased and peaked at 6 h. Signals were mainly localiz ed in both nuclei of dermal fibroblasts and monocytes. The expression of bFGF gene increased at 6 h and peaked at 1 d postburn, and was distributed in the cyt oplasm of fibroblasts. C-myc gene peaked 3 d postburn and was also distributed in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. Conclusions These results indicated that thermal injury could induce the expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF at gene level, showing phasic control and regional distributi on. The phasic expression of these genes suggests that there is an interaction between protooncogenes and bFGF, which may play an important role in wound heali ng. The different expressions of c-fos and c-myc play an inducing role in reg ulating bFGF, and in turn affect wound healing.

  14. A new cAMP response element in the transcribed region of the human c-fos gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, E; Loncarević, I F; Büscher, M.; Herrlich, P; Rahmsdorf, H J

    1991-01-01

    In NIH 3T3 cells the c-fos gene is induced rapidly and transiently by cAMP. As shown by the analysis of 3T3 cells stably transfected with promoter mutants of the human c-fos gene this induction does not depend on the dyad symmetry element (position -320 to -300), but involves at least two other non-related sites: an element located around position -60 resembling the cAMP response element of the fibronectin and somatostatin genes (which has been described before), and an element located betwee...

  15. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  16. Changes in hypothalamic [correction of hypothalmic] staining for c-Fos following 2G exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C A; Murakami, D M; Hoban-Higgins, T M; Tang, I H

    1994-05-01

    The static gravitational field of the earth has been an important selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of biological organisms. This is illustrated by the evolution of tetrapods from a water environment where gravitational force was partially negated to a terrestrial environment where gravity is of greater consequence. Terrestrial invasion resulted in a series of new structural, physiological, and behavioral features. Therefore, it is not surprising that alterations in the gravitational field can cause widespread effects in many physiological systems and behaviors. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both exposure to hyperdynamic fields and the microgravity condition of space flight have significant effects on body temperature, heartrate, activity, feeding, drinking, and circadian rhythms. However, it has not been determined whether these physiological adaptations are associated with changes in neural activity within the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. This study examined the changes in body temperature, activity, body weight and food and water intake in rats caused by exposure to a hyperdynamic field. In addition, the immediate early gene activation marker, c-Fos, was used to examine potential protein synthesis changes in the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. PMID:11538768

  17. [Effects of ketamine and urethane on stimulation-induced c-fos expression in neurons of cat visual cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Cui-Yun; Li, Peng; Jin, Cai-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lu; Jiang, San; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ketamine and urethane on neuronal activities remain in debate. As a member of immediate early genes family, the expression of c-fos is stimulation dependent and could be treated as an index to evaluate the strength of neural activities. In this study, SABC immunohistochemical techniques were applied to compare the c-fos expression in neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1) of cats and therefore, to evaluate the effects of acute anesthesia with ketamine HCl and uethane on inhibiting neural activities. Our results showed that compared with control cats, there were no significant differences with the average densities of Nissl-stained V1 neurons in each cortical layers of either urethane or ketamine anesthetized cats. In urethane anesthetized cats, neither the average densities nor the immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons showed significant difference with that of control ones. However, both the average densities and immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons in ketamine anesthetized cats decreased significantly compared with that of control and urethane anesthetized cats. These results suggested that ketamine has strong inhibitory effects on the activities of visual cortical neurons, whereas urethane did not. PMID:24415690

  18. The cellular protooncogenes c-fos and egr-1 are regulated by prostacyclin in rodent osteoblasts and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantschnig, H; Varga, F; Klaushofer, K

    1996-11-01

    PGs are local regulators of various cellular functions. They exert their effects via specific PG receptor subtypes. Induction of c-fos gene expression has been described for arachidonic acid and its metabolite PGE2. We demonstrate that another very short half-lifed prostanoid metabolite, namely prostacyclin (PGI2), is a regulator of immediate-early genes. PGI2 transiently induced the growth-associated immediate-early genes c-fos and egr-1 in osteoblastic as well as fibroblastic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that PGI2 dose dependently stimulated new DNA synthesis in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. Although PGI2 is known to be a potent inducer of cyclooxygenases, we showed that this pathway is not necessary for protooncogene induction by PGI2. Our data indicate a direct effect of PGI2 on immediate-early gene expression, which does not depend on the synthesis of other prostanoids. Intracellular signal transduction mechanisms were studied with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7, a potent inhibitor of PGI2-induced c-fos expression. Experiments with phorbol esters revealed that protein kinase C activity is not obligatory for the effect of PGI2 on c-fos expression. We conclude from these results that PGI2, a rapidly inactivated prostanoid, has a major impact on cellular oncogene expression and growth in mesenchymally derived cells.

  19. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Hedges, Valerie L; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-03-15

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. PMID:24342748

  20. Expression of c-fos mRNA following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-fos mRNA in brain following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expression following percussion. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury group. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa). The injury groups were then subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1h, 2h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA was studied with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) semi-quantitatively.RESULTS: At 5 min after percussion, the induction of c-fos mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 2 h after brain injury.CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-fos mRNA in cortex and brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly.

  1. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R cooperates with mediator to facilitate transcription reinitiation on the c-Fos gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Fukuda

    Full Text Available The c-fos gene responds to extracellular stimuli and undergoes robust but transient transcriptional activation. Here we show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R facilitates transcription reinitiation of the c-fos promoter in vitro in cooperation with Mediator. Consistently, hnRNP R interacts with the Scaffold components (Mediator, TBP, and TFIIH as well as TFIIB, which recruits RNA polymerase II (Pol II and TFIIF to Scaffold. The cooperative action of hnRNP R and Mediator is diminished by the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8 module, which is comprised of CDK8, Cyclin C, MED12 and MED13 of the Mediator subunits. Interestingly, we find that the length of the G-free cassettes, and thereby their transcripts, influences the hnRNP R-mediated facilitation of reinitiation. Indeed, indicative of a possible role of the transcript in facilitating transcription reinitiation, the RNA transcript produced from the G-free cassette interacts with hnRNP R through its RNA recognition motifs (RRMs and arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG domain. Mutational analyses of hnRNP R indicate that facilitation of initiation and reinitiation requires distinct domains of hnRNP R. Knockdown of hnRNP R in mouse cells compromised rapid induction of the c-fos gene but did not affect transcription of constitutive genes. Together, these results suggest an important role for hnRNP R in regulating robust response of the c-fos gene.

  2. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  3. Ethanol-induced c-Fos expression in catecholamine- and neuropeptide Y-producing neurons in rat brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, TE; Cubero, [No Value; van Dijk, G; Mediavilla, C; Bernstein, IL; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2000-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have used c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (cFLI) to examine the neuroanatomical location of cells that are activated in response to ethanol administration. However, the use of cFLI alone fails to reveal the phenotypical identity of cells. Tn the present study we used double-

  4. Effect of growth hormone and serum on the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun was analysed in the insulin producing rat tumor cell line, RIN 5AH. Addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) to serum-starved cells in the presence of cycloheximid induced a modest increase in c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels, whereas growth hormone (GH...

  5. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons......Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  6. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation. PMID:26774022

  7. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation.

  8. Combined Expression of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 Improves Estimation of Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Xin; Xu, Fei; Meng, Yan; Sun, Changsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Eryang

    2016-09-13

    To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Simultaneous coexpression of these markers in OSCCs might prove to be a useful indicator for differentiation of low and high-risk patients.

  9. Activation of endogenous c-fos proto-oncogene expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40 sup tax protein in the human T-cell line, Jurkat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kinya; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masataka; Sugamura, Kazuo (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    The authors examined the ability of the trans-acting factor p40{sup tax} of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), which is thought to be a crucial molecule in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I, to activate expression of a set of endogenous cellular genes related to T-cell proliferation. For this purpose, they established a subclone (JPX-9) of Jurkat cells that was stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the p40{sup tax} gene, whose expression is definitively dependent on heavy-metal ions. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} chain in JPX-9 cells was induced in response to the induction of p40{sup tax} expression, as has been demonstrated by others in transient transfection experiments with Jurkat cells. In addition, they found that significant enhancement of expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was closely associated with expression of p40{sup tax}. Continuous enhancement in the level of c-fos mRNA was observed in the presence of p40{sup tax}. These results suggest that (i) in addition to the interleukin-2-interleukin-2 receptor system, cellular genes such as c-fos, which regulate normal T-cell growth, are also activated directly or indirectly by p40{sup tax} and (ii) p40{sup tax}-induced modulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I.

  10. c-fos expression in brainstem premotor interneurons during cholinergically induced active sleep in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F R; Sampogna, S; Yamuy, J; Chase, M H

    1999-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify trigeminal premotor interneurons that become activated during carbachol-induced active sleep (c-AS). Their identification is a critical step in determining the neural circuits responsible for the atonia of active sleep. Accordingly, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected into the trigeminal motor nuclei complex to label trigeminal interneurons. To identify retrograde-labeled activated neurons, immunocytochemical techniques, designed to label the Fos protein, were used. Double-labeled (i.e., CTb(+), Fos(+)) neurons were found exclusively in the ventral portion of the medullary reticular formation, medial to the facial motor nucleus and lateral to the inferior olive. This region, which encompasses the ventral portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and the nucleus magnocellularis, corresponds to the rostral portion of the classic inhibitory region of. This region contained a mean of 606 +/- 41.5 ipsilateral and 90 +/- 32.0 contralateral, CTb-labeled neurons. These cells were of medium-size with an average soma diameter of 20-35 micrometer. Approximately 55% of the retrogradely labeled cells expressed c-fos during a prolonged episode of c-AS. We propose that these neurons are the interneurons responsible for the nonreciprocal postsynaptic inhibition of trigeminal motoneurons that occurs during active sleep. PMID:10531453

  11. Mapping brain response to social stress in rodents with c-fos expression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Calvo-Torrent, A; Herbert, J

    2002-02-01

    Social defeat is an important event in the life of many animals, and forms part of the process of social control. Adapting to social defeat is thus an intrinsic part of social "homeostasis", and mal-adaptation may have pathological sequelae. Experimental models of social defeat (e.g. inter-male aggression) have existed for many years. However, very few studies have investigated the changes in brain activity in male animals exposed to the social stress of being defeated by another conspecific male, and in all these studies the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been used as the marker of neuronal activity. In general, the results obtained inform that many areas of the brain, especially those involved in the general stress response, increase their activity when animals are exposed to an acute defeat. However, when animals are defeated repeatedly over many consecutive days, the level of activation of the brain shows different patterns of adaptation depending on the brain areas (varying from complete habituation to persistent activation). Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in the experimental procedure. On the other hand, further research has to be conducted in order to understand what these changes in the brain activity mean in relation to the other stress responses to social defeat. Furthermore, knowing that the corresponding protein products of many immediate-early genes are transcription factors that can promote or inhibit the expression of target genes, research following this approach is also necessary.

  12. Norisoboldine suppresses osteoclast differentiation through preventing the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and activation of MAPKs/NF-κB/c-Fos/NFATc1 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Wei

    Full Text Available Norisoboldine (NOR is the main alkaloid constituent in the dry root of Lindera aggregata (Sims Kosterm. (L. strychnifolia Vill.. As reported previously, orally administered NOR displayed a robust inhibition of joint bone destruction present in both mouse collagen-induced arthritis and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis with lower efficacious doses than that required for ameliorating systemic inflammation. This attracted us to assess the effects of NOR on differentiation and function of osteoclasts, primary effector cells for inflammatory bone destruction, to get insight into its anti-rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms. Both RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs were stimulated with RANKL (100 ng/mL to establish osteoclast differentiation models. ELISA, RT-PCR, gelatin zymography, western blotting, immunoprecipitation and EMSA were used to reveal related signalling pathways. NOR (10 and 30 µM, without significant cytotoxicity, showed significant reduction of the number of osteoclasts and the resorption pit areas, and it targeted osteoclast differentiation at the early stage. In conjunction with the anti-resorption effect of NOR, mRNA levels of cathepsin K and MMP-9 were decreased, and the activity of MMP-9 was attenuated. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies indicated that NOR obviously suppressed the ubiquitination of TRAF6, the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. However, NOR had little effect on expressions of TRAF6 or the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Moreover, NOR markedly inhibited expressions of transcription factor NFATc1, but not c-Fos. Intriguingly, the subsequent nuclear translocations of c-Fos and NFATc1 were substantially down-regulated. Hence, we demonstrated for the first time that preventing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts at the early stage was an

  13. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  14. Expression of Egr-1,c-fos and cyclin D1 in esophageal cancer and its precursors:An immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yao Wu; Chu-Xiang Zhuang; Huan-Xing Yang; Ying-Rui Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expression of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 at both transcript and protein levels in esophageal carcinoma and to correlate the level of their expressions with precancerous and paracancerous esophageal lesions and esophageal carcinoma.METHODS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used respectively to detect the expression of mRNA and proteins of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 in 70 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and their corresponding para-cancerous mucosa and upper cut edge mucosa.RESULTS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed positive staining of all three mRNAs in the cytoplasm and those of the proteins in nuclei. Overexpression of Egr1, c-fos and cyclin D1 mRNAs and their proteins was found in dysplasia and squamous carcinomas. The expression level of Egr-1 and c-fos was high, and cyclin D1 was low in dysplasia mucosa, whereas the expression of Egr-1 was decreased, c-fos was maintained and cyclin D1 was increased in the cancers. The expression of both c-fos and cyclinD1 was consistent between the mRNA and protein in their corresponding high expression lesions.CONCLUSION: The expression of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 varies in esophageal precancerous lesions and cancer tissues, suggesting an involvement of these genes in the development of esophageal carcinoma.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  16. Induction of c-Fos expression in the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus after fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-09-14

    The aim of the present study was to provide further evidence on the role of particular subdivisions of the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus to contextual and auditory fear conditioning. We used c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation to compare rats that received tone-footshock pairings in a distinctive context (conditioned group) to rats being exposed to both the context and the auditory CS without receiving footshocks (unconditioned group), and naïve rats that were only handled. Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased only in the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral mammillary nucleus of the conditioned group. However, the dorsal hippocampus showed the highest density of c-Fos positive nuclei in the naïve group as compared to the other groups. Together, our data support previous studies indicating a particular involvement of the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamus in fear conditioning. PMID:17683804

  17. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2009-01-30

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulations of food deprivation and presentation. In the current study, c-Fos counts in both basolateral and central amygdalar nuclei were observed to increase in rats 12- and 36-h food deprived (relative to 0-h controls)-an effect reversed by the presentation of either a small or large meal (2.5 or 20g of food). In another experiment, rats working on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement exhibited elevated break-points as a function of food deprivation, a result consistent with the view that the feeding manipulations increased the subjects' level of motivation. In contrast, food deprivation reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity of rats, presumably as a result of an inherent energy-conservation strategy when no food is readily available. These data suggest that the state of food deprivation is associated with: (a) enhanced behavioral output only when food is attainable (increased goal-directed behavior, but decreased spontaneous activity), and (b) increased synaptic engagement in neuronal circuits involved in affective valuation and related decision-making (increased c-Fos counts in the amygdala). PMID:18706934

  18. Activation of the c-fos gene in prodynorphin- and proenkephalin-expressing cells of nucleus tractus solitarius after seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, R K; Erickson, J T; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    We performed studies to determine the anatomical regions and chemical phenotypes of neurons within the rat medulla oblongata activated by pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Activated cells were identified by their expression of the c-fos gene, detected by in situ hybridization for c-fos mRNA and immunocytochemistry for Fos protein. Activated cells were located predominantly in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), with c-fos mRNA appearing within 20 min after seizures (peak at 1-2 h), followed by Fos immunoreactivity visible at 1 h (peak at 2-4 h). Neither nonspecific noxious stimulation by intraperitoneal injection of saline nor brief exposure to hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mixtures to stimulate chemoreceptors reproduced this pattern of labeling. Prodynorphin or proenkephalin mRNA, detected by in situ hybridization, was colocalized with Fos immunoreactivity in many NTS cells. Thus, seizures activate neuronal pathways in the medulla oblongata which express genes for endogenous opioids. Potential long-term effects of seizures are suggested by the in situ hybridization finding that NTS prodynorphin mRNA increased 24 h after seizures compared to control levels. PMID:7957742

  19. Laguerre Filter Analysis with Partial Least Square Regression Reveals a Priming Effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takamasa; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Wada, Takumi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Masashi; Saito, Takeshi H; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Signaling networks are made up of limited numbers of molecules and yet can code information that controls different cellular states through temporal patterns and a combination of signaling molecules. In this study, we used a data-driven modeling approach, the Laguerre filter with partial least square regression, to describe how temporal and combinatorial patterns of signaling molecules are decoded by their downstream targets. The Laguerre filter is a time series model used to represent a nonlinear system based on Volterra series expansion. Furthermore, with this approach, each component of the Volterra series expansion is expanded by Laguerre basis functions. We combined two approaches, application of a Laguerre filter and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and applied the combined approach to analysis of a signal transduction network. We applied the Laguerre filter with PLS regression to identify input and output (IO) relationships between MAP kinases and the products of immediate early genes (IEGs). We found that Laguerre filter with PLS regression performs better than Laguerre filter with ordinary regression for the reproduction of a time series of IEGs. Analysis of the nonlinear characteristics extracted using the Laguerre filter revealed a priming effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS induction. Specifically, we found that the effects of a first pulse of ERK enhance the subsequent effects on c-FOS induction of treatment with a second pulse of ERK, a finding consistent with prior molecular biological knowledge. The variable importance of projections and output loadings in PLS regression predicted the upstream dependency of each IEG. Thus, a Laguerre filter with partial least square regression approach appears to be a powerful method to find the processing mechanism of temporal patterns and combination of signaling molecules by their downstream gene expression. PMID:27513954

  20. Effect of different therapies of Chinese medicine on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus of rats with post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Mei Chen; Binhui Zhang

    2006-01-01

    group were intragastrically perfused with Bushen Yiqi Tang (18 g/kg), Huoxue Huayu Tang (9 g/kg), Ditan Kaiqiao Tang (9 g/kg) and fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) respectively, once a day. ③ At 55 days after model establishment, rats in the forced swimming group were managed according to the Porsolt's method. They were placed in water for 15 minutes, and then taken out and dried, no moving-time within 5 minutes was recorded at drying and 24 hours after drying. ④ Measurement of spontaneous behaviors: Except the forced swimming group, the spontaneous behaviors and activities (including horizontal and vertical movements) of rats were observed with the Open-Field method at 28, 42 and 56 days after administration in the other groups. ⑤ The expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus were determined with the immunohistochemical method,the relative sectional area ratio and average objective gray value of c-Fos and c-Jun positive cells in hippocampus were measured with the computerized image analytical system.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The spontaneous behaviors of rats, the relative sectional area ratio and aver age objective gray value of c-Fos and c-Jun positive cells in hippocampus were observed.RESULTS: Of the 56 rats, 1 died in the forced swimming group, and finally 55 rats were involved in the analysis of results. ① Results of spontaneous activities: At 28 days, the times of crossing movements were obviously fewer in the model group and fluoxetine group [(69.00±37.01), (98.11±36.68) times/3 minutes]than in the control group [(128.44±16.85) times/3 minutes, P < 0.01, 0.05], but those in the Bushen Yiqi group, Huoxue Quyu group and Ditan Kaiqiao group had no obvious differences as compared with those in the control group (P > 0.05). At 42 and 56 days, the times of crossing movements were obviously more in the Bushen Yiqigroup, Huoxue Quyu group and Ditan Kaiqiao group [(106.44±31.24), (117.20±23.95),(134.80±28.18), (136.36 ±40.95) times/3 minutes; (117.33

  1. The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces the immediate-early gene c-Fos in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Paul S; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2002-12-27

    The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) evokes dramatic somatic and psychological effects. In order to analyze the neural activation induced by this unique psychoactive drug, we tested the hypothesis that expression of the immediate-early gene product c-Fos is induced in specific regions of the rat forebrain by a relatively low, behaviorally active, dose of d-LSD (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.); c-Fos protein expression was assessed at 30 min, and 1, 2 and 4 h following d-LSD injection. A time- and region-dependent expression of c-Fos was observed with a significant increase (PLSD administration. These data demonstrate a unique pattern of c-Fos expression in the rat forebrain following a relatively low dose of d-LSD and suggest that activation of these forebrain regions contributes to the unique behavioral effects of d-LSD.

  2. SUMOylation of the inducible (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex occurs on target promoters to limit transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempé, D; Vives, E; Brockly, F; Brooks, H; De Rossi, S; Piechaczyk, M; Bossis, G

    2014-02-13

    The inducible proto-oncogenic (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex binds 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) in its target genes. It is tightly controlled at multiple levels to avoid the deleterious effects of its inappropriate activation. In particular, SUMOylation represses its transactivation capacity in transient reporter assays using constitutively expressed proteins. This led to the presumption that (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation would be required to turn-off transcription of its target genes, as proposed for various transcription factors. Instead, thanks to the generation of an antibody specific for SUMO-modified c-Fos, we provide here direct evidence that SUMOylated c-Fos is present on a stably integrated reporter TPA-inducible promoter at the onset of transcriptional activation and colocalizes with RNA polymerase II within chromatin. Interestingly, (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation limits reporter gene induction, as well as the appearance of active transcription-specific histone marks on its promoter. Moreover, non-SUMOylatable mutant (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 dimers accumulate to higher levels on their target promoter, suggesting that SUMOylation might facilitate the release of (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 from promoters. Finally, activation of GADD153, an AP-1 target gene, is also associated with a rapid increase in SUMOylation at the level of its TRE and c-Fos SUMOylation dampens its induction by TPA. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation could serve to buffer transcriptional activation of AP-1 target genes.

  3. Expression of cFos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alele, Paul E.; Devaud, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To map areas of brain activation (cFos) alongside changes in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to provide insights into neuronal mechanisms contributing to previously observed sex differences in behavioral measures of ethanol withdrawal (EW). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of cFos and BDNF levels using protein-specific antibodies and visualization with nickel-enhanced DAB staining in 3 cortical and 4 hippocampal regions was used to assess EW-in...

  4. Transient down-regulation of sound-induced c-Fos protein expression in the inferior colliculus after ablation of the auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Clarkson; José M Juíz; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether lesions of the excitatory glutamatergic projection from the auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus induce plastic changes in neurons of this nucleus. Changes in neuronal activation in the inferior colliculus deprived unilaterally of the cortico-collicular projection were assessed by quantitative c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Densitometry and stereology measures of sound-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus showed diminished labeling at 1, 15, 90 and 1...

  5. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Delcuratolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis.

  7. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcuratolo, Maria; Fertey, Jasmin; Schneider, Markus; Schuetz, Johanna; Leiprecht, Natalie; Hudjetz, Benjamin; Brodbeck, Stephan; Corall, Silke; Dreer, Marcel; Schwab, Roxana Michaela; Grimm, Martin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Stubenrauch, Frank; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS) in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:26727473

  8. AP-1 Transcription Factors c-FOS and c-JUN Mediate GnRH-Induced Cadherin-11 Expression and Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Liyang; Wang, Yan-Ling; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-06-01

    GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion. PMID:25794160

  9. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigé, Stéphanie; Bonnet, Marion S; Tardivel, Catherine; Pinton, Philippe; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Guzylack, Laurence; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Dallaporta, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the cereal-contaminating Fusarium fungi, is a major trichothecene responsible for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, including swine. The main effect of DON-intoxication is food intake reduction and the consequent body weight loss. The present study aimed to identify brain structures activated during DON intoxication in pigs. To this goal, we used c-Fos staining which constitutes a useful approach to identify activated neurons. We showed that per os administration of Fusarium graminearum extracts (containing the equivalent of 1mg DON per kg of body weight) induced an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in several central structures, including the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), dorsal vagal complex (DVC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (Arc), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and amygdala (CeA). Moreover, we coupled c-Fos staining with phenotypic markers detection in order to specify the neuronal populations activated during DON intoxication. This phenotypic characterization revealed the activation of catecholaminergic but not of serotoninergic neurons in response to the toxin. In this context, we also paid a particular attention to NUCB2/nesfatin-1 positive cells, since nesfatin-1 is known to exert a satiety effect. We report here, for the first time in the pig brain, the presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the VLM, DVC, PVN, Arc and SON, and their activation during DON intoxication. Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin.

  10. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  11. Epigenetic regulation of Arc and c-Fos in the hippocampus after acute electroconvulsive stimulation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Mads; Hansen, Henrik H; Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira;

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) remains one of the most effective treatments of major depression. However, the underlying molecular changes still remain to be elucidated. Since ECS causes rapid and significant changes in gene expression we have looked at epigenetic regulation of two important...... of the important epigenetic marks associated with gene activation. We show increased H4Ac at the c-Fos promoter at 1 h post-ECS. Surprisingly, we also observed a significant increase in DNA methylation of the Arc gene promoter at 24 h post-ECS. DNA methylation, which is responsible for gene silencing, is a rather...

  12. Reduction of c-Fos via Overexpression of miR-34a Results in Enhancement of TNF- Production by LPS in Neutrophils from Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikama, Yayoi; Cao, Meiwan; Ono, Tomoyuki; Feng, Xiaomin; Noji, Hideyoshi; Kimura, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuei; Suzuki, Yuko; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kimura, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Although increased TNF-α has been considered to cause ineffective hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the mechanisms of TNF-α elevation are not known. We recently found that c-Fos mRNA stabilization under translation-inhibiting stimuli was impaired in MDS-derived neutrophilic granulocytes. In the current study, we identified overexpression of c-Fos-targeting miR-34a and miR-155 as the cause of impairment. Expression levels of miR-34a but not miR-155 inversely correlated with ratios of c-Fos-positive cells in MDS-derived CD16+ neutrophils (r = -0.618, P<0.05), which were analyzed by flow cytometry. Among the seventeen patients, c-Fos was detectable in less than 60% of CD16+ cells in eight patients (Group A), while five (Group B) expressed c-Fos in more than 80% of CD16+ cells, which was consistent with the controls (88.6 ± 7.8%). Group A-derived granulocytes secreted more TNF-α in response to 1 μM LPS for 3 hours (735.4 ± 237.5 pg/mL) than Group B (143.5 ± 65.7 pg/mL, P<0.05) and healthy controls (150.8 ± 91.5 pg/mL, P<0.05). Knockdown of c-Fos in neutrophil-like differentiated HL60 increased the binding of NF-κB p65 to the promoter region of TNF-α DNA. Thus, c-Fos reduction via overexpression of miR-34a contributes to TNF-α overproduction under inflammatory stimuli in MDS. PMID:27513856

  13. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeung Su [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young, E-mail: kimjy1014@gmail.com [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  14. Bcl-2, Bax, and c-Fos expression correlates to RPE cell apoptosis induced by UV-light and daunorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Y G; Jorgensen, A G; Kaestel, C G;

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2, Bcl-X L, Bax, and c-Fos in regulation of apoptosis, induced by ultraviolet-light A (UV-A) and daunorubicin (DNR), in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells grown on bovine extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated or uncoated plastic dishes....... METHODS. Apoptosis in confluent RPE cells cultured on ECM-coated or uncoated dishes was induced by UV-A or DNR. Apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D labeling followed by flow cytometry and by terminal deoxy-transferase mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Cellular expression of Bcl-2, Bcl......-X L, Bax, and c-Fos was determined by the use of antibodies and flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemical staining. RESULTS. Both UV-A and DNR induce apoptosis in human RPE cells in vitro. Human fetal RPE cells grown on ECM-coated dishes were significantly more resistant to UV...

  15. Effects of mercury contaminated rice from typical chemical plant area in China on nitric oxide changes and c-fos expression of rats brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; WANG Wen-hua; JIA Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; SHI Wei; Lin Xue-yu

    2005-01-01

    China is one of countries with the highest mercury production in the world. The Guizhou Province in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. In order to study the neurotoxicity of rice from Qingzhen Chemical Plant area and probe into the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain stimulation by mercury contaminated rice. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated rice for 20 d. Both of the measurements of NO and NOS were processed according to the protocol of the kit. The effect of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods.The results showed the neural transmitter NO and NOS in brain were significantly change between exposure groups and control group; the mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group( p < 0.01). It could be concluded that nitric oxide was involved in mercury contaminated rice induced immediate early gene c-fos expressions in the rat brain. Through food chain, local ecosystem and health of local people iave been deteriorated seriously by mercury. This serious situation will last a long period. In order to alleviate mercury pollution, more work needs to do.

  16. Function of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like Proteins on Trichostatin A-induced G2/M Arrest in Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue LI; Jun LU; Yan-Mei ZHAO; Bai-Qu HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The homologs of transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been detected in slime mold Physarum polycephalum during progression of the synchronous cell cycle. Here we demonstrated that cFos-like and c-Jun-like proteins participated in G2/M transition by the regulation of the level of Cyclin B1 protein in P. polycephalum. The study of antibody neutralization revealed that interruption of the functions of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like proteins resulted in G2/M transition arrest, implicating their functional roles in cell cycle control. When G2/M transition was blocked by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, changes in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like protein levels, and hyperacetylation of c-Jun-like protein, were observed. The data suggest that in P. polycephalum, c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins may be the key factors in the regulation of histone acetylation-related G2/M transition, involving the coordinated expression and hyperacetylation of these proteins.

  17. Puerarin reduces increased c-fos, c-jun, and type Ⅳ collagen expression caused by high glucose in glomerular mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-ping MAO; Zhen-lun GU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Increased expression of c-fos, c-jun and type Ⅳ collagen (CoⅣ) in glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) are important characteristics of diabetic nephropathy.Both c-fos and c-jun regulate the gene expression of extracellular matrix components, and CoⅣ is the main component of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that puerarin inhibits aggregation of the extracellular matrix in diabetic rats by an as yet unknown mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of puerarin on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression in GMC cultured in medium containing 5.6 or 27.8 mmol/L glucose. Methods: The expressions ofc-fos and c-jun were measured at the protein level using flow cytometry. CoⅣ content was detected using radioimmunoassay. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured using liquid scintillation counting. Results: Puerarin (10-5 mmol/L) significantly ameliorated the high-glucose effect on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression.This effect is accompanied by a reduced PKC activity in these cells. Conclusion:Our results suggest that reduced PKC activity and expression of c-fos and c-jun in GMC might participate in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of puerarin on diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Physical interaction of the activator protein-1 factors c-Fos and c-Jun with Cbfa1 for collagenase-3 promoter activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Karsenty, Gerard; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we determined that the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site and the runt domain (RD)-binding site and their binding proteins, c-Fos.c-Jun and Cbfa, regulate the collagenase-3 promoter in parathyroid hormone-treated and differentiating osteoblasts. Here we show that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun appear to cooperatively bind the RD- and AP-1-binding sites and form ternary structures in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies further demonstrate interaction between Cbfa1 with c-Fos and c-Jun in the absence of phosphorylation and without binding to DNA. Additionally, only the runt domain of Cbfa1 was required for interaction with c-Jun and c-Fos. In mammalian cells, overexpression of Cbfa1 enhanced c-Jun activation of AP-1-binding site promoter activity, demonstrating functional interaction. Finally, insertion of base pairs that disrupted the helical phasing between the AP-1- and RD-binding sites also inhibited collagenase-3 promoter activation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun physically interact and cooperatively bind the AP-1- and RD-binding sites in the collagenase-3 promoter. Moreover, the AP-1- and RD-binding sites appear to be organized in a specific required helical arrangement that facilitates transcription factor interaction and enables promoter activation.

  19. Regulation of glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression in cells with mutated or endogenous growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, T W; Meyer, D J; Liao, J;

    1998-01-01

    To identify mechanisms by which GH receptors (GHR) mediate downstream events representative of growth and metabolic responses to GH, stimulation by GH of c-fos and egr-1 expression and glucose transport activity were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing mutated GHR. In CHO cells......, whereas P11 inhibits the GH-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation of only some proteins, including extracellular signal regulated kinases ERK1 and -2, but not JAK2. Taken together, these results implicate association of GHR with JAK2 and GH-stimulated tyrosyl phosphorylation of an additional cellular protein...... in GH-stimulated glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression. These studies also indicate that, in contrast to spi-2.1, the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR is sufficient to mediate stimulation of c-fos and egr-1 expression and Elk-1 activation, supporting multiple mechanisms for GH...

  20. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) have been used as general indexes in relative research about neurons, but it is lack of reports that c-Fos protein and NOS are applied synchronously to study the neurons of hypoxic fetal rats in uterus.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hypoxia in uterus on the expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats and whether Angelica sinensis has the protective effect on these neurons in hypoxia.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Luzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat with bodymass from 220 to 250 g were chosen. Parenteral solution of Angelica sinensis mainly contained angelica sinensis, 10 mL/ampoule, was provided by Department of Agent of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical University (batch number: 01062310).METHODS: This experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Luzhou Medical College from September 2003 to June 2004. ① Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat were housed in one rearing cage. Vaginal embolus was performed on conceive female rat at 8:00 am next day.On the 15th conceiving day,all conceiving rats were divided randomly into three groups:control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group with 4 in each group. Rats in hypoxia group and Angelica group were modeled with hypotonic hypoxia in uterus. Angelica group: Rats were injected with 8 mL/kg Angelica sinensis injection through caudal veins before hypoxia.Hypoxia group:Rats were injected with the same volume of saline.Control group:Rats were not modeled and fed with normal way. ② Twenty embryos of rats were chosen randomly from each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were cut from the brain of embryos to anterior fontanelle. Double-label staining was used to detect the expression of nNOS and c-Fos in

  1. Apolipoprotein E inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of c-Fos, NFATc1 and NF-κB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Shin; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Zang Hee [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, BK21 Program and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yeongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngkyun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Hee, E-mail: hhbkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, BK21 Program and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yeongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a major role in the transport and metabolism of lipid. Other functions of ApoE include modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The expression of ApoE in osteoblasts and its relevance with bone formation have also been reported. However, the effect of ApoE on osteoclasts has not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of ApoE in osteoclast differentiation using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells. We found a down-regulation of ApoE gene expression during osteoclastic differentiation of those cells. Overexpression of ApoE in BMMs and RAW264.7 cells significantly blocked the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1), transcription factors critical for expression of osteoclast marker genes, by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), the osteoclast differentiation factor. ApoE inhibited osteoclast differentiation, as measured by decreased number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNCs). In addition, ApoE reduced the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and ATPase, H{sup +} transporting, lysosomal 38 kDa, V0 subunit d2 (ATP6v0d2), genes involved in cell–cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. Knock-down of ApoE using a specific siRNA promoted the RANKL-mediated induction of osteoclast differentiation. While ApoE did not affect the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways by RANKL, the phosphorylation of p65 trans-activation domain on serine 536 and transcription activity of NF-κB were reduced by ApoE overexpression. These findings suggest that ApoE plays an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of RANKL-dependent activation of NF-κB and induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. - Highlights: ► Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and activation of NF-κB. ► ApoE decreased the induction of osteoclast marker

  2. Effect of water restrictions on the physiological parameters, psychological behavior and brain c-Fos expression in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua ZHU; Bai-Ren WANG; Qing-Rong TAN; Xiao-Li DUAN; Fang KUANG; Zhen XU; Gong JU

    2006-01-01

    Objective In order to characterize the feature of stress response induced by stressor with both physical and psychological natures, the effect of water restriction performed in different experimental modes on the physiological parameters, psychological behavioral manifestations and brain c-Fos expressions were observed and compared. Methods 58 male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n= 18 for each) and a control group (n=4). In control group, the rats were allowed to access drinking water freely at all experimental period. In the experimental groups the water supply to the rats was restricted. In timed water supply (TW) group, the water was supplied twice a day,10 min for each in fixed hours every day. In empty bottle-served (EB) and water-restricted (WR) groups, the water was served only once a day for 10 min, either in the early morning or evening, and in the other time point scheduled for water supply only an empty bottle without water was provided in the EB group and nothing was given in the WR group. The quantities of drank water and eaten food, weight-gaining, and behavior score were observed every day. The serum level of corticosterone was assayed and the rats were sacrificed with fixative perfusion of 3 d, 7 d or 14 d respectively, following water restriction (n=6 for each time point in each group). The brain c-Fos expressions were examined with immunohistochemistry. Results The slowing down of weight-gaining, rise of serum corticosterone level, occurrence of psychological behavioral manifestations of unpeaceful restlessness such as exploring and attacking, enhance of c-Fos expression in the subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), area postrema (AP), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), medial (MeA) and central (CeA) amygdaloid nucleus and ventrolateral septum (LSV) were noticed in both EB and WR groups, except the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) in which the Fos

  3. Expression of c-fos and oxidative stress on brain of rats reared on food from mercury-selenium coexisting mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; LIU Xiao-jie; ZHENG Min; SHI Wei; WANG Wen-hua

    2006-01-01

    Wanshan mercury mine is the largest mercury deposit in Guizhou Province of China, but there were few reports on mercury toxic effect in the mining area. In order to study the neurotoxicity of food from Wanshan mercury mine area and probe into the effect of food from Wanshan mercury miner area on the changes of brain oxidative damage and expression of c-fos gene. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated food for 20 d. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD),GSH-peroxidase (GSH-px) and Glutathione (GSH) in rat brain was measured, and the effect of mercury contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed the levels of GSH, MDA,SOD and of GSH-dependent enzymes in the rat brain changed between exposure groups and control group; The mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group (P<0.01). It could be concluded that oxidative stress signals could contribute to the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs); free radicals and their by-products might not only cause oxidative damage, but also influenced gene expression; IEGs c-fos participated in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted food.

  4. TRPV4 mediates afferent pathways in the urinary bladder. A spinal c-fos study showing TRPV1 related adaptations in the TRPV4 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dick A W; Hoenderop, Joost G; Heesakkers, John P F A; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-10-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in urinary bladder afferent neural pathways was investigated using spinal c-fos measurements in mice. Anesthetized wild type and TRPV4 knockout (-/-) mice underwent noxious bladder distention and treatment with either intravesical instillation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX), vehicle or an intraperitoneal injected TRPV4 antagonist (HC067047). Mice underwent paraformaldehyde perfusion for rapid fixation and L6-S1 spinal cord sections were removed followed by immunohistochemical staining for c-fos. A number of c-fos expressing neurons in the dorsal horns of L6-S1 spinal cord transections were quantified. Groups were compared using univariate ANOVA. Even with the absence of bladder inflammation on H&E, the TRPV4 -/- mice still have a significant twofold higher c-fos expression (n = 39, SD 2) after noxious bladder distention compared to wild type mice (n = 20, SD 3). A twofold increase in c-fos expression was observed after LPS treatment in wild types (n = 42, SD 5), but no increase was seen in TRPV4 -/- mice (n = 42, SD 2). After desensitization of primary afferent C-nerve fibers with RTX, c-fos expression in TRPV4-/- mice decreased significantly (threefold) (n = 12, SD 4). Results imply that TRPV4 channels are important for bladder afferent signaling. TRPV4 -/- mice bladders generate more noxious sensory output, which is predominantly mediated through TRPV1 expressing high threshold nerve fibers. This study reveals TRPV1 related adaptive changes in afferent pathways of the TRPV4 -/- mouse. We propose that this effect is caused by a congenital impairment of low threshold nerves that mediate normal bladder filling sensations.

  5. In vitro interaction of uterine estrogen receptor with the estrogen response element present in the 3'-flanking region of the murine c-fos protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S M; Stancel, G M

    1994-01-01

    Estradiol treatment rapidly stimulates transcription of the c-fos protooncogene in the rodent uterus, and transfection analysis previously identified an estrogen response element (ERE) in the 3'-flanking region of the murine gene with the sequence GGTCAnnnCAGCC. We now report that endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) obtained from either mouse or rat uterus binds to this 3'-ERE. Unoccupied receptor, receptor occupied with estradiol and receptor occupied with the antiestrogen tamoxifen all bind to this element, and the binding of receptor exhibits strict sequence specificity. By using a competition binding assay, the affinity of the ER for the c-fos-ERE is estimated to be approximately an order of magnitude less than the affinity for the consensus ERE (GGTCAnnnTGACC) found in the Xenopus and chicken vitellogenin genes. Differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the c-fos and vitellogenin EREs bound to the ER in band-shift assays also suggest subtle structural differences in the two complexes. Mutations in either half-site of the c-fos-ERE destroy ER binding, suggesting that the receptor binds to this sequence as either a homo- or heterodimer. The 3'-fos-ERE region exhibits some homologies to both AP1 and AP2 consensus sites, but neither AP1-like proteins present in uterine extracts nor recombinant AP2 bind this protooncogene sequence. The finding that the ERE present in the 3'-region of the murine c-fos gene interacts with receptors present in the mouse and rat uterus supports a role for this element in the physiological regulation of c-fos expression in the uterus by estrogens. PMID:8136308

  6. Effect of c-fos antisense probe on prostaglandin E2-induced upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in human liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qi Li; Kai-Shan Tao; Ning Ren; Yi-Hu Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells and the possible involvement of c-fos protein in this process.METHODS: Human HCC HepG2 cells were divided into three groups treated respectively with PGE2, a combination of PGE2 and c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO),and PGE2 plus c-fos sense oligodeoxynudeotide (SO). The expression of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells after different treatments was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relative expression level of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells in each group was measured.RESULTS: Administration of PGE2 resulted in an increased expression of c-fosand VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells. The relative expression level of c-fos mRNA reached the peak at 3 h (68.4±4.7%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (20.6±1.7%, P<0.01).Whereas, the highest expression level of VEGF mRNA was observed at 6 h (100.5±6.1%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (33.2±2.4%,P<0.01). C-fos ASO significantly reduced PGE2-induced VEGF mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: PGE2 increases the expression and secretion of VEGF in HCC cells by activating the transcription factor c-fos, promotes the angiogenesis of HCC and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.

  7. c-fos gene induction by interleukin 2: identification of the critical cytoplasmic regions within the interleukin 2 receptor beta chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, M; Kawahara, A; Mori, H.; Shibuya, H.; Taniguchi, T.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) plays a critical role in the growth and differentiation of lymphoid cells. The IL-2 signal is delivered intracellularly by the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta); however, the mechanism by which the signal reaches the nucleus remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the rapid activation of c-fos protooncogene transcription by IL-2 and provide evidence that the serum-responsive element (SRE) within the c-fos promoter is responsible for the activation in a murine p...

  8. The transcription factors CREB and c-Fos play key roles in NCAM-mediated neuritogenesis in PC12-E2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, U; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N;

    2001-01-01

    roles in this process by estimating NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells grown in co-culture with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PC12-E2 cells were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding wild-type or dominant negative forms of CREB and c-Fos or an activated...... thus present evidence that NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth involves a series of signal transduction pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway, targeting c-Fos and CREB....

  9. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Delcuratolo; Jasmin Fertey; Markus Schneider; Johanna Schuetz; Natalie Leiprecht; Benjamin Hudjetz; Stephan Brodbeck; Silke Corall; Marcel Dreer; Roxana Michaela Schwab; Martin Grimm; Shwu-Yuan Wu; Frank Stubenrauch; Cheng-Ming Chiang; Thomas Iftner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncog...

  10. GABAergic neurons of the cat dorsal raphe nucleus express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2000-11-24

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) cease firing during active sleep (AS, also called rapid-eye-movement sleep). This cessation of electrical activity is believed to play a 'permissive' role in the generation of AS. In the present study we explored the possibility that GABAergic cells in the DRN are involved in the suppression of serotonergic activity during AS. Accordingly, we examined whether immunocytochemically identified GABAergic neurons in the DRN were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during carbachol-induced AS (AS-carbachol). Three chronically-prepared cats were euthanized after prolonged episodes of AS that was induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis. Another four cats (controls) were maintained 2 h in quiet wakefulness before being euthanized. Thereafter, immunocytochemical studies were performed on brainstem sections utilizing antibodies against Fos, GABA and serotonin. When compared with identically prepared tissue from awake cats, the number of Fos+ neurons was larger in the DRN during AS-carbachol (35.9+/-5.6 vs. 13.9+/-4.4, P<0.05). Furthermore, a larger number of GABA+ Fos+ neurons were observed during AS-carbachol than during wakefulness (24.8+/-3.3 vs. 4.0+/-1.0, P<0.001). These GABA+ Fos+ neurons were distributed asymmetrically with a larger number located ipsilaterally to the site of injection. There was no significant difference between control and experimental animals in the number of non-GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos in the DRN. We therefore suggest that activated GABAergic neurons of the DRN are responsible for the inhibition of serotonergic neurons that occurs during natural AS. PMID:11082488

  11. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis.

  12. A DU bed system for storing and supplying hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongchul; Ahn, Do-Hee; Chung, Hongsuk [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been extensively proposed for the storage, supply, and recovery of hydrogen isotopes. SDS is used for storing hydrogen isotopes as a metal hydride form. To control the SDS, it is necessary to monitor the tritium amount in a bed. In this study, a full-sized DU bed was designed and fabricated including cylindrical-type copper foam of nine layers to study the characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding and simulate the tritium amount in a bed. The integrity and leak inspection on the welding of a primary vessel was performed using a penetration test, helium leak test, and pressure test. Auto tuning on the cable heaters of two pairs in the DU bed was also be performed. In our next study, the hydriding/dehydriding on a DU bed will be performed. A simulation on the depleted uranium hydriding will be carried out. A DU bed was designed and fabricated including cylindrical-type copper foam of nine layers to study the characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding and simulate the tritium amount in a bed. Through a penetration test, it was confirmed that the welding of the primary vessel has a good integrity. It was confirmed that the two helium tubes is sound by inspecting a helium leak test on the welding of the primary vessel. It was also confirmed that the primary vessel has a good integrity by inspecting a helium leak and conducting a pressure test on it. Vacuuming of the DU bed system was carried out. Vacuuming of the in-bed calorimetric equipment was also carried out.

  13. Effect of rosiglitazone on protein expression of renal ERK and c-fos in the type 2 diabetic rats%罗格列酮对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏ERK/c-fos蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王隽; 王战建; 徐焕宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察罗格列酮对糖尿病大鼠肾脏细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)、c-fos蛋白表达的影响.方法 应用高糖高脂饮食加小剂量链脲佐菌素建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型,用免疫组化方法检测肾脏ERK、c-fos蛋白表达.结果:(1)成模动物具有高血糖、胰岛素抵抗、肾脏病变等特点.(2)糖尿病组大鼠肾组织中ERK、c-fos表达较对照组明显增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK、c-fos活性降低,肾功能及组织病理学损害改善.结论 2型糖尿病大鼠模型肾组织ERK/c-fos蛋白表达增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK/c-fos表达降低,伴肾功能和肾脏病理损害改善.%Objective To investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on activation of renal ERK and c-fos in the experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods The rats of model groups were intraperitoneally given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) after taking the sucrose-and fat-rich diets for one month.Immunohistochemistry and computer image-pattern analysis system were used to analyze expression of ERK and c-fos in renal tissues. Results (1)This rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus showed hyperglycemia, IR and typical renal lesions. (2)Compared to normal group, the protein expression of ERK and c-fos were increased in glomeruli of type 2 diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone inhibited significantly the activation of ERK and c-fos, partly improved the renal function and matrix accumulation. Conclusions (1) A rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus presents the increased protein expression of ERK and c-fos of diabetic nephropathy. (2) The kidney protection of rosiglitazone is associated, at least in part, with down-regulating ERK/c-fos activation in renal tissues.

  14. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  15. A role for the immediate early gene product c-fos in imprinting T cells with short-term memory for signal summation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn E Clark

    Full Text Available T cells often make sequential contacts with multiple DCs in the lymph nodes and are likely to be equipped with mechanisms that allow them to sum up the successive signals received. We found that a period of stimulation as short as two hours could imprint on a T cell a "biochemical memory" of that activation signal that persisted for several hours. This was evidenced by more rapid induction of activation markers and earlier commitment to proliferation upon subsequent stimulation, even when that secondary stimulation occurred hours later. Upregulation of the immediate early gene product c-fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, was maximal by 1-2 hours of stimulation, and protein levels remained elevated for several hours after stimulus withdrawal. Moreover, phosphorylated forms of c-fos that are stable and transcriptionally active persisted for a least a day. Upon brief antigenic stimulation in vivo, we also observed a rapid upregulation of c-fos that could be boosted by subsequent stimulation. Accumulation of phosphorylated c-fos may therefore serve as a biochemical fingerprint of previous suboptimal stimulation, leaving the T cell poised to rapidly resume its activation program upon its next encounter with an antigen-bearing DC.

  16. Induction of C-FOS, C-MYC and P53 by US -adrenergic receptor (US -AR) stimulation of rat parotid acinar cells (RPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousvelari, E.E.; Louis, J.; Curran, T.; Baum, B.J.

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of rats with the US -agonist isoproterenol (ISO) results in dramatically increased parotid gland protein synthesis, processing and cell proliferation. The authors have shown that in RPAC in vitro, US -AR stimulation has similar effect on protein synthesis and processing. Proto-oncogenes have been implicated in growth regulation, differentiation and in mediating some extracellular stimulated events at the level of gene expression. To understand the regulation of cellular events after US -AR stimulation, the expression of c-fos, c-myc and p53 was investigated. RPAC were incubated with or without 10 VM ISO for 15, 30, 60 min. mRNA was isolated from cells and hybridization analysis was performed on nitrocellulose paper-transferred mRNA using TSP-labeled DNA probes. At early time points, the levels of c-fos gene activation in ISO-treated and control cells were comparable. After 60 min of ISO treatment, a sharp 20-30 fold induction of c-fos expression occurred. Similar increases in c-myc and p53 gene expression were observed after 60 min of ISO treatment. The authors data indicate that early effects of US -AR stimulation of RPAC include induction of c-fos, c-myc and p53 gene expression as well as enhanced protein synthesis and processing.

  17. Modulation of c-Fos and BDNF Protein Expression in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Mice following the Treatment with Novel Antiepileptic Compound HHL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Mahmood Malhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos are shown to promote epileptogenesis and are taken as a marker of neuronal activity. The present study investigated the expression of BDNF and c-Fos in mice brain with pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced generalized seizure and evaluated the effect of novel tryptamine derivative HHL-6 on the expression of these two markers. The subconvulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg was administered on alternate days in the experimental groups until the seizure scores 4-5 developed in the PTZ-control group. At the end of each experiment, animals were sacrificed, brain samples were collected and cryosectioned, and immunohistochemical analysis of BDNF and c-Fos protein was performed. Data obtained from two sections per mouse (n=12 animals/group is presented as means ± S.E.M. The test compound HHL-6 demonstrated a potent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced seizure in mice. Significant reduction in the BDNF (P<0.003 and c-Fos (P<0.01 protein expression was observed in the HHL-6 treated group. Based on these results we suggest that one of the possible mechanisms of HHL-6 to inhibit epileptogenesis might be due to its controlling effect on the cellular and molecular expression of the factors that contribute to the development of epileptogenic plasticity in the CNS.

  18. Effect of Heroin on C-Fos Expression of Cerebellar Cortex of Rat%海洛因对小脑皮质C-FOS表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连秀珍; 谢明仁; 朱喜春; 李世平; 俞发荣

    2012-01-01

    为探索海洛因对小脑皮质C-FOS表达的影响,通过肌肉注射海洛因建立成瘾大鼠模型,用免疫组化方法检测小脑细胞C-FOS的表达.结果表明,大鼠连续注射7d后,出现明显的戒断症状;小脑细胞中C-FOS表达阳性细胞数比对照组明显增多,与对照组相比有显著性差异(P<0.01).证明海洛因具有诱导C-FOS基因表达、损伤脑组织细胞的作用.%To study the effects of heroin on the C-Fos expression of cerebellar cortex of the rat,an addiction model was established by an intramuscular injection of heroin. The C-Fos expression of cerebellar cortex was detected by into the rat immunohistochemical methods. Results showed that rats had significant withdrawal symptoms after continuous injections of heroin for 7 days;the expression of C-Fos positive cells in the cerebellar cortex of rat were increased significantly than those of the control group (P<0.01). Hence it was proved that heroin had the effect of inducing C-Fos gene expression and damaging its brain cells.

  19. A dual-immunocytochemical method to localize c-fos protein in specific neurons based on their content of neuropeptides and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Larsen, P J; Sørensen, G G;

    1994-01-01

    -immunocytochemical staining technique has been developed with avidin-biotin-peroxidase labelling using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen for c-fos protein located in the nucleus, and benzidine dihydrochloride (BDHC) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside to reveal cytoplasmic antigens (neuropeptide or retrograde tracer...

  20. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SJ Moghaddam; EN Haghighi; S Samiee; N Shahid; AR Keramati; S Dadgar; MR Zali

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of some genes especially those involved in cell cycle regulation on hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 25 patients (18 males and 7 females) with hepatocellular carcinoma were collected from 22 pathology centers in Tehran during 2000-2001, and stained using immunohistochemistry method (avidin-biotin-peroxidase)for detection of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras proteins.RESULTS: Six (24%), 5 (20%), 12 (48%) and 2 samples (8%) were positive for p53, cyclinD1, C-fos and N-ras expression, respectively. Twenty-two (88%) samples had alterations in the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint protein expression (RB1 or cyclinD1). P53 positive samples showed a higher (9 times) risk of being positive for RB1 protein than p53 negative samples. Loss of expression of RB1 in association with p53 over-expression was observed in 4 (66.7%) of 6 samples. Loss of expression of RB1 was seen in all cyclinD1 positive, 20 (90.9%) N-ras negative, and 11 (50%) C-fos positive samples,respectively. CyclinD1 positive samples showed a higher (2.85 and 4.75 times) risk of being positive for c-fos and N-ras expression than cyclinD1 negative samples.CONCLUSION: The expression of p53, RB1 and c-fos genes appears to have a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran. Simultaneous overexpression of these genes is significantly associated with their loss of expression during development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice.

  3. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of c-Fos and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor of the Cerebral Cortex in Rats with Cerebral Infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqiao; MEI Yuanwu; LIU Chuanyu; YU Shanchun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the neurological functional recovery and expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction was investigated. Cerebral infarction models were established by using left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into a model group (n=40) and a TMS group (n=40). TMS treatment (2 times per day, 30 pulses per time) with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 1.33 Tesla was carried out in TMS group after MCAO. Modified neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded before and 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day(s) after MCAO. The expression of c-Fos and BDNF was immunohistochemically detected 1, 7,14, 21, and 28 day(s) after infarction respectively. Our results showed that a significant recovery of NSS (P<0.05) was found in animals treated by TMS on day 7, 14, 21, and 28 as compared with the animals in the model group. The positive expression of c-Fos and BDNF was detected in the cortex surrounding the infarction areas, while the expression of c-Fos and BDNF increased significantly in TMS treatment group in comparison with those in model group 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (P<0.05) and 7,14, 21 days (P<0.01) after infarction, respectively. It is concluded that TMS has therapeutic effect on cerebral infarction and this may have something to do with TMS's ability to promote the expression of c-Fos and BDNF of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction.

  4. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock down-mice are more susceptible to inflammation, c-Fos expression and sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina de; Pereira, Luciana de Melo; Oliveira, Vinícius Elias de Moura; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antônio Máximo; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the well-known functions as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) can modulate of the immune system. Nonetheless, how endogenous ACh release inflammatory responses is still not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of an animal model with a decreased ACh release due a reduction (knockdown) in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression (VAChT-KD(HOM)). These animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Afterwards, we evaluated sickness behavior and quantified systemic and cerebral inflammation as well as neuronal activation in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). VAChT-KD(HOM) mice that were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) showed increased mortality rate as compared to control mice. In line with this result, a low dose of LPS (0.1mg/kg) increased the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the spleen and brain of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice in comparison with controls. Similarly, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in VAChT-KD(HOM) mice. This excessive cytokine production was completely prevented by administration of a nicotinic receptor agonist (0.4mg/kg) prior to the LPS injection. Three hours after the LPS injection, c-Fos expression increased in the DVC region of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice compared to controls. In addition, VAChT-KD(HOM) mice showed behavioral changes such as lowered locomotor and exploratory activity and reduced social interaction after the LPS challenge, when compared to control mice. Taken together, our results show that the decreased ability to release ACh exacerbates systemic and cerebral inflammation and promotes neural activation and behavioral changes induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that activity of cholinergic pathways, which can be modulated by VAChT expression, controls inflammatory and neural responses to LPS challenge.

  5. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (phamster.

  6. CA-074Me compound inhibits osteoclastogenesis via suppression of the NFATc1 and c-FOS signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Nizami, Saqib; Song, Lee; Mikami, Maya; Hsu, Anny; Hickernell, Thomas; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Rho, Shim; Compton, Jocelyn T; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Kaiser, Philip B; Bai, Hanying; Lee, Heon Goo; Fischer, Charla R; Lee, Francis Y

    2015-10-01

    The osteoclast is an integral cell of bone resorption. Since osteolytic disorders hinge on the function and dysfunction of the osteoclast, understanding osteoclast biology is fundamental to designing new therapies that curb osteolytic disorders. The identification and study of lysosomal proteases, such as cathepsins, have shed light on mechanisms of bone resorption. For example, Cathepsin K has already been identified as a collagen degradation protease produced by mature osteoclasts with high activity in the acidic osteoclast resorption pits. Delving into the mechanisms of cathepsins and other osteoclast related compounds provides new targets to explore in osteoclast biology. Through our anti-osteoclastogenic compound screening experiments we encountered a modified version of the Cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074: the cell membrane-permeable CA-074Me (L-3-trans-(Propylcarbamoyl) oxirane-2-carbonyl]-L-isoleucyl-L-proline Methyl Ester). Here we confirm that CA-074Me inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. However, Cathepsin B knockout mice exhibited unaltered osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a more complicated mechanism of action than Cathepsin B inhibition. We found that CA-074Me exerts its osteoclastogenic effect within 24 h of osteoclastogenesis stimulation by suppression of c-FOS and NFATc1 pathways. PMID:25428830

  7. DNA Damage, Apoptosis and C-myc, C-fos, and C-jun Overexpression Induced by Selenium in Rat Hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RI-AN YU; CHENG-FENG YANG; XUE-MIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of selenium on DNA damage, apoptosis and c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun expression in rat hepatocytes. Methods Sodium selenite at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg was given to rats by i.p. and there were 5 male SD rats in each group. Hepatocellular DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (or comet assay).Hepatocellular apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) and flow cytometry. C-myc,c-fos, and c-jun expression in rat hepatocytes were assayed by Northern dot hybridization. C-myc, c-fos, and c-jun protein were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results At the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg, DNA damage was induced by sodium selenite in rat hepatocytes and the rates of comet cells were 34.40%, 74.80%, and 91.40% respectively. Results also showed an obvious dose-response relationship between the rates of comet cells and the doses of sodium selenite (r=0.9501,P<0.01). Sodium selenite at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg caused c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun overexpression obviously. The positive brown-yellow signal for proteins of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun was mainly located in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes with immunohistochemical method. TUNEL-positive cells were detected in selenium-treated rat livers. Apoptotic rates (%) of selenium-treated liver cells at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg were (3.72±1.76), (5.82±1.42), and (11.76±1.87) respectively, being much higher than those in the control. Besides an obvious dose-response relationship between apoptotic rates and the doses of sodium selenite (r=0.9897, P<0.01), these results displayed a close relationship between DNA damage rates and apoptotic rates, and the relative coefficient was 0.9021, P<0.01. Conclusion Selenium at 5-20 μmol/kg can induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and overexpression of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun in rat hepatocytes.

  8. Effect of Qi-protecting powder (Huqi San) on expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in diethylnitrosamine-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Zheng-Ming Shi; Ping Feng; Zhao-Yang Wen; Xue-Jiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of Huqi San (Qiprotecting powder) on rat prehepatocarcinoma induced by diethylinitrosamine (DEN) by analyzing the mutational activation of c-fos proto-oncogene and over-expression of c-jun and c-myc oncogenes.METHODS: A Solt-Farber two-step test model of prehepatocarcinoma was induced in rats by DEN and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to investigate the modifying effects of Huqi San on the expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in DEN-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Huqi San was made of eight medicinal herbs containing glycoprival granules, in which each milliliter contains 0.38 g crude drugs. γ-glutamy-transpeptidase-isoenzyme (γ-GTase)was determined with histochemical methods. Level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) formed in liver and c-jun, c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogenes were detected by immunohistochemical methods.RESULTS: The level of 8-OHdG, a mark of oxidative DNA damage, was significantly decreased in the liver of rats with prehepatocarcinoma induced by DEN who received 8 g/kg body weight or 4 g/kg body weight Huqi San before (1 wk) and after DEN exposure (4 wk). Huqi Santreated rats showed a significant decrease in number of γ-GT positive foci (P < 0.001, prevention group: 4.96 ±0.72 vs 29.46 ± 2.17; large dose therapeutic group: 7.53± 0.88 vs 29.46 ± 2.17). On the other hand, significant changes in expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc were found in Huqi San-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Activation of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.Huqi San can inhibit the over-expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc oncogenes and liver preneolastic lesionsinduced by DEN.

  9. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  10. Effect of estrogen and tamoxifen on the expression pattern of AP-1 factors in MCF-7 cells: role of c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 in cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Patil, Rajeshwari H; Devaraju, K S; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2013-08-01

    The activated transcription factor ERα plays an important role in the breast development and progression of cancer. In a non-classical pathway ER interacts with other transcription factors AP-1, NFkB, SP1, etc. AP-1 transcription factors control rapid responses of mammalian cells to stimuli that impact proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. AP-1 factors are leucine zipper proteins belonging to members of the Jun family (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) and Fos family (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) proteins. Although AP-1 factors are well characterized, not much is known about the expression pattern of the AP-1 factors in breast cancer cells. Hence to determine which AP-1 factors are expressed and regulated by estrogen, we used human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as in vitro model system. The MCF-7 cells were treated with or without estradiol-17β (E2) or antiestrogen tamoxifen (TMX) and the cell proliferation and viability was assessed by MTT assay. The expression of different AP-1 factors was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cells treated with E2 found to increase the cell proliferation by more than 35 % and TMX an antiestrogen decreased by 29 % compared to control. The E2 found to induce the expression of c-Jun, Fra-1, and c-Fos, while TMX decreased the expression. In addition TMX also decreased the mRNA levels of Jun-D and Fra-2. These results suggest that the AP-1 factors c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 may be involved in the proliferation and transformation of MCF-7 cells. E2 also found to induce cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 mRNA transcripts of cell cycle regulators while TMX significantly decreased compared to control. Further E2 induced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and TMX decreased mRNA transcripts. The data presented here support the E2-ERα-mediated MCF-7 cell proliferation and confirms the role of AP-1 factors in cell cycle regulation. PMID:23625206

  11. Selection and characterization of a DNA aptamer that can discriminate between cJun/cJun and cJun/cFos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Walters

    Full Text Available The AP-1 family of transcriptional activators plays pivotal roles in regulating a wide range of biological processes from the immune response to tumorigenesis. Determining the roles of specific AP-1 dimers in cells, however, has remained challenging because common molecular biology techniques are unable to distinguish between the role of, for example, cJun/cJun homodimers versus cJun/cFos heterodimers. Here we used SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment to identify and characterize DNA aptamers that are >100-fold more specific for binding cJun/cJun compared to cJun/cFos, setting the foundation to investigate the biological functions of different AP-1 dimer compositions.

  12. GABAergic neurons of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei of the cat express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2001-02-23

    The laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT-PPT) are involved in the generation of active sleep (AS; also called REM or rapid eye movement sleep). Although the LDT-PPT are composed principally of cholinergic neurons that participate in the control of sleep and waking states, the function of the large number of GABAergic neurons that are also located in the LDT-PPT is unknown. Consequently, we sought to determine if these neurons are activated (as indicated by their c-fos expression) during active sleep induced by the microinjection of carbachol into the rostro-dorsal pons (AS-carbachol). Accordingly, immunocytochemical double-labeling techniques were used to identify GABA and Fos protein, as well as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), in histological sections of the LDT-PPT. Compared to control awake cats, there was a larger number of GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol (31.5+/-6.1 vs. 112+/-15.2, P<0.005). This increase in the number of GABA+Fos+ neurons occurred on the ipsilateral side relative to the injection site; there was a small decrease in GABA+Fos+ cells in the contralateral LDT-PPT. However, the LDT-PPT neurons that exhibited the largest increase in c-fos expression during AS-carbachol were neither GABA+ nor ChAT+ (47+/-22.5 vs. 228.7+/-14.0, P<0.0005). The number of cholinergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol was not significantly different compared to wakefulness. These data demonstrate that, during AS-carbachol, GABAergic as well as an unidentified population of neurons are activated in the LDT-PPT. We propose that these non-cholinergic LDT-PPT neurons may participate in the regulation of active sleep. PMID:11172778

  13. c-fos Expression in mesopontine noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep: a double-labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of cholinergic and catecholaminergic mechanisms in the mesopontine region has been hypothesized as being critical for the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. To further examine this hypothesis, we sought to determine the pattern of neuronal activation (via c-fos expression) of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in this region during active sleep induced by the pontine microapplication of carbachol (designated as active sleep-carbachol). Accordingly, we used two sets of double-labeling techniques; the first to identify tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons (putative catecholaminergic cells) which also express the c-fos protein product Fos, and the second to reveal choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons (putative cholinergic cells) which also express Fos. Compared to control cats, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of Fos-expressing neurons in the dorsolateral region of the pons, which encompasses the locus coeruleus, the lateral pontine reticular formation, the peribrachial nuclei and the latero-dorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei. However, both control and active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a similar number of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in those regions that expressed Fos (i.e., double-labeled cells). A large number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the active sleep-carbachol cats whose neurotransmitter phenotype was not identified suggests that non-catecholaminergic, non-cholinergic neuronal populations in mesopontine regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of active sleep. The lack of increased c-fos expression in catecholaminergic neurons during active sleep-carbachol confirms and extends previous data that indicate that these cells are silent during active sleep-carbachol and naturally-occurring active sleep. The finding that cholinergic neurons of the dorsolateral pons were not activated either during wakefulness or active sleep

  14. Relations of transcription expression of IL-2 with nuclear factor of activated T cells as well as changes of C-Fos and C-Jun after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 梁华平; 胡承香; 徐祥; 王正国

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relations among expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in spleen lymphocytes, DNA binding activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and expression of the partly family members C-Fos, C-Jun after trauma. Methods: A murine closed trauma model was used, animals were sacrificed 6, 12 hours and 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 days, respectively after injury. Spleen lymphocytes were isolated from injured mice and stimulated with concanavalin-A. The culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for IL-2 activity. Total RNA was extracted from spleen lymphocytes and assayed for IL-2 mRNA. Nuclear protein was extracted, and the DNA binding activity of NFAT was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the expressions of C-Fos, C-Jun protein determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expressions of IL-2 activity and IL-2 mRNA in spleen lymphocytes were decreased in injured mice compared with those in control mice, and the most obvious decrease appeared on the 4th day after injury. The DNA binding activity of NFAT decreased gradually and reached the minimum that was only 41% of the control on the 4th day after injury, which was closely associated with the decline of IL-2 activity and IL-2 mRNA. An decrease in the expression of C-Fos on the 1st and 4th day after injury, trauma had no significant effect on the C-Jun expression.Conclusions: These results suggest that the inhibition of IL-2 expression is partly due to the impairment in the activation of NFAT in injured mice; and the decline in the DNA binding activity of NFAT is partly due to trauma block in the C-Fos expression.

  15. Parthenolide inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity by down-regulation of NFATc1 induction and c-Fos stability, during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2014-08-01

    Parthenolide, a natural product derived from Feverfew, prevents septic shock and inflammation. We aimed to identify the effects of parthenolide on the RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand)-induced differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts. In this study, parthenolide dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in BMMs, without any evidence of cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and IκB, as well as IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. Parthenolide suppressed the expression of NFATc1, OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-treated BMMs. Furthermore, parthenolide down-regulated the stability of c-Fos protein, but could not suppress the expression of c-Fos. Overexpression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs reversed the inhibitory effect of parthenolide on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Parthenolide also inhibited the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Parthenolide inhibits the differentiation and bone-resolving activity of osteoclast by RANKL, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for bone destructive disorders associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  16. Effect of naloxone hydrochloride on c-fos protein expression in brain and plasma beta-endorphin level in rats with diffuse brain injury and secondary brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie JING

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes of c-fos protein expression in brain and beta-endorphin (β-EP level in blood plasma in rats with diffuse brain injury (DBI and secondary brain insult (SBI after intraperitoneal injection of naloxone hydrochloride, and explore the role of c-fos andβ-EP in development of SBI in rats. Methods Seventy health male SD rats were enrolled in the present study and randomly divided into group A (intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% saline after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, group B (injected intraperitoneally with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, and group C (intraperitoneally injected with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and before SBI model was reproduced. The animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injury, and the number of c-fos positive cells in brain and content of β-EP in blood plasma were determined by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay respectively, the water content and number of injured neurons in brain tissue were measured by pathomorphological observation of the brain tissue. Results No significant difference was observed between group B and C for all the detection parameters. In group B and C, the water content in brain tissue at 3h and 24h was found to be decreased, while the number of injured neurons at 24h and 48h increased, number of c-fos positive cells in brain at 3h, 24h and 48h decreased, and content of β-EP in blood plasma at 3h and 24h decreased when compared with group A(P < 0.05. Conclusion Naloxone hydrochloride could decrease the c-fos expression in brain and β-EP level in blood plasma, alleviate the nerve injury, and protect neural function. The therapeutic effect of naloxone administered either after DBI and SBI or after DBI and before SBI was similar.

  17. Effect of pre-electroacupuncture on p38 and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-da; LIANG Tao; WANG Kun; TIAN De-an

    2010-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is an effective way to relieve pain, but the mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) decreases the visceral pain state still remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-electroacupuncture on pain behaviors, p38 phosphorylation, and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain. This study also investigated the probable signaling regulatory mechanism of the analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture. Methods All rats were randomized into the control (Con) group, the Con+EA group, the visceral pain (VP) group, and VP+EA group (n=8 for all groups). The visceral pain model was established using 40 ul of 5% formalin solution injected into the colon of rats. EA was applied to the bilateral Jiaji acupoints for 20 minutes before application of visceral pain. Parameters for EA were set at a continuous wave (20 Hz) and intensity where the rats shook their whiskers but did not scrabble (≤1 mA). The visceral pain score was recorded and the expressions of p38 and c-Fos protein were detected using Western blotting. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to determine the expression of c-Fos mRNA. Results Rats in the VP group immediately presented with obvious visceral pain behaviors after being injected with formalin. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn were higher in the VP group than in the Con group (P <0.05). By contrast, visceral pain behaviors were delayed in rats from the VP+EA group. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression were lower in the VP+EA group than that in the VP group (P<0.01). Conclusions Pre-electroacupuncture of the Jiaji acupoint has prophylactic analgesic effects on rats suffering from visceral pain. The p38 signal transduction pathway may be partly involved in the regulatory mechanism of this analgesic effect.

  18. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J. [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda (United States); Lord, Rebecca L. [Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom); Chawla, Sangeeta, E-mail: sangeeta.chawla@york.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited

  19. Structure of distribution gas network operation system; Structure du systeme d'exploitation du reseau de distribution du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzirba, E. [Institute of Oil and Gas (Poland); Osiadacz, A. [Warsaw Technical Uniwersity (Poland)

    2000-07-01

    Distribution networks have become increasingly complex to manage and potentially labor-intensive to operate safely and efficiently. Remote monitoring enables the operator to continually monitor the performance of the system from a central point(s). Where the system operates outside known parameters, the operator can respond very quickly. Remote control provides the additional functionality of enabling plant to be operated from a central point(s) directly or indirectly via operator. Communication can be through one or a combination of different communication media. The whole system for operation of gas distribution network may be looked at as 5-level general model based on ISO proposals adapted for modern control and management systems. The structure and requirements imposed on such a system are described in this paper. (authors)

  20. 哮喘大鼠大脑和肺组织c-fos蛋白表达与神经免疫调节%Cerebral and lung c-fos protein expression and neuroimmunomodulation in asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫文; 杨志军; 罗荣城; 魏玲; 邓火金

    2005-01-01

    经免疫调节密切相关.%BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence identifies the immune system not as an isolated system with automodulations, but one that interacts with the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of c-fos expression in the lung and brain tissues of asthmatic rats and explore is significance.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Oncology, Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted Department of Oncology,Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital,Southern Medical University, between January and August 2004. Fourteen healthy male rats were randomized into experimental group (n=10) and control group (n=4).METHODS: On the first day of experiment, the rats in experimental group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL of the suspension containing 10 mg albumen, 200 mg aluminum hydroxide powder and inactivated pertussis vaccine (5×109), and subjected to inhalation of ultrasonically atomized 10 g/L albumen from on the 15th day, 2 times per hour for totally 3 days, to induce asthma in the rats. The rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL normal saline on the 1st day and inhalation of ultrasonically normal saline on the 15th day, 30 mL a day for totally 3 days. The lung and brain tissues of all the anesthetized rats were fixed by perfusion, and immunohistochemical method with ovin-biotin-peroxidase complex and imaging analysis system were used to observe the distribution of Fos protein in the lung and brain.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of c-Fos protein in lung and cerebrum.c-Fos in the lung and brain tissues was obviously higher in asthmatic group than in the control group (P < 0.05), located mainly in the parietal-fontal cortex, limbic forebrain (cingulum cortex, pyriform cortex and central amygdaloid nucleus and so on), thalamus paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus

  1. Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Abdelli

    Full Text Available Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.

  2. Individual variations in maternal care early in life correlate with later life decision-making and c-fos expression in prefrontal subregions of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa N van Hasselt

    Full Text Available Early life adversity affects hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, alters cognitive functioning and in humans is thought to increase the vulnerability to psychopathology--e.g. depression, anxiety and schizophrenia--later in life. Here we investigated whether subtle natural variations among individual rat pups in the amount of maternal care received, i.e. differences in the amount of licking and grooming (LG, correlate with anxiety and prefrontal cortex-dependent behavior in young adulthood. Therefore, we examined the correlation between LG received during the first postnatal week and later behavior in the elevated plus maze and in decision-making processes using a rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT. In our cohort of male and female animals a high degree of LG correlated with less anxiety in the elevated plus maze and more advantageous choices during the last 10 trials of the rIGT. In tissue collected 2 hrs after completion of the task, the correlation between LG and c-fos expression (a marker of neuronal activity was established in structures important for IGT performance. Negative correlations existed between rIGT performance and c-fos expression in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, prelimbic cortex, infralimbic cortex and insular cortex. The insular cortex correlations between c-fos expression and decision-making performance depended on LG background; this was also true for the lateral orbitofrontal cortex in female rats. Dendritic complexity of insular or infralimbic pyramidal neurons did not or weakly correlate with LG background. We conclude that natural variations in maternal care received by pups may significantly contribute to later-life decision-making and activity of underlying brain structures.

  3. Expression of arthritis-causing HLA-B27 on Hela cells promotes induction of c-fos in response to in vitro invasion by Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa, T; Ikeda, M; Yamaguchi, A; Tsai, W.C.; Tamura, N; Seta, N; Trucksess, M; Raybourne, R B; Yu, D T

    1998-01-01

    HLA-B27 confers a very strong genetic predisposition to development of a reactive arthritis after infection by bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium. This study examines the role of HLA-B27 in the initiation of the earliest host activities after exposure to Salmonella, namely activation of the immediate early genes in the epithelial cells. Our major finding is that in Hela cells, the expression of c-fos was induced by Salmonella invasion only when the cells expressed the transfected HLA-B27...

  4. Effects of nasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone/testosterone propionate on expression efficacy of c-Fos in rat brain%经鼻及皮下给予睾丸酮/丙酸睾丸酮对大鼠相关脑区c-Fos表达效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 牛小龙; 康云霄; 薛岩; 方卉; 石葛明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy of intranasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone (T) / testosterone propionate (TP) on different brain regions in rats. Methods:Radioimmunoassay was used to detect testosterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum after intranasal administration of TP. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein in different brain regions. Results:Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was decreased in gonadectomized (GDX) rats compared to the normal control rats. Subcutaneous injection of TP in GDX rats only increased testosterone in serum. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was increased after intranasal administration of TP in GDX rats and in the normal control rats. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was higher than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP, however testosterone in serum of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was lower than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP. After intranasal administration of TP or T, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased in more brain regions. However, after subcutaneous injection of TP, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased only in a few brain regions. Conclusion:Intranasal administration of TP or T could induce the expression of c-Fos and activate more brain regions. That can provide a new therapy method for some central nervous system diseases.%目的:探讨经鼻和皮下给予睾丸酮(T)或丙酸睾丸酮(TP)对大鼠中枢神经系统相关脑区激活的效能.方法:利用放射免疫分析法检测大鼠经鼻滴注给予TP后脑脊液和血清睾丸酮浓度的变化;以免疫组织化学观察大鼠各脑区cFos的表达.结果:放射免疫结果显示去势组大鼠脑脊液和血清中睾丸酮含量比正

  5. Genome-wide analysis reveals PADI4 cooperates with Elk-1 to activate c-Fos expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4 catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. To broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of PADI4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (ChIP-chip analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of PADI4 target genes across the genome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that PADI4 is enriched in gene promoter regions near transcription start sites (TSSs; and, surprisingly, this pattern of binding is primarily associated with actively transcribed genes. Computational analysis found potential binding sites for Elk-1, a member of the ETS oncogene family, to be highly enriched around PADI4 binding sites; and coimmunoprecipitation analysis then confirmed that Elk-1 physically associates with PADI4. To better understand how PADI4 may facilitate gene transactivation, we then show that PADI4 interacts with Elk-1 at the c-Fos promoter and that, following Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulation, PADI4 catalytic activity facilitates Elk-1 phosphorylation, histone H4 acetylation, and c-Fos transcriptional activation. These results define a novel role for PADI4 as a transcription factor co-activator.

  6. Acute nicotine enhances spontaneous recovery of contextual fear and changes c-fos early gene expression in infralimbic cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Tumolo, Jessica M; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence suggests ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and infralimbic cortex may be involved in SR. PTSD patients also show high rates of comorbidity with nicotine dependence. While the comorbidity between smoking and PTSD might suggest nicotine may alter SR, the effects of nicotine on SR of contextual fear are unknown. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute nicotine administration on SR of extinguished contextual fear memories and c-fos immediate early gene immunohistochemistry in mice. Our results demonstrated that acute nicotine enhanced SR of extinguished fear whereas acute nicotine did not affect retrieval of unextinguished contextual memories. This suggests that the effect of acute nicotine on SR is specific for memories that have undergone extinction treatment. C-fos immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala were increased in the nicotine-treated mice following testing for SR, whereas the number of IR cells in the infralimbic cortex was decreased in the same group. Overall, this study suggests that nicotine may adversely affect context-specific relapse of fear memories and this effect is potentially mediated by the suppression of cortical regions and increased activity in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:27421892

  7. Dynamic acetylation of all lysine 4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus: analysis at c-fos and c-jun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of current research into gene induction relates to chromatin and nucleosomal regulation, especially the significance of multiple histone modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation during this process. We have discovered a novel physiological characteristic of all lysine 4 (K4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus, distinguishing it from lysine 9-methylated H3. K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to continuous dynamic turnover of acetylation, whereas lysine 9-methylated H3 is not. We have previously reported dynamic histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation as a key characteristic of the inducible proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. We show here that dynamically acetylated histone H3 at these genes is also K4-methylated. Although all three modifications are proven to co-exist on the same nucleosome at these genes, phosphorylation and acetylation appear transiently during gene induction, whereas K4 methylation remains detectable throughout this process. Finally, we address the functional significance of the turnover of histone acetylation on the process of gene induction. We find that inhibition of turnover, despite causing enhanced histone acetylation at these genes, produces immediate inhibition of gene induction. These data show that all K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to the continuous action of HATs and HDACs, and indicates that at c-fos and c-jun, contrary to the predominant model, turnover and not stably enhanced acetylation is relevant for efficient gene induction.

  8. The mGlu2/3 Receptor Agonists LY354740 and LY379268 Differentially Regulate Restraint-Stress-Induced Expression of c-Fos in Rat Cerebral Cortex

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    M. M. Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets due to the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to modulate excitatory transmission at specific synapses. LY354740 and LY379268 are selective and potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonists that show both anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in animal models. We compared the efficacy of LY354740 and LY379268 in attenuating restraint-stress-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the rat prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL cortex. LY354740 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. showed statistically significant and dose-related attenuation of stress-induced increase in c-Fos expression, in the rat cortex. By contrast, LY379268 had no effect on restraint-stress-induced c-Fos upregulation (0.3–10 mg/kg, i.p.. Because both compounds inhibit serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR-induced c-Fos expression, we hypothesize that LY354740 and LY379268 have different in vivo properties and that 5-HT2AR activation and restraint stress induce c-Fos through distinct mechanisms.

  9. Expressão dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos Expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and c-jun in human normal miometrium and leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Ferrari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão gênica (mRNA e protéica dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo caso-controle. O material foi coletado de 12 pacientes submetidas a histerectomia no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. A expressão do mRNA específico para c-myc, c-fos, c-jun e beta-microglobulina foi avaliada pela técnica de RT-PCR, utilizando primers específicos para cada gene. A expressão protéica destes protooncogenes foi avaliada através de Western blot com anticorpos específicos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa para expressão gênica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 0,87 ± 0,08 vs 0,87 ± 0,08, p = 0,952; c-fos: 1,10 ± 0,17 vs 1,01 ± 0,11, p = 0,21; c-jun: 1,03 ± 0,12 vs 0,96 ± 0,09, p = 0,168, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para expressão protéica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 1,36 ± 0,48 vs 1,53 ± 0,29, p = 0,569; c-fos: 8,85 ± 5,5 vs 6,56 ± 4,22, p = 0,434; e c-jun: 6,47 ± 3,04 vs 5,42 ± 2,03, p = 0,266, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão gênica (transcrição e a expressão protéica (tradução dos protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos e c-jun em mioma e miométrio normal são semelhantes.Uterine myomas are common benign tumors of the female genital tract. The expression of growth factor signal transduction cascade components including the protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun seem to be involved in the development of myomas. PURPOSE: To compare the gene (mRNA and protein expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun in human normal myometrium and leiomyoma. METHOD: A case-control study was performed. Samples were collected from 12 patients submitted to hysterectomy at the Hospital de Clínicas at Porto Alegre. The expression of the specific mRNA for c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, and beta-microglobulin was assessed through the RT

  10. Effect of ketamine anesthesia in early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in offsprings of rats%孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 赵为禄; 罗佛全

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响.方法 孕5~13 d的SD大鼠30只,体重250~300 g,随机分为2组(n=15):对照组(C组)和氯胺酮组(K组).K组经尾静脉注射氯胺酮20 mg/kg,随后以130 mg·kg-1·h-1的速率静脉输注2 h;C组以等量生理盐水替代氯胺酮.子代大鼠于出生后20和30 d时测定认知功能,取海马组织,测定c-fosmRNA和c-jun mRNA表达水平并观察超微结构.结果 与C组比较,K组子代大鼠出生后30 d时认知功能测定第2天逃避潜伏期延长(P<0.05),海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA的表达水平差异无统计学意义,出生后20 d上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).K组海马神经元发生损伤.结论 孕早期氯胺酮麻醉抑制子代大鼠认知功能的机制与海马神经元受损有关,但与海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达无关.%Objective To investigate the effect of ketamine anesthesia in the early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in the offsprings of rats. Methods Thirty pregnant SD rats at 5-13 days of gestation were randomly divided into control group and ketamine group (n = 15 each). Ketamine 20 mg/kg was injected intravenously through tail vein followed by 2 h infusion at a rate of 130 mg·kg-1 ·h-1 in ketmine group.While the equal volume of normal saline was given instead of ketamine in control group. The learning and memory function of the offsprings were tested by Morris water maze test on postnatal day 20 and 30. The hippocampal tissues were taken to detect the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA and to observe the ultrastructure. Results Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged at 2 days during the test which was performed on postnatal day 30, but there was no significant difference in the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA on postnatal day 20 and 30 and in the indices mentioned above on postnatal day 20 in ketamine group (P >0.05). The

  11. Prolonged induction of c-fos in neuropeptide Y- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons of the rat dentate gyrus after electroconvulsive stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Greisen, M H; Bolwig, T G;

    1996-01-01

    RNA and Fos was observed. Compared to the granular layer, however, c-fos mRNA and Fos in hilar cells reached maximum later and remained elevated considerably longer. Several neurochemically distinct populations of hilar neurons have been described, some of which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and....../or somatostatin (SS). Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we examined to what extent Fos was induced in these hilar neurons after ECS. Although a minor population of non-NPY non-SS cells displayed Fos induction early after ECS, prolonged induction of Fos almost exclusively occurred in NPY or SS neurons....... The Fos-immunoreactive NPY or SS neurons only amounted to about 50% of the total hilar population of NPY or SS neurons. The present observations suggest that a subpopulation of hilar NPY and SS neurons may be central to the actions of electroconvulsive seizures in the dentate gyrus....

  12. Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenic potential in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients via the suppression of MAPK/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wei; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. PBMCs from patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=10) were cultured to assess osteoclastogenic potential. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts differentiated from PBMCs isolated from patients with RA was significantly increased compared with that of the healthy controls. In addition, the osteoclast number in patients with RA was correlated with the clinical indicators, Sharp score (r=0.810; P=0.001) and lumbar T-score (r=−0.685; P=0.014). Furthermore, the resorption area was increased in the RA group compared with the healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMC-derived osteoclasts treated with curcumin were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs, potentially by suppressing activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs from patients with RA through the suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways, and that curcumin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone deterioration in inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:27572279

  13. A non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, alleviates novelty-induced hypophagia in mice: insights into changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Ulrich, Christine; Ling, Nicholas; Allen, Kerry; Levine, Allen S

    2014-09-01

    Anxiety caused by the novelty of food or of the environment where the food is presented leads to suppression of consumption (hyponeophagia) reflected by an increased latency to begin feeding and decreased food intake. Studies suggest that some anxiolytics, mainly benzodiazepines and SSRIs, resolve hyponeophagia. Though the neurohormone oxytocin (OT) affects both anxiety responsiveness and feeding-related homeostasis, the link between OT and hyponeophagia has not been established. The current experiments examined the effect of OT receptor stimulation on hyponeophagia in mice and associated changes in brain activity. We found that the OT receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, at 10 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. IP, reduced the latency to approach food and increased the amount of food eaten in hyponeophagia tests differing in animals' motivation to eat (hunger, reward) and the anxiogenic context of environmental novelty (illumination and type of the cage). This effect was abolished by the pretreatment with the OT receptor antagonist, L-368,899, at 10mg/kg b. wt. The antagonist also suppressed social transmission of preference for novel food. Mice subjected to novelty conditions causing hypophagia showed significant changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, lateral septum, cingulate and piriform cortex and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, posterolateral part (STLP). The pretreatment with WAY-267,464 restored c-Fos levels in the STLP to values detected in control animals subjected to non-anxiogenic conditions. We conclude that OT plays a role in shaping the magnitude of the novelty stress-provoked hypophagia and the activity of the relevant neural networks. PMID:25038444

  14. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  15. H-ras transfection of the rat kidney cell line NRK-52E results in increased induction of c-fos, c-jun and hsp70 following sulofenur treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Smith, M W; Phelps, P C; Berezesky, I K; Merriman, R L; Boder, G B; Trump, B F

    1996-09-10

    The effect of the antineoplastic drug sulofenur on the induction of the immediate-early genes (IEG) c-fos and c-jun and the stress gene hsp70 was compared in the rat kidney epithelial-like cell line NRK-52E and a derivative H-ras-transfected (H/1.2NRK-52E) cell line. Fold induction for each gene after sulofenur (500 microM) treatment was greater in H/1.2NRK-52E. The maximum increases for NRK-2E and H/1.2NRK-52E were as follows: c-fos, approximately 10-fold and approximately 18-fold; c-jun, approximately 2.5-fold and approximately 3.6-fold; hsp70, approximately 13-fold and approximately 30-fold. In cells loaded with EGTA/AM or treated in low or no Ca2+ HBSS, c-fos induction was reduced similarly in both cell types. However, inhibition of protein kinases with staurosporin and calphostin C reduced c-fos by 80% in NRK-52E but by only 10-20% in H/1.2NRK.52E. These results indicate that sulofenur-induced IEG elevation is Ca(2+)-dependent and that the requirement for protein kinase C activation is bypassed in H-ras-transfected cells.

  16. Systems of the future; Les systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The world population growth will impact largely on the energy and electric power demand in the future. Facing the decrease of the hydrocarbons reserves, the international community decided to work together to develop a new generation of nuclear systems. In this context, coordinated researches are realized first with a short dated objective on the development of innovations for PWR type reactors and second with a middle dated on the development of new systems in an international framework (essentially Generation IV). Theses research programs are presented below. The first part is devoted to the different generation of reactors (I to IV) and to the third generation; the second part deals with the international framework of the researches, the french strategy and the european dimension. (A.L.B.)

  17. Penilaian Kinerja Keuangan 5 Perusahaan Perbankan Terbesar Periode 2010-2012 Menggunakan DuPont System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Lesmana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of corporate performance can be viewed from financial aspect and nonfinancial aspect. This study attempted specifically to measure financial performance by using the DuPont system of financial analysis. DuPont system disaggregates performance into three components. They are Net Profit Margin (NPM, Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE. Object of this study is five largest financial institutions based on market capitalization and go public. Those five financial institutions are Bank Republik Indonesia (Persero Tbk (BBRI, Bank Central Asia Tbk (BBCA, Bank Mandiri (Persero Tbk (BMRI, Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero Tbk (BBNI and Bank Danamon Indonesia Tbk (BDMN. The financial performance of five banks was measured for three periods, from 2010 until 2012. It was found that only Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero Tbk is the best financial performance using DuPont System.

  18. The effects of a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1 on endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI in intensive care units. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a major pathogenetic factor in septic AKI. c-Fos/activator protein (AP-1 controls the expression of these cytokines by binding directly to AP-1 motifs in the cytokine promoter regions. T-5224 is a new drug developed by computer-aided drug design that selectively inhibits c-Fos/AP-1 binding to DNA. In this study, we tested whether T-5224 has a potential inhibitory effect against LPS-induced AKI, by suppressing the TNF-alpha inflammatory response and other downstream effectors. Methods To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice at 7 weeks old were divided into three groups (control, LPS and T-5224 groups. Mice in the control group received saline intraperitoneally and polyvinylpyrrolidone solution orally. Mice in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with a 6 mg/kg dose of LPS and were given polyvinylpyrrolidone solution immediately after LPS injection. In the T-5224 group, mice were administered T-5224 orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg immediately after LPS injection. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Moreover, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA in kidney was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated renal histological changes. Results LPS injection induced high serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the administration of T-5224 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in these cytokine levels. The serum levels of IL-10 in the LPS group and T-5224 group were markedly elevated compared with the control group. T-5224 also inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore histological studies supported an anti-inflammatory role of T-5224. Conclusions In endotoxin

  19. A comparative study of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to expressions of c-fos and c-jun products and bone matrix proteins: a clinicopathologic review and immunohistochemical study of c-fos, c-jun, type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, A; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1999-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia are both benign fibro-osseous lesions of the bone and are generally seen during childhood or adolescence. Histologically, the features of these bone lesions sometimes look quite similar, but their precise nature remains controversial. We retrospectively studied clinicopathologic findings in 62 cases of fibrous dysplasia and 20 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to their anatomic location and histological appearance. From among these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogene products and bone matrix proteins of type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were evaluated in 20 typical fibrous dysplasias and 17 osteofibrous dysplasias using paraffin sections, and these expressions were then assessed semiquantitatively. Microscopically, fibrous dysplasia showed various secondary changes, such as hyalinization, hemorrhage, xanthomatous reaction, and cystic change in 22 of the 62 cases (35%). This was a higher incidence than in osteofibrous dysplasia, in which only 2 of the 20 cases (10%) showed such changes. In the elderly fibrous dysplasia cases, the cellularity of fibroblast-like cells was rather low, and those cases were hyalinized. Almost all of the cases of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia showed positive expressions of c-fos and c-jun products. The expressions of type I collagen and osteopontin showed no difference between fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia. Immunoreactivity for osteonectin in bone matrix was detected in only 1 case of fibrous dysplasia (1 of 20), whereas it was recognized in 14 of the 17 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity for osteocalcin in bone matrix and fibroblast-like cells was higher in fibrous dysplasia than it was in osteofibrous dysplasia, semiquantitatively. Our immunohistochemical results regarding osteonectin and osteocalcin suggest that the bone matrix of fibrous dysplasia is

  20. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE/NaCl MIXTURES STIMULATION ON C-FOS-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE TASTE-RELATED NUCLEI IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋恩社; 闫剑群; 宋新艾

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of neuronal activation in taste-related nuclei following intraoral taste stimulation with binary taste mixtures of sucrose and NaCl. Methods Neuronal activation in response to intraoral taste stimulation with 0.5 mol*L-1 sucrose, 0.3 mol*L-1 NaCl, sucrose+NaCl mixture and distilled water was evaluated in taste-related nuclei by using c-Fos-like immunoreactivity(c-FLI) in the rats deprived of water overnight. Results The consumption of sucrose+NaCl mixture was lower than that of sucrose solution. Intraoral sucrose or NaCl stimulation induced more c-FLI than distilled water in the external lateral subnucleus of the rostral parabrachial nucleus (PBN), but the c-FLI induced by intraoral sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation was less than that induced by sucrose solution in this subnucleus. Compared with distilled water, the intraoral sucrose or sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation induced more c-FLI in the central amygdala. ConclusionThese results suggest that salty taste has a suppressive effect on the neuronal activations induced by sweet taste in the external lateral subnucleus of rostral PBN in rats.

  1. 靶向人原癌基因c-fos的shRNA表达质粒的构建及鉴定%Construction and Identification of Short Hairpin RNA Expression Vector Targeting to Human Proto-oncogene c-fos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景志杰; 刘田福; 师锐赞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting to human protooncogene c-fos. Methods Recombinant shRNA expression vector Psilencer3.l-sic-fos targeting to human c-fos gene was constructed and transfected to breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The expression of c-fos mRNA in stably transfected cell was determined by RT-PCR.Results PCR, restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid Psilencer3. 1-sic-fos was constructed correctly.The recombinant plasmid inhibited the expression of c-fos gene at mRNA level in MCF-7 cells significantly. Conclusion The recombinant shRNA expression vector for human c-fos gene was successfully constructed, which provided a technical tool for further study on the role of c-fos gene in genesis and progress of tumors.%目的 构建靶向人原癌基因c-los的短发夹RNA(Short hairpin RNA,shRNA)重组真核表达质粒,并进行鉴定.方法 构建靶向人c-fos基因的shRNA重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos,转染乳腺癌MCF-7细胞,采用RT-PCR法检测稳定转染细胞中c-fos基因mRNA的表达.结果 重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos经PCR、双酶切及测序证明构建正确;重组表达质粒在mRNA水平明显抑制了MCF-7细胞c-fos基因的表达(P<0.05).结论 已成功构建了人c-fos基因shRNA重组表达质粒,为深入研究c-fos基因在肿瘤发生、发展过程中的作用提供了技术手段.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases in the adult brain physiology: a link between c-Fos, AP-1 and remodeling of neuronal connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lapinska-Dzwonek, Joanna; Szymczak, Sylwia

    2002-12-16

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) form an enzymatic system that plays an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. These proteins are also expressed in the brain, especially under pathological conditions, in which glia as well as invading inflammatory cells provide the major source of the MMP activity. Surprisingly little is known about the MMP function(s) in adult neuronal physiology. This review describes available data on this topic, which is presented in a context of knowledge about the MMP/TIMP system in other organs as well as in brain disorders. An analysis of the MMP and TIMP expression patterns in the brain, along with a consideration of their regulatory mechanisms and substrates, leads to the proposal of possible roles of the MMP system in the brain. This analysis suggests that MMPs may play an important role in the neuronal physiology, especially in neuronal plasticity, including their direct participation in the remodeling of synaptic connections-a mechanism pivotal for learning and memory.

  3. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Derek A Hamilton; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that desc...

  4. Anxiogenic-like activity of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine ("Ecstasy") in the social interaction test is accompanied by an increase of c-fos expression in mice amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José Francisco; Rivera, Alicia; Maldonado, Enrique; Cavas, María; de la Calle, Adelaida

    2004-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic amphetamine popularly known as "Ecstasy." Animal studies examining acute effects of MDMA on anxiety are unclear because although an anxiolytic-like action of MDMA in different animal models of anxiety has been described, there is also substantial evidence supporting an anxiogenic-like effect of this drug. To date, several studies have examined c-fos expression following MDMA administration in rats. However, there is no information about the MDMA-induced c-fos expression in mice previously tested in an animal model of anxiety. In this study, male mice were injected with MDMA (1, 8 and 15 mg/kg ip) and assessed for changes on anxiety and for the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the amygdala (central, basolateral and basomedial). Anxiety was evaluated by the "social interaction test." Ten behavioral categories were recorded: body care, digging, nonsocial exploration, exploration from a distance, social investigation, threat, attack, avoidance/flee, defense/submission and immobility. As compared with the control group, mice treated with MDMA (all doses) showed a decrease in mean duration and total time spent in social investigation behaviors, whereas avoidance/flee behaviors were significantly increased after treatment with this compound (8 and 15 mg/kg). Likewise, a significant increase in c-fos expression was found in the basolateral (all doses) and central (15 mg/kg) amygdala after MDMA administration. Overall, these findings indicate that MDMA exhibits an anxiogenic-like profile in the social interaction test in mice, and that central and basolateral amygdala might be involved in these anxiogenic-like effects of the drug.

  5. Light pulses do not induce c-fos or per1 in the SCN of hamsters that fail to reentrain to the photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; O'Hara, Bruce F; Cao, Vinh H; Larkin, Jennie E; Heller, H Craig; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-08-01

    Circadian activity rhythms of most Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase shift of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Instead, their rhythms free-run at periods close to 25 h despite the continued presence of the LD cycle. This lack of behavioral reentrainment necessarily means that molecular oscillators in the master circadian pacemaker, the SCN, were unable to reentrain as well. The authors tested the hypothesis that a phase shift of the LD cycle rendered the SCN incapable of responding to photic input. Animals were exposed to a 5-h phase delay of the photocycle, and activity rhythms were monitored until a lack of reentrainment was confirmed. Hamsters were then housed in constant darkness for 24 h and administered a 30-min light pulse 2 circadian hours after activity onset. Brains were then removed, and tissue sections containing the SCN were processed for in situ hybridization. Sections were probed with Siberian hamster c-fos and per1 mRNA probes because light rapidly induces these 2 genes in the SCN during subjective night but not at other circadian phases. Light pulses induced robust expression of both genes in all animals that reentrained to the LD cycle, but no expression was observed in any animal that failed to reentrain. None of the animals exhibited an intermediate response. This finding is the first report of acute shift in a photocycle eliminating photosensitivity in the SCN and suggests that a specific pattern of light exposure may desensitize the SCN to subsequent photic input.

  6. Central serotonin depletion modulates the behavioural, endocrine and physiological responses to repeated social stress and subsequent c-fos expression in the brains of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K K; Martinez, M; Herbert, J

    1999-01-01

    Intraspecific confrontation has been used to study effect of depleting central serotonin on the adaptation of male rats to repeated social stress (social defeat). Four groups of adult male rats were used (serotonin depletion/sham: stressed; serotonin depletion/sham: non-stressed). Central serotonin was reduced (by 59-97%) by a single infusion of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine (150 microg) into the cerebral ventricles; levels of dopamine and noradrenaline were unaltered (rats received appropriate uptake blockers prior to neurotoxic infusions). Sham-operated animals received solute only. Rats were then either exposed daily for 10 days to a second larger aggressive male in the latter's home cage, or simply transferred to an empty cage (control procedure). Rats with reduced serotonin failed to show the increased freezing behaviour during the pre-defeat phase of the social interaction test characteristic of sham animals. There was no change in the residents' behaviour. Core temperature increased during aggressive interaction in sham rats, and this did not adapt with repeated stress. By contrast, stress-induced hyperthermia was accentuated in serotonin-reduced rats as the number of defeat sessions increased. Basal core temperature was unaffected by serotonin depletion. Heart rate increased during social defeat, but this did not adapt with repeated stress; serotonin depletion had no effect on this cardiovascular response. Basal corticosterone was increased in serotonin-depleted rats, but the progressive reduction in stress response over days was not altered. C-fos expression in the brain was not altered in control (non-stressed) rats by serotonin reduction in the areas examined, but there was increased expression after repeated social stress in the medial amygdala of 5-HT depleted rats. These experiments show that reduction of serotonin alters responses to repeated social stress in male rats, and suggests a role for serotonin in the adaptive process.

  7. Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin klockout mice: Oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyu Bai-Chuang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study used the preproenkephalin knockout (ppENK mice to test whether the endogenous enkephalins deficit could facilitate the anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. On Day 1, sixteen wildtype (WT and sixteen ppENK male mice were given a 3 mA or no footshock treatment for 10 seconds in the footshock apparatus, respectively. On Days 2, 7, and 13, all mice were given situational reminders for 1 min per trial, and the freezing response was assessed. On Day 14, all mice were tested in the open field test, elevated plus maze, light/dark avoidance test, and forced swim test. Two hours after the last test, brain tissues were stained to examine c-fos expression in specific brain areas. The present results showed that the conditioned freezing response was significant for different genotypes (ppENK vs WT. The conditioned freezing effect of the ppENK mice was stronger than those of the WT mice. On Day 14, the ppENK mice showed more anxiety- and depressive-like responses than WT mice. The magnitude of Fos immunolabeling was also significantly greater in the primary motor cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-lateral division, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-supracapsular division, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-lateral magnocellular part, central nucleus of the amygdala, and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in ppENK mice compared with WT mice. In summary, animals with an endogenous deficit in enkephalins might be more sensitive to PTSD-like aversive stimuli and elicit stronger anxiety and depressive PTSD symptoms, suggesting an oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced PTSD.

  8. The preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma%中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤c-fos表达的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶峰; 徐春; 梁立武

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤表达癌基因c-fos的抑制作用.[方法]用皮下植入雌激素的方法制备大鼠催乳素瘤模型,将成功诱发出催乳素瘤的大鼠随机分2组,分别给予安慰剂和降乳散灌胃,用药治疗4周后处死动物,垂体称重,用放免法测定血清催乳素(prolactin,PRL)水平.用反转录-PCR方法分析原癌基因c-fos mRNA水平.[结果]降乳散组血清PRL水平为(67.9±9.6)ng/ml,垂体重量为(33.7±5.0)mg均明显低于安慰剂组[血清PRL水平为(5 667.1±860)ng/ml,垂体重量为(67.1±3.5)mg(P<0.001),降乳散组c-fos mRNA水平为(2.1±0.6)较安慰剂组(6.2±0.5)明显降低(P<0.001).[结论]降乳散具有抗高PRL血症和抑制PRL瘤生长的作用,降低原癌基因c-fos的表达水平可能是降乳散抗PRL瘤的重要机制之一.%[Objective] To study the preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma. [Methods] To prepare prolactinoma model in rats. The Prolactinomas were divided into 2 groups at random. Jiangrusan was orally adminstrated to rats in Jiangrusan group(n = 5). Water were adminstrated to rats in placebo group(n = 5). After 4 weeks of treatment, all the animals were executed. Each pituitary gland was weighted. Serum prolactin(PRL) levels were measured by RIA method. C-fos mRNA levels in pituitary tissue were measured by RT-PCR method. [Results] The weight of pituitary gland and PRL level in Jiangrusan group were individually lower than those in placebo group(F <0.001 repectively). The expression level of c-fos mRNA in Jiangrusan group was obviously lower than that in placebo group(P < 0.001). [Conclusion] Jiangrusan has potential preventive effect on estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma. The decrease of c-fos mRNA level may be involved in the mechanism of anti-prolactinoma effect of Jiangrusan.

  9. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Farivar, Shirin; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh

    2011-09-01

    Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

  10. Geology and Petroleum Systems of the Offshore Benin Basin (Benin Géologie et système pétrolier du bassin offshore du Benin (Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaki C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the tectonosedimentary development and petroleum system of the Offshore Benin Basin (OBB. In accordance with structural development, the stratigraphic succession of this basin was divided into 4 sequences: pre-rift (up to Late Jurassic; rift (Neocomian to Lower Cretaceous; transitional (Cenomanian to Santonian and post-rift (Maastrichtian-Holocene sequences. Only one Upper Cretaceous petroleum system is well known within this basin. Source rocks of this system contain Type II-III kerogens with a TOC (Total Organic Carbon average of 2.9%. Oil is produced from sandstone facies within Abeokuta formation. Currently exploration data and geochemical characteristics of bituminous sands which outcrop in some onshore areas of the Dahomey Embayment point to the existence of another petroleum system of Lower Cretaceous age (Neocomian to Albian in this basin. Cet article résume l’évolution tectono-sédimentaire et le système pétrolier du Bassin Offshore du Bénin (BOB. Conformément à l’évolution structurale, la succession stratigraphique de ce bassin a été divisée en quatre séquences : anté-rift (allant jusqu’à la fin du Jurassique; rift (Néocomien-Crétacé inférieur; transitionnelle (Cénomanien-Santonien et post-rift (Maastrichtien-Holocène. Un seul système pétrolier d’âge Crétacé supérieur a été identifié avec certitude dans ce bassin. Les roches mères de ce système contiennent du kérogène de Type II-III, avec un COT (Carbone Organique Total moyen de 2,9 %. L’huile est produite à partir des faciès gréseux de la formation d’Abeokuta. Les données actuelles d’exploration et les caractéristiques géochimiques des sables bitumineux qui affleurent par endroits dans la partie continentale de la baie du Dahomey mettent en évidence l’existence d’un autre système pétrolier d’âge Crétacé inférieur (Néocomien à Albien dans ce bassin.

  11. Topical application of preparations containing DNA repair enzymes prevents ultraviolet-induced telomere shortening and c-FOS proto-oncogene hyperexpression in human skin: an experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Altabas, Velimir; Altabas, Karmela; Berardesca, Enzo

    2013-09-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the most important risk factors for skin aging and increases the risk of malignant transformation. Telomere shortening and an altered expression of the proto-oncogene c-FOS are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Photolyase from A. nidulans and endonuclease from M. luteus are xenogenic DNA repair enzymes which can reverse the molecular events associated with skin aging and carcinogenosis caused by UVR exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the topical application of preparations containing DNA repair enzymes may prevent UVR-induced acute telomere shortening and FOS gene hyperexpression in human skin biopsies. Twelve volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin types I and II) were enrolled for this experimental study, and six circular areas (10 mm diameter) were marked out on the nonexposed lower back of each participant. One site was left untreated (site 1: negative control), whereas the remaining five sites (designated sites 2-6) were exposed to solar-simulated UVR at 3 times the MED on four consecutive days. Site 2 received UVR only (site 2: positive control), whereas the following products were applied to sites 3-6, respectively: vehicle (moisturizer base cream; applied both 30 minutes before and immediately after each irradiation; site 3); a traditional sunscreen (SS, SPF 50) 30 minutes before irradiation and a vehicle immediately after irradiation (site 4); a SS 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 5); a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 6). Skin biopsies were taken 24 h after the last irradiation. The degree of telomere shortening and c-FOS gene expression were measured in all specimens. Strikingly, the combined use of a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation

  12. Protective effect of c-fos antisense oligonucleotides on brain damage induced by glutamate%c-fos反义寡核苷酸对谷氨酸神经毒性鼠脑损伤的防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳少杰; 陶永光; 罗自强; 冯德云; 伍赶球

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between glutamate neurotoxicity and c-fos gene expression. Methods c-fos antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODN) was injected into the right lateral ventricles of 9 SD rats to block the c-fos gene expression in brain tissue. c-fos sense oligonucleotides (S ODN)was used a control. The numbers and morphology of neurons in both cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 were detected by MIAS-300 image analysing instrument. c-fos gene expression in brain was observed by immunohistochemical method. The content of water and electrolytes in the brain tissue and Ca2+ in the synapse were measured. Results The c-fos AS ODN blocked the c-fos gene expression and reduced the content of both water and sodium in brain tissue and Ca2+ in symptosome, thus alleviating the morphological damage in neuron. S ODN did not have such effect. Conclusion c-fos gene expression plays an important role in mediating the effect of glutamate neurotoxicity. Blocking the c-fos gene expression could antagonize glutamate neurotoxicity.%目的 探讨c-fos基因的表达在谷氨酸神经毒性中的作用。方法 在9只SD大鼠侧脑室注射c-fos反义寡核苷酸以阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,并用c-fos正义寡核苷酸为对照。观察脑组织中水、电解质含量和突触体内Ca2+浓度的变化,并采用细胞形态计量分析及免疫组织化学方法,观察大脑皮质、海马CA1区神经细胞数目、形态的变化及c-fos基因的表达。结果 c-fos反义寡核苷酸可有效地阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,降低脑组织c-fos阳性细胞率(9.4%±2.8%和74%±3%,P<0.01),抑制谷氨酸神经毒性所致的脑组织含水量(79.9%±0.4%和82.3%±0.8%,P<0.01)、钠(5.05 mg/g干重±0.39 mg/g干重和5.98 mg/g干重±0.50 mg/g干重,P<0.01)及细胞内Ca2+(176 nmol/L±35 nmol/L和344.12±50.13,P<0.01)含量的增加,抑制谷氨酸所致大脑皮质(157±10和145±7,P<0

  13. Correlation of expression VEGF to expression of protooncogenes of c-fos and c-myc at protein level among various grades of liver cirrhosis%硬变肝组织VEGF的表达与原癌基因c-fos,c-myc 以及肝功能分级的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施宝民; 杨镇; 张黎; 李大鹏

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在肝硬化发生发展中的作用以及肝脏原癌基因(c-fos,c-myc)与肝功能Child分级的相关关系。方法通过对54例硬变肝组织中的VEGF、c-fos、c-myc蛋白的免疫组化检测,观察VEGF的蛋白水平表达与肝脏功能Child 分级的相关性,同时分析VEGF阳性病例组与阴性病例组c-fos、c-myc的不同表达,来了解二者的相互作用关系。结果 Child A级与Child B级VEGF的表达显著高于Child C级和对照组(P<0.05),而Child A级与Child B级之间差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。c-fos 及c-myc的表达在VEGF阳性组和阴性组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。结论 VEGF的水平可以反映肝脏功能的代偿状态,可能在肝硬化的进程中起着保肝作用;原癌基因c-fos、c-myc与VEGF作用在不同环节。

  14. Pyrroloquinoline quinine inhibits RANKL-mediated expression of NFATc1 in part via suppression of c-Fos in mouse bone marrow cells and inhibits wear particle-induced osteolysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo Kong

    Full Text Available The effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and on wear particle-induced osteolysis were examined in this study. PQQ inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, and TRAP in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by PQQ treatment. Moreover, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by PQQ. PQQ additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. Further a UHMWPE-induced murine calvaria erosion model study was performed to assess the effects of PQQ on wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro-CT and histologic analysis of calvaria. These results collectively suggested that PQQ demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and may suppress wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo, indicating that PQQ may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  15. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 as in the wild-type mice. In contrast, synaptophysin levels did not differ between mutant and wild type mice, suggesting that the observed effect was not due to a general decrease in the number of presynapses. These data suggest a reduction in basal and novelty-induced neuronal activity...

  16. Effects of sericine on c-fos expression in testis of type 2 diabetic mellitus rats%丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠睾丸c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成军; 付文亮; 钟美蓉; 陈志宏

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠睾丸原癌基因c-fos表达的变化及丝胶的保护作用.方法 30只雄性SD大鼠随机分成正常对照组、糖尿病模型组和丝胶治疗组.链脲佐菌素腹腔注射建立T2DM大鼠模型,以血糖≥16.7 mmol/L作为成模标准.待模型成功建立后,模型组大鼠不做任何处理;丝胶治疗组大鼠给予丝胶灌胃(2.4 g·kg-1·d-1)35 d.ELISA方法检测大鼠血清睾酮水平,SP免疫组化法和RT-PCR法分别检测睾丸c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达.结果 T2DM模型大鼠血清睾酮水平、睾丸c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达均明显低于正常对照组大鼠(P<0.01);丝胶治疗组大鼠血清睾酮水平、睾丸c -fos蛋白和mRNA的表达明显高于模型大鼠(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论 丝胶可通过上调睾丸c-fos的表达,促进精原细胞向精母细胞转化,发挥对T2DM生殖功能损伤的保护作用.%Objective To observe the changes of c-fos expression in testis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats and the protective effects of sericine. Methods 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model and sericine treatment groups ( n -10). T2DM model rats were made by continuous intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and blood glucose≥ 16. 7 mmol/L was taken as standard. After successfully establishing model, the rats in model group were not given any more treatment; the rats in sericine treatment group were lavaged with sericine (2.4 g · kg -1 ? D -1 ) for 35 days. ELISA was used to detect the testosterone level in serum; SP immuno-histochemical staining and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of c-fos protein and mRNA in testis respectively. Results The testosterone level in serum, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in testis of diabetes model rats were obviously lower than those of normal control rats (P<0. 01). The testosterone level in serum, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in testis of rats in sericine treatment group were

  17. EFFECTS OF SERICIN ON EXPRESSION OF C-FOS IN KIDNEY OF RATS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS%丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东慧; 颜勇; 刘美晓; 陈志宏

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏c-fos表达的影响。方法:48只雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、糖尿病模型组、丝胶治疗组和阳性对照组,每组12只。采用链脲佐菌素腹腔注射的方法建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型并给予丝胶(2.4g/kg/d)灌胃35天。分别采用Western Blot法和RT-PCR法检测各组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达。结果:糖尿病模型组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白及mRNA的表达较正常对照组大鼠明显升高(P<0.01);丝胶治疗组、阳性对照组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白及mRNA的表达较糖尿病模型组大鼠明显降低(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:丝胶可能通过下调肾脏c-fos的表达发挥对糖尿病时肾脏损伤的保护作用。%Objective:To observe the effects of sericin on expression of c-fos in kidney of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:48 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetes mellitus model group, sericin treatment group and positive control group with 12 rats in each group. The type 2 diabetes rats model was made by continuously injecting streptozotocin into peritoneal cavity and then the rats were lavaged with sericin (2.4g/kg/d) for 35 days. Western Blot and RT-PCR were used to detect the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney. Results:Compared with rats in normal control group, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney of rats in diabetes mellitus model group increased obviously (P<0.01). The c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney of rats in sericin treatment group and positive control group were obviously lower than that of rats in diabetes mellitus model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions:Sericin may protect kidney injury during diabetes mellitus by down regulating expression of c-fos in kidney.

  18. 电针对雌性去势大鼠行为学和下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on behavioral and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in female ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 许浩; 胡光明; 尹刚; 王海颖; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    (/?<0.01), and the levels of FSH (P<0.05) and LH (P<0.01) increased significantly. Comparing with OVX group, the time of immobility in APU group and E group decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the time of struggling increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the expressions of proto-oncogene C-fos+ in PVN increased significantly. Conclusion: EA has an antidepressant effect and the system could be to regulate hypothalamus axis.

  19. 硝普钠控制性降压对兔脑神经元c-fos及细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of induced hypotension on brain neuronal c-fos and apoptosis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏艳; 肖晓山; 周代伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the brain's tolerance and the safe low limit to the hypotension through observing the effect of four different levels of sodium nitroprusside induced hypotension on neuronal ultrastructure and apoptosis and expression of c-fos in rabbits' hippocampal CA1 field. Methods Thirty New Zealand rabbits were equally randomized into five groups: mean arterial pressure fell to 70% (group I), 60% (group Ⅱ), 50% (group Ⅱ ) and 45% (group Ⅳ) of the baseline and normal control group (group V ). After maintaining target blood pressure for 1 h, the rabbits were sacrificed 2 h after boosting pressure. The ultrastructure of CA1 field was observed with transmission electron microscopy. The expression of c-fos was assayed by immunohistochemical SP and apoptosis was detected by Tunel immunofluorescence in hippocampal CA1 neuron. Results In the transmission electron microscopy of hippocampal CA1 neuron, group [I appeared cellular swelling and groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ appeared karyopyknosis and apoptosis. The c-fos expression in CA1 neuron significantly increased in hypotension groups (P<0. 01). The TUNEL mean fluorescence intensity was much strengthen in groups H , III and IV than that in groups I and V ( P <0.01). Conclusion Controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside can cause apoptosis in partial hippocampal CA1 neurons. C-fos can make rapid respond according to changes of brain blood and oxygen supply, and its expression may produce protective effects on neurons.%通过观察硝普钠诱导的四种低血压水平对兔脑海马CA1区神经元超微结构、细胞凋亡及c-fos表达的影响,了解脑组织对低血压的耐受性以及探讨安全的降压低限.方法30只新西兰兔随机均分为五组,MAP分别降至基础值的70%(Ⅰ组)、60%(Ⅱ组)、50%(Ⅲ组)、45%(Ⅳ组)和不降压(Ⅴ组).目标血压维持1h,复压2h处死兔.透射电镜观察海马CA1区神经元超微结构,SP法测定该

  20. Effect of MgSO4 on the expression of C-fos gene and the abilities of learning and memory in the rat brain with radiation induced injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the nerves function after hemisphere irradiation and explore possible mechanism of the effect. Methods: Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group (n = 26), experimental control group (n = 32) and experimental group (n = 32). To selecte rats randomly from the experimental control group and the experimental therapy group for 1/2 brain irradiation to a single-fraction maximal dose of 20 Gy using 5 MeV electrons. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats that from the experimental group before and after irradiation for total seven times. The expression of c-fos gene was observed in the hippocampal formation of the rat brain with the immunofluorescence technique in 24 h after irradiation. The learning and memory results in Y-maze test were detected 8 weeks after irradiation respectively with the other rats and then had the pathomorphology observation. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the number of c-fos immunopositive cells in the hippocampal formation of experimental control group were increased markedly (P<0.01), and the learning and memory results of Y-maze test in the irradiation control group declined significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the irradiation control group, the experimental group's Fos immunopositive cells decreased significantly (P<0.05), and also the cognitive function of learning attempt times (at 4 and 8 weeks, P<0.01) and memory reappearance times (P<0.05) were significantly different from that in the irradiation control group. Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate can promote the recovery of the rats' cognitive impairment in the early stage after irradiation, and may play a role of protecting hippocampus neurons by the way of decreasing the expression of Fos protin in hippocampal formation. (authors)

  1. Effects of IHT on skeletal muscle metabolism and c-fos expression in rats%间歇性低氧训练对大鼠骨骼肌相关代谢及c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金柱

    2012-01-01

    采用间歇性低氧复合常氧训练的方法,下高原调整后以25m/min的速度一次性力竭,紫外分光光度法测定大鼠骨骼肌匀浆液中SOD、MDA、SDH、CCO指标变化,免疫组织化学ABC法测定骨骼肌c-fos基因表达.结果表明:IHT组能明显提高大鼠抗氧化和清除自由基以及有氧代谢的能力,降低了c-fos表达,有效改善了大鼠对中等强度耐力运动的适应能力,旨在为运动员间歇性低氧训练后平原耐力参赛提供参考.%This research adopts the intermittent hypoxia compound normoxic training method, next plateau after adjustment with the speed of 25m/min exhaustive, UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of rat skeletal muscle homogenate in SOD, MDA, SDH, CCO index changes, the immunohistochemical ABC method for the determination of c-fos gene expression in skeletal muscle of. Results: the IHT group can obviously improve the antioxidant and free radical scavenging and aerobic metabolism ability, reduces the expression of c-fos, can effectively improve the rats to moderate-intensity endurance exercise capacity to adapt, designed for athletes of interval hypoxic training in endurance race to provide reference.

  2. THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE ENTERPRISE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS TROUGH THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM OF CONTROL DU PONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÂDOIU MIHAELA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The return on assets and the return on equity are essential indicators for the assessment of the company performance. They have a rich financial content, but there are many cases where the figure sometimes shows a “prettier” reality. In such cases it is necessary to treat and interpret financial rates with caution, taking into account, at the same time, other methods used in the financial analysis. The objective of this paper is to present a popular financial diagnosis optimization method - the Du Pont financial control system, that has an important role in the financial analysis of the company because it is related to the return on assets and the return on equity of the company as a result of the interaction of several factors synthesized through reports built based on information taken from the annual financial statements.

  3. 大鼠脑挫裂伤后c-jun和c-fos基因快速反应的特点%Quick response of genes c-jun and c-fos after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄爱华; 薛贵平; 张辉; 董建峰; 邢立强; 米坤龙

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos has been widely recognized. However, there are very few reports on the characters of the expressions of these two genes after brain contusion.OBJECTIVE: To explore the characters of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos.DESIGN: Randomized case control study.SETTING and MATERIALS: Experimental location: Experimental Centre of Zhangjiakou Medical College. Forty-five adult Wistar rats, with a boby mass about 200 g to 310 g.INTERVENTIONS: Forty-five rats were randomly divided into model group, sham operation group and normal control group. No treatment to normal group. The skulls were opened without strike for sham operation group. Free falling body method was used to make the brain injury model for model group. Rats were executed in 0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 72 hours. Brain tissues were taken out to make paraffin sections and dyed by PV6000 immunohistochemistry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The similarities and differences of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos.RESULTS: There was no positive expression of c-fos in the normal and sham group. However, there was weakly positive of c-jun. In the model group, the positive neurons distributed in the 1.0 - 2.0 mm cortex area surrounding the focus and the hippocampus of the same side. c-jun positive neurons were widely found in the cortex of injury side and hippocampus. The color of c-jun positive cells was dark, especially in hippocampus which c-jun positive cells concentrated. There was hardly expression of c-fos in 72 hours, but there were obvious positive neurons of c-jun existed.CONCLUSION: The gene expression of c-jun in the same side of brain injury is much stronger and more extensive than that of c-fos. The expressive time is much longer.%背景:目前关于c-jun和c-fos基因表达的重要性已逐渐被人们认识,而关于脑挫伤后两种基因表达的特点报道较少.目的:探讨脑挫裂伤后c-jun和c-fos基因表达的特点.设计:随机

  4. Effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats%薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑及杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操礼琼; 杨莹; 程文文; 李光武; 傅佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核即早基因(c-fos)表达的影响,探讨其发挥生物活性的中枢机制.方法:将24只SD大鼠随机分为薰衣草精油组、蒸馏水组和空白组,免疫组化法观察各组大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos表达并对结果进行灰度半定量分析.结果:c-fos阳性细胞呈棕黄色染色,薰衣草组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞主要分布在杏仁核、下丘脑处,其它脑组织有散在分布,蒸馏水组和空白组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞散在分布于各处脑组织.与蒸馏水组和空白组比较,薰衣草组下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos灰度值降低(P<0.05).结论:大鼠吸入薰衣草精油后可能通过下丘脑及杏仁核发挥各种生物活性.%Objective: To study the effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats, explore the biological activity of the central mechanisms to lavender essential oil. Methods: Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: lavender essential oil group, distilled water group and control group. The immuno histochemical methods were used to detect the c-fos expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala and was semi-quantitative analysed for grey value. Results: The c-fos positive neurons were dyed in brown. For lavender essential oil group, c-fos positive neurons were mainly distributed in the hypothalamus and amygdala; others brain were scattered. For distilled water and control group, c-fos positive neurons were dispersed in brain tissue. Compared to distilled water and control group, grey value of c-fos of lavender was significantly reduced (/><0.05) in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Conclusion: Rats after inhalation of lavender essential oil may play a variety of biological activity through the hypothalamus and amygdala.

  5. Changes of c-fos expression in kidney tissue in rhesus macaques following high +Gx exposures%高+Gx暴露对猴肾脏组织c-fos表达影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛忠英; 张建中; 施生根; 李冬; 党平

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察高+Gx过载对猴肾脏组织c-fos表达的影响.方法 9只雄性恒河猴,随机分为4组.对照组与实验1、2、3组经受+Gx及其作用时间分别为1 Gx/300 s、+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s和+21 Gx/140 s.使用专用动物离心机,过载暴露后的动物即刻处死、取材、制片、染色.用免疫组织化学方法观察猴肾脏组织c-fos表达.结果 实验组猴肾脏的肾小球充血、肾小管浊肿.肾小管上皮细胞损伤程度呈现出较明显的G值量-效关系.对照组猴肾脏组织结构基本正常.各组动物肾小管上皮细胞有不同程度表达c-fos 蛋白.对照组部分肾小管上皮细胞胞浆呈淡黄色,为c-fos弱阳性表达;实验组c-fos 表达明显增强,阳性产物呈棕黄色颗粒状弥漫分布于肾近曲小管上皮细胞胞浆和胞膜,尤其近管腔面染色加深.实验3组(21 Gx/140 s)较实验1、2组c-fos表达有增强趋势.结论 高+Gx过载作用可诱导肾脏组织中c-fos表达,其表达的强度随着+Gx值的增加有所增强.

  6. An axially symmetric gamma-ray backscatter system for DuMond spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An axially symmetric spectrometer is described which evolved from a program of measuring Compton profiles with unusually high geometric efficiency. When fitted with a large-volume Ge detector for combined X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry, such as the 51 mm diameter LO-AX detector from EG and G, it allows Compton profiles to be measured at counting rates in excess of 20000 cps. The axially symmetric configuration is also suited to high-efficiency analyses of thick targets by both XRF and Rayleigh/Compton (R/C) ratios. The same spectra permit a competitive binary-system analysis based on the shape of the Compton profile. Both this new analysis, which we call DuMond spectrometry, and R/C analysis are applied to studies of osteoporosis in the calcaneus with promising results. The combination of high intrinsic and geometric detection efficiency makes it practical to use very weak sources (≅ 100 MBq) and unusually low, localized doses (≅ 1 μGy) per reading. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  8. Application of DuPont Analysis System%简述杜邦分析体系的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建

    2015-01-01

    在财务管理领域,杜邦财务分析体系,是一种非常优秀的财务管理工具。其中比较突出的特点,就是从净资产收益率出发,通过分析各主要财务比率指标间的内在有机联系,从而对企业的财务状况及经济效益做出综合全面的评价。不过在金融资本运作模式不断创新的今天,市场环境的变化深刻,杜邦财务分析体系日趋露出不足之处,使得传统的杜邦分析体系已不能完全满足对企业财务进行准确分析的要求。改进后的杜邦分析体系,在某些方面弥补了传统杜邦分析体系的不足。%In the field of financial management, DuPont Financial Analysis System is a very good financial management tool. One of the prominent characteristics of it is the start of return on equity. Through the intrinsic organic analysis of the major financial ratio indicators, the comprehensive evaluation of financial condition and economic benefit of enterprises are carries out. But in today's innovation of financial capital operation model, the market environment has changed a lot, DuPont Financial Analysis System increasingly exposes the deficiencies, it makes the traditional DuPont Analysis System can not fully meet the requirements of accurately analyze the enterprise finance. The improved DuPont Analysis System, in some ways made up for the inadequacy of traditional DuPont Analysis System.

  9. Effect of Ningxian Particles on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨东东

    2013-01-01

    weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats. Results: Immunohisto-chemistry experiments: resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group, increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippoeampal CA3 region compared to the sham group, was densely distributed, deeply stained, while lower than that of the model group; Ningxian particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein and was superior to CBZ group ( P<0.05 ). No significant differences among groups, Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference. Conclusion: Ningxian particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression significantly and enhance efficacy, the treatment groups indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.

  10. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Pai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im], but not colchicine (oral [po], significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  11. Apomorphine induced c-fos expression in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats%阿朴吗啡诱导黑质毁损大鼠纹状体c-fos表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定庆; 陈晓蓉

    2005-01-01

    目的观察6-羟基多巴胺(6-OHDA)毁损黑质后,不同时间点腹腔注射阿朴吗啡(APO)大鼠纹状体c-fos表达情况,探讨其可能机制.方法利用6-OHDA单侧一点注射大鼠黑质致密区(SNc),特异毁损DA能神经元;术后1、7、14、21 d腹腔注射APO,观察旋转行为;利用免疫组织化学和电镜的方法,观察各时间点黑质DA能神经元形态学变化和纹状体c-fos表达情况.结果毁损侧DA能神经元逐渐减少,超微结构损伤逐渐加重;DA神经元丢失≥80%时,APO诱导的旋转实验>7 r·min-1,纹状体毁损侧c-fos表达.结论 APO能诱导毁损侧纹状体表达c-fos,c-fos表达与DA能神经元毁损程度有一定的关系.

  12. The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie; Hansen, Henrik H; Kiss, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    The dominant nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype in the brain is the pentameric receptor containing both α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2). Due to the lack of selective agonists it has not been ruled out what neuronal circuits that are stimulated after systemic administration with nicotine. W...

  13. 癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B、c-fos表达的影响%Dianxianqing Granule on Behavior, NMDAR2B and c-fos Expression in PTZ Kindling Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄寓; 薛彦杰; 齐越; 王健; 贾冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos表达的影响,探讨其抗癫痫的作用机理.方法:腹腔注射戊四唑建立癫痫大鼠点燃模型,连续灌胃给药30 d后,观察癫痫清颗粒对大鼠行为学及脑组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的影响.结果:癫痫清颗粒可延长癫痫大鼠惊厥潜伏期,缩短惊厥持续时间,减少组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达.结论:癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃大鼠模型具有抗癫痫作用,作用机制与减少脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达有关.%Objective:To study the anti-epileptic mechanism of DianxianqingGranule by observing the effects on behavior,NMDAR2B and c-fos expression in brain of epilepsy model rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol(PTZ).Methods:Kindling models were established by intraperitoneal injection of PTZ on rats,intragastric administration for 30 days,continuously.The expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in the hippocampus of rats were measured with immunohistochemistry assay.Results:DianxianqingGranule can prolong the latencyof seizure,shorten the duration of seizure and reduce the expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in brain.Conclusion:DianxianqingGranule has anti-epileptic effect on PTZ kindling epileptic model rats through inhibition of NMDAR2B and c-fos expression.

  14. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  15. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors. PMID:20570698

  16. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  17. Power system reliability memento; Memento de la surete du systeme electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The reliability memento of the French power system (national power transmission grid) is an educational document which purpose is to point out the role of each one as regards power system operating reliability. This memento was first published in 1999. Extensive changes have taken place since then. The new 2002 edition shows that system operating reliability is as an important subject as ever: 1 - foreword; 2 - system reliability: the basics; 3 - equipment measures taken in order to guarantee the reliability of the system; 4 - organisational and human measures taken to guarantee the reliability of the system; appendix 1 - system operation: basic concepts; appendix 2 - guiding principles governing the reliability of the power system; appendix 3 - international associations of transmission system operators; appendix 4 - description of major incidents.

  18. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  19. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra; Integration du systeme de chauffage FCI au sein du reseau de controle commande du Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, S

    2001-11-01

    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma.

  20. Platerm: la banque de terminologie du systeme Platon (PLATERM: The Terminology Bank of the PLATO System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace; St-Denis, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the elements and functioning of the terminology bank of the PLATO (Programmed Loqic for Automated Teaching Operation) system. Discusses contemporary terminology and lexicography notions on which the bank is based and outlines the tasks performed through PLATERM. (MES)

  1. Du fratinoj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Vivis iam du fratinoj-Aje kaj Fatme.Iliapatrino estis duon-patrino por Fatme kaj in neamis.Foje i diris al sia edzo:-Faru kion ajn,sed mi ne plu volas vidiFatme.La sekvan tagon la patro forkondukis la

  2. Next generation of energy production systems; Lancement pour les systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C. [CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares - DDIN, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that have been presented at the Gedepeon conference. Gedepeon is a research group involving scientists from Cea (French atomic energy commission), CNRS (national center of scientific research), EDF (electricity of France) and Framatome that is devoted to the study of new energy sources and particularly to the study of the future generations of nuclear systems. The contributions have been classed into 9 topics: 1) gas cooled reactors, 2) molten salt reactors (MSBR), 3) the recycling of plutonium and americium, 4) reprocessing of molten salt reactor fuels, 5) behavior of graphite under radiation, 6) metallic materials for molten salt reactors, 7) refractory fuels of gas cooled reactors, 8) the nuclear cycle for the next generations of nuclear systems, and 9) organization of research programs on the new energy sources.

  3. CONTRIBUTION A L’AMELIORATION DU SYSTEME DE CLIMATISATION DES VOITURES DE VOYAGEURS DE LA SNTF

    OpenAIRE

    YOUCEF, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    L’accroissement de l’effet de serre et la diminution de la couche d’ozone ont marqué ces dix dernières années, les gaz frigorigènes classiques tels que les CFC (chlorofluorocarbones),HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbones) participent respectivement à la destruction de la couche d’ozone et à l’effet de serre. Les secteurs du froid et de la climatisation sont des domaines en pleine expansion non seulement dans les pays industrialisés mais aussi dans les pays en voie de développement. La communa...

  4. Cycle for innovative nuclear Gen 4. systems=; Cycle des systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the development of nuclear systems of the 4. generation, the preliminary and schematic reprocessing goals are a cleaning of fission products without a priori separation of the different actinides. The objective of the workshop is to exchange information about the potential efficiency of innovative fuel processing treatments in order to evaluate the impact of impurities on the design of the fuel during its re-fabrication and re-introduction inside the reactor, and on the materials and systems. This document gathers the slides of the 18 presentations given at this workshop: 1 - from the PWR fuel to the closed cycle fast spectrum concepts of generation 4 systems (P. Anzieu, F. Carre, Ph. Brossard, M. Delpech); 2 - the double strata scenarios: objectives and characteristics (S. David and F. Varaine); 3 - why a molten salts thorium file (D. Heuer); 4 - the common 'molten salts' research program of the CNRS (D. Heuer, S. Sanchez); 5 - the hydro-metallurgical reprocessing, the knowledge gained and the statuses of the 5. PCRD, synthesis of the OECD works (C. Madic); 6 - pyro-chemistry: Pyropep status (H. Boussier); 7 - technological bolts identified during the Most project of the 5. PCRD (C. Renault, Ch. Le Brun, M. Delpech and C. Garzenne); 8 - the molten salt reactor concept and its reprocessing options, expected efficiencies (L. Mathieu); 9 - methodology of evaluation of pyro-chemical fuel reprocessing schemes (H. Boussier); 10 - molten salt reactor, design-aided tools for the reactor and the reprocessing plant (O. Gastaldi, E. Walle, O. Koberl, D. Lecarpentier); 11 - status of CEA's prospective studies for the front-end of the fuel reprocessing process/dry ways (S. Bourg); 12 - results of activity coefficient measurements in liquid metals (J. Finne, E. Walle, G. Picard, S. Sanchez and O. Conocar); 13 - potentialities of electrolytic separation and liquid-liquid extraction processes (molten salts/molten metal) for the multi

  5. Doses evaluation around the Myrrha hybrid system; Evaluation des doses autour du systeme hybride Myrrha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoust, T.; Malambu, E.; Vermeersch, F. [SCK.CEN, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Dept. de Physiques des Reacteurs and Myrrha, Mol (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made to determine the necessary screening to the hybrid system piloted by a M.Y.R.R.H.A. accelerator to satisfy the radiation protection criteria of 1 {mu}Sv/h. to respect this limit, the accelerator must be surrounded by 2.5 meters of concrete and 4.0 meters of clay. It is interesting to note that the Moyer method gives doses four times higher than these ones gotten by M.C.N.P.X. and should allow to optimize the screening thicknesses. About the lateral screening of the sub critical fast reactor, the use of water, lead and concrete allows to reduce the dose under 1 {mu}Sv/hour. Being given the risks bound to the water presence around a reactor, it is considered to use only concrete and eventually to bury the reactor. The use of a screening made only of a 300 centimeters thickness crow in heavy concrete would lead to a 50 {mu}Sv/h beyond this screening. over the reactor, the diffusion in the line of neutrons beam produced by spallation induces a dose largely higher than this one desired, forbidding any stay over the core. (N.C.)

  6. Increasing the reliability and capacity of Ukrainian gas transit system; Augmentation de la capacite et de la fiabilite du systeme Ukrainien de transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozgonyk, V.; Osinchuk, Z. [Naftogaz of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Ukrainian gas transmission system plays a key role in the transit deliveries of Russian natural gas to European countries. Therefore special attention is paid to reliability and efficiency of the existing gas pipelines. The in-line inspections of pipelines as well as update methods of corrosion pipeline protection control and developed vibration diagnostic system for gas compressor units are used on a large scale. The program for gas transmission pipeline reconstruction and upgrading of 50 compressor stations of main lines is being under realization. Modernization of compressor stations will allow to increase turbine drivers' efficiency up to 34-36 per cent to save about 1-10{sup 9} cubic meters of fuel gas annually. The reliability of gas transit deliveries is supported by powerful underground gas storage facilities, situated mostly in the Western Ukraine. The expansion of gas pipe lines system is carried out that will increase transit capacity of Ukrainian gas trunk lines up to 160 -10{sup 9} cubic meters a year. (authors)

  7. Quality control and risk management: specific characteristics of the French health care system;Fonction qualite et gestion du risque: reflexions sur les specificites du systeme francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D. [Syndicat National des Radiotherapeutes Oncologues (SNRO), 75 - Paris (France); Bureau de la Societe Francaise de Radiotherapie Oncologique (SFRO), 75 - Paris (France); Couderc, B. [Union Nationale Hospitaliere Privee de Cancerologie (UNHPC), 75 - Paris (France); Institut National du Cancer (INCa), 75 - Paris (France); Ligue Contre le Cancer, 75 - Paris (France); Parmentier, G. [UNHPC, 75 - Paris (France); College de l' Accreditation, Haut Conseil de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    The techniques used in the field of radiotherapy are the same everywhere, but the organisation and scope of activities vary depending on the country, and sometimes depending on the specific region. The International Radiotherapy Conference held in Paris and devoted to the radiation protection of radiotherapy patients provides us with an opportunity to discuss some of the specific characteristics of the French health care system. These past years, the context of workforce shortage associated with strong government initiatives, the implementation of several successive National Cancer Plans, the transposition of European Directives into French law (EURATOM 96/29 and 97/43) and the accident in Epinal have had a rapidly restructuring effect on the French radiotherapy sector. (authors)

  8. Dušan Benčić, Nikola Solarić: Measuring Instruments and Systems in Geodesy and Geoinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula; Gorana Novaković

    2010-01-01

    The new university textbook Measuring Instruments and Systems in Geodesy and Geoinformatics by Dušan Benčić and Nikola Solarić was introduced to the professional community during Interliber at the Zagreb Fair, on November 15, 2008. The publisher is Školska knjiga d.d. The textbook written in Croatian is of standard B5 format, hardbound, with ISBN 978-953-0-31689-8.

  9. Subd iaphragmatic vagotomy reduce the responses of fever and c-Fos expression inrat PVN and NTS to LPS%膈下迷走神经切断降低LPS所致大鼠发热及室旁核、孤束核c-Fos蛋白表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路秀英; 杨贵贞

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the possibility that responses of fever and c- Fos expression in rat PVN and NTS to intraperitoneal administration of LPS are rnediated by vagal afferents. Methods: Rectal temperature was detected by digital temperature detecting instrument. c-Fos expressis was detected by immunohistochemistry staining.Results:The rectal temperature change value in vagotomy LPS gnoup was significantlydecreased compared with that in sham IPS group,and there was striking difference betwen them, p <0.05.It was increased significantlycompared with that in vagotomy NS group, P < 0.05.The percentage of c-Fos positive neurons in rat PVN and NTS in vagotomy LPS group wassignificantly decreased compared with that in sham LPS group,and there were difference between them, p <0.01.Itwas stnkingly increased compared with that in vagotomy conrol group,respectively, P <0.01.Conclusion:The results indicate that vagus nerve is one of thepathways of peripheal LPS signal communicating to CNS.%探讨迷走神经作为LPS信息由外周传入中枢的桥梁。方法:实验组为膈下迷走神经切断并给予LPS组,3个对照组为假手术生理盐水组,假手术LPS组,膈下迷走切断生理盐水组。测体温用数字体温检测仪测定大鼠肛温。c-Fos蛋白表达用免疫组织化学法检测。结果:实验组肛温变化值与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.05;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.05。c-Fos蛋白表达:实验组PVN和NTS中c-Fos阳性细胞百分率与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.01;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.01。结论:迷走神经是外周LPS信息向脑传递的途径之一。

  10. L’agriculture en Arabie du Sud avant l’Islam South Arabian Pre-Islamic Agriculture: Piecing Together Ancient Landscapes & Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Charbonnier

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article vise à reconstituer les différents systèmes de culture d’Arabie du sud antique. Pour ce faire, les études archéobotaniques sont mises en perspective avec les recherches sur les paysages et les techniques de culture anciennes. Il apparaît ainsi, qu’entre l’âge du Bronze et la période sudarabique, le Yémen n’a cessé de s’enrichir de l’arrivée de nouvelles plantes, en provenance de Proche-Orient, de l’Afrique et du Monde indien. Leurs capacités propres et les nouvelles combinaisons dont elles offraient l’opportunité ont permis à l’homme de diversifier les systèmes de culture afin de tirer au maximum parti des terres et d’être plus flexible face aux altérations du climat et de l’environnement.This paper aims at recognizing and understanding the various agro-systems of the ancient South Arabia. Archaeobotanical data are confronted with studies concerning pre-Islamic landscapes and agricultural techniques. It appears that, during the Bronze Age and the South Arabian period, new cultivars, coming from the Near-East, Africa and India, have regularly reached the region. Because of their own specificities and of the new associations they permitted, these plants have allowed Man to enrich agro-systems and to be more flexible in order to cope with climatic and environmental changes.

  11. c-fos与c-jun癌蛋白在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面联合表达的特征与意义%Expression of oncoproteins c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨c-fos与c-jun两种原癌基因产物在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面表达的特征与规律以及与不同组织修复结局发生的关系。 方法 16例标本均取自于外科手术患者,其中增生性瘢痕8例,溃疡创面8例,另有正常对照皮肤5例取自增生性瘢痕患者作为对照。用免疫组化法(ABC法)检测c-fos与c-jun两种癌蛋白以及bFGF在三种组织切片的分布特征。 结果在正常皮肤c-fos与c-jun的阳性表达主要见于表皮基底细胞和少量皮下成纤维细胞,但在相应部位c-jun的表达较c-fos为弱。在增生性瘢痕,c-fos与c-jun均出现强阳性表达,主要见于成纤维细胞。在溃疡组织,c-fos与c-jun的联合表达多见于毛细血管内皮细胞、部分炎症细胞以及成纤维细胞胞浆。 结论增生性瘢痕与溃疡创面c-fos与c-jun表达量与部位同正常皮肤存在显著差异,提示这两种原癌基因产物在影响和调控组织修复中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the characteristics of oncoprotein expression of c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods Tissues of hypertrophic scars (n=8), chronic dermal ulcers (n=8) and normal skin (n=5) were taken from 21 patients with burns and chronic dermal ulcers in operation. The ABC immunohistochemical method was used to characterize the gene product expression of c-fos, c-jun and bFGF in the above tissues. Results In normal skin, both c-fos and c-jun protein expression and bFGF protein expression were observed. The signals of both oncoproteins were localized mainly in subcutaneous fibroblasts, but, positive expression of the bFGF protein was mainly in keratinocytes. In hypertrophic scars, positive expression of both oncoproteins could be found mainly in fibroblasts, but bFGF was mainly in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In chronic dermal ulcers, endothelial cells, some

  12. 表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽诱导人白细胞c-fos基因表达的研究%EFFECTS OF EGF AND MEK ON C-FOS PROTOONCOGENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BLOOD LEUCOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史学义; 吴景兰; 丁一; 王一菱; 丰艳

    1997-01-01

    由健康人外周血分离淋巴细胞及溶血处理后的全白细胞,以外源性表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽培育后取细胞悬液制成滴片和滴膜,用生物素标记的c-fos cDNA探针进行原位杂交和斑点印迹杂交.结果显示表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽两组c-fos原癌基因的表达均较对照组增强(P≤0.05).

  13. Effect of scopolamine on expression of p-CREB, c-Fos in rat hippocampus in recurrence of Conditioned place preference induced by morphine%东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现大鼠海马p-CREB及c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方正梅; 李晓红; 邵晓霞; 李顺英; 赵永娜

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To deetect the effect of scopolamine on expression of phospho-cAMP response element binding pro-tein (p-CREB) and c-Fos in rat hippoeampus(Hip) in recurrence of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. METHODS Morphzine was administered by subcutaneously injection(sc)at gradually increasing dose( from 10 mg·kg-1 to 60 mg·kg-1)for 6 days to establish morphine CPP. From dT, the rats were administered saline instead of morphine for 10 days to induce CPP extinction. The rats were given a single priming injection of morphine (4 mg·kg-1) to reinstate the morphine CPP, some rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection(ip) scopolamine (1,2,3 mg·kg-1) prior to priminging injection of morphine. The expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in Hip were assayed with immunohistochemistry method in the phase of recurrence of CPP. RESULTS (1) After priming injection of morphine 4 mg·kg-1, the time spent on the drug paired side was significantly reduced because of the treatment with scopolamine, compared with morphine group(P<0. 05);(2) Compared to morphine group, scopolamine could decrease the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos of Hip in rats (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The effect of scopolamine inhibited morphine-induced CPP recurrence probably relates to its inhibitory effect on p-CREB and c-Fos expres-sion of Hip in rats.%目的:探讨东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发条件位置性偏爱激活大鼠海马(hippocampus.Hip)cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(phos-pho-cAMP response element binding protein,p-CREB)和c-Fos表达的变化.方法:以吗啡剂量递增法6 d建立大鼠条件位置性偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)模型.生理盐水替代吗啡训练大鼠10 d.使形成的CPP逐渐消退,小剂量吗啡激发已消退的CPP.采用免疫组化技术检测不同剂量东茛菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现时大鼠海马p-CREB和c-Fos表达的变化.结果:东莨菪碱可抑制吗啡点燃诱发大鼠CPP重现行为;并可减少吗啡诱发的CPP重现时大鼠

  14. 鞘内注射艾司洛尔对福尔马林疼痛大鼠脊髓背角C-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of intrathecal esmolol on spinal c-fos expression in a formalin-induced pain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 邹聪华; 陈彦青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intrathecal estnolol on the expression of c-fos in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in a formalin-induced pain model. Methods Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 each. Every mouse received intrathecal catheter placement and was infused with saline 10 L(group N), esmolol 300 g/kg(group A), or 600 g/kg(group B), respectively. Pain was induced by 50 L of 5% formalin solution injected into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. The nociceptive behaviors including licking, biting and lifting of the injected paw were cumulatively recorded during phase I (0-5 min) and phase Ⅱ (15 50 min) by Dubuisson's method. The expression of c-fos protein in the spinal dorsal horn was detected with immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with group N, the pain-related behaviors in phase II were decreased significantly in group A and B. The expression of c-fos in the L4-5 spinal dorsal horn was significantly lower in group A and B compared with group N(P<0. 01). Conclusion Intrathecal morphine can inhibit c-fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a formalin-induced pain model.%目的 探索大鼠鞘内注射艾司洛尔能否抑制福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.方法 雄性SD大鼠,鞘内置管成功后,随机分为三组(n=8):生理盐水组(N组),艾司洛尔300μg/kg组(E1组),艾司洛尔600 μg/kg组(E2组).在异氟醚麻醉下,鞘内注射上述药物10μl,5d后,所有大鼠一侧后肢爪掌背侧皮下注射福尔马林(5%,50 μl),观察大鼠在Ⅰ相(0~5 min)和Ⅱ相(15~50min)疼痛行为学变化(包括添足、咬足、抬腿动作等),并进行Dubuisson评分.采用免疫组织化学方法检测脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.结果 与N组比较,E1、E2组大鼠Ⅱ相阶段的疼痛相关行为均有减少,呈量效关系(P<0.05),且E1、E2组L4~5节段脊髓表达的c-fos蛋白均较N组减少(P<0.05).结论 鞘内注射艾司洛尔可减少福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.

  15. Effects of Herbs Invigorating Kidney on the Sports Ability and C - fos Expression within PVN in Over Trained Rats%补肾中药对过度训练大鼠运动能力及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 李中华; 于芳; 汪晓阳; 刘鸿宇

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药雪芙蓉胶囊对雄性大鼠力竭跑台时间、血清激素水平及下丘脑室旁核c—fos表达的影响。方法:将30只雄性成年大鼠随机分为3组,即安静对照组、训练组、中药训练组。中药训练组每天灌服雪芙蓉胶囊(5mg/kg),8周后测试大鼠力竭跑台时间,检测血清睾酮及皮质醇含量,用免疫组织化学结合图像半定量方法对c—fos神经元的数量、面积及灰度进行测量和分析。结果:与训练组比较,中药训练组大鼠力竭跑台时间延长、血清睾酮水平增高(P〈0.01,P〈0.05)、血清皮质醇水平下降(P〈0.05);下丘脑室旁核c—fos免疫阳性细胞数量和阳性产物面积表达均降低(P〈0.05,P〈0.01),灰度没有显著差异(P〉0.05)。结论:中药雪芙蓉胶囊可提高大鼠的运动能力,延缓中枢疲劳,机理可能与此中药提高力竭运动大鼠血清睾酮水平,同时降低大鼠血清皮质醇水平及下丘脑室旁核c—fos的过度表达有关。%Objetive: To explore the effects of Xuefurong capsule on the time of exhausted treadmill, the serum steroid level and expres- sion of c - fos within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of brain in the male rats. Methods: 30 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups : the sedentary control group, the training group, the Chinese - medicine and training group. The Chinese - medicine and train- ing group were forced to taking Xuefurong capsule every day (5mg/ kg) and lasted 8 weeks. Then the time of exhausted treadmill of rats were tested, the serum testosterone and the cortisol were examined, c -fos expression within PVN was detected and analysised by using ABC immunohistochemical technique and semi quantitative. Re- suits: Compared with the training group, the time of exhaustedtreadmill was prolonged (P 〈 0. 01 ), the serum testosterone in- creased ( P 〈 0.05 ) and the serum cortisol decreased ( P 〈 0

  16. The effect of chronic ketamine injection on the change of behavior and expressions of PV and c-Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice%成年小鼠氯胺酮慢性注射后行为改变以及海马CA3区小清蛋白和c-Fos的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 刘阳; 张志龙; 王德广

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the expressions of parvalbumin (PV) and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice after they showed symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . Methods Sixty adult Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group of saline ( NS) injection and the three groups of ketamine in - jection including 50 mg/kg (Kl) , 100 mg/kg (K2) and 150 mg/kg (K3). The mice were administered by intraperito - neal injection once every five days for 6 times. Then stereotyped behavior was observed and the open field test was per -formed after 5 days from the last injection. The expression of PV and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 of mice were detected by immunohistochemical staining in different groups . Results Compared to the control group , the scores of stereotyped behavior and open field test of ketamine groups increased significantly (P <0.01) , and tended to increase with the increasing dosage of ketamine. The expressions of PV in hippocampal CA 3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of ketamine , with significant difference between K2 group and K3 group (P <0.01). The expressions of c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of katamine (P <0.05). Conclusion The adult mice can show symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . The expressions of PV and c -Fos are suppressed with the increasing ketamine dosage, which may be related to the symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine poisoning.%目的 观察小鼠氯胺酮慢性中毒产生精神分裂症样症状后,海马CA3区小清蛋白(parvalbumin,PV)和c-Fos蛋白的表达.方法 将60只成年昆明小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS)和氯胺酮给药组:50 mg/kg(K1)、100 mg/kg(K2)和150 mg/kg(K3).每5天腹腔给药1次,连续注射6次,于给药完成后第5天,观察刻板行为

  17. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  18. Expression of ERK and c-fos and effect of brain derived neurotrophic factor in early retinal neuropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat%糖尿病早期大鼠视网膜中细胞外信号调节激酶与c-fos的变化及脑源性神经营养因子的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万超; 刘宁宁; 柳力敏; 才娜; 陈蕾

    2012-01-01

    phosphatized extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and c-fos in the retina after injection of BDNF into the vitreous in STZ induced Wistar diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats aged 9 weeks-old were randomly divided into BDNF injection group,diabetes mellitus (DM) control group and normal control group and 20 rats for each group.STZ was intraperitoneally injected in the rats of BDNF injection group and DM control group to create the experimental DM.BDNF was intravitreously injected in the rats of BDNF group 2 weeks after administration of STZ in three-day interval for 5 times,and BSS containing O.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used at the same way in the DM control group and normal control group.The retina was isolated for hybridization in situ for BDNF,and TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos.Levels in retina were detected using sandwich method ELISA. Results The number of BDNF positive cells and the gray scale were lower obviously in the rat retina of DM control group than those of BDNF injection group and normal control group,showing significant differences among the 3 groups ( F =102.36,92.55 ;P<0.05 ).ELISA assay showed that TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values in retina were statistically significantly different among the 3 groups ( F =92.54,95.46,94.84,P<0.05 ).The TrkB level in retina was statistically reduced,but the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos levels in retina were increased statistically in DM control group compared with BDNF injection group and normal control group( P<0.05 ).No statistical difference was found in TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values between the BDNF injection group and normal control group(P>0.05). Conclusions The injection of BDNF into the vitreous cavity can protect retina from downregulating BDNF and TrkB levels and up-regulating the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos protein levels in the early stage of DM.

  19. Effects of treadmill running on brain activation and the corticotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Elena; Huang, Qingling; Richard, Denis

    2003-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of treadmill running on the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) in the brain of rats that were killed either at rest, immediately after 60 min of treadmill running, or 180 min following a 60-min session of intensive exercise. The expression of the neuronal activity marker c-FOS was also determined in the three conditions of this study. The levels of c-FOS mRNA immediately following running were high in the cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and medial thalamus, hypothalamus, pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus and hypoglossal nucleus. In most brain regions investigated, excluding the locus coeruleus and the cingulate cortex, c-FOS mRNA expression returned to control levels after 2 h of recovery. The highest concentration of cells co-expressing the protein Fos and CRH mRNA neurons was found in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus, which also expressed CRH heteronuclear RNA and CRH-R1 mRNA. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), the medial mammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic as well as the somatosensory cortex, the medial geniculate nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus, and Barrington's nucleus also co-expressed Fos and CRH mRNA. The expression of CRH-BP gene was induced in the MPOA following running. In summary, the present study demonstrates that treadmill running leads to a strong expression of c-FOS mRNA that is widely distributed throughout the brain. c-FOS mRNA was found in structures of the somatosensory and somatomotor systems, indicating that these regions were activated during exercise. The pattern of distribution of c-FOS mRNA showed similarities with that triggered by neurogenic and systemic stresses. The present results also indicate that treadmill running can strongly activate the hypophysiotropic CRH system, which suggests, in agreement with the pattern of c-FOS

  20. Advance in Research of Expression of c-fos Gene in Learning and Memory and Exercise System (review)%c-fos基因在学习记忆及运动中表达的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙开宏

    2008-01-01

    c-fos原癌基因作为即刻早期基因(IEG)的一种,可通过影响转录和翻译控制进而影响学习记忆能力,因此引起了人们的广泛重视,并逐渐被作为学习记忆功能的客观指标之一.作者通过对c-fos原癌基因在学习记忆及运动中前沿研究的综述,以期为该基因在运动生理学方面的应用研究提供参考线索.

  1. Resetting dynamic behaviour of pipework systems; Recalage du comportement dynamique des reseaux de tuyauteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudin, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    Resetting models is applied to electricity generating plant pipework systems. A frequency approach to the problem is made in an original way thanks to the use of precise dynamic rigidity matrices. The method assumes two kinds of unknown: the usually processed mechanical characteristics (Young`s Modulus, density etc.) and new resetting parameters acting on the dynamic behaviour of unknown connections. As the latter have a very wide range of possible variation, they benefit from a change of variable which allows the assumptions formulated to be complied with. The minimized cost function is based on a error in load. The frequencies required for building it are automatically selected thanks to different tests on measurements. Minimization uses a sensitivity technique linked with a method of least standard squares. The method has been programmed in Fortran 90 within the CIRCUS code and tried out on various examples which were simulated and sound effects cases as well as an actual case. (author). 128 refs.

  2. Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains by Mechanistic System Simulations Optimisation de groupes motopropulseurs électriques hybrides par simulation du système mécanique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrašnik T.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mechanistic system level simulation model for mode/big hybrid and conventional vehicle topologies. The paper addresses the Dynamic interaction between different domains: internal combustion engine. exhaust after treatment devices, electric components. mechanical drive train. cooling circuit system and corresponding control units. To achieve a good ratio between accuracy. predictability and computational speed of the model an innovative time domain decoupling is presented, which is based on applying domain specific integration steps to ditferent domains and subsequent consistent cross-domain coupling ol’thefluxes. In addition, a computationally efficient frunieveork for transporting active and passive gaseous species is introduced to combine computational efficiency with the need for modeling pollutant transport in the gas path. The applicability and versatility of the mechanistic system level simulations model is presented through analyses of transient phenomena caused by the high interdependency of the sub-systems, i.e. domains. Results of a hyt’hrid vehicle are compared to results of a conventional vehicle to highlight differences in operating regimes of partiular components that are inherent to particular poster train topology. L’article présente un modèle de simulation au niveau mécanique destiné à la modélisation de topologies de véhicules hydrides et conventionnels. L’article décrit l’interaction dynamique entre différents domaines : moteur à combustion interne, dispositifs de post-traitement d’échappement, composants électriques, chaîne cinématique mécanique, circuit de refroidissement et les unités de contrôle correspondantes. Afin d’obtenir un rapport correct entre précision, prévisibilité et vitesse de calculs du modèle, un découplage innovant du domaine temporel est présenté, lequel est basé sur l’application à différents domaines, d’étapes d’intégration sp

  3. Radio-active colloids in the functional exploration of the reticulo-endothelium system; Les colloides radioactifs dans l'exploration fonctionnelle du systeme reticulo-endothelial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivot, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    characteristic of its state of activity. The phagocytic index K depends also on the diameter of the colloidal particles injected and can be used as biological test for a colloid: this is the percentage of injected colloid which is retained by the S.R.E. per unit time. This index depends on anaesthetics, on the state of inflammation of the organism and on chemical mediators such as histamine. (author) [French] Un rappel historique met en lumiere le systeme reticulo-endothelial S.R.E. et tente d'en preciser l'identite et le fonctionnememt. Les methodes de son exploration et les colloides utilises sont envisages. L'auteur est amene a fabriquer un colloide d'un type particulier: un complexe albuminique radioiode le 'C.A. {sup 131}I' dont il decrit les etapes de la preparation et des essais tant physiques que biologiques. Une albumine humaine, presentant en solution une densite optique definie est portee a la chaleur jusqu'a modification de la densite optique, temoin d'une agregation des molecules proteiques. La proteine denaturee est iodee par {sup 131}I. Des controles d'electrophorese, d'ultracentrifugation et d'autoradiographie sont effectues. Cette preparation d'origine biologique atoxique et metabolisable sera comparee a l'or colloidal mieux defini qui servira de reference. Le C.A.{sup 131}I est injecte a la souris. Des mesures de radioactivite, des autoradiographies de coupe de l'animal entier, des detections de l'anthropogammametre mettent en evidence une concentration importante au niveau du S.R.E. du foie. Mais ces resultats statiques ont une portee limitee en regard de l'exploitation d'une etude cinetique in vivo du phenomene. L'auteur enregistre les variations de la radioactivite du sang derive de la carotide dans un scintillateur a puits. Il obtient directement une courbe de radioactivite sanguine d'allure exponentielle decroissante dont il definit la formule mathematique. La

  4. Effect of Ningxian Particles Combined with CBZ on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨旭红; 钟振东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the Ningxian Particles combined with Carbamazepin (CBZ)on immediate early gene c-fos expression of drug-resistant epilepsy in rats,and to explore its mechanism.Methods:42 male Wister rats were randomly divided into sham group,model group,Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ high[(0.03+4.80) g · kg-1 · d-1],medium[(0.03+2.40) g · kg-1 · d-1] and low dose groups [(0.03 +1.20)g · kg-1 · d-1],Ningxian Particles group (2.40 g · kg-1 · d-1)and CBZ group (0.03 g · kg-1 · d-1) (n=6).Epilepsy model in rats was established by injection of kainic acid into hippocampal CA3.PHT drug screen was made 14 days after the production of drug-resistant epilepsy model.Immunohistochemical method in each group was given two weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats.Results:Immunohisto-chemistry experiments:resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group,increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippocampal CA3 region compared to the sham group,and were densely distributed,deeply stained,while lower than that of the model group.Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein which was superior to that of CBZ group (P<0.05).No significant differences among groups,Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference.Conclusion:Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression and significantly enhance combination of efficacy,the efficacy of high-dose group of the United Ningxian Particles treatment group indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.%目的:观察宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠即早基因c--fos表达的影响,并探讨其作用机制.方法:Wistar雄性大鼠42只,按体质量随机分为假手术组,模型组,卡马西平+宁痫颗粒高[(0.03+4.80)g·kg-1·d-1]、中[(0.03+2.40)g·kg-1·d-1]、低剂量组[(0.03+1.20)g·kg-1·d-1],

  5. Effects of voluntary wheeling exercise on the learning and memory and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of depression model rats%自愿转轮运动对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆及基底外侧杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 药宏慧; 李中华; 庞立杰; 贺继平

    2013-01-01

    探讨4周自愿转轮运动对慢性不可预知性应激致抑郁大鼠旷场行为及空间学习记忆能力、血清皮质醇和基底外侧杏仁核c-fos 表达的影响。将40只大鼠随机分为4组,即对照组、运动组、应激模型组及应激运动组,每组10只。应激模型组及应激运动组大鼠每日进行慢性不可预知性应激1次,连续28 d,同时运动组及应激运动组大鼠进行4周自愿转轮运动。自愿转轮运动结束后检测大鼠血清皮质醇水平;运用旷场实验测试大鼠自主活动能力及探索行为;八臂迷宫实验检测大鼠空间学习记忆能力;采用免疫组织化学结合图像半定量方法对基底外侧杏仁核 c-fos神经元的数量、面积及灰度进行测量和分析。结果发现:1)与应激模型组比较,应激运动组大鼠穿越格数、直立次数及修饰次数显著增多(P0.05)。以上结果说明,自愿转轮运动可提高抑郁大鼠的学习记忆能力,机理可能与长期自愿转轮运动降低抑郁大鼠的血清皮质醇水平及增强大脑基底外侧杏仁核c-fos 的表达有关。%In order to probe into the effects of 4-week voluntary wheeling exercise on the open field behavior, space learning and memorizing ability, blood serum cortisol and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of rats having depression caused by chronic and unpredictable stress, the authors divided 40 rats randomly into 4 groups:a control group, an exercise group, a stress model group and a stress exercise group, each of which included 10 rats, put the rats in the stress model group and stress exercise group under chronic and unpredictable stress once a day for consecutive 28 d, let the rats in the exercise group and stress exercise group do a voluntary wheeling exercise for 4 weeks, measured the level of blood serum cortisol of the rats after the voluntary wheeling exercise was completed, applied the open field experiment to test the

  6. Effect of Suanzao-Rentang on Neuronal Apoptosis and c-fos Gene Expression of Aged Rats with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation%酸枣仁汤对REM睡眠剥夺老年大鼠脑神经细胞凋亡及c-fos基因表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游秋云; 王平; 张舜波; 黄攀攀; 章程鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察酸枣仁汤对快动眼( REM)睡眠剥夺导致的老年大鼠脑皮层和海马部位神经细胞凋亡及c-fos基因表达Fos蛋白水平变化的影响。方法将自然衰老24月龄Wistar大鼠随机分成空白对照组(等容生理盐水),老年REM睡眠剥夺组(等容生理盐水),阳性对照组(舒乐安定0.18 mg/(kg· d)),酸枣仁汤低、高剂量组(12.96,25.92 g/( kg· d))。各组灌胃给药2周后,除空白对照组外其余各组用自制改良多平台法剥夺大鼠睡眠48 h制作老年大鼠REM睡眠剥夺模型。通过原位末端标记法( TUNEL)测定各组大鼠大脑皮层和海马部位神经细胞凋亡水平,用免疫组化法检测c-fos基因表达Fos蛋白的水平变化,探讨酸枣仁汤对老年失眠引起的脑神经损害及c-fos基因表达变化的影响。结果与空白对照组比较,老年REM睡眠剥夺组大鼠脑皮层和海马部位神经凋亡细胞增多, Fos蛋白表达明显增高。与老年REM睡眠剥夺组比较,酸枣仁汤组脑神经凋亡细胞及Fos蛋白表达明显下降,但仍高于正常对照组。结论c-fos基因很可能参与了老年大鼠REM睡眠剥夺后的细胞凋亡过程,酸枣仁汤可能是通过抑制脑组织c-fos基因表达上调,抑制神经细胞凋亡而发挥脑保护作用。%Objective To observe the effect of Suanzao-Rentang on neuronal apoptosis and c-fos gene expression in Fos protein levels in cortex and hippocampus of aged rats with rapid eye movement ( REM) sleep deprivation.Methods Natu-ral aging 24 months old Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (isovolumetric saline),REM sleep deprivation eld-erly group (isovolumetric saline),positive control group estazolam 0.18mg/(kg· d),Suanzao-Rentang low and high dose group 12.96,25.92 g/(kg· d).Each group was given intragastric administration for two weeks,then each group except the control group is made REM sleep deprivation for

  7. Effects of rizatriptan on cortical spreading depression and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对皮质扩布性抑制及中脑导水管周围灰质c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤鹏; 刘若卓; 姜磊; 于生元; 管维平; 石宏; 陈淑莉; 晋志高; 吴士文; 董钊; 邱恩超

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rizatriptan has an effect on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey (PAG) induced by CSD in rats. Methods The experimental SD rats were randomly divided into group A injected with KCl, group B KCl plus rizatriptan and group C NaCL The number and amplitude of CSD were recorded after KCl or NaCl injection. C-Fos positive neurons of different layer were identified by the immunohistochemical technique 2 hours after the first injection of KCl or NaCl. Results There was no CSD in group C. The number of CSD in group A ( 10.70±3.23 ) was significantly more than that in group B (6.10±2.56, t = - 3.528, P < 0.01 ). The amplitude of CSD in group A ( 17.33 (95% CI 11.45--23.11 ) mV) was significantly greater than that in group B (11.82 (95%CI 9.24--14.70) mV, Z= -4.360, P< 0.01). There were more cFos-like immnoreactive neurons in every layer in group A than in group C (P < 0.01 ) and in group B (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rizatriptan has an inhibitory effect on CSD, which might induce the headache through exciting the neurons in PAG.%目的 观察苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对大鼠皮质扩布性抑制(cortical spreading depression,CSD)和CSD引起中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueduetal grey,PAG)内c-Fos表达的影响.方法 实验选用的SD大鼠随机分为3组,A组:氯化钾刺激组;B组:氯化钾刺激+苯甲酸利扎曲普坦组;C组:氯化钠刺激组.对各组大鼠使用氯化钾(或氯化钠)刺激,以观察CSD出现的个数和波幅;第1次刺激2 h后使用免疫组织化学法检测各组PAG内不同层面c-Fos阳性神经元.结果 C组未记录到CSI).A组CSD个数(10.70±3.23)较B组(6.10±2.56)显著增多(t=-3.528,P<0.01);A组CSD波幅[17.33(95%CI 11.45~23.11)mV]较B组[11.82(95%CI 9.24~14.70)mV]显著增加(Z=-4.360,P<0.01).A组各层面c-Fos阳性细胞数较B、C组显著增多(P<0.05).结论 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对CSD有抑制作用,可使CSD引起PAG内神经元兴奋作用减弱.

  8. 蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经元形态及c-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 李霞; 甘子明

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经细胞的生物学影响.方法:选用健康新西兰大白兔30只,随机分为实验组和对照组.每组15只.基础麻醉后实验组用5 g/L布比卡冈进行蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉(腰麻),对照组用生理盐水代替局麻药.于麻醉后30 min灌注取材,HE染色观察2组兔L5-7节段脊髓神经元形态的变化,免疫组化法检测脊髓神经元中c-fos蛋白的表达.结果:与对照组相比,实验组L5-7节段脊髓灰质后角Ⅲ、Ⅳ板层的小圆细胞及前角Ⅸ板层外侧大多角细胞胞质中均有尼氏体减少、神经元c-fos蛋白阳性细胞数减少[(68.9±1.4) vs (12.3±1.6),t=60.352,P<0.001]和脊髓软脊膜分层或断裂现象(P<0.001).结论:蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉后,兔脊髓相应节段的神经细胞功能受到抑制,脊髓软脊膜有分层或断裂现象.%Aim: To obsereve the effect of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits. Methods :Thity healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control group,15 in each group. After basal anesthesia,the rabbits in the experimental group were given 5 g/L bupiva-caine for subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia( spinal anesthesia for short) ,and those in the control group were given normal saline. After 30 minutes, spinal cord samples were prepared. HE staining and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the morphological changes of neurons and the expression of c-fos,respectively. Results;Compared with those of the control group, Nissl bodies reduced and nuclear bias in the horn of lumbosacral spinal cord gray matter III , IV plate layer of small round cells and anterior horn of the lateral lamina mostly IX horn cells in experimental group. The expression of c-fos protein in the control group was higher than that in the experimental group [ (68. 9 ±1.4) vs ( 12. 3 ± 1. 6) , t = 60. 352, P < 0

  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces rapid c-fos and BZLF1 transient expression in EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Akata%EB病毒感染诱导Akata的c-fos及BZLF1基因的短暂表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温旺荣; 李莉; 陈盛亭; 林晓丹; 吴勇; 曹燕

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on expression of early gene c-fos and the BZLF1 transient in EBV-negative Burkitt' s lymphoma-derived Akata cells infected by EB virus. Methods EBV-negative Burkitt' s lymphoma-derived Akata cells were infected by EBV from Akata\\GFEEBV.c18. Moreover c-fos and BZLF1 expression postinfection were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot. Results The rapid increase of c-los expression from 30 min to 3 h post-infection and BZLF1 or BZLF1 protein transient expression from 1.5 h to 48 h or from 6 h to 12 h(there after disappeared) were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot. Conclusion These results indicated that EBV infection could induce c-los and then BZLF1 transient expression in Akata cells.%目的 研究EB病毒感染对EB病毒阴性的Burkitt'S淋巴瘤细胞株Akata的B细胞早早期癌前基因c-fos及病毒激活的关键转录因子BZLF1的表达的影响.方法 应用EB病毒(来源于EB病毒阳性Akata/GFP.EBV.c18)感染EB病毒阴性的Burkitt'S淋巴瘤细胞株Akata,使用RT-PCR和蛋白质印迹技术分别检测EB病毒感染不同时间后细胞c-fos和EB病毒的BZLF1的表达. 结果 EB病毒感染Akata后30min到3 h期间c-fos的表达明显增加,随后恢复正常;EB病毒感染后1.5 h到48 h的BZLF1的短暂表达,随后消失;而且EB病毒感染后6 h到12 h BZLF1蛋白也有短暂表达.随后消失. 结论 EB病毒感染能诱导Akata的B细胞c-fos及随后的BZLF1的短暂表达.

  10. Influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugai pathway%不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥佳利; 胡满; 李慧超; 刘春凌; 张利卫

    2011-01-01

    为进一步探究光照对母鸡生产性能影响的神经调节机制,采用神经标记和免疫组化技术相结合的方法,对不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响进行了观察研究.将120日龄母鸡右眼遮光5d后向丘脑圆核引入微量30%HRP,48 h后解除遮光并给予不同强度的光照刺激1~1.5 h,暗适应1.5h后灌流固定,取脑制作连续冰冻切片,用TMB法检测离顶盖通路HRP逆行标记神经细胞,通过Fos蛋白免疫组化方法检测c-fos基因在这些部位的表达.结果显示,母鸡离顶盖通路各核团对不同强度的光刺激有不同的反应,SGC层和ROT核对30 lx光照最为敏感,而SP/IPS核对40 lx光照反应较为明显.%In order to further understand the nerve regulation mechanism in effect of light on hen production performance,influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugal pathway was studied using nervous labeling combining with the immunohistochemistry method. The right eyes of hens in 120 day-old were shaded to keep dark for 5 d, then small amount of 30% HRP was injected into the thalamencephalon nucleus rotundus (ROT). After a 48 h survival period, light stimulation of different intensities was given for 1-1. 5 h, afterwards kept in dark again for 1. 5 h. Following perfusing with fixative, their brains were removed and made into continuous frozen sections. TMB method was used to show the HRP retrograde labeling nervous cells, and the immunohistochemical reaction of Fos protein was employed to detect the expression of c-fos gene in these regions. The results showed that there are different reactions to different light stimulation in the nucli of hen tectofugal pathway. Stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and ROT are most sensitive to the light of 30 lx, while the nucleus SP/IPS is more sensitive to the light of 40 lx.

  11. 不同波长光照对开产初期母鸡间脑c-fos基因表达的影响%Effect of light stimulation by different wavelength on expression of c-fos gene in hen diencephalon at early laying period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 胡满; 程金金; 郭洁; 兰晓宇

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nervous mechanism in the effect of light on egg-laying, the response of hen diencephalon to light stimulation by different wavelength were investigated by u-sing c-Fos and GnRH method. Unilateral eyes of 150 days old hens were kept dark for seven days. Then they accepted different wavelength light stimulation of 20 lx for 1. 5 hours and dark adaptation 1. 5 hours. After perfusion with fixative, their brains were removed from the skulls and were made into continuous paraffin sections. The distribution of imunoreactive positive neurons of Fos protein and GnRH in mesencephalon were examined using immunohistochemical method. The results showed that expression of c-fos gene and the release of GnRH could be in-fluenceed by different wavelength light stimulation. The expression induced by green and blue light stimulation was more significant than that by red one.%为深入了解不同波长光照对母鸡生产性能的影响机理,用c-Fos法探讨了母鸡间脑对不同波长光照的反应,同时检测GnRH免疫反应神经元的动态变化.将150日龄母鸡右眼遮光7 d后接受20 lx 的不同波长光照刺激1.5 h, 暗适应1.5 h后灌流固定,取脑制作石蜡切片,采用免疫组化方法检测Fos 蛋白和 GnRH 样免疫反应阳性神经元在间脑的分布.结果显示,不同波长光照均影响c-fos基因表达和GnRH的释放,绿光组和蓝光组的表达均高于红光组.

  12. Nuclear systems of the future - generation 4. Proposals of strategic orientations for the nuclear systems of the future; Les systemes nucleaires du futur - generation 4. Propositions d'orientations strategiques pour les systemes nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Several points, specific to France, must be taken into consideration for the long term strategic choice of future nuclear systems, in particular: taking the best profit of the progress potentialities of water reactors, optimizing the opportunities offered by the renewal of power plants in operation, integrating the consequences and the implementation of a strategy of optimized management of radioactive wastes, and looking for improvements that would make nuclear energy an active contributor to sustainable development. The prospective researches carried out by the CEA and its industrial partners have led to propose a R and D strategy with 3 complementary goals: search for innovations for water reactors, development of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycle (sodium fast reactor (SFR), gas fast reactor (GFR)), and development of key-technologies for nuclear hydrogen production (very high temperature reactor (VHTR)). The R and D effort concerns also the subcritical systems devoted to transmutation, the new cycle processes for a global management of actinides, and some other nuclear systems like the molten salt reactors (MSR) and the supercritical water reactors (SCWR). This paper presents the R and D strategy for each technology with its priorities, steps, financial means and collaborations. (J.S.)

  13. Replacement of the instrumentation and control system of Tore Supra; Remplacement du systeme de controle commande de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P.

    1995-02-01

    The control system of the Tore-Supra is a wide and complex system that cannot be interrupted while running without significant consequences on the operating of the machine. Replacing the current system cannot be achieved in a global way without immobilisation and high costs. Therefore partial changes have been decided on. This work presents the detailed analysis of the arrangements and the operating of the system that will be replaced: the pro`s and con`s that have appeared through experience are related. The possibilities that the new apparatus offers are also examined. A method of step by step replacements had to be set up in order to assess the means, funds, term of achievement, performance and quality of the overall project. (TEC). 15 refs., 29 figs.

  14. Development of an operational neutron spectrometry system dedicated to the characterization of the natural atmospheric radiative environment, implemented at the Pic du Midi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD Thesis has been achieved thanks to the joint effort between two French organizations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/LMDN, Cadarache) and the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA/ DESP, Toulouse). The aim was to develop an operational neutron spectrometer extended to high energies in order to measure the dynamics of the spectral variations of the natural radiative environment at the summit of the Pic du Midi Observatory in the French Pyrenees. Thereby, the fluence responses of each detector were calculated thanks to Monte Carlo simulations. Afterwards, they were validated by means of experimental campaigns up to high energies (≥20 MeV) nearby reference neutron fields. The systematic uncertainties were deduced after detailed studies of the mathematic reconstruction of the spectra (i.e. unfolding procedure). Then, the system was tested under rocks at the LSBB of Rustrel before being installed at respectively +500 m and +1000 m above sea level for the first environmental campaigns. Finally, the spectrometer has been operating for two years after its deployment at the summit of the Pic du Midi (+2885 m). The continuous data were analysed thanks to an innovative method. Some seasonal and spectral variations were observed. Some Forbush decreases were also recorded after strong solar flares. These data were further analysed thanks to Monte Carlo simulations. The data were made more attractive thanks to several practical applications with personnel dosimetry or reliability of submicron electronics components. (author)

  15. Les mots du secret

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Cet article analyse les reconfigurations sémantiques du lexique et des mots du secret en usage dans l’Europe du Sud entre le Moyen Âge et l’époque moderne. En partant des approches récentes du secret et de la dissimulation dans un contexte contemporain de revendication d’un « droit au secret », nous analysons comment l’historiographie actuelle des XVIe et XVIIe siècles aborde une histoire longue des régimes de positivité du secret en Europe. En partant de l’époque pré-moderne, nous étudions l...

  16. Restaurant du Rivage, Vevey

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Sari Bianca; Glocki, Ryszard Nikodem

    2015-01-01

    Après cinquante ans de mutilations, d'abandon et de spéculations économiques, le complexe du château de l'Aile et de la salle du Castillo à Vevey doit redéfinir son rôle public par rapport à la place du Marché et au Jardin du Rivage. S'appuyant sur la mémoire historique en ajoutant une unité à l'ensemble, nous créons un îlot regroupant des fonctions publiques. Il dessert ainsi l'espace ouvert environnant en articulant la relation entre le jardin et la place. L'élargissement de la promenade du...

  17. Du taureau au dindon

    OpenAIRE

    Saumade, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    L’importation du cheval et du taureau en Méso-Amérique et la diffusion corrélative de la corrida comme représentation ostentatoire du pouvoir espagnol ont eu pour conséquence la transformation de la structure originelle du jeu taurino-équestre. Le vecteur de ce système est un paradoxe technologique : la monte du taureau, soit une inversion de l’équitation dont l’initiative historique revient aux péons indigènes exclus de la pratique équestre à l’époque coloniale. À partir d’une approche ethno...

  18. Contribution to the study of the uranium-hydrogen system; Contribution a l'etude du systeme uranium-hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Previous work on uranium-hydrogen system is reviewed. The U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} equilibrium is then investigated at pressures below one atmosphere, i.e. at temperatures lower than 430 deg. C. The hydride obtained at equilibrium is deficient in hydrogen (UH{sub n<3}), the hydrogen deficit increasing as the temperature rises. Thermodynamic functions for the formation of non-stoichiometric hydride and of one hydrogen vacancy are derived from pressure composition isotherms, in U-H phase diagram is proposed. The hydrogenation of U-UC alloys is also examined at pressures below one atmosphere with regard to the equilibrium: (free U + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. The equilibrium conditions are found different from that observed for pure uranium. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique du systeme uranium-hydrogene est exposee. L'equilibre U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} est ensuite etudie sous des pressions inferieures a une atmosphere, soit aux temperatures inferieures a environ 430 degs. C. L'hydrure obtenu a l'equilibre est deficitaire en hydrogene - UH{sub n<3} - et d'autant plus que la temperature s'eleve. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques relatives a la formation et a la saturation de l'hydrure, ainsi qu'a la formation d'une lacune d'hydrogene sont deduites des pressions d'equilibre. Un modele de diagramme de phases U-H est propose. L'hyduration des alliages U-UC est etudiee egalement sous des pressions inferieures a l'atmosphere, au point de vue de l'equilibre (U libre + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. Les conditions d'equilibre sont trouvees differentes de celles observees sur l'uranium pur. (auteur)

  19. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  20. Signification politique du climat

    OpenAIRE

    Lamizet, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Le climat fonde une approche politique particulière de l’espace et du temps, en suscitant des représentations particulières se situant dans l’histoire, la mémoire, la prévision et le domaine du développement durable. Le climat représente aussi une forme particulière de limitation des pouvoirs et de représentation de la contrainte dans le discours politique et dans les médias, jusqu’à figurer une forme de violence. Enfin, les significations du climat se situent dans l’inconscient. The notio...

  1. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  2. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  3. Effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in ischemia reperfusion myocardium of rats%参附注射液影响大鼠缺血再灌注心肌Bcl-2,Bax与c-Fos蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉培; 牟崇明; 季道如; 但伶; 龚文婷; 王莉莎

    2006-01-01

    -2/Bax比率显著升高(P<0.01).结论:参附注射液对缺血再灌注心肌保护效应可能与其促进Bcl-2蛋白高表达、抑制Bax与c-Fos蛋白表达、增加Bcl-2/Bax比率,从而抑制心肌细胞凋亡有关.%BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that Shenfu parenteral injection can ameliorate and treat various shocks, heart failure, myocardial ischemia and supraventricular/ventricular arrhythmia, and it also has a good protective effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shenfu parenteral injection on the protein expressions of myocardial apoptosis-related genes of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos in rats with acute ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: A complete randomized grouping design, controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital,Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the Staff Room of Anesthesiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from April to December in 2004. Thirty-five healthy adult Wistar rats were provided by the experimental animaI center of Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Shenfu parenteral injection was the TCM formula of Shenfu Tang, which is for recuperating depleted yang and rescuing the patient from collapse, and its main components are ginsenoside and aconitum alkaloid. It was the product of Yaan Sanjiu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 10 mL/piece, the batch number was 030110.METHODS: In vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury were used. The 35 rats were divided into 5 groups according to the number of random number table, with 7 rats in each group: ① Sham-operated group: The rats were treated with only insertion of thread without ligation, followed by intravenous injection of saline (8 mL/kg), and then observed for 120 minutes. ② Shenfu parenteral injection 30-minute group: The rats were treated with intravenous

  4. Contribution to the crystallographic study of the uranium-oxygenated system; Contribution a l'etude cristallographique du systeme uranium-oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perio, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-04-15

    Three uranium oxides, UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 3} are known since a long time. The existence of a fourth, U{sub 2}O{sub 5}, is discussed. The mechanisms of decomposition between UO{sub 3} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} have even some shadow zones. The aim of this report is the study of the phase relations in an uranium - oxygen system, from the metal until UO{sub 3}. We considered, on the one hand, the equilibrium relations, what should result in a diagram of phases in pressures and temperatures, on the other hand, the transformations bringing one oxide to the other, often by a continuous way and through intermediate of metastable phases. The introduction of the temperature and the consideration of the kinetics effects have permitted to raise the ambiguities. We adopted, to facilitate the presentation of the results, a partition a few arbitrary but convenient, in three chapters,: I - experimental Techniques II - Crystallographic species between U and UO{sub 3}. III - Kinetic of oxidisation of UO{sub 2}. (M.B.) [French] Trois oxydes d'uranium, UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} et UO{sub 3} sont connus depuis longtemps. L'existence d'un quatrieme, U{sub 2}O{sub 5}, est en suspend. Les mecanismes de decomposition entre UO{sub 3} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8} possedent encore quelques zones d mbres. Le but propose dans ce memoire est l'etude des relations de phase dans le systeme uranium - oxygene, du metal jusqu'a UO{sub 3}. Nous avons ete amene a considerer, d'une part, les relations a l'equilibre, ce qui devrait se traduire par un diagramme de phases en pressions et temperatures, d'autre part, les transformations amenant, souvent d'une facon continue et par l'intermediaire de phases metastables, d'un oxyde a l'autre. L'introduction de la temperature et la consideration des effets de cinetique ont le plus souvent permis de lever les ambiguites rencontrees. Nous avons adopte, pour faciliter la presentation des

  5. 电针对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture on c-fos Expression in Nucleus of the Solitary Tract and Electrocardiogram ST_Ⅱin Myocardial Ischemia Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江山; 严洁; 何军锋; 彭娜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察针刺"内关""足三里"对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核(nucleus of the solitary tract,NTS)c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响,阐明延髓初级中枢在"内关""足三里"穴共同调节心功能中的作用.方法:将36只雄性SD大鼠随机分为生理盐水组、模型组、足三里组、内关组、偏历组及合阳组,每组6只,腹腔注射异丙肾上腺素造成心肌缺血模型.电针治疗20 min,采用抗Fos蛋白免疫组织化学技术观察大鼠NTS内c-fos表达和电生理技术观察大鼠心电图ST_Ⅱ的变化.结果:心肌缺血模型大鼠NTS内c-foS的表达明显增加(P<0.01),而足三里组、内关组与模型组比较,NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数均明显减少(P<0.01);足三里组、内关组NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数显著低于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).足三里组、内关组大鼠缺血性心电图ST_Ⅱ电位值显著降低(P<0.01),其电位降低值大于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).结论:NTS是针刺内关、足三里共同调节心功能的整合中枢之一.%Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on c-fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)and ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats, so as to study the role of NTS in EA-induced improvement of AMI. Methods Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, ST 36, PC 6, "Pianli" (LI 6), and "Heyang" (BL 55) groups, with 6 cases in each. AMI model was established by intraperitoneal injection of Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg). EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to PC 6, ST 36, LI 6 and BL 55 for 20 min separately. C-fos expression in the NTS was detected by immunohistochemistry and ECG-ST_Ⅱ was recorded before and after AMI and EA. Results ① Compared to control group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ of model group elevated significantly, while in comparison with model group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ values of ST 36 and PC 6 groups decreased significantly

  6. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on c-fos gene expression and cAMP levels in rat hippocampus%人参皂苷Rg1对大鼠海马c-fos基因表达和cAMP含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忞; 张均田

    1996-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of Rg1 antiaging and nootropic function. METHODS: Using Northern and Western blot analyses, the levels of cfos mRNA and fos protein were determined in the hippocampus of young and old rats treated with or without ginsenoside Rg1. RESULTS: The expression of c-fos gene and protein was decreased in the hippocampus of aged rats, but dose-dependently increased in young and aged rats after the administration of Rg1. Furthermore, Rg1 increased the level of cAMP in the hippocampus of both young and old rats. CONCLUSION: The changes at the genomic and protein levels, arisen from the increase of cAMP, provide an explanation of the mechanisms of Rg1 nootropic and antiaging function.%探讨Rg1对神经系统作用的机制.方法:采用Northern和Western印迹分析法,检测了Rg1处理前后大鼠海马组织的c-fos基因和蛋白的表达.结果:老年鼠c-fos基因和蛋白的表达明显低于青年鼠,但给Rg1后老年鼠和青年鼠均呈现显著性增强效应.此外,Rg1还明显增加青年鼠和老年鼠海马组织的cAMP含量.结论:Rg1升高cAMP水平及促进c-fos基因和蛋白的表达有助于阐明其促智和抗衰老作用的机制.

  7. Droit du travail

    OpenAIRE

    De Quenaudon, René

    2016-01-01

    L’association des deux notions, celle de droit du travail et celle de RSE (responsabilité sociale des entreprises), relève du défi, tout au moins dans le contexte juridique français. C’est un peu comme si l’on prétendait pouvoir mélanger l’eau et le feu. Pourquoi ? Parce que classiquement le droit du travail est présenté comme un ensemble de règles assorties de la contrainte étatique dans les relations entre employeurs et salariés alors que la RSE est présentée comme un ensemble d’engagements...

  8. Une science du tourisme ?

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, David; Bédard, François; Ceriani-Sebregondi, Giorgia; Chapuis, Amandine; Dewailly, Jean-Michel; Drouin, Martin; Gay, Jean-Christophe; Hillali, Mimoun; Hoerner, Jean-Michel; Jolin, Louis; Kadri, Boualem; Rémy KNAFOU; Leman, Edward; Novakowski, Nick; Priskin, Julianna

    2009-01-01

    Avec ce numéro thématique, Téoros souhaite promouvoir un débat organisé dans une perspective internationale et pluridisciplinaire. L’objectif de ce numéro est de s’interroger à nouveau sur l’identité scientifique du tourisme, en tentant de mettre en évidence les handicaps épistémologiques et méthodologiques, de comprendre les raisons qui freinent la construction d’un consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique, d’identifier les conditions nécessaires à l’émergence d’une science du tourism...

  9. Essai sur le système financier de la République Démocratique du Congo :une contribution à l amélioration de la supervision bancaire / Essays on the Democratic Republic of Congo financial system :a contribution to the improvement of banking supervision.

    OpenAIRE

    Lukuitshi-lua-Nkombe, Albert Malaika

    2005-01-01

    RESUME La construction d un systeme financier sain et concurrentiel capable de mobiliser de facon substantielle des hauts niveaux d epargne et l amelioration des normes de supervision bancaire et financier pour assurer la stabilite du systeme sont deux des recommandations souvent faites par les institutions internationales pour permettre aux pays africains de participer pleinement a l expansion de la prosperite mondiale et a beneficier de la globalisation du commerce des services financiers.C...

  10. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  11. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  12. The change of c-fos expression in mammillary body after single prolonged stress%单次延长应激导致的创伤后应激障碍行为伴随乳头体神经元活化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊丽; 夏亮; 王莉颖; 田菲; 翟明珠; 鲁亚成; 李云庆; 朱霞; 王文

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the behavioral change of anxiety and depression in the rats model of posttraumatic stress disorders ( PTSD) and the neuronal activation in the mammillary body. Methods: By using single prolonged stress (SPS) to establish the PTSD animal model, open-field test (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used to evaluate rats' spontaneous acitivity and anxiety & depression behavior, and the expression of c-Fos actived in the mammillary neuron after single prolonged stress were identified by immunofluorescence staing. Results; The spontaneous activity were significantly reduced, and the anxiolytic behavior were significantly increased, at the same time, the expression of Fos im-munoreactive neurons were increased significantly in the mammillary body in the SPS group compared to the control group. Conclusion; The neurons in the mammillary body in the SPS group were sigificantly activated, and it may be involved in the PTSD response caused by the SPS.%目的:探讨创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)模型大鼠的焦虑抑郁行为改变以及乳头体神经元的活化情况.方法:采用单次延长应激(SPS)建立大鼠PTSD模型,采用自发活动、高架十字迷宫方法评价大鼠的自发活动能力和焦虑或抑郁行为;同时利用Fos蛋白免疫荧光染色方法观察乳头体神经元的活化情况.结果:SPS大鼠自发活动明显减少,焦虑样行为明显增多,乳头体内Fos免疫反应阳性神经元数量较正常大鼠显著增加.结论:SPS大鼠乳头体神经元显著激活,可能参与SPS所造成的PTSD反应.

  13. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea; Systemes nucleaires du futur: forum international generation 4 et projets de R et D du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F

    2003-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  14. Les 2x12h : une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté ? The 12-hour shifts system: A way to settle conflicting temporalities in shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Barthe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les horaires de travail en 2x12h semblent faciliter l’articulation des temporalités mise à mal par le travail posté, articulation avec les dimensions temporelles du fonctionnement humain : les rythmicités biologiques, l’organisation de la vie socio-familiale et la fatigue notamment. Dans un contexte social et économique favorable à la diffusion des 2x12h, cet article propose une synthèse des effets de ces horaires de travail posté sur la santé, sur la vie personnelle des opérateurs concernés et sur le travail. Même si, comparés aux autres systèmes d’horaires, les 2x12h semblent avoir des conséquences moindres sur la santé et la vie personnelle, cette synthèse montre l’importance d’autres facteurs (caractéristiques des personnes, temps d’exposition aux horaires, propriétés du système d’horaires, par exemple sur ces effets et la nécessité d’intégrer l’analyse du contenu du travail et des exigences du travail dans l’analyse de ces effets. Avant de penser le 2x12h comme une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté, la réflexion d’aménagement des horaires de travail se doit d’intégrer une analyse systémique et détaillée du travail, prenant en compte le contenu du travail, les exigences des tâches et les stratégies d’accord des temporalités mises en place par les opérateurs concernés au niveau de leur activité de travail.Twelve-hour shifts appear to facilitate the flow of temporalities involved in shift work schedules and the different temporal dimensions of human functioning: particularly biological rhythms, private life, and fatigue. In a social and economic context that favors the increase of 12-h shifts, this paper sums up the effects of 12-h shifts on health, personal life, and work. 12-h shifts seem to have less impact on health and personal life, when compared with other shift-work systems. This synthesis shows the importance of other factors (characteristics of the

  15. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded.

  16. Approches contemporaines du bonheur

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet-Lafaye, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    1. Les centres cérébraux du bonheur La pensée et les recherches contemporaines offrent-elles une meilleure compréhension du bonheur de l’homme ? Qu’ont-elles apporté à la réflexion sur le bonheur et à son identification ou à sa détermination ? Les sciences sociales ne se sont intéressées que tardivement à la question de la vie bonne qui a longtemps été le domaine réservé de la philosophie et de la théologie. La psychiatrie fut la première, en raison de son travail sur la dépression, à s’intér...

  17. Jouer du piano

    OpenAIRE

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-01-01

    La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à...

  18. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  19. Le chant du monde

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Jean Grémillon emploie la voix dans ses films de manière très différente de ses collègues. C’est l’ensemble du sonore – bruits, voix et musique – qu’il imagine de façon originale. Son traitement s’inscrit dans une vision du monde : Grémillon conçoit le cinématographe comme un biographe, une écriture de la vie. Cette vie est comprise sur deux plans : celui de l’homme et celui de l’univers. La voix selon Grémillon serait le reflet dans l’homme d’un macrocosme perçu comme énigme (le bruit) ou ré...

  20. Les Conidae du Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.

    1973-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les prospections des navires océanographiques Snellius et Luymes au large des côtes du Surinam révèlent l'existence de sept espèces de Conidae. Parmi celles-ci une espèce, Conus guyanensis spec. nov., semble endémique à cette région. Six espèces (Conus centurio, C. austini, C. daucus, C. jasp

  1. Experimental reproducibility analysis in DU hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Chung, Hongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A storage and delivery system (SDS) is used for storing hydrogen isotopes as a metal hydride form. The rapid hydriding of tritium is very important not only for safety reasons but also for the economic design and operation of the SDS. For the storage, supply, and recovery of hydrogen isotopes, depleted uranium (DU) has been extensively proposed. To develop nuclear fusion technology, it will be necessary to store and supply hydrogen isotopes needed for Tokamak operation. The experimental reproducibility of bed temperature on DU hydriding was also analyzed. The experimental reproducibility of apparatus was acceptable for all the experiments. The experimental reproducibility of tank pressure on DU hydriding was analyzed. As the hydriding performs, the tank pressure showed decreasing trend. The experimental reproducibility of bed temperature on DU hydriding was also analyzed. As the hydriding performs, the bed temperatures increased up to maximum temperature with exothermic reaction and then they showed decreasing trend. The experimental reproducibility of apparatus was acceptable for all the experiments.

  2. Reliability of the beam loss monitors system for the large hadron collider at CERN; Fiabilite du systeme des moniteurs de pertes du faisceau pour le Large Hadron Collider au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guaglio, G

    2005-12-15

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out. The reliability figures of the BLMS have been calculated using a commercial software package (Isograph.). The effect of the variation of the parameters on the obtained results has been evaluated with a sensitivity analysis. The reliability model has been extended by the results of radiation tests. Design improvements, like redundant optical transmission, have been implemented in an iterative process. The proposed system is compliant with the reliability requirements. The model uncertainties are given by the limited knowledge of the thresholds levels of the superconductive magnets and of the locations of the losses along the ring. The implemented model allows modifications of the system, following the measuring of the hazard rates during the LHC life. It can also provide reference numbers to other accelerators which will implement similar technologies. (author)

  3. Study of the optical monitoring system of the scintillating crystal involved in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS experiment; Etude du systeme de suivi optique des cristaux scintillants du calorimetre electromagnetique de l`experience CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleoc, M

    1998-09-04

    The prospect of the experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is one of the motivations to build the large hadron collider (LHC). Proton beams will collide and the emitted particles will be detected by ATLAS and CMS equipment. In each detector the electromagnetic calorimeter will allow the characterisation of the 2 photons coming from one of the disintegration channels of the Higgs boson. CMS collaboration has chosen an homogeneous calorimeter fitted with PbWO{sub 4} crystals. Each crystal with its photodetector and its electronic device forms one detection channel. The resolution of the detection channels should not deteriorate all along the operating time. The optical monitoring system of the crystals logs then controls the response of each detection channel in order to allow an accurate calibration of the calorimeter. The optical properties, the resistance to irradiation of PbWO{sub 4} crystals and the modelling of light collection are investigated in this work. The description of the different components of the optical monitoring system highlights the technical difficulties we had to challenge. An experimental testing bench has been set up to study the coupling between the scintillation signal and the signal that feeds the monitoring system, this coupling has been studied under irradiation in the conditions of CMS operating. (A.C.) 94 refs.

  4. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  5. Announcement of Superior Council of Electricity and Gas about the future gas system; Avis du Conseil Superieur de l'Electricite et du Gaz sur le futur systeme gazier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Superior Council of Electricity and Gas [ed.] [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-12-02

    This document is an announcement of the Superior Council of Electricity and Gas (CSEG) concerning the future gas system of France. It was asked by the Secretary of State for industry having in view the preparation of the law of organization of gas sector. Without refraining to reveal the internal divergences, the CSEG intended to provide a framework of exchanges on the definition of Public Service in the field of natural gas, on regulation, on juridical regime of the gas transport and various relating subjects, as well as on the social questions. Also, the CSEG aimed at emphasizing a number of predominant points of view. It is stressed that the future law concerning the gas system should take into consideration the peculiarities of the activity in the gas sector, since the mere transposition into the gas sector of the measures valid in the electricity sector could is inadequate. The CSEG underlines its firm attachment to the notion of Public Service and the principle of subsidiarity. It also signals out the necessity of taking into account the industrial problems, i.e., placing the French gas operators into a more open position, turning synergically to good account the EDF, developing gas partnerships downstream and upstream and using vigorously its advantages. These issues should be also taken into account in case of industrial gas customers to ensure their competing European position. Price lowering as well as increasing the quality of services should be pursued actively. The document contains the following sections: I. The Public Service; II. The regulation; III. The juridical regime of transport, the distribution and the storage; IV. The social question.

  6. Les pirogues du Maroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie François

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the

  7. L'Origine du Monde

    CERN Multimedia

    CNET & Ecole Polytechnique Paris; Vincent Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Création, théologie, science, découverte, recherche, religion, condition humaine.Avec Maurice Jacob physicien, Hubert Curien Président du Conseil du CERN, Michael Doser physicien, Frère Emile Communauté de Taizé.

  8. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  9. Modelisation des systemes geothermiques a boucles horizontales pour chauffer les batiments et prevenir la fonte du pergelisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Pier-Olivier

    2011-12-01

    In northern regions, due to climate change, the increase in the annual mean air temperature increases the depth at which the permanently frozen ground (permafrost) is located. This melting causes soil instability and therefore, the instability of the buildings and transport structures above it. These regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels as a large quantity is used to heat buildings and generate electricity. A solution to these problems is presented in this memoir. It involves using a heat exchanger coupled to a horizontal geothermal heat pump for both heating a building and maintaining the integrity of the permafrost beneath it. A new analytical model for horizontal ground heat exchanger based on the finite line source is presented. This model extends to the transient case in the soil and to any desired pipe layout the steady state results for parallel horizontal pipes of Claesson et Dunand (1983). The heat transfer ratio can change along the pipe. The analytical model can not account for the groundwater phase change given the complexity of the phenomenon. When there is no phase change the analytical model is validated by a 3D finite element numerical model. When the phase change is accounted for in the numerical model, for weather data from northern regions, the analytical model still provides good approximations to the ground temperature during the intensive heating season, hence allowing to compute the heat extracted by the ground heat exchanger (GHE). However, summer ground temperature and thaw depth are overestimated by the analytical model, so that the analytical model gives conservative results. A case study using a geoexchange thermal system is presented. It consists in freezing the ground under a building and heat it at the same time. A typical building in Kuujjuaq (northern Canada) is analyzed. The GHE layout follows a spiral pattern characterized globally by 3 parameters : length L, depth D and spacing S. The influence of each parameter on the

  10. Discours du figural

    OpenAIRE

    Sarikartal, Eminé

    2008-01-01

    Autour de la question du cheminement de l’art et de son interaction avec la technique, après une lecture de la partie prologue de La fable cinématographique de Jacques Rancière suivant le propre fil de réflexion de l’auteur, ce texte propose la rencontre de cette lecture avec la pensée de Jean-François Lyotard telle qu’il l’expose dans Discours, Figure.

  11. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  12. 成都某公司办公大楼空调通风设计%Air Conditioning and Ventilation System Design for A Company Office Building in ChengDu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何朝烽

    2014-01-01

    The design of air conditioning , ventilation, smoke control and extraction system and air conditioning automatic control system for a company office building in ChengDu City were introduced .The form of air conditioning system was expounded .Fire prevention measure , energy conservation measure ,environmental protection and hygiene and disease control measure of air conditioning and ventilation systems were provided .%介绍了成都某公司办公大楼的空调、通风、防排烟系统和空调自动控制系统设计,详细阐述了空调系统形式,指出了通风空调系统防火措施、节能措施及环保与卫生防疫措施。

  13. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  14. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  15. Femmes du Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Claudine; Fine, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    L'actualité, comme toujours, suscite la réflexion historique. Devant le déchaînement de la violence en Algérie, CLIO avait programmé, dès sa fondation en 1995, un numéro consacré aux Femmes d'Algérie où se seraient exprimés des chercheurs (euses) d'Algérie. C'était pour son comité de rédaction une façon de dire, comme il le pouvait, sa solidarité à ceux qui vivaient dans la quotidienneté de la terreur. Il a demandé à Djamila Amrane, titulaire depuis 1994 du poste d'« Histoire des Femme...

  16. La musique du malentendu

    OpenAIRE

    Abbrugiati, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    La « petite musique » du style tabucchien rencontre souvent la musique tout court : personnages musiciens, musique en arrière-plan des récits, ou au centre de la trame narrative, donnent une projection artistique au problème d’une harmonie impossible entre des êtres qui “n’entendent” pas les événements de la même manière. Il s’agira d’examiner les récits de Tabucchi où la musique joue un rôle flagrant, pour définir ce rôle et, au-delà de leur diégèse propre, de comprendre de quelle métaphore ...

  17. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  18. Contribution to the study of the (U,Pu)C,N system; Contribution a l'etude du systeme (U,Pu)C,N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzelli, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The reactions of UC, PuC, (U,Pu)C, UC{sub 2} and U(C{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) with nitrogen at moderate temperatures (room temperature to 400 C) are described. The influence of the uptake of nitrogen by the powders necessary to sinter the carbides upon the nature of the final product has been investigated; it has been shown that the sintered carbides are hyper-stoichiometric. The reactions of carbon with UN, PuN and (U,Pu)N has also been studied. Under vacuum, carbon reacts on the nitrides at temperatures as low as 1100 C; nitrogen is replaced by carbon and the final product is a carbonitride. The reaction is: MN + x C {yields} MN{sub 1-x}C{sub x} + x/2N{sub 2}. The reaction is limited and the carbonitrides have a fixed composition in presence of M{sub 2}C{sub 3} or MC{sub 2}; hence it is impossible to produce pure MC using the reaction. The ternary diagram U-C-N, Pu-C-N and (U,Pu)C-N have been drawn. They show clearly that it is possible to obtain single phase carbonitrides in a wide domain of compositions. (author) [French] On decrit les reactions avec l'azote de UC, PuC,(U,Pu)C,UC{sub 2} et U(C{sub 1-x}O{sub x}), par action directe de l'azote a temperature moderee (de l'ambiante a 450 C). On a etudie l'influence de la contamination par l'azote des poudres de carbures necessaires au frittage sur la nature des produits frittes; on a montre que les carbures frittes obtenus sont hyperstoechiometriques. On a etudie parallelement les reactions du carbone avec UN, PuN et (U,Pu)N. Sous vide le carbone reagit sur les nitrures des 1100 C: le carbone se substitue a l'azote; l'azote libere est elimine et le produit final est un carbonitrure. La reaction s'ecrit: MN + x C {yields} MN{sub 1-x}C{sub x} + x/2N{sub 2}. La reaction est limitee et les carbonitrures obtenus ont une composition limite fixe en presence des carbures superieurs M{sub 2}C{sub 3} et MC{sub 2}; il est donc impossible d'obtenir MC pur par cette reaction. Les diagrammes

  19. Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of c-fos protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the rostral ventromedia medulla of rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia%电针对慢性内脏痛觉敏感大鼠延髓头端腹内侧核c-fos蛋白和NR1受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁德波; 李为民

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Acupuncture has been clinically proved to be effective in treating abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS).However,its neurobiological mechanism remains largely unexplored.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving chronic visceral hyperalgesia and the possible involvement of N-methyi-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in rostral ventromedia medulla (RVM) of the brain in an IBS rat model.METHODS:To establish the IBS rat model,male Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats received colon mechanical irritation on a daily basis from the 9th to the 22nd day after their birth.After a resting period of another two to four weeks,behavioral tests of pain threshold pressure (PTP)and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) responding to colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli were conducted to judge the colorectal sensitive situation.Then administration of EA at acupoints of Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) bilaterally in the hind limbs was repeated four times every other day,while sham-EA was done by inserting needles at similar acupoints without electrical stimulation.Immunohistochemical method was used to display the expression of protooncogene protein c-fos and NR1 in RVM of rats.RESULTS:The results demonstrated that the PTP values and AWR scores,in response to the CRD stimuli,significantly decreased and increased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.01),while the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos protein and NR1 significantly increased in nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi),nucleus lateralis paragigantocellulari (LPGi),nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (GiA) and nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of RVM in IBS model rats compared with the normal rats (P<0.05).After EA treatment,PTP values and AWR scores significantly increased and decreased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.05) ; the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos and NR1 significantly decreased respectively in Gi,LPGi and GiA and in Gi

  20. Modeling of a tram power network: from the component to the system; Modelisation d'un reseau electrique de tramway: du composant au systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, E.

    2005-01-15

    The study and the modeling of tram power networks require a system analysis. The use of several power-electronic converters in these networks significantly modifies both their topology and their function. Therefore, modeling methods developed in this thesis differ from traditional approaches, since a global analysis of a system should be linked with the study of its components.To satisfy the demands of the tram domain, this thesis develops modeling methods for transmission lines and transformers. Two levels of analysis are considered. Firstly, the tram power network is evaluated in relation to time. Secondly, an Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) program is developed to compute the spectra of the system accurately. (author)

  1. Le collisionneur du futur?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Pourquoi deux études parallèles pour un même collisionneur linéaire ? Loin d’être un double effort et un gaspillage de ressources, ces deux études s’inscrivent dans une stratégie de complémentarité afin de fournir la meilleure technologie requise par la physique du futur. Vendredi 12 juin a eu lieu au CERN la première réunion conjointe CLIC et ILC. Elle n’a pas été avare de bons résultats et d’importantes décisions. Le Collisionneur Linéaire International (ILC) et le Collisionneur Linéaire Compact (CLIC) sont deux études qui font, tous deux, appel à des technologies de pointe. A première vue en compétition, les deux études sont en réalité complémentaires et elles ont un objectif commun : proposer dans les plus brefs délais et au moindre coût, l‘accélérateur linéaire le mieux adapté pour prendre le relais de la physique des très hautes énergies après le LHC.

  2. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  3. batiment SHM|SHM building|Control valves on top of a ´cold box´ for the 4K refrigeration system for the LHC |Valves de contrôle sur le dessus de la ´boite froide´ pour le système de refroidissement 4K du LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Valeriane Duvivier

    2001-01-01

    batiment SHM|SHM building|Control valves on top of a ´cold box´ for the 4K refrigeration system for the LHC |Valves de contrôle sur le dessus de la ´boite froide´ pour le système de refroidissement 4K du LHC

  4. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J. L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  5. Alexip: an Expert System Coupled with a Dynamic Simulator for the Supervision of the Alphabutol Process ALEXIP : système couplé à un simulateur dynamique pour la supervision du procédé Alphabutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauvin S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ALEXIP (ALphabutol EXpert IFP is a knowledge-based system designed to improve the operation of the Alphabutol petrochemical process (IFP process which produces 1-butene by dimerizing ethylene by helping the operators in their process control tasks in running industrial units. Coupled with a dynamic simulator, this system assesses the situation of the process at any time and determines the measures to be taken to maintain it or to bring it into a state of optimal operation. The structure developed is generic. The knowledge is stored in the form of facts easily read by the experts and processed by general rules written in second-order logic using the Genesia 2 software. It accordingly helps to accommodate new knowledge easily, and can be adapted to other processes. ALEXIP (ALphabutol Expert IFP est un système à base de connaissances dont le but est d'améliorer l'exploitation du procédé pétrochimique Alphabutol (procédé IFP qui produit du butène-1 par dimérisation de l'éthylène en aidant les opérateurs dans leurs tâches de conduite des unités industrielles. Couplé à un simulateur dynamique, ce système analyse l'état dans lequel se trouve le procédé à un instant donné et détermine les actions à entreprendre pour le maintenir ou le ramener dans un état de fonctionnement optimal. La structure élaborée est générique ; la connaissance est stockée sous forme de faits lisibles facilement par les experts et traités par des règles générales écrites en logique d'ordre 2 à l'aide du logiciel Génésia 2. Elle permet donc d'accueillir facilement de nouvelles connaissances et peut être adaptée à d'autres procédés.

  6. Experience in developing control integrated multilevel systems for gas transport; Developpement de systemes integres de gestion multi-niveaux pour le transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyukov, V.Y. [NIIIS, (Russian Federation); Bityukov, V.S. [Gasprom, (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the experience of the integrated control multilevel system (IACS) development and implementation for gas transport at the regional enterprises of JSC 'Gasprom', specificity of IACS creation by the Russian enterprises on the basis of the technical and licensed basic software SCADA Geamatics purchased from AEG company under the contract. (authors)

  7. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  8. REGULATION D'UNE PRODUCTION EN SITUATION D'INCERTITUDES ET DE FORTES CONTRAINTES : EXEMPLE DES SYSTEMES RIZICOLES DU LAC ALAOTRA (MADAGASCAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrot, Raphaele

    1996-01-01

    Avec le désengagement des Etats de la gestion des périmètres irrigués, les producteurs doivent gérer leur système de production dans un contexte de risques et d'incertitudes croissants. Pour cela, ils mettent en oeuvre des processus d'adaptation et les stratégies techniques de régulation de la production. Nous avons étudié ces comportements dans le cadre des conditions des systèmes rizicoles du Lac Alaotra à Madagascar. Ces stratégies s'appuient essentiellement sur les modalités d'organisatio...

  9. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 3: Sizing the variable guide vane system; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 3eme partie: dimensionnement du distributeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This third part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This third part of a four-part article deals with the concept and preliminary dimensioning of a variable guide vane system for a standard pump used as a turbine. Geometrical considerations are discussed and the basic data of such machines are presented. The principles behind the geometry and dimensioning of the vanes of the turbine are discussed and a proposal is described.

  10. Derivation of the low Mach number diphasic system. Numerical simulation in mono-dimensional geometry; Derivation du systeme diphasique bas Mach. Simulation numerique en geometrie monodimensionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacherie, St

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)

  11. L'administration du travail et la production du droit du travail (1906-1960). : Note de synthèse du rapport de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Le Crom, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Synthèse d'un rapport de recherche dont l'objectif est d'appréhender le rôle de l'administration centrale du travail dans la production du droit du travail. Deux dimensions sont explorées : le profil des rédacteurs et l'organisation des structures.

  12. Charles Masson, Droit du sol

    OpenAIRE

    Harzoune, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    À Mayotte, collectivité d’outre-mer en passe de devenir le 101e département français en 2011, le droit commun français a vocation à s’appliquer. Pour autant, en matière d’entrée et de séjour des étrangers, de droit du travail et de protection sociale, tel n’est pas encore le cas. François Baroin en septembre 2005 et Christian Estrosi en février 2007 voulaient étendre cette exception au droit du sol en privant les étrangers nés à Mayotte du droit de devenir français. Il faut dire qu’il y aurai...

  13. Traitement automatique du langage naturel

    OpenAIRE

    BADREDDINE, I

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude s'intéresse particulièrement aux exigences de sécurité et à une méthode d'extraction des exigences. Pour cette extraction, nous nous sommes penchés sur le traitement automatique du langage naturel. Une discipline, à la frontière de la linguistique, de l'informatique et de l'intelligence artificielle, qui concerne l'application de programme informatique à tous les aspects du langage humain (écrit et/ou parlé). Le but de l'étude du TALN est d'explorer les méthodes et de connaître la...

  14. Les paradoxes du littoral Swahili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le contact entre l'océan Indien occidental et le continent africain a forgé l'identité et l'originalité du littoral swahili. Cette interface, longue d'environ 2 000 kilomètres, du sud de la Somalie au nord du Mozambique, constitue un monde original où, au gré de traditions anciennes de circulation maritime et continentale se sont diffusées et mêlées des influences culturelles venues du continent africain, de la péninsule arabique et de la péninsule indienne. Le développement du continent, du littoral et des archipels s'inscrit dans une double logique de fragmentation et d'ouverture au monde. Dans cette vaste aire géographique, le rôle de relais des îles et des axes de pénétration continentale à partir des ports est essentiel.The identity and the original features of the Swahili seashore mainly proceed from the contact of African mainland and western indian Ocean. This coastal interface, stretching over 2 000 kilometres from southern Somalia to northern Mozambique, is characterized by ancient traditions of trade movements through maritime areas and mainland as well, which spread and mixed different cultural influences originating from Africa and both Arabic and Indian peninsulas. The development of this area is linked to both fragmentation and opening dynamics. In such a wide area, the relaying function of islands and continental corridors from main harbours is very important.

  15. La promesse du bonheur : introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Figure de la phénoménologie queer, Sara Ahmed interroge au fil de son œuvre les injonctions et identifications que produisent des affects spécifiques pour mieux penser l’ampleur politique des mouvements féministes, queer et noirs. Dans le prolongement d’un travail sur les politiques culturelles des émotions (2004), elle pose ici les bases d’une critique de la pensée du bonheur. La promesse du bonheur, dont est extraite la présente introduction, interroge ce que produit le désir de bonheur. Me...

  16. Des usages du constructivisme (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury-Vilatte, Béatrice; Walter, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Dans cette deuxième série d’articles consacrés au constructivisme, Bernard Delforce, Isabelle Gavillet et Nicolas Pélissier prolongent la discussion menée par Roger Bautier, Denis Benoit et Roselyne Koren sur les usages de la notion par des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine du journalisme, quitte à s’interroger sur les effets d’une telle centration. Si l’approche historique et le recours aux sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et aux sciences du langage nourrissaient l...

  17. Dužnost umiranja

    OpenAIRE

    Czerny Urban, Milica; Baccarini, Elvio

    2010-01-01

    U suvremenim raspravama o eutanaziji i liječnički potpomognutom samoubojstvu, te odustajanju od tretmana, osim uobičajenih razloga koji se temelje na slobodi i izbjegavanju patnje osobe koja traži ubrzavanje smrti, postoji i teza o dužnosti umiranja. S obzirom na to da je pojedinac ujedno i član zajednice, odnosno da ima obitelj i voljene, nužno je raspraviti o slučajevima kada bolest izaziva značajne teškoće za život njegovih bližnjih. Smatramo kako i pacijentova pravedna prosudba o dužnosti...

  18. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe; Modelisation systeme pour l`aide a l`exploitation du reacteur de recherche Siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)

    1995-12-31

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Portable multi-sensor system for gas detection using the temporal window technique; Systeme multicapteurs de detection de gaz, portable, utilisant la technique du fenetrage temporel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaubon, Ch. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CRED, 33 - Talence (France); Levi, H.; Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D.; Pistre, J. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France)

    1999-07-01

    An autonomous and portable multi-sensor system was constructed. It can drive four gas sensors (surface acoustic waves. SAW. for examples) and four voltage output gas sensors (semiconductor metal oxide sensors, for example). Two micro-controllers. MC68HC11F1 and MC68HC711E9, used as master and slave respectively, are mounted on two cards. The first card contains the signal processing treatment algorithm using a neural network and a shifting temporal window technique: it allows real time gas selection. The second card insure the overall temperature control by an auto-adaptive PID. GB gas SAW responses were applied to the device in order to test his performances. (authors)

  20. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  1. National dispatching. The national centre of system exploitation (CNES); Le dispatching national. Le centre national d`exploitation du systeme (CNES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In order to adapt its production means to consumption, Electricite de France (EdF) company has created the national centre of system exploitation (CNES) which ensures at any time the transport of electricity and the equilibrium between production and consumption in the best conditions of safety, quality and economy. The national dispatching centre and the 7 regional dispatching centres aim at supplying electricity to 30 millions of clients at the best price, using the most economical production means and with a warranty of safety. In order to face the different consumption profiles and to optimize its operating costs, EdF has developed regulation tools which are: the diversity of its production units, special tariff incentives and interconnection of its network with others from foreign countries. This press dossier presents the activities of the CNES: missions (arbitrator and driving role, clients), the estimated management of needs (forecasting, short and middle range analysis, daily adjustment, hazards, seasonal variations), the real time management of production (dispatching centres, network safety and equilibrium, prevention, safety margin, reaction delay of power plants, crisis schemes and remedies), best cost scheduling and adjustment of production means (use of the variability of production units, hydraulics), tariff incentives and advantages of interconnected networks (European competitiveness, development of exports, spot market). (J.S.)

  2. Annex 2: Simulation of the whole system - Calibration using measured data; Annexe 2: simulation du systeme complet et calibrage sur les mesures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2006-12-15

    This is the Annex 2 of the annual report 2006 of the Serso project. The basic idea of the Serso project is to defrost a road bridge in winter with heat produced by the bridge in summer by solar radiation absorption and stored in a diffusive underground store. Pipes are imbedded in the bridge surface material and connected to a set of underground borehole heat exchangers ('geothermal probes'). A heat transfer fluid is circulated by a pump. The store is loaded in summer and discharged in winter. In the present Annex the mathematical model developed to simulate the whole system is described. It includes the validated simulation model of the underground heat store (see Annex 1). The parameters of the model are tuned on the basis of a two-years series of field measurements. Although the measured quantities do not include essential variables like the sky temperature and the bridge model is one-dimensional, the model satisfactorily describes the energy balance of the bridge.

  3. The role of the nuclear industry in the Brazil's electricity system; Le role du nucleaire dans le systeme electrique Bresilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro Da Silva, O.L.; Dos Santos Guimaraes, L. [Electronuclear - Electrobras Termonuclear (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    No form of energy - renewable, clean or whatever other name it is given - can constitute the sole solution to the challenge of ensuring electric power supplies that are compatible with a country's economic and social growth. Brazilian consumption and installed electrical generation capacity per capita are stiller low, below the world average - that is the main factor that needs to be stressed. The catch-up requires that the country benefit it as much as possible and as soon as possible from all available sources to increase electricity generation capacity allowing increased consumption compatible with the way of life that Brazilians aspire to. A country's electrical system planning requires the efficient management of a diversified array of energy sources. Regarding Brazil, hydro power will be or several decades the main component in its electricity generation portfolio. Nonetheless, it already needs to be complemented by thermal sources - uranium, coal, bio-mass, natural gas and petroleum-based oil - in that order of importance, taking account of such actors as availability on the home territory, costs, environmental impacts and uses in other applications. (authors)

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphomas in 72 immunocompetent patients: pathologic findings and clinical correlations. Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri-Broët, S; Martin, A; Moreau, A; Angonin, R; Hénin, D; Gontier, M F; Rousselet, M C; Caulet-Maugendre, S; Cuillière, P; Lefrancq, T; Mokhtari, K; Morcos, M; Broët, P; Kujas, M; Hauw, J J; Desablens, B; Raphaël, M

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed 72 primary central nervous system lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent patients. The cases were reviewed for clinical data, histology, immunophenotype, bcl-2 and p53 expression, and Epstein-Barr virus association. Follow-up was available for 40 patients included in the Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) lymphomes cérébraux primitifs (LCP 88) trial. Each diagnosis, requiring a consensus among at least 3 pathologists, was performed according to the recent Revised European-American Lymphoma classification and equivalents in the updated Kiel classification. Tumors were predominantly classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. There were 3 T-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin lymphoma. The proteins bcl-2 and p53 were expressed in 35% and 16% of the tested cases, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus was not found by in situ hybridization except in the case classfied as a cerebral localization of Hodgkin disease. No significant association was found between subtypes, bcl-2 or p53 expression, and patient survival. From the standpoint of their biologic characteristics, primary central nervous system lymphomas are very similar to systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In contrast to AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphomas, primary central nervous system lymphomas are rarely associated with Epstein-Barr virus and in immunocompetent patients they express bcl-2 at a relatively low rate.

  5. Cri-du-chat syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15 000 to 1:50 000 live-born infants. Its main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds,

  6. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  7. Le corps du sultan ottoman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vatin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La personne du sultan est la clef de voûte de l’État ottoman. C’est son existence qui assure le bon ordre du monde. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que la société ottomane n’ait jamais admis la possibilité d’une solution de continuité dynastique et ait, de ce fait, accordé une importance considérable à la présence physique de la personne du souverain. Ainsi le corps vivant du sultan, s’il n’était pas à proprement parler sacré, était cependant d’une nature surhumaine, d’une valeur supérieure qui était plus que symbolique et dépassait sa personne individuelle.En conséquence, mort ou déposé, le sultan n’était plus rien et aucun respect particulier n’était dû à sa personne physique. Bien au contraire, alors que, en cas de décès, il devenait en théorie un musulman comme un autre, sa qualité d’ancien souverain faisait qu’il avait moins de droits qu’un autre. Son corps pouvait subir des traitements plus ou moins dégradants dictés par des considérations politiques, à commencer par le refus de toute solution de continuité dynastique qui obligea plus d’une fois à maintenir le décès secret et à retarder de plusieurs semaines l’inhumation du défunt.On peut cependant discerner des éléments de sacralisation du corps mort du sultan, voire même les traces d’un culte qui aurait pu se développer. Mais celui-ci était sans doute trop païen pour s’imposer dans un État qui tendit au cours des siècles à renforcer l’orthodoxie de ses pratiques et à accorder une place croissante à la dynastie au détriment de la personne des sultans individuels.

  8. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center offers treatments for upper respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Musick, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    At Virginia Tech's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, a variety of treatments are available for correcting disorders of the upper respiratory system and improving the odds of performance success.

  9. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  10. LES GITES PLOMBO-ZINCIFERES DU DISTRICT MINIER DU KOUDIAT SIDU AUSUD DU KEF EN TUNISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont dćcrit l:i stratigiaphie. I.i tectonique, le corps de minerals, la paragenese et la genese dcs gttes Koudiat Sidri situ&s environ 20 km au sud de la ville du Kef en Tunisie.

  11. Esquisse du parlementarisme et du monopartisme en Afrique: le cas du Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. B. van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessed the last hundred years profound political and constitutional changes. In this respect there are many differences between African States depending on which kind of colonial overlord has been the ruling power. The African State was a juridical entity in international law, but was it also, at the time of independence, an empirical entity in national fact?In almost all cases the empirical reality as a functioning government was still primarily the presence of European bureaucrats who has embodied the colonial state. Independence therefore opened a gap between the international legitimacy and the internal marginality of many emergent African State. The gap often presented a real political dilemma to the new African rulers: they usually could retain European officials only by compromising their national independence and could dispense with them only at the risk of undermining governmental performance. After adoption of European constitutional law and with, initially, a high degree of similarity between most constitutions in French-speaking Africa, nowadays these constitutions differ widely, contrary to the Commonwealth Africa that has experienced fewer innovations and constitutional breakdowns.Parliamentary systems of government gave way to One Party Systems, introduced in many cases by the national army, as the best equiped, trained, paid and organised power in the country. This has been the political and constitutional development in Togo as well. Since 1969, it has a One Party System, the Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, founded by the President of the Togolese Republic, Gen. Gnassingbé Eyadéma. But, as everywhere else, doubts are growing about the effectiveness of the One Party System. Are the Togolese perspectives such that Eyadéma is willing to have an open mind and to be all ears for the critics to his own creation? Another intriguing question is to know in which way the Africantraditional authorities (" chieftancy", as the core

  12. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  13. Compte rendu du colloque : « Anthropologie du Maroc et du Maghreb »

    OpenAIRE

    Planeix, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Du 8 au 10 septembre 2013 a eu lieu, à Essaouira (Maroc), le colloque « Anthropologie du Maroc et du Maghreb », troisième du genre après ceux de Tanger en 2003 et de Fès en 2007, organisé par le Centre Jacques Berque (CGB) sous l’impulsion de Baudouin Dupret, son directeur, et de Cédric Baylocq, alors postdoctorant et depuis enseignant à l’université Mundiapolis de Casablanca. L’ambition, derrière un tel intitulé, fut de convier une part représentative des travaux contemporains sur le Maroc e...

  14. Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail

    OpenAIRE

    Caillé, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Alain Caillé resitue le paradigme du don que le Mouvement anti-utilitariste en sciences sociales (MAUSS) s’emploie à dégager depuis une trentaine d’années avant de montrer comment les lunettes du don permettent de mieux voir ce qu’il y a dans la boîte noire des organisations et de mieux lire par là même les ravages du néomanagement. À cette contribution répond celle de Norbert Alter dans le cadre du dossier Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? »

  15. Analyse du discours et archive

    OpenAIRE

    Maingueneau, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Les recherches qui se réclament de "l’analyse du discours" connaissent un développement considérable dans le monde entier ; en revanche, "l’école française d’analyse du discours" (AD) traverse une crise d’identité depuis le début des années 80. Dans cet exposé nous voudrions explorer les raisons de cette crise, puis préciser le concept d’archive qui, à notre sens, permet de prolonger la voie ouverte à la fin des années 1960. Mais il ne s’agit que d’une des voies possibles, dès lors que, comme...

  16. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  17. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  18. Revision du Genre Aseraggodes Kaup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanaud, P.

    1930-01-01

    Le présent travail comprend la définition du genre Aseraggodes Kaup et la revision, sous forme d'une clef dichotomique, de toutes les espèces qui le composent, revision établie d'après les types eux-mêmes de ces espèces. Ce genre Aseraggodes appartient à la famille des Soleidae et à la sousfamille d

  19. Project of decree relative to the licensing and statement system of nuclear activities and to their control and bearing various modifications of the public health code and working code; Projet de decret relatif au regime d'autorisation et de declaration des activites nucleaires et a leur controle et portant diverses modifications du code de la sante publique et du code du travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This decree concerns the control of high level sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. It has for objective to introduce administrative simplification, especially the radiation sources licensing and statement system, to reinforce the control measures planed by the public health code and by the employment code, to bring precision and complements in the editing of several already existing arrangements. (N.C.)

  20. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum) a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  1. Clefs du cœur, du corps et du texte

    OpenAIRE

    Pomel, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Glisser la clef d’amour dans la serrure du cœur, emporter ou détenir la clef du cœur : l’image se rencontre assez souvent dans les romans médiévaux. Il s’agira, à partir d’un corpus qui traite de l’amour profane – romans arthuriens, poésie lyrique, Roman de la Rose, jeux et dons courtois, traité intitulé La Clef d’amour –, de voir selon quelles modalités la métaphore de la clef est mobilisée pour dire l’amour comme expérience affective et sexuelle, mais aussi parfois le travail de la lectur...

  2. Etude du perçage et du soudage laser : dynamique du capillaire

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Massaud

    2011-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est d'étudier expérimentalement la formation du capillaire durant le perçage et le soudage par faisceau laser, et de développer une simulation numérique permettant de reproduire la dynamique de formation et d'évolution du capillaire. Nous avons fait le choix d’utiliser comme matériau test le Zinc, en raison de ses propriétés thermodynamiques. Afin de simplifier le problème, nous avons étudié dans un premier temps le mécanisme de perçage. Deux méthodes expérimentales o...

  3. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  4. Lipopolysaccharide suppresses activation of the tuberomammillary histaminergic system concomitant with behavior: a novel target of immune-sensory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, R P A; Park, S M; McKibbin, C R; Goehler, L E

    2008-03-01

    Infection and inflammation strongly inhibit a variety of behaviors, including exploration, social interaction, and food intake. The mechanisms that underlie sickness behavior remain elusive, but appear to involve fatigue and a state of hypo-arousal. Because histaminergic neurons in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (VTM) play a crucial role in the mediation of alertness and behavioral arousal, we investigated whether the histaminergic system represents a target for immune activation and, if so, whether modulation by ascending medullary immune-sensitive projections represents a possible mechanism. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with either the pro-inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, and exposed to one of various behavioral tests that would induce motivated behavior (exploration, play behavior, social interaction, sweetened milk consumption). Upon kill, brains were processed for c-Fos and histidine decarboxylase immunoreactivity. LPS treatment reduced behavioral activity and blocked behavioral test-associated c-Fos induction in histaminergic neurons of the VTM. These effects of LPS were prevented by prior inactivation of the caudal medullary dorsal vagal complex (DVC) with a local anesthetic. To determine whether LPS-responsive brainstem projection neurons might provide a link from the DVC to the VTM, the tracer Fluorogold was iontophoresed into the VTM a week prior to experiment. Retrogradely labeled neurons that expressed c-Fos in response to LPS treatment included catecholaminergic neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract and ventrolateral medulla. These findings support the hypothesis that the histaminergic system represents an important component in the neurocircuitry relevant for sickness behavior that is linked to ascending pathways originating in the lower brainstem.

  5. Une approche comparative de la question de l'effectivité du droit du travail

    OpenAIRE

    Auvergnon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    La question de l'effectivité du droit du travail n'est pas nouvelle. Toutefois, une approche comparative, à partir de différents systèmes juridiques et de relations professionnelles, permet utilement de la revisiter. Qu'entend-on par effectivité du droit ? Ne confond-on pas aujourd'hui souvent effectivité et efficacité ? Le droit du travail est-il particulièrement exposé à l'ineffectivité du fait des rapports de pouvoir prévalant dans les relations de travail subordonné ? L'analyse des effect...

  6. Hvilken diagnose - sagde du

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosen er et vurderingsresultat vedrørende en helbredstilstand og anvendes til skøn af prognoser og til valg af behandling. Diagnosen bygger på det medicinske naturvidenskabelige system og definitioner, der forvaltes af tandlæger og læger. Selv om det er indlysende, at diagnosen er relateret t...

  7. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  8. Armadillo : Grotte en bordure du rio Armadillo

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Dominique

    1981-01-01

    Près d'Armadillo, municipio Armadillo, San Luis Potosi.Cueva pricta. Grotte en bordure du rio Armadillo, dans les laves. Le sol de la grotte est à environ 3 mètres au dessus du lit de la rivière.Photo prise vers le Nord

  9. Des Taiwanais dans Ie sud du Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Se trouvant dans le sud-est de la Chine au bord dela mer, la province du Fujian s’appelle aussi toutsimplement "Min". Les anc(?)tres d’une grande partie de lapopulation de Taiwan sont venus du Fujian (Min). Les deux

  10. Simulation dynamique du voilier

    CERN Document Server

    Roncin, Kostia

    2010-01-01

    A sailing simulator has been developed from a new point of view. It will rather be for the sailor to use it than for the architect. One boat which characteristics were already known has been chosen. The whole coupled mechanic equations system has been solved. Heave and pitch equations, usually neglected, have been introduced to evaluate each trim of the crew and provide an optimal ride analysis tool. In this paper, efforts models and their determination's method are briefly presented. A tack simulation is shown as a brief overview on the simulator possibilities.

  11. By-law from December 12, 2005 relative to nuclear pressure systems; Arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This by-law deals with the specifications relative to the design, fabrication and conformability evaluations of nuclear pressure system, i.e. systems that may lead to a radioactive contamination in the case of failure. The main safety requirements of these systems are recalled in appendixes (nondestructive testing and qualification). (J.S.)

  12. Cascade: a Knowledge-Based System Supporting Shoe Depths Selection and Casing Design CASCADE : un système à base de connaissances pour l'aide au choix de la profondeur des sabots et à la conception du tubage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansone A.

    2006-11-01

    meet all the requirements and minimize cost is not a trivial task. The choice of the expert systems technology exploited for the system development is related to the following topics :(a An expert system can combine several different skills. (b It guarantees easy and modular expanclibility with the acquisition of new experience. (c Moreover, new experience must be taken into account in order to continuously increase the quality of the results. (d Available data come from many sources, and all have to be considered when choosing the shoe depths' and casing's geometrical and mechanical characteristics. (e An expert system can explicitly represent both domain and strategical knowledge that can easily be modified, added or expunged. It can also give the user a feedback on its own behaviour, and it can also be used as a training tool. The benefits for the final user are:(a An efficient, integrated environment providing the tools the drilling engineer needs to work with. (b Greater accuracy. (c Access and assessment of knowledge and procedures regarding this matter. (d Interactive, user friendly interface. CASCADE est un système d'aide à la conception du tubage et au choix des sabots pour les puits d'exploration et de production. Ce système expert est une partie du projet ADIS (Advanced Drilling Information System, Système d'Information Avancé pour le Forage développé en commun par trois sociétés du groupe ENI : AGIP, ENIDATA et SAIPEM. Le but d'ADIS est de fournir des outils informatiques d'ingénierie de forage pour la planification et le suivi des opérations, utilisables aussi bien sur le site de forage que dans les bureaux. Ces outils devront également superviser les opérations en temps réel et émettre des diagnostics. Pour les tâches de suivi en temps réel, l'équipe de projet d'ADIS a mis au point des systèmes permettant la communication par satellite entre les appareils de forage et la base, ainsi que des systèmes experts de supervision pour l

  13. L'imaginaire du volcan

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Dominique; Bosquet, Marie-Françoise; Bozzetto, Roger; Chamart, Gabrielle; Chelebourg, Christian; Chenet-Faugeras, Françoise; Collot, Michel; Cornille, Jean-Louis; Gaillard, Aurélia; Lavocat, Françoise; Frank LESTRINGANT; Racault, Jean-Michel; SHINODA, Chiwaki; Sylvos, Françoise; Tardieu, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Quelle force naturelle pouvait, mieux que le volcan, devenir la métaphore vive de l'enthousiasme poétique ? Auteur du paysage qu'il remodèle après l'avoir détruit, sculpteur de laves autant qu'objet pittoresque, le volcan est dans la littérature un actant essentiel, un relais de l'auteur, comme le montre ce voyage dans la mémoire des représentations volcaniques.

  14. Environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    L'environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud est conditionné par "l'extrême océanité" de la région et l'interaction étroite entre l'atmosphère et l'océan qui conditionne la vie et l'ensemble des paramètres environnementaux des pays insulaires. Les deux principaux phénomènes climatiques qui affectent la région sont : ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) et le réchauffement global. Ces deux signaux climatiques, facteurs principaux de la variabilité climatique, font sentir leurs actions sur l'...

  15. Mali. Musique bambara du Baninko

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Dans le Mali contemporain, le groupe ethnique le plus important numériquement est celui que la littérature ethnographique a définitivement contribué à faire connaître sous le nom de «Bambara». Installés sur un vaste territoire recouvrant grosso modo le quart sud-est du pays, les Bambara, qui dans leur propre langue se désignent en fait sous le nom de bamananw (au singulier: bamanan), se distinguent les uns les autres selon leur répartition géographique, dans les trois régions suivantes: Beled...

  16. Les controverses du bien mourir

    OpenAIRE

    Clapasson, Dominique; Pott, Murielle

    2009-01-01

    Actuellement, la question des situations de fin de vie se pose en problème social. La dénonciation du tabou de la mort et de l’acharnement thérapeutique suscite des interrogations éthiques relatives à la souffrance des malades. Dès lors, le bien mourir devient une préoccupation qui touche chacun d’entre-nous. En Suisse, l’aspiration à une mort pacifiée se meut en deux modèles distincts de la gestion des situations de fin de vie : les soins palliatifs et l’assistance au suicide. En oppositi...

  17. Sociologie et sociolinguistique du franbreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Rafael Eliezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Des enquêtes ont montré que plus de 20 % des adultes israéliens ont quelque connaissance du français. Parmi cette population, 250 000 à 300 000 personnes pouvaient être considérées comme francophones. Le français a affirmé une présence importante – pas toujours reconnue – dès la phase cruciale du développement de cette société. Une immigration de masse suivit la création de l’État (1948 dont la population a quasiment triplé en moins de deux décennies, avec l’arrivée de plus de 200 000 immigrants d’Afrique du Nord et des dizaines de milliers des Balkans et du Moyen-Orient. Beaucoup parmi ces immigrants étaient francophones – le français étant pour eux soit la première langue soit une deuxième qu’ils contrôlaient. C’est depuis lors que la présence du français est devenue démographiquement significative dans la société israélienne, se prolongeant de nos jours dans l’immigration en provenance de France qui se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Comme nous l’avons montré ailleurs (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013, Israël fait l’expérience simultanée de plusieurs francophonies originales qui diffèrent par leurs sources aussi bien que leurs expressions (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013. Un premier modèle est le « français vernaculaire » (voir Boudras-Chapon 2008 amené par les immigrants de classes défavorisées arrivant d’Afrique du nord qui se sont regroupés en Israël. Leur français n’a offert qu’une faible résistance à l’hébreu qui s’est imposée dans le processus d’intégration. Un bilinguisme fonctionnant sur un mode additif au début qui s’est mué progressivement en modèle soustractif. Un second modèle concerne les immigrants de même origine ainsi que des immigrants francophones d’autres pays (pays balkaniques, Turquie ou Egypte formant une strate instruite de classe moyenne, pour qui le français était d’utilisation quotidienne aussi bien que de langue de

  18. Comparative Study of the Specificities of Needling Acupoints DU20, DU26 and HT7 in Intervening Vascular Dementia in Different Areas in the Brain on the Basis of Scale Assessment and Cerebral Functional Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; LAI Xin-sheng; TANG An-wu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Using methods of clinical scale assessment and cerebral functional imaging to compare the relative specificity of needling acupoints Baihui (DU20), Shuigou (DU26) and Shenmen (HT7) in intervening vascular dementia (VD) in different areas in the brain. Methods: Fifty patients with VD were randomized into 5 groups. Needling on conventionally used acupoints of hand and foot three Yang-meridians aiming at hemiplegia was applied to the patients in Group A, and needling on DU20 to Group B, on DU26 to Group C, on HT7 to Group D and on all the three to Group E was applied additionally. Assessments of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Family Attitude Questionnaire (FAQ) were made. And the positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examinations were conducted in 5 selected patients from each group before and after treatment. Results: Needling on conventional acupoints plus DU20 could effect the inner temporal system, thalamencephalon system and prefrontal cortical system to improve memory and executive capacity of VD patients; conventional acupoints plus DU26 could effect more to the prefrontal cortical system to obviously elevate the executive capacity;that plus HT7 would reveal an effect similar to but rather weaker than plus DU20, and effect more to memory; and that plus all the three simultaneously could effect rather roundly multiple aspects of the nervous system related to intellectual activities, to elevate the recognition and enhance the executive capacity. Conclusion: Needling on various acupoints like DU20, DU26 and HT7 have effects on different brain areas.

  19. Représentations des enseignants d’anglais et évaluation d’un dispositif hybride : image de soi, image de l’apprenant et appropriation du dispositif English teachers’ perceptions and the evaluation of a blended learning system : perceptions of the self and of the learner and appropriation of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Starkey-Perret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’étudier la manière dont les représentations des enseignants d’anglais en milieu universitaire peuvent influencer le développement et le maintien d’un dispositif d’apprentissage hybride combinant l’enseignement à distance et en présentiel. Le dispositif ayant été validé d’un point de vue théorique, il convient, dans une perspective complexe et dynamique des systèmes d’apprentissage, d’étudier son appropriation par les enseignants (validité sociale. Les fondements théoriques ainsi que notre méthodologie de recueil de données et d’analyse sont exposés. Les résultats concernent les représentations que les enseignants ont de leur choix de carrière, de leurs rôles, de l’acquisition langagière, de leurs étudiants, des TIC (technologies de l’information et de la communication et du dispositif en lui-même. Nous examinons la manière dont ces représentations contribuent à l’appropriation ou, au contraire, au rejet du dispositif. Les résultats de la présente recherche devraient contribuer à l’amélioration du dispositif.The aim of this article is to examine the ways in which various teacher perceptions may influence the development and sustainment of a blended learning system for English in a university setting. Having already evaluated the system for its theoretical validity, it seems pertinent to examine it from a social standpoint. The teachers’ perceptions studied deal with language acquisition, teacher roles, students’ intellectual capacity and investment, using computer technology for learning and the learning system itself. We will present our theoretical framework, the methodology followed as well as the results and discuss how teachers’ perceptions contribute to their acceptance or refusal of the learning system. We hope that the present results will give us further indications as to how to improve the system.

  20. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  1. Du système de charges aux statuts de prestige individuel From the System of Charges to Individual Prestige Statuses: Thoughts on the Boundaries Between Power Spaces in Aguacatenango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chosson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Les habitants du village tseltal d’Aguacatenango se trouvent confrontés aujourd’hui à différents bouleversements, dont les plus importants sont la prochaine réorganisation administrative et politique et, depuis une vingtaine d’années, la diversification des référents religieux. Ces transformations les obligent à adapter ou à reformuler ce qui pour eux constitue « la tradition » et, par là même, leur identité. L’une de leur principale préoccupation concernant ces changements est la mise en danger de leur conception de la bonne administration des affaires publiques. Les questions de distribution des pouvoirs sont ainsi au cœur des discours sur les processus actuels de « modernisation » de la communauté. Cet article se propose de revenir sur leur approche particulière de la notion de pouvoir par l’analyse de la forme d’organisation actuelle de leur administration, le système de charges. L’outil conceptuel de « frontières épaisses » permet de faire apparaître, à la marge du système, d’autres espaces de pouvoir, moins visibles mais tout aussi effectifs pour la population. Cette réflexion nous donnera une vision plus générale des différentes sphères de pouvoir et de leurs frontières, permettant pour la suite une lecture plus simple des véritables enjeux des changements actuels et des possibles stratégies d’adaptation qui en découleront.The inhabitants of the Tzeltal village of Aguacatenango currently find themselves confronted with various upheavals, the most serious of which are the upcoming administrative and political reorganisation and, over the past twenty years, the diversification of religious tenets. These transformations force them to adapt or reformulate what for them constitutes “tradition” and, by extension, their identity. One of their main concerns in relation to these changes is the endangerment of their conception of good public affairs administration. Therefore, power

  2. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113. Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  3. Le cas du Haut-Adige ou Tyrol du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Bagini Scantamburlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La situation de cette région italienne est vraiment emblématique des rapports entre « les territoires et l’identité » à cause de la présence de différentes communautés linguistiques autochtones, dont les plus importantes sont les minorités germanophone et latine. S’il est vrai que cette situation existe également dans d’autres régions italiennes, il est incontestable que dans le Haut-Adige/Tyrol du Sud elle présente des caractéristiques très spécifiques et uniques pour l’Italie, car les italo...

  4. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Walther

    2011-01-01

    « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113). Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  5. INDE. Le chant du Mohini Attam, danse classique du Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Contri, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Voici un objet fort précieux, dans le meilleur sens du terme, comme ces guirlandes de joyaux dont sont ornées, en Inde, les divinités que ne cesse de célébrer le Mōhiniyāṭṭam ou « danse de l’Enchanteresse ». La dévotion avec tout l’élan de l’être – l’intellect, l’esprit, sans omettre le corps –, c’est bien un aspect essentiel de cette forme d’expression, ô combien subtile ; c’est également ce qui anime, avec ferveur, la danse et la musique indiennes. Ce nouveau Cd, de la très belle collection...

  6. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  7. L'impossible cartographie du terrorisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Le terrorisme n'existe pas : ou plus exactement, ce n'est pas un concept utilisable par les sciences sociales et la stratégie. En revanche l'usage du terme a une forte signification politique. Pour expliquer ce paradoxe apparent, il est nécessaire d'analyser les usages du terme terrorisme et leurs implications. Nous qu'adversaires en présence comme tiers, victimes, font du terrorisme une forme de conflit spécifique qui aurait sa propre unité et qui pourrait être analysé selon une grille de le...

  8. Du glacier au glacier rocheux, depuis la fin du Petit Âge Glaciaire, au pied du Mont Thabor (Alpes du Nord, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Monnier, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Le glacier rocheux du Thabor-Cheval Blanc, à l’extrême sud de la Savoie (Alpes du Nord françaises), est un spécimen spectaculaire et fascinant. D’après les informations fournies par des documents historiques (cartes et croquis anciens), ce glacier rocheux s’est dévoilé dans le paysage au cours des deux derniers siècles : un vrai glacier se trouvait effectivement à son emplacement à la fin du Petit Âge Glaciaire. L’objectif de cet article est de comprendre comment a pu se produire une évolutio...

  9. Optimisation d'un systeme d'antigivrage a air chaud pour aile d'avion basee sur la methode du krigeage dual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannat, Ridha

    The aim of this thesis is to apply a new methodology of optimization based on the dual kriging method to a hot air anti-icing system for airplanes wings. The anti-icing system consists of a piccolo tube placed along the span of the wing, in the leading edge area. The hot air is injected through small nozzles and impact on the inner wall of the wing. The objective function targeted by the optimization is the effectiveness of the heat transfer of the anti-icing system. This heat transfer effectiveness is regarded as being the ratio of the wing inner wall heat flux and the sum of all the nozzles heat flows of the anti-icing system. The methodology adopted to optimize an anti-icing system consists of three steps. The first step is to build a database according to the Box-Behnken design of experiment. The objective function is then modeled by the dual kriging method and finally the SQP optimization method is applied. One of the advantages of the dual kriging is that the model passes exactly through all measurement points, but it can also take into account the numerical errors and deviates from these points. Moreover, the kriged model can be updated at each new numerical simulation. These features of the dual kriging seem to give a good tool to build the response surfaces necessary for the anti-icing system optimization. The first chapter presents a literature review and the optimization problem related to the antiicing system. Chapters two, three and four present the three articles submitted. Chapter two is devoted to the validation of CFD codes used to perform the numerical simulations of an anti-icing system and to compute the conjugate heat transfer (CHT). The CHT is calculated by taking into account the external flow around the airfoil, the internal flow in the anti-icing system, and the conduction in the wing. The heat transfer coefficient at the external skin of the airfoil is almost the same if the external flow is taken into account or no. Therefore, only the

  10. Gênes et les réseaux du commerce du sucre à la fin du Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerfelli, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La présente contribution examine le rôle des hommes d’affaires génois dans le commerce du sucre en Méditerranée, à la fin du Moyen Âge. S’ils montrent un désintérêt progressif pour ce trafic lucratif en Orient, notamment dans le royaume de Chypre, ils sont en revanche plus dynamiques en Sicile et surtout dans le royaume de Grenade. Dans cette dernière région, ils s’implantent solidement et obtiennent le monopole de l’exportation du sucre et des fruits secs, qu’ils acheminent jusqu’en Mer du N...

  11. Effets des contraintes mécaniques du sol sur la limitation des rendements du tournesol

    OpenAIRE

    Mirleau-Thebaud, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    La production de tournesol inclue des interactions complexes entre le génotype et l'environnement tout au long du cycle de la culture. La profondeur de l'enracinement du tournesol est fortement liée au sol, à sa structure et à la disponibilité en eau. La compaction du sol représente un enjeu important dans le contexte actuel de la durabilité des systèmes agricoles, et se caractérise par une diminution de la disponibilité hydrique du sol, une augmentation de la densité apparente et la résistan...

  12. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  13. Study of identification of AIJ/RPTES sites and the prospects for vulgarization of the solar energy systems in the Boucle du Mouhoun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy needs of the populations in Burkina Faso are enormous and it is difficult to satisfy. The main source of energy is the heating wood. The demand for wood of heating is increasingly strong involves the environment degradation. Thus the Regional Program in the Traditional energy sector (RPTES) takes place to fight against deforestation and to promote the use of other energy sources such as photovoltaic solar systems and petroleum. The aim of this study is to determine the needs of the households, of the groupings and associations and of the institutions in energy. It is a question of determining the adequate strategy to promote the photovoltaic solar systems in rural environment in order to meet the requirements in Community lighting, lighting and conservation of the drugs in the health centres and in leisure

  14. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  15. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  16. A geographic information system for the study of past epidemics: The 1705 epidemic in Martigues (Bouches-du-Rhône, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfan Tzortzis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 18th century, the Provence region was hit by several severe epidemics whose causes are still not clearly understood.To draw up epidemic profiles and to identify the pathogenic agents concerned, we constituted a large onomastic database and built ageographic information system for Martigues, a medium-sized community in the south of France. The cross-linking of epidemiological,spatial and demographical data allows us to propose a new diagnosis for the epidemic which reached Martigues in the autumn of 1705.

  17. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  18. Report about the optimization of the biofuel industry sustaining system; Rapport sur l'optimisation du dispositif de soutien a la filiere biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.; Hespel, V.; Dupre, J.Y.; Baratin, F.; Gagey, D

    2005-07-01

    At the end of 2004, the French government has fixed up the ambitious goal of developing biofuels conformably with the objectives of the 2003/30/CE European directive: the level of blending gasoline and diesel fuels with biofuels should reach 5.75% of the energetic value by 2010. In 2004 this level was only 0.8%, i.e. 7 times less. In order to reach such a goal, the government has implemented two tools: a classical tax exemption tool, already used by other European partners, and a new tool created by the 2005 finances law: the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP). This report presents the main characteristics of biofuel industries and the policies implemented in favor of biofuels. It analyzes the new system and its implementation (tax exemption and TGAP) and proposes new markets for the French agriculture. It recommends to take into considerations the constraints and needs of the fuels market, that the government establishes a new regulation for this market, reforms the existing fiscal system and takes complementary dispositions (intervention at the European Communities level, development of research..). Several appendixes illustrate this report. (J.S.)

  19. Infection tracers: past, present and future; Radiotraceurs et recherche d'infection du systeme musculo-squelettique: passe, present et futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin MD, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hotel Dieu de Montreal, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Clinical and para-clinical findings are still the mainstay for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, especially osteomyelitis. No single complementary imaging technique has 100% specificity and sensitivity for every case of musculoskeletal infection. Depending on the age of the patient, presence of orthopedic hardware, location of infection, underlying bone and systemic conditions, the choice of imaging modalities must be tailored to the patient's condition. Plain radiographs are performed first and may be sufficient. In children, bone scan is highly accurate to diagnose osteomyelitis. Labeled leukocytes with complementary bone or bone marrow studies are recommended for orthopedic hardware or diabetic foot. Finally, gallium scanning is useful for the diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis. Current radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosing infection also label inflammation, which limits specificity. Newer products, as Infecton and {sup 18}F-FDG, are currently under investigation for the differentiation between infection and sterile inflammation. (author)

  20. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  1. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  2. Desogestrel enhances ventilation in ondine patients: Animal data involving serotoninergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Fanny; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Verkaeren, Emilienne; Cardot, Philippe; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Frugière, Alain; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a neurorespiratory disease characterized by life-threatening sleep-related hypoventilation involving an alteration of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity. Incidental findings have suggested that desogestrel may allow recovery of the ventilatory response to CO2. The effects of desogestrel on resting ventilation have not been reported. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that desogestrel strengthens baseline ventilation by analyzing the ventilation of CCHS patients. Rodent models were used in order to determine the mechanisms involved. Ventilation in CCHS patients was measured with a pneumotachometer. In mice, ventilatory neural activity was recorded from ex vivo medullary-spinal cord preparations, ventilation was measured by plethysmography and c-fos expression was studied in medullary respiratory nuclei. Desogestrel increased baseline respiratory frequency of CCHS patients leading to a decrease in their PETCO2. In medullary spinal-cord preparations or in vivo mice, the metabolite of desogestrel, etonogestrel, induced an increase in respiratory frequency that necessitated the functioning of serotoninergic systems, and modulated GABAA and NMDA ventilatory regulations. c-FOS analysis showed the involvement of medullary respiratory groups of cell including serotoninergic neurons of the raphe pallidus and raphe obscurus nuclei that seem to play a key role. Thus, desogestrel may improve resting ventilation in CCHS patients by a stimulant effect on baseline respiratory frequency. Our data open up clinical perspectives based on the combination of this progestin with serotoninergic drugs to enhance ventilation in CCHS patients. PMID:27040794

  3. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Kashiko S; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2013-03-20

    Sexually naive male mice show robust aggressive behavior toward pups. However, the proportion of male mice exhibiting pup-directed aggression declines after cohabitation with a pregnant female for 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, on becoming fathers, they show parental behavior toward pups, similar to maternal behavior by mothers. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral transition, we examined brain regions differentially activated in sexually naive males and fathers after exposure to pups, using c-Fos expression as a neuronal activation marker. We found that, after pup exposure, subsets of neurons along the vomeronasal neural pathway-including the vomeronasal sensory neurons, the accessory olfactory bulb, the posterior medial amygdala, the medioposterior division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamic area-were more strongly activated in sexually naive males than in fathers. Notably, c-Fos induction was not observed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons of fathers after pup exposure. Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of parental behavior. These results suggest that chemical cues evoking pup-directed aggression are received by the vomeronasal sensory neurons and activate the vomeronasal neural pathway in sexually naive male mice but not in fathers. Thus, the downregulation of pup pheromone-induced activation of the vomeronasal system might be important for the behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice. PMID:23516278

  4. Analyse de la formation des phases du systeme cuivre-germanium par diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons d'epaisseur nanoscopique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Alexandre

    With the miniaturization of electronic devices, driven by cost reduction and performance increase, new materials have to be introduced in their fabrication process to solve many emerging problems. These challenges are brought forth by the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors), a comity in charge of listing the technological needs for the upcoming generations of integrated circuits. Many fields of interest require new technological developments, from global to local interconnections, the transistor gate, the gate insulator thickness, etc. One of the major challenges mentioned in the ITRS roadmap is the need for a new interconnection material. Indeed, the need for a diffusion barrier for the copper lines in local and global interconnections of integrated circuits, the main technology in today's devices, is becoming more hindering with the decrease of the metallization lines. cross-section. In the 90's, a binary compound of copper and germanium, known as the epsilon1-Cu3Ge phase, was investigated as a replacement for aluminum because of its low resistivity, that can reach as low as 5.5muO·cm [1], its stability in contact with both silicon and silicon oxide [2] as well as its thermal stability during anneals [3]. However, copper proved to be a better choice at the time because of its low bulk resistivity of 1.68muO·cm at room temperature[4]. The objective of this master thesis is to re-examine the copper-germanium system, and more specifically the epsilon1-Cu3Ge, for future applications in the microelectronics industry. Different X ray diffraction techniques were used to obtain more information on the system, including in situ X ray diffraction during 3°C/s anneals in an inert helium atmosphere with simultaneous resistance measurement, theta-2theta scans to detect diffraction peaks of the present phases after sample quenching as well as partial acquisition of the reciprocal space of quenched samples which allowed to obtain pole figures for d

  5. In-house validation study of the DuPont Qualicon BAX system Q7 instrument with the BAX system PCR Assay for Salmonella (modification of AOAC Official Method 2003.09 and AOAC Research Institute Performance-Tested Method 100201).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, George; Andaloro, Bridget; White, H Kirk; Bolton, Lance; Wang, Siqun; Davis, Eugene; Wallace, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, DuPont Qualicon introduced the BAX system Q7 instrument for use with its assays. To demonstrate the equivalence of the new and old instruments, a validation study was conducted using the BAX system PCR Assay for Salmonella, AOAC Official Method 2003.09, on three food types. The foods were simultaneously analyzed with the BAX system Q7 instrument and either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method for detecting Salmonella. Comparable performance between the BAX system and the reference methods was observed. Of the 75 paired samples analyzed, 39 samples were positive by both the BAX system and reference methods, and 36 samples were negative by both the BAX system and reference methods, demonstrating 100% correlation. Inclusivity and exclusivity for the BAX system Q7 instrument were also established by testing 50 Salmonella strains and 20 non-Salmonella isolates. All Salmonella strains returned positive results, and all non-Salmonella isolates returned a negative response. PMID:19610394

  6. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the

  7. Les comptes de productivite integres : contributions a la mesure du capital

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Ryan; Gu, Wulong; Baldwin, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Les mesures de la productivite sont calculees en etablissant une comparaison entre les sorties et les entrees. Le Systeme de comptabilite nationale (SCN) du Canada offre un cadre utile pour organiser les renseignements necessaires aux comparaisons de ce type. Les systemes integres des comptes economiques presentent des estimations de rechange coherentes et uniformes des differents concepts pouvant etre utilises pour mesurer la productivite.

  8. Le respect du droit du travail : entre politique de contrôle et politique pénale

    OpenAIRE

    Auvergnon, Philippe; Laviolette, Sandrine

    2004-01-01

    Le respect du droit du travail – ou sa moindre ineffectivité - tient en partie à l'action de l'inspection du travail. Dans quelle mesure s'inscrit-elle dans une politique de contrôle ? L'action pénale, elle-même inscrite ou non dans une politique pénale, peut aussi contribuer au respect du droit du travail en sanctionnant le relevé d'infractions. Le présent rapport tente de revisiter les pratiques et les relations entretenues entre Inspection du travail et Parquet, à partir d'une part de l'an...

  9. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  10. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Smeets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le voyageur français au XIXe, c'est le home sweet home.

  11. Etude du comportement biogéochimique du carbone dans le lac Kivu au nord-ouest du Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Rwabuhungu Rwatangabo, Digne

    2008-01-01

    RésuméLe Rift Est-Africain comprend plusieurs grands lacs, dont le lac Kivu situé entre 1°34’et 2°30’ de latitude Sud et compris entre 28°50’ et 29°23’ de longitude Est. Ce lac,localisé au nord-ouest du Rwanda à la frontière avec la République Démocratique duCongo, présente une spécificité unique au monde: ses eaux profondes contiennentune gigantesque quantité de gaz dissous (3/4 de dioxyde de carbone (CO2), 1/4 degaz méthane (CH4)).Les études antérieures indiquent que les eaux du lac Kivu pr...

  12. Chapitre XI. Normes familiales et usages du droit

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Claude

    2015-01-01

    En analysant 24 configurations familiales recomposées, nous avons pu apprécier comment se différencient les attitudes à l’égard du droit en fonction du capital culturel, du projet conjugal et du degré ou du type de communication dans le réseau familial élargi. En effet, comme nous l’avons évoqué, il est possible de distinguer différents usages du droit : du point de vue du droit civil, soit les acteurs évitent d’y recourir et préfèrent des situations de fait qui correspondent à des accords né...

  13. Établissements recevant du public

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Synthèse pour les installations électriques, des règles de sécurité contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public (ERP), selon l’arrêté du 25 juin 1980 modifié. L'ouvrage traite à la fois des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe (1ère à 4ème catégorie), du 2ème groupe (5ème catégorie) et des règles particulières applicables aux différents types d'établissements (structures d'accueil pour personnes âgées ou handicapées, hôtels, magasins de vente, restaurants et débit de boisson, établissements de soins, administration, châpiteaux, etc...) Sont ainsi notamment traités, dans le cadre des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe, pour les installations électriques normales : les installations des appareils, tableaux et canalisations, les locaux électriques et installation de machines, l'éclairage normal des locaux accessibles au public, le chauffage et la ventilation, l'installation d'eau chaude sanita...

  14. Measurement of doses delivered by the CyberKnife{sup R} imagery system during the treatment of lung lesions with respect to the follow-up algorithm and to the pulmonary location; Mesure de la dose delivree par le systeme d'imagerie du CyberKnife lors du traitement de lesions du poumon en fonction de l'algorithme de suivi et de la localisation pulmonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, G.; Palamini, G.; Bondiau, P.Y. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report measurements of the dose delivered by the CyberKnife imagery system, the analysis of the relationship between the treatment follow-up algorithm, the pulmonary location (upper or lower lobe) and the delivered dose. Input dose measurements have been performed in treatment conditions with an Unfors XI dosimeter and an anthropomorphic phantom. Measurements have been performed for different operating combinations. Delivered doses vary very much with respect to the adopted follow-up method and from one patient to the other. Other parameters are also important: tracking difficulty, breathe tracking, patient's movement, operator's expertise. Measurements allowed shot frequency to be modulated, and will allow the dose delivered by the imagery system to be included in the patient's medical file. Short communication

  15. Recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Abitbol

    2008-01-01

    Le Centre de recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc (CRJM) a été créé, en mai 1994, à Paris à l’initiative de Monsieur Robert Assaraf, après de longs mois de concertations, de discussions et d’études préalables. Il s’agit d’une institution internationale, à vocation universitaire et scientifique qui s’est fixé pour but essentiel de développer, par tous les moyens, la connaissance et l’étude de l’histoire des Juifs du Maroc. Une histoire trois fois millénaire qui remonte à la destruction du premier ...

  16. Pouvoir du parasol et pouvoir nu

    OpenAIRE

    Dakhlia, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Delacroix a immortalisé la posture altière du sultan marocain à cheval à travers plusieurs œuvres : dans ces représentations, le parasol incarne l’emblème par excellence de la dynastie alaouite et de la royauté marocaine dans son ensemble. Tout en retraçant rapidement l’histoire du parasol comme objet régalien dans le monde musulman, on s’interrogera sur une certaine discordance entre l’image très imposante de la royauté que perçoivent les observateurs européens du xixe siècle et une traditio...

  17. Théories du nombre

    OpenAIRE

    Reynié, Dominique

    1988-01-01

    La naissance de l'État moderne est allée de pair avec l'apparition de son grand vis-à-vis : le nombre. Depuis l'émergence de la politique moderne, on trouve une pluralité de discours qui tentent de théoriser la place des masses dans la société civile et politique. Aux théories du XIXe siècle dominées par une crainte plus ou moins avouée du nombre, succèdent celles du XXe siècle qui le présentent au contraire comme le grand sujet de la domination. La mise en valeur de ce renversement de pro...

  18. Les Barthes, Labastide-du-Temple, Lizac

    OpenAIRE

    Hautefeuille, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Date de l'opération : 1991 (PR) Inventeur(s) : Hautefeuille Florent La prospection diachronique entreprise sur les trois communes avait pour but de déterminer l’importance de l’occupation humaine mais aussi d’envisager la restitution du couvert végétal au travers d’une esquisse d’archéologie du paysage. La zone couverte, plus de 3000 ha, s’insère dans un contexte géographique qui se situe autour de deux méandres du Tarn, entre sa confluence avec la Garonne et celle, plus en amont, avec l’Avey...

  19. L'épreuve du feu

    OpenAIRE

    Pécout, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Entre Causses et Cévennes au Nord, et plaine littorale au sud, les collines calcaires du Bas-Languedoc sont couvertes d'une formation végétale particulière, qui va de la lande au taillis, et du taillis à la forêt. Ces immenses étendues sèches, presque inhabitées, peuvent apparaître au premier regard comme le domaine d'une nature intacte... Ce sont pourtant des terres façonnées par l'usage agro-pastoral depuis fort longtemps, et qui ne sont redevenues « sauvages » que tout récemment. Age du cu...

  20. Aux sources de l'histoire du pays soninké : le cas du Kingi (Mali)

    OpenAIRE

    Chastanet, Monique

    1990-01-01

    Le livre de M. DIAWARA, La graine de la parole... dont il est question dans cet article, traite des différents types de traditions orales historiques de l'Etat du Kingi, du 15ème au milieu du 19ème siècle. Il met en rapport leurs fonctions socio-politiques avec les transformations de cette société et analyse leurs modes de transmission, plus ou moins formalisés. Cette étude concerne aussi bien les traditions familiales que celles des spécialistes et souligne, notamment, le rôle des femmes et ...

  1. Report of the National Sub-Committee to the Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee on the Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management System=Rapport du Sous-Comite National presente au Comite de Coordination du Programme de Normes Interprovincials sur le systeme de gestion des examens informatises interprovinciaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Brunswick Dept. of Advanced Education and Training, Fredericton. Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee.

    In January 1985, Employment and Immigration Canada funded a pilot project in New Brunswick for the development and testing of an Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management (ICEM) System. The resulting system is comprised of a dual interprovincial and provincial item bank facility, a software component offering the option of computerized…

  2. Présentation du dossier

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    L’objet du présent dossier est d’interroger des pratiques d'entretiens qui visent l'élucidation et la conscientisation par l'apprenant de son propre fonctionnement mental en situation d'apprentissage. Cette réflexion vise à confronter trois approches, certes différentes, mais qui poursuivent des finalités voisines et pourraient s'avérer complémentaires : celle du dialogue pédagogique, pratiqué en gestion mentale, celle de l’entretien de type critique, inspiré des travaux de Jean Piaget, et en...

  3. Il mercato del lavoro nel mutamento del sistema penitenziario: dalle rivoluzioni industriali ai networks sociali / Labour market and changement of the penitentiary system: from the Industrial Revolutions to the social networks / Marché du travail et changement du système pénitentiaire à partir des révolutions industrielles jusqu'aux réseaux sociaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanci Giovanna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a close connection between the prison institution and the labour market which leads back to the origins of prison, in a modern sense. The social, economic and political background of this relationship is marked by the “industrial revolutions”, because during these times the ideas of «division of labour» and «discipline» were defined and consequently influenced the new prison organization models. The Penitentiary Act recognizes the prisoner's right to work. Therefore to fill the gap between the prison and the territory, a political integrated model – both social and penitentiary – is required. In the text, this will be illustrated by experiences of prisoners and ex-prisoners at the Information Office Windows. The network method has given input to a procedure considered as an efficient way of managing the social complexity and a fair services distribution device; but, at the same time, it introduces “alternative” forms of social control.La naissance des prisons et le marché du travail sont liés par une relation qui revient aux origines de la prison en sens moderne. La scène qui fait d’arrière-plan à cette relation est contremarquée par les révolutions industrielles pendant lesquelles les notions de «division du travail» et de «discipline» ont été définies et ont étés décisives afin d'élaborer un modèle nouveau d'organisation des prisons. Aujourd’hui la législation pénitentiaire reconnaît au prisonnier le droit au travail: de cette façon, la liason entre la prison et le territoire requiert un plan intégré composé par de politiques pénitentiaires et sociales, ici expliqué par l’expérience positive des Guichets d'information pour détenus et ancien détenus. Le système de réseau a fait démarrer une “proceduralisation” qui apparaît un outil efficace de gestion de la complexité sociale et d’une equitable destination des services, mais qui risque de produire aussi des systèmes

  4. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  5. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries and arguably binding…

  6. Office Automation Pilot: A Paperless Approach at College of DuPage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bart

    The pilot project described in this report was undertaken by the College of DuPage (CD) to increase the clerical efficiency of seven administrative offices through the installation of a computerized word processing and data transmission system. The first section of the report provides background information detailing: the history of computer…

  7. L'évolution du peuplement sudarabique du Ier au VIe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    Cette contribution s'arrête sur la question suivante : un déclin du peuplement s'observe-t-il en Arabie du Sud à la veille de l'islam ? Et si tel est le cas, comment l'expliquer ? Le traitement cartographique des données nous permet dans un premier temps d'observer l'évolution du réseau urbain sudarabique. Celui-ci semble s'étioler. Dans un second temps, la documentation est considérée d'un point de vue critique, afin de cerner dans quelle mesure une diminution de la densité du réseau urbain ...

  8. Figurations du crime, figurations du lieu commun de la littérature moderne

    OpenAIRE

    Daros, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Peut-être de façon générale est-on en droit de suggérer une double polarité, absolument dialectique d’ailleurs, sur les figurations du roman du crime. Selon la première, historiquement constitutive de ce sous-genre romanesque, le crime, comme événement fictionnel fondateur du muthos, est le support même de la représentation comme configuration d’un ordre du monde interprétable par la raison et, je le suppose, Hegel aurait été grand consommateur de cette littérature où le sujet non maître de s...

  9. Johannes Angermuller, Analyse du discours poststructuraliste. Les voix du sujet chez Lacan, Althusser, Foucault, Derrida, Sollers

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhaumou, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Si l’approche foucaldienne du discours apparaît quelque peu hybride au regard des développements récents en pragmatique du discours, il n’en reste pas moins que Johannes Angermuller y voit, au titre de l’accent mis dans L’archéologie du savoir sur l’instance de l’événement énonciatif, un modèle interprétatif propice à une compréhension globale du champ de l’analyse de discours, donc de sa construction par étapes au cours des années soixante-dix / quatre-vingt. En effet, le point de vue foucal...

  10. L’ombre du Condor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gaudichaud

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on observe aujourd’hui, avec un regard d’historien, le Cône Sud à la fin des années soixante soixante-dix et que par, la suite, on tourne une page de quelques années, pour fixer la même partie du monde, le constat est sans appel : le sous-continent latino-américain est passé, en général, d’une phase de forte mobilisation et politisation sociale, montée en puissance de partis et organisations révolutionnaires, surgissements de gouvernements populistes de gauche ou progressistes – appelant à une rupture avec l’impérialisme –, à un reflux généralisé du mouvement ouvrier, une ère de violence politique étatisée, la destruction massive de tous les espaces d’expression et de participation démocratiques, l’écrasement physique et idéologique sans relâche des militants et mouvements révolutionnaires, la mise en place de modèles économiques capitalistes dirigistes puis/ou néolibéraux. Que s’est-il passé ? Quel fil conducteur a été rompu et par quels moyens l’Amérique Latine a été conduite à ce reflux des luttes sociales ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous contenterons dans cet article de focaliser notre objectif sur un aspect spécifique et essentiel de ce retournement de tendance que vit alors l���Amérique Latine : celui de la mise en place d’un terrorisme d’Etat contre-révolutionnaire transnational, appuyé par l’impérialisme américain, nommé « l’Opération Condor ». Dans cet article, il s’agit de montrer le fonctionnement d’un terrorisme hégémonique dont l’impact sur les sociétés latino-américaines est considérable en termes de destruction du mouvement social, des activités culturelles et de l’ensemble de la vie sociale et politique qui restent marquées, encore aujourd’hui à des degrés divers, par la violence, la peur et l’atomisation structurelle.Si miramos hoy en día, desde una perspectiva histórica, el Cono Sur hacia finales de

  11. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  12. Design and implementation of the decision unit of the first level trigger system of the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); Conception et realisation de l'unite de decision du systeme de declenchement de premier niveau du detecteur LHCb au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubser, J

    2007-11-15

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four particle physic detector installed at the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. In order to reduce the amount of data storage for offline analysis, an online trigger system of interesting event according to the studied physic is implemented in parallel of the Data Acquisition system. The trigger system is composed by a first level (Level-0) made by a complex electronic system and a second level made by a computing system called the High Level Trigger. The Level-0 Decision Unit is the central part of the first trigger level that takes the decision to accept or to reject the event by using a fraction of information coming from the fastest sub-triggers (432 bits at 80 MHz). It is a full custom 16 layers board using advanced FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in BGA (Bill Grid Array) package. Each sub-trigger transmit their data via high speed optical links running at 1.6 Gbit/s. The processing is implemented using a 40 MHz synchronous pipelined architecture. It performs a simple physical algorithm to compute the Level-0 trigger decision in order to reduce the data flow from 40 MHz down to 1 MHz for the next trigger level. The internal design of the processing FPGA is mainly composed by a Partial Data Processing (PDP) and a Trigger Definition Unit (TDU). The aim of the PDP is to adjust the clock phase, perform the time alignment, prepare the data for the TDU and monitor the data processing. The TDU is flexible and allows to fully re-configure all the trigger conditions through the Experiment Control System without any FPGA re-programming. (author)

  13. Dans le grand collisionneur du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Ce livre fait pénétrer le lecteur non initié dans l’instrument scientifique le plus grand du monde. D’ailleurs, le web fut précisément inventé à Genève en vue d’une collaboration aussi gigantesque. Résultat de vingt ans de recherche, le LHC, Grand collisionneur de hadrons, est l’anneau de 26,7 km creusé sous la frontière francosuisse, où sont accélérés, en sens opposés, des paquets de particules jusqu’à des vitesses et des énergies extrêmes. Ainsi la physique s’est-elle engagée dans une étape nouvelle de nos connaissances. Après les grandes découvertes de l’univers et de la réalité microscopique du siècle dernier, le collisionneur nous fait progresser aujourd’hui dans un «nuage de probabilités» aux frontières de l’antimatière. Dans une bousculade de particules, voici le champ convoité du boson de Higgs. Mario Campanelli, professeur associé à l’Université de Londres et collaborateur au projet ATLAS du LHC, propose, dans cet ouvrage, de s’introduire pas �...

  14. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  15. Les écueils du double jeu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverin Muller

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une expérience d’observation participante qui a consisté à travailler comme ouvrier puis à intégrer les bureaux de la direction dans un abattoir industriel, l’auteur étudie les effets cognitifs de la transgression d’un ordre établi dans l’entreprise : les ouvriers avec les ouvriers et les cadres avec les cadres. Les situations décrites de rupture avec les usages du milieu permettent de réfléchir aux façons d’être identifié selon les circonstances, aux formes d’instrumentalisation du chercheur sur son terrain, aux manières dont la confiance s’acquiert se maintient ou se perd dans un environnement conflictuel (selon quels critères propres à chaque groupe sommes nous acceptés, cooptés ou exclus ?. Finalement, la démarche transversale et le jeu transgressif qu’elle suggère participent à l’apprentissage des systèmes de référence non partagés au sein d’une même organisation.Starting from an experiment of participating observation which consisted in working as worker then to integrate the offices of the direction in an industrial slaughterhouse, the author studies the cognitive effects of the transgression of an order established in the company: workers with the workers and managers with the managers. The described situations of rupture with the uses of the social sphere make it possible to think of the ways of being identified according to circumstances, the shapes of « instrumentalisation » of the researcher on his field, with the ways in which confidence is acquired, is maintained or lost in a conflict environment (according to which specific criteria to each group are us accepted, co-opted or excluded?. Finally, the transverse way and the transgressive play that it suggests take part in the training of the systems of reference not shared in the same organization.A partir de un experimento de observación participante que consistió en trabajar como obrero antes de integrar las

  16. Scientific works of research workers of the army health service; Travaux scientifiques des chercheurs du service de sante des armees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Ten articles about the effects of gamma radiation on human or animal cells are studied here. Regulation of cytokines, effect of interleukin 6, expression of the C-fos protein, interest of the study of a biological check up after an accidental irradiation, interaction and transport of cysteamine( radioprotector), approach of a treatment of radioinduced medullary aplasia, expression of TNF alpha and gelatinase B, are the subjects related here. (N.C.).

  17. L’implication des organisations non gouvernementales dans les systèmes de santé des pays du Sud: l’exemple du Shisong Cardiac Centre The involvement of NGOs in the health systems in developing countries: the example of Shisong Cardiac Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butera Gianfranco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans le tiers monde, près de 800 000 enfants naissent chaque année avec des cardiopathies congénitales (CC. Plusieurs millions d’enfants y vivent avec des CC corrigeables et une grande majorité décède à cause de l’absence de structure médicale spécialisée dans la correction chirurgicale totale ou palliative. C’est dans cette optique que l’association Associazione bambini cardiopatici nel mondo (Association mondiale des enfants cardiopathes a été créée. Grâce aux efforts de cette association, plus de 500 enfants souffrant de CC ont pu être évacués et soignés à l’hôpital de San Donato et plus 800 dans leur pays. Près de 200 praticiens en provenance des pays du Sud ont dans cette même perspective bénéficiée d’une formation en Italie. Cent quinze missions chirurgicales ont été réalisées dans différents pays: Egypte, Tunisie, Libye, Palestine, Cameroun, Roumanie, Azerbaïdjan, Pérou, Syrie, Yémen, Kurdistan et au Mali. Plusieurs hôpitaux ont été équipés gratuitement. Actuellement, l’association œuvre ardemment pour la réalisation de trois projets essentiels dont l’un est la construction d’un centre cardiaque dans la région de Shisong au Cameroun (Shisong Cardiac Centre. Ce centre cardiaque sera équipé d’appareils de dernière génération permettant de réaliser des investigations et la chirurgie cardiaques. L’inauguration de ce centre est prévue pour Novembre 2009.

  18. Experimental study of the U(VI)-Humate-H{sub 2}O system with respect to the pH (4-12) at T = 25 deg C, 0.1MPa; Etude expeimentale du systeme U (VI) - Humate - H{sub 2}O en fonction du pH (4-12) a T = 25 deg C, 0.1MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourtier, E.; Deng, C. [UHP Nancy1, UMR7566G2R, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Nguyen-Trung, C. [CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Perdicakis, M.; Bordg, D. [LCPME, 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-01

    Within the frame of the investigation of interactions between uranium (VI) and hydrosoluble organic compounds for the prediction of the evolution of this ion in natural aquatic systems, and in order to obtain some missing data, the authors report a systematic experimental investigation of the interactions between U(VI) and humate in aqueous media. This study comprises a synthesis of humic acid, detection, identification and characterization of U(VI)-humate compounds with respect to different parameters (pH, U(VI) content and humate chemical composition), and the determination of conditional formation constants with respect to the pH. Significant results are commented

  19. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation; Utilisation du systeme Take-set pour le radiomarquage des medicaments radiopharmaceutiques: exemple de la preparation du pentetreotide marque a l'indium 111 (Octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M. [Hopital Beaujon, Unite de Radiopharmacie, Service de Pharmacie-toxicologie, 92 - Clichy (France); Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire92 - Clichy (France)

    2009-09-15

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  20. Essai de synthèse stratigraphique et palynologique du système dévonien en Lybie occidentale Stratigraphic and Palynological Synthesis Attempt of the Denovian System in Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massa D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux sondages profonds ont été réalisés lors des recherches pétrolières en Libye occidentale (bassin de Rhadamès. Simultanément, les zones d'affleurement ont été étudiées avec soin. Dans le présent travail, les auteurs présentent des conclusions stratigraphiques et palynologiques nouvelles. Les cycles sédimentaires qui constituent le Dévonien ont une épaisseur qui n'excède pas le millier de mètres. Ils sont subdivisés en sept formations qui couvrent l'intervalle stratigraphique allant du Praguien au Strunien. Ainsi, le Couvinien, le Givétien, le Frasnien et le Famennien ont été différenciés. Le Dévonien basal (Lochkovien est absent. Les corrélations latérales pour l'ensemble du bassin considéré sont satisfaisantes. Une trentaine de sondages ont été étudiés en palynologie. Ils ont montré une extraordinaire richesse en spores dans tout le Dévonien. II a été possible de différencier onze Palynozones, à partir des Spores et Chitinozoaires présents. En comparant les faunes et les microflores dévoniennes présentes en Libye, à celles connues en Europe, en Afrique du Nord et en d'autres régions, on obtient une biostratigraphie homogène et cohérente. Numerous deep boreholes have been drilled during oil prospection in western Libya (Rhadames Basin. At the same time, outcrop areas have been carefully examined. This article gives new stratigraphic and palynological conclusions. The sedimentary cycles making up the Devonian are no more than 1,000 meters thick. They are subdivided into seven formations, covering the stratigraphic interval from the Praguian ta the Strunian. In this way, the Couvinian, Givetian, Frasnian and Famennian are differentiated. The lowermost part of the Devonian (Lochkovian is missing. The lateral corrélations for the entire basin being considered are satisfactory. The palynology has been numerous in the Devonian. Eleven polynozones are differentiated on the basis of spores and

  1. Increase of gas transportation reliability as a foundation of dispatching management and training integrated systems; Accroissement de la fiabilite de transport du gaz a la base des systemes integres de la gestion dispatching et de la formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, L.I.; Posyagin, B.S. [S.A. Sardanashvili (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    In order to ensure the reliability and safety of modern complex gas transportation systems, specific simulators have been developed for the training of dispatching centers personnel. This article presents Gazprom's Russian experience in the development of computerized integrated management systems for the monitoring of gas pipeline networks. These systems integrate data collection, storage, processing, visualization and modeling tools for decision making, real-time management, tests and training. (J.S.)

  2. Observations sur les fondements acoustiques et perceptifs de certains procedes du systeme verbo-tonal (Observations on the Acoustic and Perceptual Foundations of Some Processes of the Verbo-Tonal System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landercy, Albert; Renard, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article outlines the bases of the verbo-tonal method of correcting phonetic errors in second language learning, a method based on awareness of the phonological system of the learner's native language and its influence on the phonological system of the target language. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  3. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  4. Progress report - fuel cell system of the L2ES 2000-2004; Rapport d'activites - systeme pile a combustible du L2ES 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cell activities started in L2ES in 2000. Among all the definitions of the fuel cell system, the laboratory considers as the fuel cell generator, the stack, the ancillaries (air and hydrogen or more generally fuel supply, valves, humidifier or gas treatment, cooling), power electronics, buffer storage and control. The research topics at L2ES are: - fuel cell system modelling - fuel cell system architecture and its optimization - diagnosis and life time. All these topics are described into details. The perspectives and prospects of the laboratory at middle term are specified. (O.M.)

  5. Disassembler mezikódu jazyka Java

    OpenAIRE

    Macháček, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá popisem struktury mezikódu jazyka Java a disassemblováním instrukcí mezikódu jazyka Java. Součástí této práce je knihovna pro disassemblování souborů tříd jazyka Java. Knihovna umožňuje zobrazit veškeré disassemblované informace uložené v souboru tříd. Pro ukázku práce s knihovnou byla napsána i jednoduchá aplikace s grafickým uživatelským rozhraním. This thesis focus on the structure of Java class file and disassembling bytecode instructions of Java language. Part of ...

  6. Le meurtre du prêtre

    OpenAIRE

    Clayer, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    En septembre 1906, une çeta (bande) albanaise assassine le métropolite orthodoxe de Korçë, ville située à l'ouest de Bitola, dans une région fortement albanophone. A première vue, on pourrait voir dans ce meurtre du chef local de la communauté orthodoxe perpétré par un groupe formé en majeure partie de musulmans la manifestation tangible d'un affrontement religieux. En réalité, cet acte de violence, replacé dans un cadre plus général, doit être interprété sur un autre plan, celui du nationali...

  7. Musique ! : du phonographe au MP3

    OpenAIRE

    Tournès, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    nouvelle édition revue et augmentée de "Du phonographe au MP3. Une histoire de la musique enregistrée, XIXe-XXIe siècle" [2008] Depuis l'invention du phonographe par Thomas Edison en 1877, jusqu'à la révolution Internet, la musique enregistrée a connu une histoire longue et riche en rebondissements que l'on trouvera retracée de manière claire, synthétique et vivante dans ce livre. A l'heure où l'industrie de la musique est engagée depuis le début des années 2000 dans une mutation historiqu...

  8. Approches Somatiques du Corps dans la Danse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’éducation somatique est comprise comme un domaine interdisciplinaire qui porte sur la prise de conscience du corps et de son mouvement, proposant une découverte personnelle de ses propres mouvements, de ses propres sensations. Cet article vise une réflexion à travers quelques notes sur le concept d’éducation somatique, de Soma et de corps, ainsi qu’à mettre en évidence deux approches somatiques incorporées dans les pratiques du sujet en question comme les moyens possibles pour penser ce champ d’étude en danse. L’article part d’une approche phénoménologique fondée sur les études de Merleau-Ponty (1999, en prenant comme technique de recherche la description merleau-pontienne.

  9. Les danses du monde. Exemples musicaux

    OpenAIRE

    Giurchescu, Anca

    2011-01-01

    En publiant son coffret Les danses du monde, Hugo Zemp s’est attelé à la tâche périlleuse de fournir un maximum d’informations sur la danse, mode visuel d’expression humaine intimement lié à la musique. Gravitant autour de la relation étroite et compliquée qui unit la musique à la danse, les exemples parviennent à illustrer de façon équilibrée la grande diversité de l’expression vocale et instrumentale, sa richesse rythmique et dynamique, ainsi que la variété des formes de la danse et du voca...

  10. Conceptualisation statistique du champ de la culture

    OpenAIRE

    Deroin, Valérie; Chaintreau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    La définition du champ statistique de la culture a fait l’objet de travaux européens de 2009 à 2011, après que les nomenclatures nationales (nomenclature d’activités françaises, NAF Rév. 2) et européenne (nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne, NACE Rév. 2) ont été rénovées en 2008. Sous l’égide d’Eurostat, l’Office statistique de l’Union européenne, un groupe de travail européen (Task Force 1) a conçu la structure du nouveau cadre statistique europée...

  11. Contribution to the study of hybrid ventilation system effectiveness in office and educational buildings; Contribution a l'etude de l'efficacite des systemes de ventilation hybride dans les batiments du secteur tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cron, F.

    2004-06-15

    This study is part of the International Energy Agency Annex 35, 'Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retro-fitted Office Buildings', also called the HybVent Project. It presents the numerical analyses of a number of hybrid ventilation systems and their potential for several buildings in relation to local climate characteristics. The first part of this work reviews the state-of-the-art of existing ventilation systems and details the principles, expectations and features of hybrid ventilation systems. This first section also examines some examples of hybrid systems extracted from the collection of Annex 35 case studies. A comprehensive bibliography of numerical tools available for this type of analysis is given in the second section. The numerical models for building simulation and the object-oriented environment used to develop our simulation tool are presented in this section as well. Two single-zone studies undertaken in this project are reported in the third section. The first study concerns an experimental cell simulation. Numerical results are compared to experimental data to validate the use of the simulation tool developed. The second single-zone study predicts the potential of a specific hybrid ventilation system in a typical classroom, given climatic conditions. Finally, the last section presents a more complete study - a multi-zone study of the Tonga school, an Annex 35 case study located in Sweden. Three rooms were modelled initially to compare numerical results to experimental data and then to analyse the performance of the existing hybrid ventilation system and two other systems. This final study was completed for three European cities with very different climates. The overall analysis of the potential of the hybrid ventilation systems considered and the perspective for future work are outlined in the conclusion. (author)

  12. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  13. Du polymorphisme au complexe d'especes : combien d'agents pathogenes sont impliques dans la necrose du collet du colza ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rouxel, Thierry; Gall, C.; Balesdent, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    La nécrose du collet des crucifères, ou «phoma du colza», est une maladie qui a subi une extension considérable à la suite de l’intensification de la culture du colza en Europe, au Canada ou en Australie. Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr) Desm est reconnu depuis de nombreuses années comme étant l’agent responsable de la maladie. La forme sexuée du parasite, phase quasi systématique du cycle, a été identifiée dans les années 1960 à Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm) Ces et de Not. Dès 1927, 2 groupes de so...

  14. Comparative analysis of operation and safety of subcritical nuclear systems and innovative critical reactors; Analyse comparative du fonctionnement et de la surete de systemes sous-critiques et de reacteurs critiques innovants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokov, P.M

    2005-05-01

    The main goal of this thesis work is to investigate the role of core subcriticality for safety enhancement of advanced nuclear systems, in particular, molten salt reactors, devoted to both energy production and waste incineration/transmutation. The inherent safety is considered as ultimate goal of this safety improvement. An attempt to apply a systematic approach for the analysis of the subcriticality contribution to inherent properties of hybrid system was performed. The results of this research prove that in many cases the subcriticality may improve radically the safety characteristics of nuclear reactors, and in some configurations it helps to reach the 'absolute' intrinsic safety. In any case, a proper choice of subcriticality level makes all analyzed transients considerably slower and monotonic. It was shown that the weakest point of the independent-source systems with respect to the intrinsic safety is thermohydraulic unprotected transients, while in the case of the coupled-source systems the excess reactivity/current insertion events remain a matter of concern. To overcome these inherent drawbacks a new principle of realization of a coupled sub-critical system (DENNY concept) is proposed. In addition, the ways to remedy some particular safety-related problems with the help of the core sub-criticality are demonstrated. A preliminary safety analysis of the fast-spectrum molten salt reactor (REBUS concept) is also carried out in this thesis work. Finally, the potential of the alternative (to spallation) neutron sources for application in hybrid systems is examined. (author)

  15. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  16. Modos de ver. Du Bois y Fanon

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Mezzadra

    2014-01-01

    The sovereignty of glance and the primacy of sight represent the Western modern culture far beyond its artistic expression, organizing its philosophical and political conceptuality. They deeply influence the way in which subjects are conceived and constructed in Western modernity. This is the point of departure of the long-distance dialogue between W. E. B. Du Bois and Frantz Fanon staged in the article. Their political thought and militancy developed against the background of experiences – s...

  17. Sådan forebygger du faldulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Bidrag til serien 'Eksperten skriver'. Her gennemgås en kort vejledning til, hvordan man arbejder systematisk med faldforebyggelse. Ved at arbejde systematisk med dine hverdagsobservationer kan du få øje på og reagere på ændringer hos svækkede ældre borgere og på den måde forebygge faldet, før de...

  18. Autour du paradigme d’écotourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Transler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’écotourisme ouvre un cadre conceptuel original qui permet d’envisager des démarches renouvelées de développement à partir des revenus issus de consommations touristiques mieux réfléchies et organisées, susceptibles de soutenir des initiatives de développement local s’inscrivant dans un projet global de développement durable. Variante douce du tourisme, loin du tourisme de masse, le champ de l’écotourisme s’étend aux confins du tourisme de nature, du tourisme culturel et des pratiques scientifiques et sportives de plein air. Une définition de l’écotourisme peut être proposée à partir des six points suivants : 1/ nature et culture, 2/ le bien-être des sociétés hôtes, 3/ des touristes responsables, 4/ la participation des sociétés hôtes, 5/ la durabilité, 6/ l’art de la rencontre.Ecotourism provides an original conceptual framework that enables approaches to development that are better able to provide a more equitable distribution of income, as well as better organized and thought through initiatives which are more likely to promote a holistic sustainable local development. With somewhat less negative impact than normal tourism, considerably less that mass tourism, ecotourism can encompass nature tourism, cultural tourism, scientific exploration, and even outdoor sports... A definition of ecotourism should take into account the following six points: 1/ nature and culture, 2/ the welfare of the host community, tourists acting responsibly, 3/ participation by the local community, 5 / sustainability , 6/ promotion of cultural exchanges

  19. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  20. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  1. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH and Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations

  2. Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail (TAOIT)

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Organization. Geneva

    Le Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail connaît des requêtes formées par les fonctionnaires ou les anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du Travail et des quelque trente organisations qui ont reconnu sa compétence. The ILO Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT) hears complaints from serving and former officials of the International Labour Office or one of the thirty-odd intergovernmental organizations that recognise its jurisdiction.

  3. Rapport d'Activite du Service Medical - 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2003-01-01

    Le rapport annuel de l’année 2002 fait état de l’activité du service médical et de ses conclusions en matière de santé au travail ou de conditions de travail pour les membres du personnel du CERN, c’est à dire!: les titulaires, boursiers, étudiants, utilisateurs, attachés, etc…

  4. LE MARCHE MONDIAL DU VIN ET LES NOUVELLES ORIENTATIONS DU MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Epuran Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Le marché mondial du vin est caractérisé par un développement sans précédent en ce qui concerne la production, mais aussi l’aire géographique qu’il comprend. La surproduction qui a tendance ŕ dégénérer en une crise est due premičrement ŕ l’apparition de nouveaux acteurs sur ce marché, c’est-ŕ-dire les pays du nouveau monde du vin: les Etats-Unis, le Chili, l’Afrique de Sud, l’Australie. Dans ce contexte, les grands producteurs traditionnels de l’Europe sont soumis ŕ une forte pression concurr...

  5. L’arme du chant collectif au cœur du conflit biafrais

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Si des auteurs comme Basden, Leith-Ross et Nwando Achebe ont mentionné dans leurs écrits la puissance du chant dans la culture igbo, le rôle des chants nés du conflit biafrais et les raisons de leur diffusion sont des questions qui n’ont jamais encore été vraiment abordées - ce sera donc le but de cet article. Partant d’un disque de seize chants en igbo (6), anglais (8) et ijo (2) enregistrés pendant la guerre civile nigériane à 15km du front, juste avant la chute d’Umuahia, capitale provisoi...

  6. The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion; La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudies en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion. For a fermions system, it is possible to show, by proper resummation, without approximations but under some 'regularity hypothesis', that Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) takes a form where, besides trivial dependences, {alpha} and {beta} only appear through a statistical factor F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} is a (real) self-consistent potential, generalized to all orders and can be defined by a stationary condition on Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) under variations of F{sub k}{sup -}. The thermodynamical quantities take a form analogous to the expressions Landau introduced for the Fermi liquids. The zero temperature limit (for isotropic systems) gives back Goldstone expressions for the ground state of a system. (author) [French] La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudiee en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations. Pour un systeme de fermions on peut, par des resommations adequates, sans approximations mais sous reserve d'une 'hypothese de regularite', mettre Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) sous une forme ou, en dehors de dependances triviales, {alpha} et {beta} n'interviennent que par l'intermediaire d'un facteur statistique F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} est ici un potentiel self-consistant (reel) generalise a tous les ordres et peut etre defini par une condition de stationnarite de Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) pour des variations de F{sub k}{sup -}. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques prennent une forme analogue aux expressions que LANDAU a introduites pour les liquides de FERMI. A la limite de la temperature nulle (et pour un

  7. Les pathologies du Canal Péritonio-Vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    DJAZIRI, Sihem Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    Les pathologies du canal péritonéo-vaginal, sont des affections congénitales dues à la persistance du canal au delà de la naissance. Elles regroupent les hernies inguinales et inguino-scrotales, les hydrocèles communicantes ou non, et les kystes du cordon spermatique. Notre travail est une étude rétrospective portant sur 309 malades opérés de pathologies du canal péritonio-vaginal dans le service de chirurgie infantile durant la période allant d’octobre 2011 jusqu'à octobre ...

  8. Stylistique(s) contrastive(s) du discours scientifique

    OpenAIRE

    Michel PETIT

    2012-01-01

    On postule que la stylistique a un rôle important à jouer dans l'étude du discours scientifique. Après avoir examiné les facteurs de diversité du discours scientifique et le statut de l'anglais scientifique, on s'intéresse à la question du style scientifique, notamment en termes d'expérience commune. On est enfin conduit, en étudiant les approches contrastives, à envisager une stylistique véritablement contrastive propre à rendre compte des spécificités du discours scientifique.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  10. ALIBABA, an assistance system for the detection of confinement leaks in a PWR reactor; ALIBABA, un systeme d`aide a la detection des voies de fuites du confinement sur un reacteur a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedier, P.O.; Libmann, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Crisis Technical Center (CTC) of the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) is to estimates the consequences of a given nuclear accident on the populations and the environment. ALIBABA is a data processing tool available at the CTC and devoted to the detection of confinement leaks in 900 MWe PWR reactors using the activity values measured by the captors of the installation. The heart of this expert system is a structural and functional representation of the different components directly involved in the leak detection (isolating valves, ventilation systems, electric boards etc..). This tool can manage the availability of each component to make qualitative and quantitative balance-sheets. This paper presents the ALIBABA software, an industrial prototype realized with the SPIRAL knowledge base systems generator at the CEA Reactor Studies and Applied Mathematics Service (SERMA) and commercialized by CRIL-Ingenierie Society. It describes the techniques used for the modeling of PWR systems and for the visualization of the survey. The functionality of the man-machine interface is discussed and the means used for the validation of the software are summarized. (J.S.). 6 refs.

  11. L’exercice autoritatif du blogueur et le genre éditorial du microblogging de Tumblr

    OpenAIRE

    Broudoux, Évelyne

    2014-01-01

    En tant qu’étape intermédiaire de recherche sur les relations qui unissent les concepts de « publication », de « réseaux sociaux » et de « Web de documents », cet article interroge le conditionnement du genre de la publication par des outils de communication en ligne. Quatre mois d’observation participante d’un outil de microblogging (Tumblr) en 2008 montrent les modifications du style et des comportements des auteurs. This article as an intermediary stage in a research—on the relations of...

  12. Les politiques straight du préservatif : VIH, pornographie et technologies du genre

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Kira

    2016-01-01

    Les productions pornographiques bisexuelles et « shemale » donnent à voir des configurations particulières de l’usage du préservatif qui informent tant sur les politiques du VIH que sur les politiques sexuelles au sein de cette industrie. Dans certaines de ces productions, les rapports entre hommes et femmes non-trans se font sans préservatif, tandis que dans la même scène et avec les mêmes performeurs, les rapports entre hommes ou impliquant une femme trans se font avec préservatif. À traver...

  13. Metallurgical study and phase diagram calculations of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system; Etude metallurgique et calculs des diagrammes de phases des alliages base zirconium du systeme: Zr-Nb-Fe-(O,Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toffolon, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Etudes du Comportement des Materiaux (DECM), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Framatome M5{sup TM} Zr-Nb-O alloy with small amounts of Fe is of interest for nuclear applications (PWR fuel cladding).The behaviour of this kind of alloy for in-service conditions strongly depends on the microstructure. Therefore, a metallurgical study of alloys of the Zr-Nb-Fe-(O-Sn) system has been developed in order to study the influence of chemical composition variabilities of Nb, Fe and O and thermal treatments on the resultant microstructure. In order to get some insight on the physical metallurgy of Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) alloys and to minimize the experiments, it is useful to build a thermodynamic database. With this object, it was necessary to re-optimize and to calculate the low order binary systems such as Fe-Nb and Nb-Sn in order to assess the Zr-Nb-Fe-(Sn,O) system. Then, the experimental studies concerned: the influence of small variations in Nb and O contents on the {alpha}/{beta} transus temperatures. A comparison between experimental results and thermodynamic predictions showed a good agreement; the precipitation kinetics of {beta}Nb and intermetallic phases in the {alpha} phase domain. These experiments showed that the kinetics depends on the initial metallurgical conditions; the determination of the crystallographic structure and the stoichiometry of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe intermetallic compounds as a function of the temperature. Finally, these experimental data were used to propose a first assessment of the Zr-Nb-Fe(O{approx}1200 ppm) system. (author)

  14. SIRENA, une plateforme participative au service de la gouvernance du delta transfrontalier du fleuve Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine; Toure, Labaly; Fabre, Mathilde; Bouaita, Yasmin; Ba Mamadou El Abass, Boubacar; Habert, Élisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Les zones humides littorales, écosystèmes aux services diversifiés et soumis à des pressions multiples, font l’objet de politiques de gestion contradictoires, balançant entre l’exploitation à des fins agricoles ou hydro-électriques et la conservation de la biodiversité. Tel est le cas du Delta du fleuve Sénégal, devenu Réserve de Biosphère en 2005, dans un contexte de mutations environnementales et socio-économiques rapides.Pour représenter les enjeux complexes et dynamiques du Delta du fleuv...

  15. Automatisation partielle du traitement de la littérature grise dans le service d'information scientifique du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deroche, C

    1998-01-01

    L'automatisation partielle du traitement de la litterature grise est un projet ineluctable dans un service d'information scientifique aussi important que celui du CERN. Ce rapport presente l'automatis ation du rapport annuel par la detection et l'importation automatique d'informations de publication pour les articles ecrits par les physiciens travaillant au CERN et par d'autres utilisant les outils du CERN. La recherche de ces articles est effectuee dans la base de donnees scientifiques INSPEC.

  16. Analyse quantitative du réseau hydrographique du bassin versant du Slănic (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Grecu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude porte sur le bassin versant du Slănic, un affluent du Buzău. Ce bassin de taille relativement réduite (433 km2 est situé dans la région des Carpates et des Subcarpates de la Courbure, région très active sur le plan sismique. Du point de vue lithologique, le bassin du Slănic correspond à des flyschs paléogènes et à des molasses mio-pliocènes. Ces roches peu résistantes ont facilité une forte érosion du relief. Actuellement, les précipitations présentent souvent une forte intensité, et elles se produisent fréquemment après des périodes de sécheresse. Elles sont ainsi très agressives et déclenchent une érosion intense. L'analyse de quelques paramètres morphométriques [grand nombre de segments de cours d'eau d'ordres 1 (5230 et 2 (944 ; densité élevée des segments par rapport à la superficie du bassin (environ 15 segments / km2 ; longueur moyenne réduite des segments d'ordre 1 (260 m par rapport à ceux d'ordre 2 (530 m] s'accorde avec des temps de concentration des eaux courts et une forte énergie des écoulements. La vitesse de réaction aux précipitations des segments d'ordres inférieurs est en outre favorisée par la répartition spatiale des pluies et par les conditions lithologiques.The study is focused on the Slănic basin which has a small size (433 km2. The hydrographical basin of Slănic, situated in the Carpathian and Subcarpathian Curvature, a very active from neotectonical viewpoint area, is a part of the Buzău basin. From a petrographic point of view, the Slănic hydrographic basin belongs to the paleogen flysch deposits (within the Carpathian sector and to the mio-pliocen molasse (within the Subcarpathian area latter formed by predominantely friable rocks which have encouraged deep fragmentation of the relief. Actual rainfalls are often very intensive, and they frequently occur after dry seasons. The analysis of morphometric parameters shows many elementary segments of first

  17. Synthesis and crystallographic study of the compounds in the system Cs{sub 2}O - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2}; Synthese et etude cristallographique des composes du systeme Cs{sub 2}O - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    A study has been made on the preparation, structure and thermal evolution of some definite compounds in the system: Cs{sub 2}O - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2}. Precise details are given about the structure of the following compounds: CsAlO{sub 2}, RbAlO{sub 2}, KAlO{sub 2} and NaAlO{sub 2}; CsAlO{sub 2}, 2 H{sub 2}O; Cs{sub 2}O, 11 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Cs{sub 2}O, 2 SiO{sub 2}; Cs{sub 2}O, 4 SiO{sub 2} and Rb{sub 2}O, 4 SiO{sub 2}; CsAlSiO{sub 4}; CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; Cs{sub 4}Ge{sub 11}O{sub 24} and Rb{sub 4}Ge{sub 11}O{sub 24}. The long term purpose of this work was to find a compound which would be insoluble, refractory and at the same time able to contain radioactive isotopes of cesium and thus suitable as radiation sources. The knowledge of the properties and structure of aluminates, silicates and aluminosilicates is a necessary stage before the elaboration of ceramic caesium sources. The compound which seems quite convenient for this use, Cs{sub 2}AlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, is closely related to the natural mineral 'pollucite', and offers interesting properties. (author) [French] Ce travail constitue une etude de la preparation, de la structure et de l'evolution thermique des composes definis du systeme: Cs{sub 2}O - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - SiO{sub 2} et de quelques homologues. Des precisions sont donnees sur la structure des composes suivants: CsAlO{sub 2}, RbAlO{sub 2}, KAlO{sub 2} et NaAlO{sub 2}; CsAlO{sub 2}, 2 H{sub 2}O; Cs{sub 2}O, 11 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Cs{sub 2}O, 2 SiO{sub 2}; Cs{sub 2}O, 4 SiO{sub 2} et Rb{sub 2}O, 4 SiO{sub 2}; CsAlSiO{sub 4}; CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; Cs{sub 4}Ge{sub 11}O{sub 24} et Rb{sub 4}Ge{sub 11}O{sub 24}. Le but a long terme de cette etude consistait a obtenir un compose a la fois refractaire et insoluble, susceptible de contenir un isotope radioactif du caesium, et d'etre utilise comme source de rayonnement. La connaissance des proprietes et de la structure des aluminates, silicates et aluminosilicates represente

  18. Epizooties et géographie du commerce du bétail dans la Corne d’Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Pinauldt

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le XIXe siècle le territoire et la société nord somali se sont progressivement structurés en un système commercial dont les exportations de bétail vers les pays du golfe constituent l'élément principal. Au cours des années 1990, la conjonction des bouleversements politiques dans tous les pays de la région et d'un embargo sanitaire d'une ampleur sans précédent ont amorcé une transformation du système. Le principal port d'exportation pour le bétail, Berbera, dans l'actuel Somaliland, a perdu sa place au profit des ports de Djibouti et de Bosaaso au Puntland. La certification sanitaire, dont l'élément central est le centre de quarantaine associé à des services vétérinaires reconnus, constitue la clé de l’exportation vers les marchés de la péninsule arabe, et plus particulièrement l'important marché saoudien. Ainsi, les États participant à l'exportation de bétail se sont lancés dans une course à la quarantaine, qui fonctionne comme indicateur de transformations en cours à la fois dans les réseaux marchands et dans les lieux du commerce.Livestock exports to the middle eastern countries, all along the 20th century, have organised society and territory of the northern somali region. During the 90's, this system has been challenged by both political turmoils in the whole horn of africa region, and a severe sanitary ban on livestock exports imposed by the middle eastern countries. Exports through Berbera, the former main livestock port, have seriously decreased, for the benefit of emerging Djibouti and Bosaaso. Sanitary certification, system in which quarantine station in association with recognized veterinary services  is a core element, is today's only key to the middle eastern markets, especially to Saudi Arabia, the main importer. To get a chance to regain those lucrative markets, the States involved in livestock exports are trying to obtain recongnized quarantine stations. This «quarantine war » is the

  19. Transportation network development in a liberalized power system, a coordination problem with production; Le developpement du reseau de transport dans un systeme electrique liberalise, un probleme de coordination avec la production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rious, V

    2007-10-15

    This thesis analyses how the long term coordination between generation and transmission is organised in a liberalized power system. It relies on a modular analysis framework that allows us to separate the coordination mechanisms into distinct modules. The governance structure of the power network completes this analysis framework. In a rationale of institutional complementarity, this governance structure impacts the way the TSOs effectively implement the power flow management. The proactive behaviour of the TSO for the coordination of generation and transmission can be explained in two ways. Firstly, the network investment can be the only effective process of long term coordination between generation and transmission. Secondly, when forecasting network investment, the TSO can prepare the accommodation of the fast-built generation units and detect the potential failures of locational incentive signals. (author)

  20. Quality control of the treatment planning systems dose calculations in external radiation therapy using the Penelope Monte Carlo code; Controle qualite des systemes de planification dosimetrique des traitements en radiotherapie externe au moyen du code Monte-Carlo Penelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazy-Aubignac, L

    2007-09-15

    The treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) occupy a key position in the radiotherapy service: they realize the projected calculation of the dose distribution and the treatment duration. Traditionally, the quality control of the calculated distribution doses relies on their comparisons with dose distributions measured under the device of treatment. This thesis proposes to substitute these dosimetry measures to the profile of reference dosimetry calculations got by the Penelope Monte-Carlo code. The Monte-Carlo simulations give a broad choice of test configurations and allow to envisage a quality control of dosimetry aspects of T.P.S. without monopolizing the treatment devices. This quality control, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations has been tested on a clinical T.P.S. and has allowed to simplify the quality procedures of the T.P.S.. This quality control, in depth, more precise and simpler to implement could be generalized to every center of radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  1. Hygro-thermo-aeraulic modeling of multi-zone buildings. Proposal of a strategy for the resolution of the coupled system; Modelisation hygro-thermo-aeraulique des batiments multizones. Proposition d'une strategie de resolution du systeme couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloszyn-Vallon, M.

    1999-11-01

    hygroscopic materials. Experimental conditions are simulated using the proposed model. A good overall performance of the model can be sent, if the vapour absorbed and released by building materials is represented. We are interested in a dynamic system described by a set of algebro-diffeential equations. To start the time integration of the differential equations, we need to fix a starting point. The best choice is given by the solution of the set of non-linear algebraic equations corresponding to initial stationary date. However, the resolution of this set is often found impossible. To face the numerical resolution of our problems, we called on block methods. The idea is to divide judiciously the system of equations, in such a way as to get an easy solution for each block. The physical interactions between blocks are then numerically ensured by successive global interations. After analysing our system, three principal blocks are identified: airflow block, describing inter-zonal air movements; energy block, describing temperatures in each zone; moisture block, describing air moisture content in each zone. The airflow block has a special role; it determines moisture and energy transport. A strategy to update the values of variables is also adapted to physical interaction among systems and allows rapid convergence. The proposed strategy is validated on a set of benchmark tests designed by CLIM2000 users. (author)

  2. Impact factors on the structuration and the rheological behavior of the clay-water system for smectite dispersions; Facteurs determinant l'organisation et la rheologie du systeme argile-eau pour des suspensions de smectites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paumier, S

    2007-11-15

    Smectite are swelling clays widely used in industry. Their mechanical properties are unequal according to their mineralogical and physico-chemical characteristics. The aim of this study is to improve the knowledge of the interlayer cation impact on the structure built by the smectite-water system according to the concentration. Homo-ionic (Na{sup +} et Ca{sup 2+}) and bi-ionic systems are observed. This study cross checks mineralogical methods, physicochemical analysis and broad range of rheometric tests. At low concentration (less than 60 g/l) the calcium dispersions are shear thinning and few viscous due to the layer association in huge deformable flocks. The sodium smectite layers are dispersed; the dispersions are highly viscous. The lowest viscosity is detected for mix of 20 % of sodium smectite and 80 % of calcium smectite. At higher concentration (60 to 100 g/l), the yield stress and viscoelastic properties are studied by creep-recovery tests, oscillatory tests and imposed shear step. At the liquid state, the flow is first heterogeneous with a shear banding effect then homogeneous. The results make it possible to define the concentration area characteristic of each mechanical behavior (viscosity, shear thinning and yield stress) according to the saturation cation. The thixotropic properties are characterized with de-structuring-restructuring tests. Two kinetics are determined. Finally we realize a data base with 12 natural and industrial bentonite. The rheograms would be efficient to differentiate the natural calcium bentonite (Newtonian law), natural sodium bentonite (Herschel-Bulkley law) and activated calcium bentonite (Bingham law). (author)

  3. L'aventure du grand collisionneur LHC du big bang au boson de Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Denegri, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Qu'est-ce que la physique des particules élémentaires, le LHC, et le boson de Higgs ? Ce livre présente de manière simple le monde des quarks, des leptons et de leurs interactions, gouvernées par des symétries fondamentales de la nature, ainsi que le lien entre ce monde de l'infiniment petit et celui de l'infiniment grand. Cette conjonction entre la physique des particules élémentaires et l'évolution de la matière dans les premiers instants de l Univers qui ont suivi le Big-Bang est un des plus beaux acquis de la science de ces cinquante dernières années. Après une description du cadre théorique, le modèle standard, et de son élaboration durant la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle, l'accent est mis sur ses grands succès expérimentaux, mais aussi sur ses faiblesses ou insuffisances telles que nous les percevons aujourd'hui. La passionnante histoire du grand collisionneur de hadrons du CERN, le LHC, le plus grand projet purement scientifique jamais réalisé, est présentée à la fois sous ses...

  4. Un Genevois coopte a la tete du Front islamique du salut

    CERN Multimedia

    Merckling, N

    2002-01-01

    "Le Front islamique du salut (FIS), a nomme a la tete de ce parti fondamentaliste un resident genevois, Mourad Dhani, chois parmi trois candidats. Ce physicien algerien est arrive a Geneve il y a 14 ans pour travailler au CERN (1 page).

  5. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  6. Sciences du comportement et de la communication: comportement du pharmacien en officine et comportement des usagers

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Le comportement du pharmacien indique-t-il à l'usager ses rôles potentiels en éducation pour la santé dans un espace de santé ou traduit-il surtout un rôle d'opérateur commercial dans un espace de vente ?

  7. Prise en compte du spirituel et nouvelles représentations du soin

    OpenAIRE

    Chatel, Tanguy

    2006-01-01

    International audience To what extended comprehension of "care", the spiritual care in the secularized and public context of palliative care may lead us ? A quelles nouvelles représentations du soin nous convie une prise en compte de la souffrance spirituelle dans le contexte laïque et public des soins palliatifs ?

  8. LE MARCHE MONDIAL DU VIN ET LES NOUVELLES ORIENTATIONS DU MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epuran Gheorghe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le marché mondial du vin est caractérisé par un développement sans précédent en ce qui concerne la production, mais aussi l’aire géographique qu’il comprend. La surproduction qui a tendance ŕ dégénérer en une crise est due premičrement ŕ l’apparition de nouveaux acteurs sur ce marché, c’est-ŕ-dire les pays du nouveau monde du vin: les Etats-Unis, le Chili, l’Afrique de Sud, l’Australie. Dans ce contexte, les grands producteurs traditionnels de l’Europe sont soumis ŕ une forte pression concurrentielle aussi bien sur leurs marchés qu’ŕ l’extérieur. Męme si en matičre d’image et de notoriété les vins de ces pays sont restés encore trčs connus, les pays du nouveau monde des vins ont réussi, par un marketing «ŕ l’américain», ŕ pénétrer en force sur plusieurs marchés, inclusivement sur les pays qui étaient pas traditionnellement consommateurs de vins (la Russie, la Chine, etc..

  9. Le principe d’inertie et le conatus du corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Épaminondas Vamboulis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le principe d’inertie constitue la loi fondamentale qui a permis à la nouvelle physique du XVIIe siècle de construire son édifice en s’opposant aux explications scolastiques des phénomènes physiques. Tant Descartes que Spinoza ont proposé des démonstrations de cette loi physique en l’intégrant chacun dans son propre système philosophique. Spinoza dans ses Principes de la philosophie de Descartes propose même implicitement une critique de la démonstration cartésienne. Nous analysons cette critique dans la première partie de cet article et dans la suite nous proposons une lecture de la manière dont Spinoza déduit le principe d’inertie dans l’Éthique. Comme ce principe présente quant à son énoncé et quant à sa conceptualisation des affinités avec la théorie du conatus de la troisième partie de l’Éthique, cet article met en valeur la relation de ces deux parties du système et tire de leur confrontation quelques conclusions concernant le statut et la place de la physique dans la philosophie de Spinoza.The principle of inertia, despite the fact that it cannot be proven by any kind of experimental observation, is one of those principles that during the seventeenth century formed the foundations of a new physics. Both Descartes and Spinoza have tried however to demonstrate this principle and integrate it in their philosophical systems. Spinoza even proposes in his work Descartes’ Principles of Philosophy, while presenting Descartes’ view on that matter, a critical appraisal of some of the metaphysical presuppositions of the cartesian demonstration. An analysis of Spinoza’s arguments leads us to a study of the relation of the principle of inertia and the conatus theory of the Ethics, and subsequently to an interrogation concerning the status of Spinoza’s physics and the place that this science occupies in Spinoza’s philosophy.

  10. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Nordström

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase. As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  11. Role of Du Channel in Treating Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The author believes that senile dementia is very closely related to not only deficiency of the liver and kidney, but also Eight Extra Channels, Du Channel in particular. Nourishing the liver and kidney and clearing Du Channel in the treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  12. Cyber Dhaba: un kiosque internet en Inde du Nord

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Il y a deux ans, l'association Orient Yourself installait un PC connecté sous un banyan sacré, dans un village agricole du Rajasthan (Inde du Nord). Claire Dixsaut dirige ELSE, elle est membre fondateur de l'association Orient Yourself.

  13. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  14. Le pari du numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Durand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En lançant ce premier numéro du Ceriscope, le Centre de recherches et d’études internationales (CERI et l’Atelier de cartographie de Sciences Po ont conscience de relever un défi. Engagés dans l’analyse scientifique des sociétés du monde, le CERI, en tant que centre de recherche, et l’Atelier de cartographie, en sa qualité de concepteurs de cartes, entendent faire accéder un grand nombre de lecteurs à leurs productions en utilisant la gratuité d’Internet. L’avantage d’une publication en ligne par rapport au livre papier ne se résume évidemment pas à la gratuité. Elle permet en effet un usage plus souple de la lecture en autorisant, grâce à l’indexation par mots clés, une recherche à l’intérieur des textes. Elle offre ensuite une rapidité de mise à jour des connaissances qui, compte tenu de l’évolution de l’économie et des sociétés, sont vite touchées par l’obsolescence. Les contributions mises en ligne seront ainsi actualisées et de nouvelles publications pourront les développer et les enrichir au fil du temps. La publication en ligne permet enfin les réactions des lecteurs qui deviennent ainsi des « acteurs » de la publication.

  15. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  16. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  17. Search for isotopic signatures of a supernova explosion close to the solar system in marine sediments; Recherche de signatures isotopiques dans les sediments marins de l'explosion d'une supernova proche du systeme solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, Caroline [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, (CSNSM) IN2P3/CNRS, Campus d' Orsay, Bat 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-06-15

    The recent observation of a {sup 60}Fe peak in a deep-sea ferro-manganese crust has been interpreted as due to a supernova explosion relatively close to the solar system 2.8 {+-} 0.4 Myr ago. To confirm this interpretation with better time-resolved measurements, and the simultaneous access, on the same sample, to other isotopes and geochemical phases, marine sediments seem to be a tool of choice. The objective of this work was to search for isotopic anomalies which would be characteristic for residues of this supernova. More specifically, {sup 129}I, {sup 60}Fe, and {sup 26}Al have been investigated, being measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Quantifying these nuclides' fluxes would help constrain stellar nucleosynthesis models. These residues are isotopes initially produced during hydrostatic and/or explosive nucleosynthesis. The physical conditions during the explosion (temperature, neutron density) are such that supernovae are thought to be good candidates for the astrophysical site of the r-process. The {sup 129}I study showed that measurement of pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios need a very strict control of the various potential {sup 129}I sources, especially when working with small quantities (micrograms) of iodine. This study revealed that the expected pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio for pre-nuclear samples in the marine environment shows a large discrepancy between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al measurements allow us to conclude that, in the authigenic phase of the marine sediments, there is no {sup 60}Fe anomaly in the time interval defined by the signal found on the Fe-Mn crust (from 2.4 to 3.2 Myr), and no {sup 26}Al anomaly from 2.6 to 3.2 Myr. (author)

  18. Les élections cantonales du printemps 2011 en Alsace

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschmager, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Le 30 mars 2011 Guy-Dominique Kennel a été réélu président du Conseil Général du département du Bas-Rhin. Trente-neuf conseillers généraux sur quarante quatre ont voté en sa faveur. Neuf d’entre eux ont porté leur voix sur Raphaël Nisand, nouveau conseiller général socialiste de Schiltigheim. Ce même jour à Colmar, vingt-et-un conseillers généraux du département du Haut-Rhin sur trente-et-un, réélisent Charles Buttner à la présidence de leur Conseil. Neuf voix ont opté pour Henri Stoll, le co...

  19. Festival du rire de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Connaissez-vous le Festival du rire de Genève ? La deuxième édition aura lieu du 25 au 28 mars 2015 au Casino-Théâtre à Carouge. Côté programmation, Marc Donnet-Monay ouvre les festivités avant trois autres soirées de folie et d’humour que nous vous laissons le soin de découvrir dans le programme : http://www.rire-geneve.ch/#programme. Réduction de 30% sur l’achat de places pour les membres du personnel du CERN. Pour cela, il suffit de se rendre sur la billetterie en ligne de notre site : www.rire-geneve.ch et d’utiliser le code promotionnel. Contacter le secrétariat de l’Association du personnel (Staff.Association@cern.ch) pour connaitre ce code promotionnel.

  20. SPATIAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN KARST ROCKY DESERTIFICATION AND LITHOLOGY IN DU'AN YAO AUTONOMOUS COUNTY IN GUANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Baoqing; JIANG Shufang; LIAO Chimei; HUANG Qiuyan; ZHOU Dequan

    2004-01-01

    Du'an Yao Autonomous County is a typical area for the distribution of karst rocky desertification in Guangxi.The indices for the grades of rocky desertification are selected according to the scientific meaning of karst rocky desertification and after the interpretative symbol system of rocky desertification. RS images are established by the landscape characteristics of Du'an karst and its TM image. Relying on RS & GIS means and taking land use map as base map, this paper conducts synthetic analysis on the 1999a TM image (126-043) and the correlation data involving landform, soil, geological map and GPS-database and photo on the spot, and brings forth a map showing the Du'an rocky desertification grades and a digital lithology map. As can be viewed from spatial correlation, the inherent connection is also illuminated between the various levels of rocky desertification and the carbonate lithology.

  1. Modos de ver. Du Bois y Fanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mezzadra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sovereignty of glance and the primacy of sight represent the Western modern culture far beyond its artistic expression, organizing its philosophical and political conceptuality. They deeply influence the way in which subjects are conceived and constructed in Western modernity. This is the point of departure of the long-distance dialogue between W. E. B. Du Bois and Frantz Fanon staged in the article. Their political thought and militancy developed against the background of experiences – such as slavery and colonialism – characterized by process of construction of subjectivities which appear as “anomalous” with regard to the “standards” set by Modernity.

  2. Autour du mot comptabilité.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Labardin

    2006-01-01

    Le travail vise à comprendre l’origine du mot comptabilité à travers trois questions : d’abord, comment le mot s’est imposé et a remplacé l’expression tenue des livres ? Ensuite, comment l’ajout d’adjectif (commerciale, financière, industrielle etc.) a permis de classer le savoir comptable en plusieurs catégories et comment ces catégories ont évolué ? Enfin, quels sens recouvrent le mot comptabilité et quand ces sens sont apparus ?

  3. L’enfance au bord du Fjord

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ce qui me plaît en vous, m’a-t-elle dit en me regardant longuement, ce qui me plaît en vous, je ne puis savoir pourquoi, ce sont mes souvenirs.Le Grand Meaulnes Le Jutland, terre des Cimbres Le Jutland, comme l’index brandi d’une main gigantesque, prolonge l’Europe continentale et sépare les lames grises et lourdes de la Mer du Nord des eaux vives de la Baltique. Sur cette langue de terre aux formes noueuses, se poursuivent et s’étreignent sans cesse, l’eau, la lande et le ciel, antique trini...

  4. Pilot study on diffusive ground heat storage in the SUVA 'D4' building complex in Root, Switzerland; Etude pilote pour le stockage diffusif des batiments du centre D4 de la SUVA a Root, Lucerne. Analyse de 2 tests de reponse geothermique et integration du stockage diffusif dans le systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents, in a first part, the results of two thermal response tests made on a geothermal heat storage system that forms part of a heating and cooling system for a complex of buildings comprising the 'D4' centre of the Swiss Accident Insurance Institution (SUVA) in Root, near Lucerne, Switzerland. These in situ response tests on two borehole heat exchangers confirmed the laboratory measurements, indicating that no significant ground water flow is present. In a second part the heat storage dimensioning and the heating/cooling system evaluation by means of computerized simulation are described, which used simulated data for the heating and cooling requirements of the new buildings and the ground heat storage parameters. The PILESIM thermal simulation tool is described, a computer code used to simulate heating and cooling systems that use heat-exchanger piles or borehole heat exchangers. The evaluations made on three system concepts are discussed that permitted the optimal design of the diffusive ground storage system. The construction of the actual system is also described.

  5. Satiety factor oleoylethanolamide recruits the brain histaminergic system to inhibit food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provensi, Gustavo; Coccurello, Roberto; Umehara, Hayato; Munari, Leonardo; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Nosi, Daniele; Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Moles, Anna; Blandina, Patrizio; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2014-08-01

    Key factors driving eating behavior are hunger and satiety, which are controlled by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems and peripheral stimuli. The lipid-derived messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is released by enterocytes in response to fat intake and indirectly signals satiety to hypothalamic nuclei. Brain histamine is released during the appetitive phase to provide a high level of arousal in anticipation of feeding, and mediates satiety. However, despite the possible functional overlap of satiety signals, it is not known whether histamine participates in OEA-induced hypophagia. Using different experimental settings and diets, we report that the anorexiant effect of OEA is significantly attenuated in mice deficient in the histamine-synthesizing enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO) or acutely depleted of histamine via interocerebroventricular infusion of the HDC blocker α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH). α-FMH abolished OEA-induced early occurrence of satiety onset while increasing histamine release in the CNS with an H3 receptor antagonist-increased hypophagia. OEA augmented histamine release in the cortex of fasted mice within a time window compatible to its anorexic effects. OEA also increased c-Fos expression in the oxytocin neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of WT but not HDC-KO mice. The density of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in other brain regions that receive histaminergic innervation and participate in the expression of feeding behavior was comparable in OEA-treated WT and HDC-KO mice. Our results demonstrate that OEA requires the integrity of the brain histamine system to fully exert its hypophagic effect and that the oxytocin neuron-rich nuclei are the likely hypothalamic area where brain histamine influences the central effects of OEA.

  6. Les systèmes de libération sous condition dans les Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe Systems of Conditional Release ( Parole in the Member States of the Council of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Victor Tournier

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’appuie sur les travaux préparatoires à la recommandation du Conseil de l’Europe, adoptée le 24 septembre 2003 sur la libération conditionnelle (LC. Il met en évidence l’existence de trois modèles de LC au sein des Etats membres : le « système de libération discrétionnaire », majoritaire sur le Continent,  le « système de libération d’office », développé en Suède et, entre les deux, le « système mixte » mis en place en Angleterre et Pays de Galles, par exemple. Reposant sur une démarche pragmatique, ce dernier modèle combine des procédures de libération automatique pour les condamnés aux courtes peines, à une démarche personnalisée pour les plus longues peines.This article is based on the preparatory work for the recommendation of the Council of Europe on conditional release (parole, adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 24 September  2003. It  displays three models of conditional release (parole in  member states:  “discretionary release system”, - the most frequently in the Continent -,  “Mandatory release system” developed in Sweden, and, between this two alternatives, the  “mixed system” initiated in England and Walls, for example. Founded on a pragmatic approach, this third model combines automatic proceedings of early release for prisoners serving a short sentence  and individual  proceedings for the long sentences. Full Text

  7. The Study of of Non-coal mine unsafe behavior based on Du Pont STOP system and behavior safety theory%基于杜邦 STOP 系统及行为安全理论的非煤矿山不安全行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘成林; 杨振宏; 何小访

    2014-01-01

    Non-coal mining is a typical high-risk industry .Unsafe behavior management model was built to restrain the unsafe act , prevent and reduce production accidents according to behavior observation and clustering based on Du Pont STOP system and behavior safety theory .The data of unsafe act in the work from 70 days of follow-up of 14 kinds of work in some large underground non-coal mine were collected and classified .And then the change trend chart of different kinds of unsafe behavior was made .The results show that the trend of the unsafe behavior of power equipment , fall protection and others is significantly lower , and the unsafe act of manufacturing technique , common sense danger and power supply system is unobviously improved .So the example shows that the unsafe behavior re-search of non-coal mine based on Du Pont STOP system and behavior safety theory has pragmaticality .%非煤矿山是典型的高危行业。为了规范作业人员的不安全行为,预防和减少生产事故,基于杜邦STOP系统及行为安全理论,通过行为观察、行为聚类,构建了非煤矿山不安全行为管理模型。对某大型非煤地下矿山的14类工种作业为期70天跟踪观察,收集统计生产作业中的不安全行为,通过分类整理,形成不同类别的不安全行为比例变化趋势图。结果表明:动力设备类、防护坠落类和其它类的不安全行为有明显的降低趋势;生产工艺类、常识危险类和供电系统类的不安全行为改善不明显。实例表明,基于杜邦STOP系统及行为安全理论的非煤矿山不安全行为研究具有实效性。

  8. Nestor Kirchner (2003-2007) : rupture ou continuite du peronisme ? Les mutations du populisme en Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Doz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Ce texte est un extrait du quatrième chapitre de la thèse « Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007) : Rupture ou continuité du péronisme. Les mutations du populisme en Argentine ». Le 25 mai 2003, le peuple argentin assistait à l’investiture présidentielle du candidat du Frente Para la Victoria, Néstor Kirchner. Suite à la défection de Carlos Menem pendant l’entre-deux tours, il est élu avec 22% des suffrages. Malgré cette faible légitimité, il réussit à insuffler un changement certain dans la politique ...

  9. Du Bois的对话句法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦梅

    2015-01-01

    日常口语交流过程中,人们会自觉不自觉地复用即时语境中前面说话人或历史上前人的词语、短语、句法结构等成分。这样便在自己和前面说话人的话语之间唤起了共鸣。Du Bois在Bakhtin的对话理论、Jakobson的平行理论和Harris的话语分析程序的启发之下,依据自然口语语料、从社会认知角度发展了对话句法理论,目的在于揭示人类交流过程中符号与符号之间并通过符号表达的介入结构。本文综合Du Bois以及相关学者过去三十年间对对话句法的研究,呈现对话句法理论的主体脉络。

  10. La mathématique du physicien

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    " Le livre de la nature est écrit dans la langue mathématique, et ses caractères sont des triangles, des cercles et autres figures géométriques, sans lesquels il est humainement impossible d'en comprendre le moindre mot ". Ce célèbre aphorisme de Galilée a scellé l'alliance des mathématiques et de la physique. Et pourtant, trois siècles plus tard, Einstein se montrait plus sceptique. Dans ce livre, Bernard Diu montre que, en effet, si les mathématiques sont un instrument indispensable de la physique, elles n'en constituent pas le fondement. En multipliant les exemples, il marque la différence entre la mathématique du mathématicien et celle du physicien. Un livre de nature à remettre en question l'enseignement de la physique dans nos écoles et des sciences en général, soumis à l'hégémonie des mathématiques.

  11. A remote sensing-based irrigation performance assessment: a case study of the Office du Niger in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.; Leclert, L.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The irrigation performance of the Office du Niger in Mali, a large-scale rice-based irrigation scheme, was analysed with the use of remote sensing technology. The major advantage of remote sensing derived data over field measured data is that it provides system-wide, spatially distributed and object

  12. Pour l'effectivité du droit du travail : quel système d'inspection et quelle indépendance des inspecteurs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Auvergnon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    L'effectivité du droit du droit du travail est-elle réellement possible dans un système généraliste d'inspection du travail couvrant l'ensemble des secteurs ? Ou plutôt trouve-t-elle sa place dans un système indépendant reposant sur un fondement normatif dans lequel le contrôle s'exerce loin de toute influence extérieure pouvant nuire à la réalité et l'efficacité de la mission fondamentale d'application du droit du travail ?

  13. Développement de l'étuvage du riz au Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Paul

    2003-01-01

    International audience L'étuvage du riz paddy est une opération qui entraîne des modifications physico-chimiques et organoleptiques avantageuses du point de vue nutritionnel et économique. Au Bénin, la technique d'étuvage est pratiquée par les transformatrices du centre (zone des collines) et du nord du pays. Ces transformatrices utilisent le trempage du paddy à chaud avec pré-cuisson "étuvage" dans l'eau contenue dans une marmite en fonte d'aluminium. Malheureusement, la qualité du riz ca...

  14. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  15. Future systems and strategies; Systemes du futur et strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris XI Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture deals with the different nuclear technologies which could be developed in the future. We present some physical aspects of future fission-based nuclear reactors. First, we give an overview of the energy problematic in the coming century, in order to define what could be requested from nuclear power. We describe the present reactors, based on the fission of U-235. They require around 200 tons of natural uranium to fission only 1 ton of fissile material. Regarding the estimated uranium resources, the question of the transition towards breeding reactors is discussed. Some simple calculations show that breeding of plutonium can be reached only with a fast neutron spectrum. For the thorium cycle, breeding with thermal neutrons requires the use of molten salt reactors. These two fuel cycles are compared in term of fissile inventory, ability of deployment, and R and D efforts. As a conclusion, we discuss some questions which showed up during the Joliot-Curie school, concerning the different strategies which could be chosen in the coming years. (author)

  16. Investigation into the regulation of the circadian system by dopamine and melatonin in the adult Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, G E; Hastings, M H; Ebling, F J

    1998-11-01

    Dopamine and melatonin have both been implicated in mediating maternal influences on the developing circadian system of altricial rodents. The aim of these studies was to investigate their role in the entrainment of the circadian system of the adult Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). In-situ hybridization revealed that D1-dopamine receptor (D1-R) mRNA was expressed in the adult suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) at levels comparable to neonates. As dopamine has been postulated to mimic photic stimulation during early development, experiment 1 compared the effects of a D1-R agonist and a light pulse on free-running wheel running rhythms in hamsters maintained in constant dim red light. A phase response curve to light was generated, revealing clear phase delays early in the subjective night, and large phase advances in the late subjective night. However, the D1-R agonist (SKF 81297, 2 mg/kg, s.c.) did not produce consistent phase shifts at any circadian phase. Experiment 2 tested the ability of this dopaminergic agonist to modulate photic responses of the circadian system. Free-running animals were pre-treated with SKF 81297 (2 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before a 15 min light pulse given early or late in the subjective night. This agonist had no effect on the magnitude of phase shifts at either circadian time. In experiment 3, light pulses at CT13-15 induced expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the SCN, as assessed by immunocytochemistry for the protein product. In contrast, SKF 81297 (2 mg/kg, s.c.) at the same phase did not induce c-fos in the SCN, despite marked c-fos induction in the caudate-putamen, nor did it affect photic induction of c-fos in the SCN. To investigate whether dopamine might be involved in nonphotic regulation of the circadian system in adult hamsters, experiment 4 compared the response of free-running hamsters to a series of injections of SKF 81297 (2 mg/kg, s.c.) or melatonin (1 mg/kg, s.c.), since melatonin receptor expression in the SCN

  17. DU weaponry: a view on facts and deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results of literature research conducted by the author on the use of depleted uranium (DU) weaponry. The research was initiated during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 with an objective of searching for facts in the presence of massive deceptions staged by the huge propaganda machinery of DU weaponry use proponents. The U.S. made use of DU penetrators in the Persian Gulf war as well as in the Balkan wars both in Bosnia and Kosovo. Brief science and history backgrounds are provided including overviews of DU uses and abuses in these three wars. The U.S./NATO public pronouncements have been centered around the theme that there has been no proven link between DU and cancers. In the author's view, these types of carefully word engineered statements are motivated by possible compensation and cleanup claims rather than supported by hard data and sound science. Since underlying causes of so called Gulf and Balkan syndromes have not been found despite a decade elapsed since conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, the DU must continue to be a front-line suspect. From the standpoint of public health and safety, it is prudent and responsible to call for a moratorium. DU use in the Kosovo war, which was not sanctioned by the UN Security Council, was reckless in the extreme. (author)

  18. Exploitation de données AIS pour la cartographie du transport maritime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Le Guyader

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthodologie de caractérisation spatiale, temporelle et quantitative du transport maritime en rade de Brest (Bretagne, France, difficile à appréhender du fait de sa forte variabilité. Par la mobilisation d'une base d'informations spatio-temporelles issues de données AIS (Automatic Identification System et le recours à des procédures d'analyse spatiale mises en œuvre au sein d'un SIG (Système d'Information Géographique, le trafic maritime quotidien de charge et de passagers est identifié, quantifié et cartographié pour une année.

  19. La place du droit du travail dans la lutte contre la pauvreté

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    PLAN I) Le respect des droits fondamentaux au travail, socle du droit à un travail décent. A) Une affirmation incomplète des droits sociaux fondamentaux 1) Les droits sociaux fondamentaux consacrés par l'organisation internationale du travail. 2) Des droits sociaux fondamentaux à réaffirmer et à promouvoir B) L'absence d'efficacité des mécanismes de contrôle. 1) L'inefficacité de l'OIT. 2) Le reflux des contrôles effectués par les autorités publiques. II) Le dépassement des droits sociaux fon...

  20. Particularités du discours dans le roman du conflit arabo-sioniste. Etude analytique

    OpenAIRE

    Charchar, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Cette recherche porte sur deux niveaux ; le premier de nature théorique, a pour but de présenter une approche sur la théorie du texte et le discours narratif, puis elle s’élargit à la lecture des méthodes d’analyse du discours à la lumière des études modernes. Le deuxième niveau de nature critique et analytique, cherche à répondre aux problématiques se rapportant aux concepts suivants : Concept de discours littéraire. Concept de texte et les problèmes de la critique littéraire contemporaine. ...