Sample records for c-band radar scatterometer

  1. Polar Applications of Spaceborne Scatterometers (United States)

    Long, David G.


    Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σo) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σo to the vector wind. The σo measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs. Further, a long time series of scatterometer σo observations is available to support climate studies. In addition to fundamental scientific research, scatterometer data are operationally used for sea-ice mapping to support navigation. Scatterometers are, thus, invaluable tools for monitoring the polar regions. In this paper, a brief review of some of the polar applications of spaceborne wind scatterometer data is provided. The paper considers both C-band and Ku-band scatterometers, and the relative merits of fan-beam and pencil-beam scatterometers in polar remote sensing are discussed. PMID:28919936

  2. Digital Beamforming Scatterometer (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Vega, Manuel; Kman, Luko; Buenfil, Manuel; Geist, Alessandro; Hillard, Larry; Racette, Paul


    This paper discusses scatterometer measurements collected with multi-mode Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) during the SMAP-VEX 2008 campaign. The 2008 SMAP Validation Experiment was conducted to address a number of specific questions related to the soil moisture retrieval algorithms. SMAP-VEX 2008 consisted on a series of conducted on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Delaware in the fall of 2008. Several other instruments participated in the campaign including the Passive Active L-Band System (PALS), the Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR), and the Global Positioning System Reflectometer (GPSR). This campaign was the first SMAP Validation Experiment. DBSAR is a multimode radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center that combines state-of-the-art radar technologies, on-board processing, and advances in signal processing techniques in order to enable new remote sensing capabilities applicable to Earth science and planetary applications [l]. The instrument can be configured to operate in scatterometer, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or altimeter mode. The system builds upon the L-band Imaging Scatterometer (LIS) developed as part of the RadSTAR program. The radar is a phased array system designed to fly on the NASA P3 aircraft. The instrument consists of a programmable waveform generator, eight transmit/receive (T/R) channels, a microstrip antenna, and a reconfigurable data acquisition and processor system. Each transmit channel incorporates a digital attenuator, and digital phase shifter that enables amplitude and phase modulation on transmit. The attenuators, phase shifters, and calibration switches are digitally controlled by the radar control card (RCC) on a pulse by pulse basis. The antenna is a corporate fed microstrip patch-array centered at 1.26 GHz with a 20 MHz bandwidth. Although only one feed is used with the present configuration, a provision was made for separate corporate

  3. Airborn Ku-band polarimetric radar remote sensing of terrestrial snow cover (United States)

    Simon H. Yueh; Steve J. Dinardo; Ahmed Akgiray; Richard West; Donald W. Cline; Kelly Elder


    Characteristics of the Ku-band polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT) data acquired from five sets of aircraft flights in the winter months of 2006-2008 for the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX-II) in Colorado are described in this paper. The data showed the response of the Ku-band radar echoes to snowpack changes for various types of background vegetation in...

  4. Coastal and rain-induced wind variability depicted by scatterometers (United States)

    Portabella, M.; Lin, W.; Stoffelen, A.; Turiel, A.; Verhoef, A.; Verspeek, J.; Ballabrera, J.; Vogelzang, J.


    A detailed knowledge of local wind variability near the shore is very important since it strongly affects the weather and microclimate in coastal regions. Since coastal areas are densely populated and most activity at sea occurs near the shore, sea-surface wind field information is important for a number of applications. In the vicinity of land sea-breeze, wave fetch, katabatic and current effects are more likely than in the open ocean, thus enhancing air-sea interaction. Also very relevant for air-sea interaction are the rain-induced phenomena, such as downbursts and convergence. Relatively cold and dry air is effectively transported to the ocean surface and surface winds are enhanced. In general, both coastal and rain-induced wind variability are poorly resolved by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Satellite real aperture radars (i.e., scatterometers) are known to provide accurate mesoscale (25-50 km resolution) sea surface wind field information used in a wide variety of applications. Nowadays, there are two operating scatterometers in orbit, i.e., the C-band Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard Metop-A and the Ku-band scatterometer (OSCAT) onboard Oceansat-2. The EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF) delivers several ASCAT level 2 wind products with 25 km and 12.5 km Wind Vector Cell (WVC) spacing, including a pre-operational coastal wind product as well as an OSCAT level 2 wind product with 50 km spacing in development status. Rain is known to both attenuate and scatter the microwave signal. In addition, there is a "splashing" effect. The roughness of the sea surface is increased because of splashing due to rain drops. The so-called "rain contamination" is larger for Ku-band scatterometer systems than for C-band systems. Moreover, the associated downdrafts lead to variable wind speeds and directions, further complicating the wind retrieval. The C-band ASCAT high resolution wind processing is validated under rainy

  5. Design and development of a microwave multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjernman, A.


    The main topic of this research report is the design and development of a multifrequency, polarimetric scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing. The system was developed using a standard HP network analyzer, a crossed log-periodic dipole antenna and a reflector. The scatterometer functions in a linear polarization basis between the L- and X-bands and gathers full-polarimetric information. The standard S-parameter measurements using the network analyzer were related to surface and volume scattering coefficients of rough surface, snow cover and vegetation media. The scatterometer measurements were carried out in the frequency domain to make use of narrow band filters in the receiver chain. The fast Fourier transform was used to convert the frequency domain measurements to the time domain. The range resolution of the system was 20 cm; azimuthal and elevation resolutions are determined by the antenna beam widths. Range side lobes were reduced by making use of appropriate weighting (Kaiser-Bessel window) functions. The accuracy of target characterization depends on the quality of scatterometer calibration. A novel technique to estimate the absolute gain and crosstalk of the radar system was developed. Using a distortion matrix approach, the cross-polarization response of the system was improved by 10 to 25 dB. The radar measurements were validated by comparing point target radar observations with the corresponding theoretical values. Also, measurements of fading decorrelation distance and decorrelation bandwidth or rough surfaces were in good agreement with the theory. Backscatter observations of vegetation and snow cover were comparable to earlier published values for a similar environment. 50 refs, 56 figs, 1 tab

  6. Design and development of a microwave multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stjernman, A


    The main topic of this research report is the design and development of a multifrequency, polarimetric scatterometer for biosphere remote sensing. The system was developed using a standard HP network analyzer, a crossed log-periodic dipole antenna and a reflector. The scatterometer functions in a linear polarization basis between the L- and X-bands and gathers full-polarimetric information. The standard S-parameter measurements using the network analyzer were related to surface and volume scattering coefficients of rough surface, snow cover and vegetation media. The scatterometer measurements were carried out in the frequency domain to make use of narrow band filters in the receiver chain. The fast Fourier transform was used to convert the frequency domain measurements to the time domain. The range resolution of the system was 20 cm; azimuthal and elevation resolutions are determined by the antenna beam widths. Range side lobes were reduced by making use of appropriate weighting (Kaiser-Bessel window) functions. The accuracy of target characterization depends on the quality of scatterometer calibration. A novel technique to estimate the absolute gain and crosstalk of the radar system was developed. Using a distortion matrix approach, the cross-polarization response of the system was improved by 10 to 25 dB. The radar measurements were validated by comparing point target radar observations with the corresponding theoretical values. Also, measurements of fading decorrelation distance and decorrelation bandwidth or rough surfaces were in good agreement with the theory. Backscatter observations of vegetation and snow cover were comparable to earlier published values for a similar environment. 50 refs, 56 figs, 1 tab.

  7. From ASCAT to Sentinel-1: Soil Moisture Monitoring using European C-Band Radars (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Hochstöger, Simon


    The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) is a C-Band radar instrument flown on board of the series of three METOP satellites. Albeit not operating in one of the more favorable longer wavelength ranges (S, L or P-band) as the dedicated Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions, it is one of main microwave sensors used for monitoring of soil moisture on a global scale. Its attractiveness for soil moisture monitoring applications stems from its operational status, high radiometric accuracy and stability, short revisit time, multiple viewing directions and long heritage (Wagner et al. 2013). From an application perspective, its main limitation is its spatial resolution of about 25 km, which does not allow resolving soil moisture patterns driven by smaller-scale hydrometeorological processes (e.g. convective precipitation, runoff patterns, etc.) that are themselves related to highly variable land surface characteristics (soil characteristics, topography, vegetation cover, etc.). Fortunately, the technique of aperture synthesis allows to significantly improve the spatial resolution of spaceborne radar instruments up to the meter scale. Yet, past Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions had not yet been designed to achieve a short revisit time required for soil moisture monitoring. This has only changed recently with the development and launch of SMAP (Entekhabi et al. 2010) and Sentinel-1 (Hornacek et al. 2012). Unfortunately, the SMAP radar failed only after a few months of operations, which leaves Sentinel-1 as the only currently operational SAR mission capable of delivering high-resolution radar observations with a revisit time of about three days for Europe, about weekly for most crop growing regions worldwide, and about bi-weekly to monthly over the rest of the land surface area. Like ASCAT, Sentinel-1 acquires C-band backscatter data in VV polarization over land. Therefore, for the interpretation of both ASCAT and Sentinel-1

  8. Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar - Physical model and field tests (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Paris, Jack F.


    The ability of C-band radar (4.75 GHz) to discriminate features of forest structure, including biomass, is tested using a truck-mounted scatterometer for field tests on a 1.5-3.0 m pygmy forest of cypress (Cupressus pygmaea) and pine (Pinus contorta ssp, Bolanderi) near Mendocino, CA. In all, 31 structural variables of the forest are quantified at seven sites. Also measured was the backscatter from a life-sized physical model of the pygmy forest, composed of nine wooden trees with 'leafy branches' of sponge-wrapped dowels. This model enabled independent testing of the effects of stem, branch, and leafy branch biomass, branch angle, and moisture content on radar backscatter. Field results suggested that surface area of leaves played a greater role in leaf scattering properties than leaf biomass per se. Tree leaf area index was strongly correlated with vertically polarized power backscatter (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01). Field results suggested that the scattering role of leaf water is enhanced as leaf surface area per unit leaf mass increases; i.e., as the moist scattering surfaces become more dispersed. Fog condensate caused a measurable rise in forest backscatter, both from surface and internal rises in water content. Tree branch mass per unit area was highly correlated with cross-polarized backscatter in the field (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01), a result also seen in the physical model.

  9. A Radar/Radiometer Instrument for Mapping Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.; Hilliard, Laurence; Rincon, Rafael; LeVine, David; Mead, James


    The RadSTAR instrument combines an L-band, digital beam-forming radar with an L-band synthetic aperture, thinned array (STAR) radiometer. The RadSTAR development will support NASA Earth science goals by developing a novel, L-band scatterometer/ radiometer that measures Earth surface bulk material properties (surface emissions and backscatter) as well as surface characteristics (backscatter). Present, real aperture airborne L-Band active/passive measurement systems such as the JPUPALS (Wilson, et al, 2000) provide excellent sampling characteristics, but have no scanning capabilities, and are extremely large; the huge JPUPALS horn requires a the C-130 airborne platform, operated with the aft loading door open during flight operation. The approach used for the upcoming Aquarius ocean salinity mission or the proposed Hydros soil mission use real apertures with multiple fixed beams or scanning beams. For real aperture instruments, there is no upgrade path to scanning over a broad swath, except rotation of the whole aperture, which is an approach with obvious difficulties as aperture size increases. RadSTAR will provide polarimetric scatterometer and radiometer measurements over a wide swath, in a highly space-efficient configuration. The electronic scanning approaches provided through STAR technology and digital beam forming will enable the large L-band aperture to scan efficiently over a very wide swath. RadSTAR technology development, which merges an interferometric radiometer with a digital beam forming scatterometer, is an important step in the path to space for an L-band scatterometer/radiometer. RadSTAR couples a patch array antenna with a 1.26 GHz digital beam forming radar scatterometer and a 1.4 GHz STAR radiometer to provide Earth surface backscatter and emission measurements in a compact, cross-track scanning instrument with no moving parts. This technology will provide the first L-band, emission and backscatter measurements in a compact aircraft instrument

  10. Use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle airborne radars for class discrimination in a southern temperature forest (United States)

    Mehta, N. C.


    The utility of radar scatterometers for discrimination and characterization of natural vegetation was investigated. Backscatter measurements were acquired with airborne multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle radar scatterometers over a test site in a southern temperate forest. Separability between ground cover classes was studied using a two-class separability measure. Very good separability is achieved between most classes. Longer wavelength is useful in separating trees from non-tree classes, while shorter wavelength and cross polarization are helpful for discrimination among tree classes. Using the maximum likelihood classifier, 50% overall classification accuracy is achieved using a single, short-wavelength scatterometer channel. Addition of multiple incidence angles and another radar band improves classification accuracy by 20% and 50%, respectively, over the single channel accuracy. Incorporation of a third radar band seems redundant for vegetation classification. Vertical transmit polarization is critically important for all classes.

  11. Sensitivity of C-Band Polarimetric Radar-Based Drop Size Distribution Measurements to Maximum Diameter Assumptions (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A.


    The estimation of rain drop size distribution (DSD) parameters from polarimetric radar observations is accomplished by first establishing a relationship between differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)) and the central tendency of the rain DSD such as the median volume diameter (D0). Since Z(sub dr) does not provide a direct measurement of DSD central tendency, the relationship is typically derived empirically from rain drop and radar scattering models (e.g., D0 = F[Z (sub dr)] ). Past studies have explored the general sensitivity of these models to temperature, radar wavelength, the drop shape vs. size relation, and DSD variability. Much progress has been made in recent years in measuring the drop shape and DSD variability using surface-based disdrometers, such as the 2D Video disdrometer (2DVD), and documenting their impact on polarimetric radar techniques. In addition to measuring drop shape, another advantage of the 2DVD over earlier impact type disdrometers is its ability to resolve drop diameters in excess of 5 mm. Despite this improvement, the sampling limitations of a disdrometer, including the 2DVD, make it very difficult to adequately measure the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) present in a typical radar resolution volume. As a result, D(sub max) must still be assumed in the drop and radar models from which D0 = F[Z(sub dr)] is derived. Since scattering resonance at C-band wavelengths begins to occur in drop diameters larger than about 5 mm, modeled C-band radar parameters, particularly Z(sub dr), can be sensitive to D(sub max) assumptions. In past C-band radar studies, a variety of D(sub max) assumptions have been made, including the actual disdrometer estimate of D(sub max) during a typical sampling period (e.g., 1-3 minutes), D(sub max) = C (where C is constant at values from 5 to 8 mm), and D(sub max) = M*D0 (where the constant multiple, M, is fixed at values ranging from 2.5 to 3.5). The overall objective of this NASA Global Precipitation Measurement

  12. Intercomparison of attenuation correction algorithms for single-polarized X-band radars (United States)

    Lengfeld, K.; Berenguer, M.; Sempere Torres, D.


    Attenuation due to liquid water is one of the largest uncertainties in radar observations. The effects of attenuation are generally inversely proportional to the wavelength, i.e. observations from X-band radars are more affected by attenuation than those from C- or S-band systems. On the other hand, X-band radars can measure precipitation fields in higher temporal and spatial resolution and are more mobile and easier to install due to smaller antennas. A first algorithm for attenuation correction in single-polarized systems was proposed by Hitschfeld and Bordan (1954) (HB), but it gets unstable in case of small errors (e.g. in the radar calibration) and strong attenuation. Therefore, methods have been developed that restrict attenuation correction to keep the algorithm stable, using e.g. surface echoes (for space-borne radars) and mountain returns (for ground radars) as a final value (FV), or adjustment of the radar constant (C) or the coefficient α. In the absence of mountain returns, measurements from C- or S-band radars can be used to constrain the correction. All these methods are based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation. Another way to correct for attenuation in X-band radar observations is to use additional information from less attenuated radar systems, e.g. the ratio between X-band and C- or S-band radar measurements. Lengfeld et al. (2016) proposed such a method based isotonic regression of the ratio between X- and C-band radar observations along the radar beam. This study presents a comparison of the original HB algorithm and three algorithms based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation as well as two methods implementing additional information of C-band radar measurements. Their performance in two precipitation events (one mainly convective and the other one stratiform) shows that a restriction of the HB is necessary to avoid instabilities. A comparison with vertically pointing

  13. Spatial variability and trends of seasonal snowmelt processes over Antarctic sea ice observed by satellite scatterometers (United States)

    Arndt, S.; Haas, C.


    Snow is one of the key drivers determining the seasonal energy and mass budgets of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. Here, we analyze radar backscatter time series from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS)-1 and-2 scatterometers, from the Quick Scatterometer (QSCAT), and from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) in order to observe the regional and inter-annual variability of Antarctic snowmelt processes from 1992 to 2014. On perennial ice, seasonal backscatter changes show two different snowmelt stages: A weak backscatter rise indicating the initial warming and metamorphosis of the snowpack (pre-melt), followed by a rapid rise indicating the onset of internal snowmelt and thaw-freeze cycles (snowmelt). In contrast, similar seasonal backscatter cycles are absent on seasonal ice, preventing the periodic retrieval of spring/summer transitions. This may be due to the dominance of ice bottom melt over snowmelt, leading to flooding and ice disintegration before strong snowmelt sets in. Resulting snowmelt onset dates on perennial sea ice show the expected latitudinal gradient from early melt onsets (mid-November) in the northern Weddell Sea towards late (end-December) or even absent snowmelt conditions further south. This result is likely related to seasonal variations in solar shortwave radiation (absorption). In addition, observations with different microwave frequencies allow to detect changing snow properties at different depths. We show that short wavelengths of passive microwave observations indicate earlier pre-melt and snowmelt onset dates than longer wavelength scatterometer observations, in response to earlier warming of upper snow layers compared to lower snow layers. Similarly, pre-melt and snowmelt onset dates retrieved from Ku-Band radars were earlier by an average of 11 and 23 days, respectively, than those retrieved from C-Band. This time difference was used to correct melt onset dates retrieved from Ku-Band to compile a consistent time series from

  14. Detection of hail signatures from single-polarization C-band radar reflectivity (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Kugel, Petra I. S.


    Five different criteria that estimate hail signatures from single-polarization radar data are statistically evaluated over a 15-year period by categorical verification against loss data provided by a building insurance company. The criteria consider different levels or thresholds of radar reflectivity, some of them complemented by estimates of the 0 °C level or cloud top temperature. Applied to reflectivity data from a single C-band radar in southwest Germany, it is found that all criteria are able to reproduce most of the past damage-causing hail events. However, the criteria substantially overestimate hail occurrence by up to 80%, mainly due to the verification process using damage data. Best results in terms of highest Heidke Skill Score HSS or Critical Success Index CSI are obtained for the Hail Detection Algorithm (HDA) and the Probability of Severe Hail (POSH). Radar-derived hail probability shows a high spatial variability with a maximum on the lee side of the Black Forest mountains and a minimum in the broad Rhine valley.

  15. Challenges with space-time rainfall in urban hydrology highlighted with a semi-distributed model using C-band and X-band radar data (United States)

    da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Lee, Jisun; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel


    Climate change and global warming are expected to make precipitation events more frequent, more severe and more local. This may have serious consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage, economic activities, utilities and public service providers. Then precipitation risk and water management is a key challenge for densely populated urban areas. Applications derived from high (time and space) resolution observation of precipitations are to make our cities more weather-ready. Finer resolution data available from X-band dual radar measurements enhance engineering tools as used for urban planning policies as well as protection (mitigation/adaptation) strategies to tackle climate-change related weather events. For decades engineering tools have been developed to work conveniently either with very local rain gauge networks, or with mainly C-band weather radars that have gradually been set up for space-time remote sensing of precipitation. Most of the time, the C-band weather radars continue to be calibrated by the existing rain gauge networks. Inhomogeneous distributions of rain gauging networks lead to only a partial information on the rainfall fields. In fact, the statistics of measured rainfall is strongly biased by the fractality of the measuring networks. This fractality needs to be properly taken in to account to retrieve the original properties of the rainfall fields, in spite of the radar data calibration. In this presentation, with the help of multifractal analysis, we first demonstrate that the semi-distributed hydrological models statistically reduce the rainfall fields into rainfall measured by a much scarcer network of virtual rain gauges. For this purpose, we use C-band and X-band radar data. The first has a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time and is in fact a product provided by RHEA SAS after treating the Météo-France C-band radar data. The latter is measured by the radar operated at Ecole des Ponts and has a resolution of


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarized C-Band Doppler Radar King City GCPEx dataset has special Range Height Indicator (RHI) and sector scans of several dual...

  17. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE) (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.


    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  18. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba


    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  19. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  20. Estimation of surface roughness in a semiarid region from C-band ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Sano


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using the C-band European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR data to estimate surface soil roughness in a semiarid rangeland. Radar backscattering coefficients were extracted from a dry and a wet season SAR image and were compared with 47 in situ soil roughness measurements obtained in the rocky soils of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, southeastern Arizona, USA. Both the dry and the wet season SAR data showed exponential relationships with root mean square (RMS height measurements. The dry C-band ERS-1 SAR data were strongly correlated (R² = 0.80, while the wet season SAR data have somewhat higher secondary variation (R² = 0.59. This lower correlation was probably provoked by the stronger influence of soil moisture, which may not be negligible in the wet season SAR data. We concluded that the single configuration C-band SAR data is useful to estimate surface roughness of rocky soils in a semiarid rangeland.

  1. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.


    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at

  2. Results of scatterometer systems analysis for NASA/MSC Earth Observation Sensor Evaluation Program. (United States)

    Krishen, K.; Vlahos, N.; Brandt, O.; Graybeal, G.


    Radar scatterometers have applications in the NASA/MSC Earth Observation Aircraft Program. Over a period of several years, several missions have been flown over both land and ocean. In this paper a system evaluation of the NASA/MSC 13.3-GHz Scatterometer System is presented. The effects of phase error between the Scatterometer channels, antenna pattern deviations, aircraft attitude deviations, environmental changes, and other related factors such as processing errors, system repeatability, and propeller modulation, were established. Furthermore, the reduction in system errors and calibration improvement was investigated by taking into account these parameter deviations. Typical scatterometer data samples are presented.

  3. Comparing and Merging Observation Data from Ka-Band Cloud Radar, C-Band Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave Radar and Ceilometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu


    Full Text Available Field experiment in South China was undertaken to improve understanding of cloud and precipitation properties. Measurements of the vertical structures of non-precipitating and precipitating clouds were obtained using passive and active remote sensing equipment: a Ka-band cloud radar (CR system, a C-band frequency modulated continuous wave vertical pointing radar (CVPR, a microwave radiometer and a laser ceilometer (CEIL. CR plays a key role in high-level cloud observation, whereas CVPR is important for observing low- and mid-level clouds and heavy precipitation. CEIL helps us diminish the effects of “clear-sky” in the planetary boundary layer. The experiment took place in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China from May to September of 2016. This study focuses on evaluating the ability of the two radars to deliver consistent observation data and develops an algorithm to merge the CR, CVPR and CEIL data. Cloud echo base, thickness, frequency of observed cloud types and reflectivity vertical distributions are analyzed in the radar data. Comparisons between the collocated data sets show that reflectivity biases between the CR three operating modes are less than 2 dB. The averaged difference between CR and CVPR reflectivity can be reduced with attenuation correction to 3.57 dB from the original 4.82 dB. No systemic biases were observed between velocity data collected in the three CR modes and CVPR. The corrected CR reflectivity and velocity data were then merged with the CVPR data and CEIL data to fill in the gaps during the heavy precipitation periods and reduce the effects of Bragg scattering and fog on cloud observations in the boundary layer. Meanwhile, the merging of velocity data with different Nyquist velocities and resolutions diminishes velocity folding to provide fine-grain information about cloud and precipitation dynamics. The three daily periods in which low-level clouds tended to occur were at sunrise, noon and sunset and large

  4. Quantitative analysis of X-band weather radar attenuation correction accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    At short wavelengths, especially C-, X-, and K-band, weather radar signals arc attenuated by the precipitation along their paths. This constitutes a major source of error for radar rainfall estimation, in particular for intense precipitation. A recently developed stochastic simulator of range

  5. The relationship between the microwave radar cross section and both wind speed and stress: Model function studies using Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment data (United States)

    Weissman, David E.; Davidson, Kenneth L.; Brown, Robert A.; Friehe, Carl A.; Li, Fuk


    The Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) provided a unique data set with coincident airborne scatterometer measurements of the ocean surface radar cross section (RCS)(at Ku band) and near-surface wind and wind stress. These data have been analyzed to study new model functions which relate wind speed and surface friction velocity (square root of the kinematic wind stress) to the radar cross section and to better understand the processes in the boundary layer that have a strong influence on the radar backscatter. Studies of data from FASINEX indicate that the RCS has a different relation to the friction velocity than to the wind speed. The difference between the RCS models using these two variables depends on the polarization and the incidence angle. The radar data have been acquired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne scatterometer. These data span 10 different flight days. Stress measurements were inferred from shipboard instruments and from aircraft flying at low altitudes, closely following the scatterometer. Wide ranges of radar incidence angles and environmental conditions needed to fully develop algorithms are available from this experiment.

  6. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar (United States)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan


    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  7. Precipitation Estimation Using L-Band and C-Band Soil Moisture Retrievals (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Brocca, Luca; Crow, Wade T.; Burgin, Mariko S.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.


    An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) mission. The precipitation estimates so obtained are evaluated against in situ (gauge-based) precipitation observations from across the globe. The precipitation estimation skill achieved using the L-band SMAP and SMOS data sets is higher than that obtained with the C-band product, as might be expected given that L-band is sensitive to a thicker layer of soil and thereby provides more information on the response of soil moisture to precipitation. The square of the correlation coefficient between the SMAP-based precipitation estimates and the observations (for aggregations to approximately100 km and 5 days) is on average about 0.6 in areas of high rain gauge density. Satellite missions specifically designed to monitor soil moisture thus do provide significant information on precipitation variability, information that could contribute to efforts in global precipitation estimation.

  8. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek


    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution X-band radar. This makes it a study of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurements with non-polarimetric X-band radar over flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than what can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  9. Evaluating the Solar Slowly Varying Component at C-Band Using Dual- and Single-Polarization Weather Radars in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabella


    Full Text Available Six C-band weather radars located in Europe (Finland, Netherlands, and Switzerland have been used to monitor the slowly varying solar emission, which is an oscillation with an amplitude of several decibels and a period of approximately 27 days. It is caused by the fact that the number of active regions that enhance the solar radio emission with respect to the quiet component, as seen from Earth, varies because of the Sun’s rotation about its axis. The analysis is based on solar signals contained in the polar volume data produced during the operational weather scan strategy. This paper presents hundreds of daily comparisons between radar estimates and the Sun’s reference signal, during the current active Sun period (year 2014. The Sun’s reference values are accurately measured by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO at S-band and converted to C-band using a standard DRAO formula. Vertical and horizontal polarization receivers are able to capture the monthly oscillation of the solar microwave signal: the standard deviation of the log-transformed ratio between radars and the DRAO reference ranges from 0.26 to 0.4 dB. A larger coefficient (and a different value for the quiet Sun component in the standard formula improves the agreement.

  10. Multiscale radar mapping of surface melt over mountain glaciers in High Mountain Asia (United States)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.


    Glacier melt dominates input for many hydrologic systems in the Himalayan Hindukush region that feed rivers that are critical for downstream ecosystems and hydropower generation in this highly populated area. Deviation in seasonal surface melt timing and duration with a changing climate has the potential to affect up to a billion people on the Indian Subcontinent. Satellite-borne microwave remote sensing has unique capabilities that allow monitoring of numerous landscape processes associated with snowmelt and freeze/thaw state, without many of the limitations in optical-infrared sensors such as solar illumination or atmospheric conditions. The onset of regional freeze/thaw and surface melting transitions determine important surface hydrologic variables like river discharge. Theses regional events are abrupt therefore difficult to observe with low-frequency observation sensors. Recently launched synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard the Sentinel-1 A and B satellites from the European Space Agency (ESA) provide wide-swath and high spatial resolution (50-100 m) C-Band SAR observations with observations frequencies not previously available, on the order of 8 to 16 days. The Sentinel SARs provide unique opportunity to study freeze/thaw and mountain glacier melt dynamics at process level scales, spatial and temporal. The melt process of individual glaciers, being fully resolved by imaging radar, will inform on the radiometric scattering physics associated with surface hydrology during the transition from melted to thawed state and during refreeze. Backscatter observations, along with structural information about the surface will be compared with complimentary coarse spatial resolution C-Band radar scatterometers, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT Met Op A+B), to understand the sub-pixel contribution of surface melting and freeze/thaw signals. This information will inform on longer-scale records of backscatter from ASCAT, 2006-2017. We present a comparison of polarimetric C-Band

  11. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John


    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  12. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.


    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  13. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.


    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  14. Coastal flood inundation monitoring with Satellite C-band and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri


    Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).

  15. Marine X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    estimates. This paper presents some of the challenges in small marine X-band radar calibration by comparing three calibration procedures for assessing the relationship between radar and rain gauge data. Validation shows similar results for precipitation volumes but more diverse results on peak rain......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis, and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is allimportant that the radar data is well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  16. Flood Monitoring using X-band Dual-polarization Radar Network (United States)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Wang, Y.; Maki, M.; Nakane, K.


    sensitivity and fast temporal update across the coverage. Strong clutter is expected from buildings in the neighborhood which act as perfect reflectors. The reduction in radar size enables flexible deployment, such as rooftop installation, with small infrastructure requirement, which is critical in a metropolitan region. Dual-polarization based technologies can be implemented for real-time mitigation of rain attenuations and accurate estimation of rainfall. The NSF Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) is developing the technologies and the systems for network centric weather observation. The Differential propagation phase (Kdp) has higher sensitivity at X-band compared to S and C band. It is attractive to use Kdp to derive Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) because it is immune to rain attenuation, calibration biases, partial beam blockage, and hail contamination. Despite the advantage of Kdp for radar QPE, the estimation of Kdp itself is a challenge as the range derivative of the differential propagation phase profiles. An adaptive Kdp algorithm was implemented in the CASA IP1 testbed that substantially reduces the fluctuation in light rain and the bias at heavy rain. The Kdp estimation also benefits from the higher resolution in the IP1 radar network. The performance of the IP1 QPE product was evaluated for all major rain events against the USDA Agriculture Research Service's gauge network (MicroNet) in the Little Washita watershed, which comprises 20 weather stations in the center of the test bed. The cross-comparison with gauge measurements shows excellent agreement for the storm events during the Spring Experiments of 2007 and 2008. The hourly rainfall estimates compared to the gauge measurements have a very small bias of few percent and a normalized standard error of 21%. The IP1 testbed was designed with overlapping coverage among its radar nodes. The study area is covered by multiple radars and the aspect of

  17. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team


    We report regional-scale low-resolution backscatter images of Titan's surface acquired by the Cassini RADAR scatterometer at a wavelength of 2.18-cm. We find that the average angular dependence of the backscatter from large regions and from specific surface features is consistent with a model composed of a quasi-specular Hagfors term plus a diffuse cosine component. A Gaussian quasi-specular term also fits the data, but less well than the Hagfors term. We derive values for the mean dielectric constant and root-mean-square (rms) slope of the surface from the quasi-specular term, which we ascribe to scattering from the surface interface only. The diffuse term accommodates contributions from volume scattering, multiple scattering, or wavelength-scale near-surface structure. The Hagfors model results imply a surface with regional mean dielectric constants between 1.9 and 3.6 and regional surface roughness that varies between 5.3° and 13.4° in rms-slope. Dielectric constants between 2 and 3 are expected for a surface composed of solid simple hydrocarbons, water ice, or a mixture of both. Smaller dielectric constants, between 1.6 and 1.9, are consistent with liquid hydrocarbons, while larger dielectric constants, near 4.5, may indicate the presence of water-ammonia ice [Lorenz, R.D., 1998. Icarus 136, 344-348] or organic heteropolymers [Thompson, W.R., Squyres, S.W., 1990. Icarus 86, 336-354]. We present backscatter images corrected for angular effects using the model residuals, which show strong features that correspond roughly to those in 0.94-μm ISS images. We model the localized backscatter from specific features to estimate dielectric constant and rms slope when the angular coverage is within the quasi-specular part of the backscatter curve. Only two apparent surface features are scanned with angular coverage sufficient for accurate modeling. Data from the bright albedo feature Quivira suggests a dielectric constant near 2.8 and rms slope near 10.1°. The dark

  18. Towards Snowpack Characterization using C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (United States)

    Park, J.; Forman, B. A.


    Sentinel 1A and 1B, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), carries a C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor that can be used to monitor terrestrial snow properties. This study explores the relationship between terrestrial snow-covered area, snow depth, and snow water equivalent with Sentinel 1 backscatter observations in order to better characterize snow mass. Ground-based observations collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) in Caribou, Maine in the United States are also used in the comparative analysis. Sentinel 1 Ground Range Detected (GRD) imagery with Interferometric Wide swath (IW) were preprocessed through a series of steps accounting for thermal noise, sensor orbit, radiometric calibration, speckle filtering, and terrain correction using ESA's Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) software package, which is an open-source module written in Python. Comparisons of dual-polarized backscatter coefficients (i.e., σVV and σVH) with in-situ measurements of snow depth and SWE suggest that cross-polarized backscatter observations exhibit a modest correlation between both snow depth and SWE. In the case of the snow-covered area, a multi-temporal change detection method was used. Results using Sentinel 1 yield similar spatial patterns as when using hyperspectral observations collected by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). These preliminary results suggest the potential application of Sentinel 1A/1B backscatter coefficients towards improved discrimination of snow cover, snow depth, and SWE. One goal of this research is to eventually merge C-band SAR backscatter observations with other snow information (e.g., passive microwave brightness temperatures) as part of a multi-sensor snow assimilation framework.

  19. Water stress detection in the Amazon using radar (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.; Barros, Fernanda de V.; van de Giesen, Nick


    The Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the global water and carbon cycle, and though it is predicted to continue drying in the future, the effect of drought remains uncertain. Developments in remote sensing missions now facilitate large-scale observations. The RapidScat scatterometer (Ku band) mounted on the International Space Station observes the Earth in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, which allows for studying changes in the diurnal cycle of radar backscatter over the Amazon. Diurnal cycles in backscatter are significantly affected by the state of the canopy, especially during periods of increased water stress. We use RapidScat backscatter time series and water deficit measurements from dendrometers in 20 trees during a 9 month period to relate variations in backscatter to increased tree water deficit. Morning radar bacskcatter dropped significantly with increased tree water deficit measured with dendrometers. This provides unique observational evidence that demonstrates the sensitivity of radar backscatter to vegetation water stress, highlighting the potential of drought detection and monitoring using radar.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nishio


    Full Text Available On August 20 of 2014, Hiroshima City (Japan was struck by local heavy rain from an autumnal rain front. The resultant debris flow disaster claimed 75 victims and destroyed many buildings. From 1:30 am to 4:30 am on August 20, the accumulated rainfall in Hiroshima City exceeded 200 mm. Serious damage occurred in the Asakita and Asaminami wards of Hiroshima City. As a disaster prevention measure, local heavy rain (localized torrential rains is usually observed by the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA and by the C-band radar operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT of Japan, with spatial resolutions of 2.5 km and 1 km, respectively. The new X-band MP radar system enables more detailed rainfall observations than the C-band radar. In fact, this radar can observe local rainfall throughout Japan in near-real time over a minimum mesh size of 250 m. A fine-scale accumulated rainfall monitoring system is crucial for disaster prevention, and potential disasters can be alerted by the hazard levels of the accumulated rainfall.

  1. A simulation study of the effects of land cover and crop type on sensing soil moisture with an orbital C-band radar (United States)

    Dobson, M. C.; Ulaby, F. T.; Moezzi, S.; Roth, E.


    Simulated C-band radar imagery for a 124-km by 108-km test site in eastern Kansas is used to classify soil moisture. Simulated radar resolutions are 100 m by 100 m, 1 km by 1 km, and 3 km by 3 km, and each is processed using more than 23 independent samples. Moisture classification errors are examined as a function of land-cover distribution, field-size distribution, and local topographic relief for the full test site and also for subregions of cropland, urban areas, woodland, and pasture/rangeland. Results show that a radar resolution of 100 m by 100 m yields the most robust classification accuracies.

  2. Miniaturized Ka-Band Dual-Channel Radar (United States)

    Hoffman, James P.; Moussessian, Alina; Jenabi, Masud; Custodero, Brian


    Smaller (volume, mass, power) electronics for a Ka-band (36 GHz) radar interferometer were required. To reduce size and achieve better control over RFphase versus temperature, fully hybrid electronics were developed for the RF portion of the radar s two-channel receiver and single-channel transmitter. In this context, fully hybrid means that every active RF device was an open die, and all passives were directly attached to the subcarrier. Attachments were made using wire and ribbon bonding. In this way, every component, even small passives, was selected for the fabrication of the two radar receivers, and the devices were mounted relative to each other in order to make complementary components isothermal and to isolate other components from potential temperature gradients. This is critical for developing receivers that can track each other s phase over temperature, which is a key mission driver for obtaining ocean surface height. Fully hybrid, Ka-band (36 GHz) radar transmitter and dual-channel receiver were developed for spaceborne radar interferometry. The fully hybrid fabrication enables control over every aspect of the component selection, placement, and connection. Since the two receiver channels must track each other to better than 100 millidegrees of RF phase over several minutes, the hardware in the two receivers must be "identical," routed the same (same line lengths), and as isothermal as possible. This level of design freedom is not possible with packaged components, which include many internal passive, unknown internal connection lengths/types, and often a single orientation of inputs and outputs.

  3. 77 FR 48097 - Operation of Radar Systems in the 76-77 GHz Band (United States)


    ... modify the emission limits for vehicular radar systems operating within the 76-77 GHz band. Specifically.... 15.253 of the rules for vehicular radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band. Vehicular radars can... sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be investigated up to 231 GHz. (f) Fundamental...

  4. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  5. Challenges in X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation e...... estimates. This paper compares two calibration procedures for a small marine X-band radar by comparing radar data with rain gauge data. Validation shows a very good consensus with regards to precipitation volumes, but more diverse results on peak rain intensities.......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  6. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam


    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  7. Development of Method for X-band Weather Radar Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies of this ......Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies...... of this type of weather radar have also illustrated that the radar commonly has difficulties in estimating high rain rates. Therefore, a new radar–rainfall transformation model and a calibration method have been developed. The new method is based on nonlinear assumptions and is aimed at describing the whole...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobile X-band Polarimetric Weather Radar on Wheels (X-POW)is a Doppler scanning radar operating at 9.3 GHz.with horizontal and vertical polarization. Used for...

  9. Probabilistic discrimination between liquid rainfall events, hailstorms, biomass burning and industrial fires from C-Band Radar Polarimetric Variables (United States)

    Valencia, J. M.; Sepúlveda, J.; Hoyos, C.; Herrera, L.


    Characterization and identification of fire and hailstorm events using weather radar data in a tropical complex topography region is an important task in risk management and agriculture. Polarimetric variables from a C-Band Dual polarization weather radar have potential uses in particle classification, due to the relationship their sensitivity to shape, spatial orientation, size and fall behavior of particles. In this sense, three forest fires and two chemical fires were identified for the Áburra Valley regions. Measurements were compared between each fire event type and with typical data radar retrievals for liquid precipitation events. Results of this analysis show different probability density functions for each type of event according to the particles present in them. This is very important and useful result for early warning systems to avoid precipitation false alarms during fire events within the study region, as well as for the early detection of fires using radar retrievals in remote cases. The comparative methodology is extended to hailstorm cases. Complementary sensors like laser precipitation sensors (LPM) disdrometers and meteorological stations were used to select dates of solid precipitation occurrence. Then, in this dates weather radar data variables were taken in pixels surrounding the stations and solid precipitation polar values were statistically compared with liquid precipitation values. Spectrum precipitation measured by LPM disdrometer helps to define typical features like particles number, fall velocities and diameters for both precipitation types. In addition, to achieve a complete hailstorm characterization, other meteorological variables were analyzed: wind field from meteorological stations and radar wind profiler, profiling data from Micro Rain Radar (MRR), and thermodynamic data from a microwave radiometer.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of X-Band and Ka-Band Radar for Use in the Detection of Icing Conditions Aloft (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.


    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. Radar has been identified as a strong tool for this work. However, since the remote detection of icing conditions with the intent to identify areas of icing hazard is a new and evolving capability, there are no set requirements for radar sensitivity. This work is an initial attempt to quantify, through analysis, the sensitivity requirements for an icing remote sensing radar. The primary radar of interest for cloud measurements is Ka-band, however, since NASA is currently using an X-band unit, this frequency is also examined. Several aspects of radar signal analysis were examined. Cloud reflectivity was calculated for several forms of cloud using two different techniques. The Air Force Geophysical Laboratory (AFGL) cloud models, with different drop spectra represented by a modified gamma distribution, were utilized to examine several categories of cloud formation. Also a fundamental methods approach was used to allow manipulation of the cloud droplet size spectra. And an analytical icing radar simulator was developed to examine the complete radar system response to a configurable multi-layer cloud environment. Also discussed is the NASA vertical pointing X-band radar. The radar and its data system are described, and several summer weather events are reviewed.

  11. New Processing of Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Data (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Gracheva, V.; Arko, S. A.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.


    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was a radar system, which successfully operated on two separate shuttle missions in April and October 1994. During these two missions, a total of 143 hours of radar data were recorded. SIR-C was the first multifrequency and polarimetric spaceborne radar system, operating in dual frequency (L- and C- band) and with quad-polarization. SIR-C had a variety of different operating modes, which are innovative even from today's point of view. Depending on the mode, it was possible to acquire data with different polarizations and carrier frequency combinations. Additionally, different swaths and bandwidths could be used during the data collection and it was possible to receive data with two antennas in the along-track direction.The United States Geological Survey (USGS) distributes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as single-look complex (SLC) and multi-look complex (MLC) products. Unfortunately, since June 2005 the SIR-C processor has been inoperable and not repairable. All acquired SLC and MLC images were processed with a course resolution of 100 m with the goal of generating a quick look. These images are however not well suited for scientific analysis. Only a small percentage of the acquired data has been processed as full resolution SAR images and the unprocessed high resolution data cannot be processed any more at the moment.At the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) a new processor was developed to process binary SIR-C data to full resolution SAR images. ASF is planning to process the entire recoverable SIR-C archive to full resolution SLCs, MLCs and high resolution geocoded image products. ASF will make these products available to the science community through their existing data archiving and distribution system.The final paper will describe the new processor and analyze the challenges of reprocessing the SIR-C data.

  12. Rain/snow radar remote sensing with two X-band radars operating over an altitude gradient in the French Alps (United States)

    Delrieu, Guy; Cazenave, Frédéric; Yu, Nan; Boudevillain, Brice; Faure, Dominique; Gaussiat, Nicolas


    Operating weather radars in high-mountain regions faces the following well-known dilemma: (1) installing radar on top of mountains allows for the detection of severe summer convective events over 360° but may give poor QPE performance during a very significant part of the year when the 0°C isotherm is located below or close to the radar altitude; (2) installing radar at lower altitudes may lead to better QPE over sensitive areas such as cities located in valleys, but at the cost of reduced visibility and detection capability in other geographical sectors. We have the opportunity to study this question in detail in the region of Grenoble (an Alpine city of 500 000 inhabitants with an average altitude of 210 m asl) with a pair of X-band polarimetric weather radars operated respectively by Meteo-France on top of Mount Moucherotte (1920 m asl) and by IGE on the Grenoble Campus (213 m asl). The XPORT radar (IGE) performs a combination of PPIs at elevations of 3.5, 7.5, 15 and 25° complemented by two RHIs in the vertical plane passing by the two radar sites, in order to document the 4D precipitation variability within the Grenoble intermountain valley. In the proposed communication, preliminary results of this experiment (started in September 2016) will be presented with highlights on (1) the calibration of the two radar systems, (2) the characterization of the melting layer during significant precipitation events (>5mm/day) occurring in autumn, winter and spring; (3) the simulation of the relative effects of attenuation and non-uniform beam filling at X-band and (4) the possibility to use the mountain returns for quantifying the attenuation by the rain and the melting layer.

  13. Development and Application of integrated monitoring platform for the Doppler Weather SA-BAND Radar (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Sun, J.; Zhao, C. C.; Chen, H. Y.


    The doppler weather SA-band radar is an important part of modern meteorological observation methods, monitoring the running status of radar and the data transmission is important.This paper introduced the composition of radar system and classification of radar data,analysed the characteristics and laws of the radar when is normal or abnormal. Using Macromedia Dreamweaver and PHP, developed the integrated monitoring platform for the doppler weather SA-band radar which could monitor the real-time radar system running status and important performance indicators such as radar power,status parameters and others on Web page,and when the status is abnormal it will trigger the audio alarm.

  14. Digital Conically Scanned L-Band Radar, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort seeks to develop a digitally steered polarimetric phased array L-Band radar utilizing a novel, high performance architecture leveraging recent...

  15. Classification of new-ice in the Greenland Sea using Satellite SSM/I radiometer and SeaWinds scatterometer data and comparison with ice model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Pedersen, Leif Toudal


    In the ice covered waters of the Greenland Sea the polarisation ratio of QuikSCAT SeaWinds Ku-band (13.4 GHz) scatterometer measurements and the polarisation ratio of DMSP-SSM/I 19 GHz radiometer measurements are used in combination to classify new-ice and mature ice. In particular, the formation...... to the physical transition of the ice cover from pancake ice to a consolidated young-ice sheet. The classification of each pixel into ice or water is done using two scatterometer parameters, namely the polarisation ratio and the daily standard deviation of the backscatter. (C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  16. Analysis of X-band radar images for the detection of the reflected and diffracted waves in coastal zones (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Natale, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Vicinanza, Diego; Serafino, Francesco


    The observation of nearshore waves and the knowledge of the sea state parameters can play a crucial role for the safety of harbors and ocean engineering. In the last two decades, different algorithms for the estimation of sea state parameters, surface currents and bathymetry from X-band radar data have been developed and validated [1, 2]. The retrieval of ocean wave parameters such as significant height, period, direction and wavelength of the dominant wave is based on the spectral analysis of data sequences collected by nautical X-band radars [3]. In particular, the reconstruction of the wave motion is carried out through the inversion procedure explained in [1-3], which exploits the dispersion relationship to define a band pass filter used to separate the energy associated with the ocean waves from the background noise. It is worth to note that the shape of such a band pass filter depends upon the value of both the surface currents and bathymetry; in our reconstruction algorithm these parameters are estimated through the (Normalized Scalar Product) procedure [1], which outperforms other existing methods (e.g., the Least Squares) [4]. From the reconstructed wave elevation sequences we can get the directional spectrum that provides useful information (i.e., wavelength, period, direction and amplitude) relevant to the main waves contributing to the wave motion. Of course, in coastal zones a number of diffraction and reflection phenomena can be observed, due to sea-waves impinging obstacles as jetties, breakwaters and boats. In the present paper we want to show the capability to detect reflected and diffracted sea-waves offered by the processing of X-band radar data. Further details relevant to the obtained results will be provided in the full paper and at the conference time. References [1] F. Serafino, C. Lugni, F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-Band radar data", IEEE Geosci. and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no

  17. Combining C- and X-band Weather Radars for Improving Precipitation Estimates over Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    of future system state. Accurate and reliable weather radar measurements are, therefore, important for future developments and achievements within urban drainage. This PhD study investigates two types of weather radars. Both systems are in operational use in Denmark today. A network of meteorological C...... individually and owned by local water utility companies. Although the two radar systems use similar working principles, the systems have significant differences regarding technology, temporal resolution, spatial resolution, range and scanning strategy. The focus of the research was to combine the precipitation...

  18. Dual-polarization, wideband microstrip antenna array for airborne C-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels


    The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance of the...... of the basic stacked patch element, operating from 4.9 GHz to 5.7 GHz, and a 2×2 element test array of these, are described.......The paper describes the development of a C-band, dual linear polarization wideband antenna array, for use in the next-generation of the Danish airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The array is made of probe-fed, stacked microstrip patches. The design and performance...

  19. Retrieval of Wind Speed Using an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaldo, Frank M.; Thompson, Donald R.; Badger, Merete


    Retrieval of wind speed using L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is both an old and new endeavor. Although the Seasat L-band SAR in 1978 was not well calibrated, early results indicated a strong relationship between observed SAR image intensity and wind speed. The JERS-1 L-band SAR had limited...

  20. Polarimetric rainfall retrieval from a C-Band weather radar in a tropical environment (The Philippines) (United States)

    Crisologo, I.; Vulpiani, G.; Abon, C. C.; David, C. P. C.; Bronstert, A.; Heistermann, Maik


    We evaluated the potential of polarimetric rainfall retrieval methods for the Tagaytay C-Band weather radar in the Philippines. For this purpose, we combined a method for fuzzy echo classification, an approach to extract and reconstruct the differential propagation phase, Φ DP , and a polarimetric self-consistency approach to calibrate horizontal and differential reflectivity. The reconstructed Φ DP was used to estimate path-integrated attenuation and to retrieve the specific differential phase, K DP . All related algorithms were transparently implemented in the Open Source radar processing software wradlib. Rainfall was then estimated from different variables: from re-calibrated reflectivity, from re-calibrated reflectivity that has been corrected for path-integrated attenuation, from the specific differential phase, and from a combination of reflectivity and specific differential phase. As an additional benchmark, rainfall was estimated by interpolating the rainfall observed by rain gauges. We evaluated the rainfall products for daily and hourly accumulations. For this purpose, we used observations of 16 rain gauges from a five-month period in the 2012 wet season. It turned out that the retrieval of rainfall from K DP substantially improved the rainfall estimation at both daily and hourly time scales. The measurement of reflectivity apparently was impaired by severe miscalibration while K DP was immune to such effects. Daily accumulations of rainfall retrieved from K DP showed a very low estimation bias and small random errors. Random scatter was, though, strongly present in hourly accumulations.

  1. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng


    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  2. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation (United States)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  3. Seasat synthetic aperture radar ( SAR) response to lowland vegetation types in eastern Maryland and Virginia. (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Milton, N.M.; Segal, D.B.


    Examination of Seasat SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with the 30-digital number (DN) increase observed in the digital Seasat data. The density, morphology, and relative geometry of the lowland vegetation with respect to standing water can all affect the strength of the return L band signal.-from Authors

  4. X-Band wave radar system for monitoring and risk management of the coastal infrastructures (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco


    waves from the coastal infrastructures, e.g. from the harbor jetties. In fact, the reflected waves may significantly complicate the harbour activities (e.g., berthing operations), as they interfere with the oncoming waves thus creating a confused sea [2]. References [1] G. Ludeno, C. Brandini, C. Lugni, D. Arturi, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, B. Gozzini, F. Serafino, "Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa Concordia Ship Wreck", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol.7, no.3, pp.3011-3018, July 2014. [2] G. Ludeno, F. Reale, F. Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, F. Serafino "An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in Harbor Area", Sensors, Vol.15, no.1, pp. 1691-1707, January 2015. [3] F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino, "X-band wave radar for coastal upwelling detection off the southern coast of Sicily.", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, January 2017, Vol. 34, No. 1, Published online on 22 Dec 2016.

  5. A semi-urban case study of small scale variability of rainfall and run-off, with C- and X-band radars and the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro (United States)

    Alves de Souza, Bianca; da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel


    The complexity of urban hydrology results both from that of urban systems and the extreme rainfall variability. The latter can display strongly localised rain cells that can be extremely damaging when hitting vulnerable parts of urban systems. This paper investigates this complexity on a semi-urban sub-catchment - located in Massy (South of Paris, France) - of the Bievre river, which is known for its frequent flashfloods. Advanced geo-processing techniques were used to find the ideal pixel size for this 6.326km2 basin. C-band and X-band radar data are multifractally downscaled at various resolutions and input to the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro. The latter has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. It integrates validated modules dealing with surface flow, saturated and unsaturated surface flow, and sewer flow. The C-band radar is located in Trappes, approx. 21km East of the catchment, is operated by Méteo-France and has a resolution of 1km x 1km x 5min. The X-band radar operated by Ecole des Ponts Paris Tech on its campus has a resolution of 125m x 125m x 3.4min. The performed multifractal downscaling enables both the generation of large ensemble realizations and easy change of resolution (e.g. down to 10 m in the present study). This in turn allows a detailed analysis of the impacts of small scale variability and the required resolution to obtain accurate simulations, therefore predictions. This will be shown on two rainy episodes over the chosen sub-catchment of the Bievre river.

  6. Detection Range Estimation of UV Spectral Band Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev


    Full Text Available Recently, has come into existence an interest in the systems operating in the ultra-violet (UF band of wavelengths, which use other spectral information (coefficients of reflection or radiation in UF range about location objects, than laser systems in the visible, near or average infrared bands. Thus, a point is not only to receive additional (in another spectral range information on location objects. Laser radiation in the UF spectral band of 0.315 – 0.4 microns is safer than laser radiation with the wavelengths of 0.38 – 1.4 microns.The work presents a comparative estimation of the detection systems range of laser radars in the UV and visible spectral bands for the following wavelengths of radiation:- UF band: 0.266 microns (the fourth harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions, 0.308 microns (the XeCl-excimer laser, 0.355 microns (the third harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions;- visible band: 0.532 microns (the second harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions.Results of calculations show that for the horizontal pathway in the terrestrial atmosphere at the selected radiation wavelengths a detection range is in the range of 2510m – 5690 m.The maximum range of detection corresponds to the visible spectral band. A sweep range decreases with transition to the UF band. This is caused by the fact that with transition to the UF band there is a rise of atmosphere attenuation (generally, because of absorption by ozone, this effect being smoothed by reducing background radiation.In the UF band a wavelength of 0.355 microns is the most acceptable. For this wavelength a detection range is about 1,5 times less (in comparison with the visible band of 0.532 microns. However, this is the much more eye-safe wavelength. With transition to the UV band a detection range decreases not that much and can be compensated by changing parameters of transmitting or receiving channels of laser radar.

  7. Disdrometer-based C-Band Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) in a highly complex terrain region in tropical Colombia. (United States)

    Sepúlveda, J.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.


    An adequate quantification of precipitation over land is critical for many societal applications including agriculture, hydroelectricity generation, water supply, and risk management associated with extreme events. The use of rain gauges, a traditional method for precipitation estimation, and an excellent one, to estimate the volume of liquid water during a particular precipitation event, does not allow to fully capture the highly spatial variability of the phenomena which is a requirement for almost all practical applications. On the other hand, the weather radar, an active remote sensing sensor, provides a proxy for rainfall with fine spatial resolution and adequate temporary sampling, however, it does not measure surface precipitation. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of the weather radar, it is necessary to develop quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) techniques combining radar information with in-situ measurements. Different QPE methodologies are explored and adapted to local observations in a highly complex terrain region in tropical Colombia using a C-Band radar and a relatively dense network of rain gauges and disdrometers. One important result is that the expressions reported in the literature for extratropical locations are not representative of the conditions found in the tropical region studied. In addition to reproducing the state-of-the-art techniques, a new multi-stage methodology based on radar-derived variables and disdrometer data is proposed in order to achieve the best QPE possible. The main motivation for this new methodology is based on the fact that most traditional QPE methods do not directly take into account the different uncertainty sources involved in the process. The main advantage of the multi-stage model compared to traditional models is that it allows assessing and quantifying the uncertainty in the surface rain rate estimation. The sub-hourly rainfall estimations using the multi-stage methodology are realistic

  8. Development of wide band digital receiver for atmospheric radars using COTS board based SDR (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.


    Digital receiver extracts the received echo signal information, and is a potential subsystem for atmospheric radar, also referred to as wind profiling radar (WPR), which provides the vertical profiles of 3-dimensional wind vector in the atmosphere. This paper presents the development of digital receiver using COTS board based Software Defined Radio technique, which can be used for atmospheric radars. The developmental work is being carried out at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki. The digital receiver consists of a commercially available software defined radio (SDR) board called as universal software radio peripheral B210 (USRP B210) and a personal computer. USRP B210 operates over a wider frequency range from 70 MHz to 6 GHz and hence can be used for variety of radars like Doppler weather radars operating in S/C bands, in addition to wind profiling radars operating in VHF, UHF and L bands. Due to the flexibility and re-configurability of SDR, where the component functionalities are implemented in software, it is easy to modify the software to receive the echoes and process them as per the requirement suitable for the type of the radar intended. Hence, USRP B210 board along with the computer forms a versatile digital receiver from 70 MHz to 6 GHz. It has an inbuilt direct conversion transceiver with two transmit and two receive channels, which can be operated in fully coherent 2x2 MIMO fashion and thus it can be used as a two channel receiver. Multiple USRP B210 boards can be synchronized using the pulse per second (PPS) input provided on the board, to configure multi-channel digital receiver system. RF gain of the transceiver can be varied from 0 to 70 dB. The board can be controlled from the computer via USB 3.0 interface through USRP hardware driver (UHD), which is an open source cross platform driver. The USRP B210 board is connected to the personal computer through USB 3.0. Reference (10 MHz) clock signal from the radar master oscillator

  9. Extracting bird migration information from C-band Doppler weather radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.


    Although radar has been used in studies of bird migration for 60 years, there is still no network in Europe for comprehensive monitoring of bird migration. Europe has a dense network of military air surveillance radars but most systems are not directly suitable for reliable bird monitoring. Since

  10. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  11. A multi-channel S-band FMCW radar front-end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van


    This paper describes the design and performance of a low-cost synthesized FMCW radar module, operating in S band. The bi-layer PCB contains a frequency-agile low phase-noise synthesizer and three identical coherent receive-channels. The transmit channel has an automatic power control system that

  12. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.


    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  13. Empirical Soil Moisture Estimation with Spaceborne L-band Polarimetric Radars: Aquarius, SMAP, and PALSAR-2 (United States)

    Burgin, M. S.; van Zyl, J. J.


    Traditionally, substantial ancillary data is needed to parametrize complex electromagnetic models to estimate soil moisture from polarimetric radar data. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) baseline radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm uses a data cube approach, where a cube of radar backscatter values is calculated using sophisticated models. In this work, we utilize the empirical approach by Kim and van Zyl (2009) which is an optional SMAP radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm; it expresses radar backscatter of a vegetated scene as a linear function of soil moisture, hence eliminating the need for ancillary data. We use 2.5 years of L-band Aquarius radar and radiometer derived soil moisture data to determine two coefficients of a linear model function on a global scale. These coefficients are used to estimate soil moisture with 2.5 months of L-band SMAP and L-band PALSAR-2 data. The estimated soil moisture is compared with the SMAP Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product; the global unbiased RMSE of the SMAP derived soil moisture corresponds to 0.06-0.07 cm3/cm3. In this study, we leverage the three diverse L-band radar data sets to investigate the impact of pixel size and pixel heterogeneity on soil moisture estimation performance. Pixel sizes range from 100 km for Aquarius, over 3, 9, 36 km for SMAP, to 10m for PALSAR-2. Furthermore, we observe seasonal variation in the radar sensitivity to soil moisture which allows the identification and quantification of seasonally changing vegetation. Utilizing this information, we further improve the estimation performance. The research described in this paper is supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017. All rights reserved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation McGill W-Band Radar GCPEx dataset was collected from February 1, 2012 to February 29, 2012 at the CARE site in Ontario, Canada as a part of...

  15. A case study on large-scale dynamical influence on bright band using cloud radar during the Indian summer monsoon (United States)

    Jha, Ambuj K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Devisetty, Hari Krishna; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, G.


    The present study is a first of its kind attempt in exploring the physical features (e.g., height, width, intensity, duration) of tropical Indian bright band using a Ka-band cloud radar under the influence of large-scale cyclonic circulation and attempts to explain the abrupt changes in bright band features, viz., rise in the bright band height by 430 m and deepening of the bright band by about 300 m observed at around 14:00 UTC on Sep 14, 2016, synoptically as well as locally. The study extends the utility of cloud radar to understand how the bright band features are associated with light precipitation, ranging from 0 to 1.5 mm/h. Our analysis of the precipitation event of Sep 14-15, 2016 shows that the bright band above (below) 3.7 km, thickness less (more) than 300 m can potentially lead to light drizzle of 0-0.25 mm/h (drizzle/light rain) at the surface. It is also seen that the cloud radar may be suitable for bright band study within light drizzle limits than under higher rain conditions. Further, the study illustrates that the bright band features can be determined using the polarimetric capability of the cloud radar. It is shown that an LDR value of - 22 dB can be associated with the top height of bright band in the Ka-band observations which is useful in the extraction of the bright band top height and its width. This study is useful for understanding the bright band phenomenon and could be potentially useful in establishing the bright band-surface rain relationship through the perspective of a cloud radar, which would be helpful to enhance the cloud radar-based quantitative estimates of precipitation.

  16. Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; vanZyl, Jakob J.


    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce reflections of the radar signals yield radar signatures similar to that of tall and massive forests. Circular polarizations, which minimize the effect of Faraday rotation in spaceborne applications, are therefore of limited use for measuring forest biomass. In the tropical rain forest of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 50 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P band horizontal and vertical polarization data combined separate biomass classes in good agreement with forest inventory estimates. The worldwide need for large scale, updated, biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, justifies a more in-depth exploration of multi-polarization long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  17. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picciotti


    Full Text Available Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative mbox{integrated} decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5

  18. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.


    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  19. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies. (United States)

    Balal, Nezah; Pinhasi, Gad A; Pinhasi, Yosef


    The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF) above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide "chirped" Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex) refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  20. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands (United States)


    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by

  1. Use of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) P band for detection of the Moche and Lambayeque canal networks in the Apurlec region, Perù (United States)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Santovito, Maria Rosaria; Pica, Giulia; Catapano, Ilaria; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Lanari, Riccardo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Wester La Torre, Carlos; Fernandez Manayalle, Marco Antonio; Longo, Francesco; Facchinetti, Claudia; Formaro, Roberto


    , glaciers investigation, biomass monitoring, detection of buried targets. Its extension to non-civil application concerns sub-surface target detection and foliage penetration (FOPEN). In order to achieve the flexibility to face all the above mentioned fields of application, the CORISTA system has been designed as a multi-mode and multi-frequency radar. Multimode stands for the functionality of the system both as Sounder and Imager. In addition, P-band radar is a multi-frequency instrument, since it is designed to work in three different frequency bands, as mentioned above: lower frequency band is used in sounder operative mode, higher frequency in imager operative mode. In the Imager operative mode, low resolution and high resolution capabilities are implemented. The data collected by the radar system have been processed using a model-based microwave tomographic approach, recently developed by IREA-CNR, with the aim to enhance the interpretability of the raw-data radar images. Currently, the non-invasive SAR P band application is under evaluation for testing in the Northern Coast of Perù, in collaboration with the Museo Arqueológico Nacional Brüning. The project will aim to recognize the subsurface ancient Moche (100-700 d.C.) and Lambayeque (700-1375 d.C.) canal networks, whose water supply comes from the Canal Taymi, started to be dug by the Mochicas, still in use by local communities.

  2. A preliminary study of the impact of the ERS 1 C band scatterometer wind data on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts global data assimilation system (United States)

    Hoffman, Ross N.


    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the ERS 1 scatterometer wind data on the current European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis and forecast system has been carried out. Although the scatterometer data results in changes to the analyses and forecasts, there is no consistent improvement or degradation. Our results are based on comparing analyses and forecasts from assimilation cycles. The two sets of analyses are very similar except for the low level wind fields over the ocean. Impacts on the analyzed wind fields are greater over the southern ocean, where other data are scarce. For the most part the mass field increments are too small to balance the wind increments. The effect of the nonlinear normal mode initialization on the analysis differences is quite small, but we observe that the differences tend to wash out in the subsequent 6-hour forecast. In the Northern Hemisphere, analysis differences are very small, except directly at the scatterometer locations. Forecast comparisons reveal large differences in the Southern Hemisphere after 72 hours. Notable differences in the Northern Hemisphere do not appear until late in the forecast. Overall, however, the Southern Hemisphere impacts are neutral. The experiments described are preliminary in several respects. We expect these data to ultimately prove useful for global data assimilation.

  3. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space. (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.


    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  4. Measurement of the sea surface wind speed and direction by an airborne microwave radar altimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrassov, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik


    A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of a hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has considerable size that hampers its placing on flying apparatus. In this connection, a possibility to apply a conventional airborne radar altimeter as a scatterometer with a nadir-looking wide-beam antenna in conjunction with Doppler filtering for recovering the wind vector over sea is discussed, and measuring algorithms of sea surface wind speed and direction are proposed. The obtained results can be used for creation of an airborne radar system for operational measurement of the sea roughness characteristics and for safe landing of a hydroplane on water. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of Precipitation in the Alps Using Dual-Polarization C-Band Ground-Based Radars, the GPM Spaceborne Ku-Band Radar, and Rain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella


    Full Text Available The complex problem of quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alpine region is tackled from four different points of view: (1 the modern MeteoSwiss network of automatic telemetered rain gauges (GAUGE; (2 the recently upgraded MeteoSwiss dual-polarization Doppler, ground-based weather radar network (RADAR; (3 a real-time merging of GAUGE and RADAR, implemented at MeteoSwiss, in which a technique based on co-kriging with external drift (CombiPrecip is used; (4 spaceborne observations, acquired by the dual-wavelength precipitation radar on board the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM core satellite. There are obviously large differences in these sampling modes, which we have tried to minimize by integrating synchronous observations taken during the first 2 years of the GPM mission. The data comprises 327 “wet” overpasses of Switzerland, taken after the launch of GPM in February 2014. By comparing the GPM radar estimates with the MeteoSwiss products, a similar performance was found in terms of bias. On average (whole country, all days and seasons, both solid and liquid phases, underestimation is as large as −3.0 (−3.4 dB with respect to RADAR (GAUGE. GPM is not suitable for assessing what product is the best in terms of average precipitation over the Alps. GPM can nevertheless be used to evaluate the dispersion of the error around the mean, which is a measure of the geographical distribution of the error inside the country. Using 221 rain-gauge sites, the result is clear both in terms of correlation and in terms of scatter (a robust, weighted measure of the dispersion of the multiplicative error around the mean. The best agreement was observed between GPM and CombiPrecip, and, next, between GPM and RADAR, whereas a larger disagreement was found between GPM and GAUGE. Hence, GPM confirms that, for precipitation mapping in the Alpine region, the best results are obtained by combining ground-based radar with rain-gauge measurements using

  6. Analysis of high resolution land clutter using an X-band radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Melebari, A


    Full Text Available . Measurements were performed with an X-band radar system with two instantaneous bandwidths of 40 MHz and 400 MHz. The clutter data was analyzed by fitting the amplitude Probability Distribution Function (PDF) to different distributions using the Method...

  7. Cross-polarization microwave radar return at severe wind conditions: laboratory model and geophysical model function. (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Abramov, Victor; Ermoshkin, Alexey; Zuikova, Emma; Kazakov, Vassily; Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexandr


    Satellite remote sensing is one of the main techniques of monitoring severe weather conditions over the ocean. The principal difficulty of the existing algorithms of retrieving wind based on dependence of microwave backscattering cross-section on wind speed (Geophysical Model Function, GMF) is due to its saturation at winds exceeding 25 - 30 m/s. Recently analysis of dual- and quad-polarization C-band radar return measured from satellite Radarsat-2 suggested that the cross-polarized radar return has much higher sensitivity to the wind speed than co-polarized back scattering [1] and conserved sensitivity to wind speed at hurricane conditions [2]. Since complete collocation of these data was not possible and time difference in flight legs and SAR images acquisition was up to 3 hours, these two sets of data were compared in [2] only statistically. The main purpose of this paper is investigation of the functional dependence of cross-polarized radar cross-section on the wind speed in laboratory experiment. Since cross-polarized radar return is formed due to scattering at small-scale structures of the air-sea interface (short-crested waves, foam, sprays, etc), which are well reproduced in laboratory conditions, then the approach based on laboratory experiment on radar scattering of microwaves at the water surface under hurricane wind looks feasible. The experiments were performed in the Wind-wave flume located on top of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, where the airflow was produced in the flume with the straight working part of 10 m and operating cross section 0.40?0.40 sq. m, the axis velocity can be varied from 5 to 25 m/s. Microwave measurements were carried out by a coherent Doppler X-band (3.2 cm) scatterometer with the consequent receive of linear polarizations. Experiments confirmed higher sensitivity to the wind speed of the cross-polarized radar return. Simultaneously parameters of the air flow in the turbulent boundary layer

  8. Polarimetric C-Band SAR Observations of Sea Ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bjørn Bavnehøj; Nghiem, S.V.; Kwok, R.


    The fully polarimetric EMISAR acquired C-band radar signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea during a campaign in March 1995. The authors present maps of polarimetric signatures over an area containing various kinds of ice and discuss the use of polarimetric SAR for identification of ice types...

  9. Proceedings of the COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems; Beitraege des Instituts zum COST 75 final seminar on advanced weather radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, R.; Flender, F.; Hagen, M.; Hoeller, H.; Keil, C.; Meischner, P.


    Across Europe more than 110 weather radars are in operation. More than 60 of them are Doppler radars and this number is increasing steadily. Doppler systems are becoming an operational standard. Most systems operate in C-band, with the exception of the Spanish radar network which is composed of S-band Doppler radars. Radar product composites are available for Scandinavia and Central Europe. National networks exist for the UK, France and Spain. Europe further is fortunate to have 8 polarimetric Doppler radars used mainly for research. In Italy some of those systems are used also for operational nowcasting applications for dedicated customers. The Chilbolton multiparameter Doppler radar operates at S-band. (orig.)

  10. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan (United States)


    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  11. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil (United States)


    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  12. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  13. An Algorithm for Surface Current Retrieval from X-band Marine Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Shen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel current inversion algorithm from X-band marine radar images is proposed. The routine, for which deep water is assumed, begins with 3-D FFT of the radar image sequence, followed by the extraction of the dispersion shell from the 3-D image spectrum. Next, the dispersion shell is converted to a polar current shell (PCS using a polar coordinate transformation. After removing outliers along each radial direction of the PCS, a robust sinusoidal curve fitting is applied to the data points along each circumferential direction of the PCS. The angle corresponding to the maximum of the estimated sinusoid function is determined to be the current direction, and the amplitude of this sinusoidal function is the current speed. For validation, the algorithm is tested against both simulated radar images and field data collected by a vertically-polarized X-band system and ground-truthed with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. From the field data, it is observed that when the current speed is less than 0.5 m/s, the root mean square differences between the radar-derived and the ADCP-measured current speed and direction are 7.3 cm/s and 32.7°, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed procedure, unlike most existing current inversion schemes, is not susceptible to high current speeds and circumvents the need to consider aliasing. Meanwhile, the relatively low computational cost makes it an excellent choice in practical marine applications.

  14. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  15. Theoretical Modeling and Analysis of L- and P-band Radar Backscatter Sensitivity to Soil Active Layer Dielectric Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Du


    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT and moisture dynamics within the soil active layer are critical elements of boreal, arctic and alpine ecosystems, and environmental change assessments. We evaluated the potential for detecting dielectric changes within different soil layers using combined L- and P-band radar remote sensing as a prerequisite for detecting FT and moisture profile changes within the soil active layer. A two-layer scattering model was developed and validated for simulating radar responses from vertically inhomogeneous soil. The model simulations indicated that inhomogeneity in the soil dielectric profile contributes to both L- and P-band backscatter, but with greater P-band sensitivity at depth. The difference in L- and P-band responses to soil dielectric profile inhomogeneity appears suitable for detecting associated changes in soil active layer conditions. Additional evaluation using collocated airborne radar (AIRSAR observations and in situ soil moisture measurements over alpine tundra indicates that combined L- and P-band SAR observations are sensitive to soil dielectric profile heterogeneity associated with variations in soil moisture and FT conditions.

  16. A new low-cost 10 ns pulsed K(a)-band radar. (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana


    Two Gunn oscillators, conventional intermediate frequency building blocks, and a modified GaAs diode detector are combined to form a portable monostatic 10 ns instrumentation radar for outdoor K(a)-band radar cross section measurements. At 37.8 GHz the radar gives +20 dBm output power and its tangential sensitivity is -76 dBm. Processing bandwidth is 125 MHz, which also allows for some frequency drift in the Gunn devices. Intra-pulse frequency chirp is less than 15 MHz. All functions are steered by a microcontroller. First measurements convince that the construction has a reasonable ability to reduce close-to-ground surface clutter and gives an effective way of resolving target detail. This is beneficial especially when amplitude fluctuations disturb measurements with longer pulses. The new unit operates on 12 V dc, draws a current of less than 3 A, and weighs 5 kg.

  17. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.


    Knowledge of soil moisture, as a key variable of the Earth system, plays an important role in our under-standing of the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. The importance of such knowledge has led NASA to fund missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS). The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of the major North American biomes. AirMOSS flies a P-band SAR to penetrate vegetation and into the root zone to provide estimates of RZSM. The flights cover areas containing flux tower sites in regions from the boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada, to the tropical forests in La Selva, Costa Rica. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM via inversion of a scattering model of vegetation overlying soils with variable moisture profiles. These retrievals will be used to generate a time record of RZSM, which will be integrated with an ecosystem demography model in order to estimate the respiration and photosynthesis carbon fluxes. The aim of this work is the retrieval of the moisture profile over AirMOSS sites using the collected P-band radar data. We have integrated layered-soil scattering models into a forest scattering model; for the backscattering from ground and for the trunk-ground double-bounce mechanism, we have used a layered small perturbation method and a coherent scattering model of layered soil, respectively. To estimate the soil moisture profile, we represent it as a second-order polynomial in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to be retrieved from radar measurements. When retrieved, these coefficients give us the soil moisture up to a prescribed depth of validity. To estimate the unknown coefficients of the polynomial, we use simulated

  18. A modified objective mapping technique for scatterometer wind data (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.; Caruso, Michael J.


    A method for generating high-resolution wind maps from scatterometer data was developed and tested on synthetic data for the northeast Pacific Ocean. It is shown that, unlike the wind fields generated by current GCMs, the wind maps constructed by this method retain the high spatial resolution of the scatterometer wherever adequate measurements exist. For the NASA scatterometer, this method would produce every 12 hours a wind map with spatial resolution that preserves the small-scale features of the original data over about half the mapped region. Over the rest of the region, maps with somewhat lower resolution and accuracy will be obtained.

  19. Comparisons of some scattering theories with recent scatterometer measurements. [sea roughness radar model (United States)

    Fung, A. K.; Dome, G.; Moore, R. K.


    The paper compares the predictions of two different types of sea scatter theories with recent scatterometer measurements which indicate the variations of the backscattering coefficient with polarization, incident angle, wind speed, and azimuth angle. Wright's theory (1968) differs from that of Chan and Fung (1977) in two major aspects: (1) Wright uses Phillips' sea spectrum (1966) while Chan and Fung use that of Mitsuyasu and Honda, and (2) Wright uses a modified slick sea slope distribution by Cox and Munk (1954) while Chan and Fung use the slick sea slope distribution of Cox and Munk defined with respect to the plane perpendicular to the look direction. Satisfactory agreements between theory and experimental data are obtained when Chan and Fung's model is used to explain the wind and azimuthal dependence of the scattering coefficient.

  20. Change detection in a short time sequence of polarimetric C-band SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning


    in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change(s) occur. The technique is demonstrated on airborne EMISAR C-band data but may be applied to ALOS, COSMO-SkyMed, RadarSat-2 Sentinel-1, TerraSAR-X, and Yaogan data also....

  1. Improving Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates by Combining two Types of Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    This paper presents a demonstration of how Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) X-band measurements can be combined with meteorological C–band measurements into a single radar product. For this purpose, a blending method has been developed which combines the strengths of the two radar systems. Combining...... the two radar types achieves a radar product with both long range and high temporal resolution. It is validated that the blended radar product performs better than the individual radars based on ground observations from laser disdrometers. However, the data combination is challenged by lower performance...... of the LAWR. Although both radars benefits from the data combination, it is also found that advection based temporal interpolation is a more favourable method for increasing the temporal resolution of meteorological C–band measurements....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yamada


    Full Text Available The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, “Honshu”, areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  3. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation (United States)

    Maronde, R. G.


    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  4. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland (United States)


    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Estimates of oceanic surface wind speed and direction using orthogonal beam scatterometer measurements and comparison of recent sea scattering theories (United States)

    Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.; Dome, G. J.; Birrer, I. J.


    The wind direction properties of radar backscatter from the sea were empirically modelled using a cosine Fourier series through the 4th harmonic in wind direction (referenced to upwind). A comparison with 1975 JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project) scatterometer data, at incidence angles of 40 and 65, indicates that effects to third and fourth harmonics are negligible. Another important result is that the Fourier coefficients through the second harmonic are related to wind speed by a power law expression. A technique is also proposed to estimate the wind speed and direction over the ocean from two orthogonal scattering measurements. A comparison between two different types of sea scatter theories, one type presented by the work of Wright and the other by that of Chan and Fung, was made with recent scatterometer measurements. It demonstrates that a complete scattering model must include some provisions for the anisotropic characteristics of the sea scatter, and use a sea spectrum which depends upon wind speed.

  6. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  7. Multifractal analysis of different hydrological products of X-band radar (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel


    Rainfall is widely considered as the hydrological process that triggers all the others. Its accurate measurements are crucial especially when they are used afterwards for the hydrological modeling of urban and peri-urban catchments for decision-making. Rainfall is a complex process and is scale dependent in space and time. Hence a high spatial and temporal resolution of the data is more appropriate for urban modeling. Therefore, a great interest of high-resolution measurements of precipitation in space and time is manifested. Radar technologies have not stopped evolving since their first appearance about the mid-twentieth. Indeed, the turning point work by Marshall-Palmer (1948) has established the Z - R power-law relation that has been widely used, with major scientific efforts being devoted to find "the best choice" of the two associated parameters. Nowadays X-band radars, being provided with dual-polarization and Doppler means, offer more accurate data of higher resolution. The fact that drops are oblate induces a differential phase shift between the two polarizations. The quantity most commonly used for the rainfall rate computation is actually the specific differential phase shift, which is the gradient of the differential phase shift along the radial beam direction. It is even stronger correlated to the rain rate R than reflectivity Z. Hence the rain rate can be computed with a different power-law relation, which again depends on only two parameters. Furthermore, an attenuation correction is needed to adjust the loss of radar energy due to the absorption and scattering as it passes through the atmosphere. Due to natural variations of reflectivity with altitude, vertical profile of reflectivity should be corrected as well. There are some other typical radar data filtering procedures, all resulting in various hydrological products. In this work, we use the Universal Multifractal framework to analyze and to inter-compare different products of X-band radar

  8. Effects of surface roughness on sea ice freeboard retrieval with an Airborne Ku-Band SAR radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit


    to investigate sea ice volume changes on an Arctic wide scale. Freeboard retrieval requires precise radar range measurements to the ice surface, therefore we investigate the penetration of the Ku-Band radar waves into the overlying snow cover as well as the effects of sub-footprint-scale surface roughness using...... airborne radar and laser altimeters. We find regional variable penetration of the radar signal at late spring conditions, where the difference of the radar and the reference laser range measurement never agrees with the expected snow thickness. In addition, a rough surface can lead to biases...

  9. Ranger© - An Affordable, Advanced, Next-Generation, Dual-Pol, X-Band Weather Radar (United States)

    Stedronsky, Richard


    The Enterprise Electronics Corporation (EEC) Ranger© system is a new generation, X-band (3 cm), Adaptive Polarization Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar that fills the gap between high-cost, high-power traditional radar systems and the passive ground station weather sensors. Developed in partnership with the University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), the system uses relatively low power solid-state transmitters and pulse compression technology to attain nearly the same performance capabilities of much more expensive traditional radar systems. The Ranger© also employs Adaptive Dual Polarization (ADP) techniques to allow Alternating or Simultaneous Dual Polarization capability with total control over the transmission polarization state using dual independent coherent transmitters. Ranger© has been designed using the very latest technology available in the industry and the technical and manufacturing experience gained through over four decades of successful radar system design and production at EEC. The entire Ranger© design concept emphasizes precision, stability, reliability, and value using proven solid state technology combined with the most advanced motion control system ever conceived for weather radar. Key applications include meteorology, hydrology, aviation, offshore oil/gas drilling, wind energy, and outdoor event situational awareness.

  10. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li


    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  11. Modeling L-band synthetic aperture radar observations through dielectric changes in soil moisture and vegetation over shrublands (United States)

    L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar observations were made over California shrublands to better understand the effects by soil and vegetation parameters on backscatter. Temporal changes in radar backscattering coefficient (s0) of up to 3 dB were highly correlated to surface soil moisture but no...

  12. Space Radar Image of Bahia (United States)


    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  13. A New Ka-Band Scanning Radar Facility: Polarimetric and Doppler Spectra Measurements of Snow Events (United States)

    Oue, M.; Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Mead, J.


    Polarimetric radar analyses offer the capability of identification of ice hydrometeor species as well as their spatial distributions. In addition to polarimetric parameter observations, Doppler spectra measurements offer unique insights into ice particle properties according to particle fall velocities. In particular, millimeter-wavelength radar Doppler spectra can reveal supercooled liquid cloud droplets embedded in ice precipitation clouds. A Ka-band scanning polarimetric radar, named KASPR, was installed in an observation facility at Stony Brook University, located 22 km west of the KOKX NEXRAD radar at Upton, NY. The KASPR can measure Doppler spectra and full polarimetric variables, including radar reflectivity, differential reflectivity (ZDR), differential phase (φDP), specific differential phase (KDP), correlation coefficient (ρhv), and linear depolarization ratio (LDR). The facility also includes a micro-rain radar and a microwave radiometer capable of measuring reflectivity profiles and integrated liquid water path, respectively. The instruments collected initial datasets during two snowstorm events and two snow shower events in March 2017. The radar scan strategy was a combination of PPI scans at 4 elevation angles (10, 20, 45, and 60°) and RHI scans in polarimetry mode, and zenith pointing with Doppler spectra collection. During the snowstorm events the radar observed relatively larger ZDR (1-1.5 dB) and enhanced KDP (1-2 ° km-1) at heights corresponding to a plate/dendrite crystal growth regime. The Doppler spectra showed that slower-falling particles ( 1 m s-1). The weakly increased ZDR could be produced by large, faster falling particles such as quasi-spherical aggregates, while the enhanced KDP could be produced by highly-oriented oblate, slowly-falling particles. Below 2 km altitude, measurements of dual wavelength ratio (DWR) based on Ka and S-band reflectivities from the KASPR and NEXRAD radars were available. Larger DWR (>10 dB) suggested

  14. Ultra-Broad Band Radar Cross Section Reduction of Waveguide Slot Antenna with Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available To reduce the radar cross section of a waveguide slot antenna, a three-layer metamaterial is presented based on orthogonal double split-ring resonators. The absorption characteristics of three-layer metamaterial are demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, the metamaterials have been loaded on common waveguide slot antenna according to the surface current distribution. The ultra-broad band radar cross section reduction of the antenna with metamaterials had been theoretically and experimentally investigated by radiating and scattering performances. Experimental and simulated results showed that the proposed antenna with metamaterials performed broadband radar cross section reduction from 3.9 GHz to 18 GHz and the gain had been improved due to the coupling effect between slot and the period structure. The maximal radar cross section reduction achieved 17.81 dB at 8.68 GHz for x-polarized incidence and 21.79 dB at 6.25 GHz for y-polarized waves.

  15. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest (United States)


    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  16. Assimilation of global radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature observations to improve soil moisture and land evaporation estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N.E.C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R.H.; Gonzalez Miralles, D.


    Active radar backscatter (σ°) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA S-Band Dual Polarimetric (NPOL) Doppler Radar IFloodS data set was collected from April 30, 2013 to June 16, 2013 near Traer, Iowa as...

  18. Impact of Scatterometer Ocean Wind Vector Data on NOAA Operations (United States)

    Jelenak, Z.; Chang, P.; Brennan, M. J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.


    Near real-time measurements of ocean surface vector winds (OSVW), including both wind speed and direction from non-NOAA satellites, are being widely used in critical operational NOAA forecasting and warning activities. The scatterometer wind data data have had major operational impact in: a) determining wind warning areas for mid-latitude systems (gale, storm,hurricane force); b) determining tropical cyclone 34-knot and 50-knot wind radii. c) tracking the center location of tropical cyclones, including the initial identification of their formation. d) identifying and warning of extreme gap and jet wind events at all latitudes. e) identifying the current location of frontal systems and high and low pressure centers. f) improving coastal surf and swell forecasts Much has been learned about the importance and utility of satellite OSVW data in operational weather forecasting and warning by exploiting OSVW research satellites in near real-time. Since December 1999 when first data from QuikSCAT scatterometer became available in near real time NOAA operations have been benefiting from ASCAT scatterometer observations on MetOp-A and B, Indian OSCAT scatterometer on OceanSat-3 and lately NASA's RapidScat mission on International Space Station. With oceans comprising over 70 percent of the earth's surface, the impacts of these data have been tremendous in serving society's needs for weather and water information and in supporting the nation's commerce with information for safe, efficient, and environmentally sound transportation and coastal preparedness. The satellite OSVW experience that has been gained over the past decade by users in the operational weather community allows for realistic operational OSVW requirements to be properly stated for future missions. Successful model of transitioning research data into operation implemented by Ocean Winds Team in NOAA's NESDIS/STAR office and subsequent data impacts will be presented and discussed.

  19. Land cover classification accuracy from electro-optical, X, C, and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data fusion (United States)

    Hammann, Mark Gregory

    The fusion of electro-optical (EO) multi-spectral satellite imagery with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data was explored with the working hypothesis that the addition of multi-band SAR will increase the land-cover (LC) classification accuracy compared to EO alone. Three satellite sources for SAR imagery were used: X-band from TerraSAR-X, C-band from RADARSAT-2, and L-band from PALSAR. Images from the RapidEye satellites were the source of the EO imagery. Imagery from the GeoEye-1 and WorldView-2 satellites aided the selection of ground truth. Three study areas were chosen: Wad Medani, Sudan; Campinas, Brazil; and Fresno- Kings Counties, USA. EO imagery were radiometrically calibrated, atmospherically compensated, orthorectifed, co-registered, and clipped to a common area of interest (AOI). SAR imagery were radiometrically calibrated, and geometrically corrected for terrain and incidence angle by converting to ground range and Sigma Naught (?0). The original SAR HH data were included in the fused image stack after despeckling with a 3x3 Enhanced Lee filter. The variance and Gray-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture measures of contrast, entropy, and correlation were derived from the non-despeckled SAR HH bands. Data fusion was done with layer stacking and all data were resampled to a common spatial resolution. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) decision rule was used for the supervised classifications. Similar LC classes were identified and tested for each study area. For Wad Medani, nine classes were tested: low and medium intensity urban, sparse forest, water, barren ground, and four agriculture classes (fallow, bare agricultural ground, green crops, and orchards). For Campinas, Brazil, five generic classes were tested: urban, agriculture, forest, water, and barren ground. For the Fresno-Kings Counties location 11 classes were studied: three generic classes (urban, water, barren land), and eight specific crops. In all cases the addition of SAR to EO resulted

  20. Advanced Architectures for Modern Weather/Multifunction Radars (United States)


    Radar (PAIR) system, a mobile , C-band, active phased array with multiple digital beams for imaging (under development). The digital transceiver... backend from Horus is also being used to drive row-based analog subarrays of the future Polarimetric Atmospheric Imaging Radar (PAIR, Fig. 6), which is

  1. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano (United States)


    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  2. Multiple scattering effects on the Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR) measured during CaPE by a Ka-band air-borne radar (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshio; Meneghini, Robert


    Air-borne radar measurements of thunderstorms were made as part of the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification) experiment in Florida in July 1991. The radar has two channels, X-band (10 GHz) and Ka-band (34.5 GHz), and is capable of measuring cross-polarized returns as well as co-polarized returns. In stratiform rain, the cross-polarized components can be observed only at the bright band region and from the surface reflection. The linear depolarization ratios (LDR's) measured at X-band and Ka-band at the bright band are nearly equal. In convective rain, however, the LDR in Ka-band often exceeds the X-band LDR by several dB, and sometimes by more than 10 dB, reaching LDR values of up to -5 dB over heavy convective rain. For randomly oriented hydrometeors, such high LDR values cannot be explained by single scattering from non-spherical scattering particles alone. Because the LDR by single backscatter depends weakly on the wavelength, the difference between the Ka-band and X-band LDR's suggests that multiple scattering effects prevail in the Ka-band LDR. In order to test this inference, the magnitude of the cross-polarized component created by double scattering was calculated using the parameters of the airborne radar, which for both frequencies has beamwidths of 5.1 degrees and pulse widths of 0.5 microsecond. Uniform rain beyond the range of 3 km is assumed.

  3. Analysis of Arctic Sea ice coverage in 2012 using multi-source scatterometer data (United States)

    Zhai, M.


    Arctic sea ice extent, regarded as an indicator of climate change, has been declining for the past few decades and reached the lowest ice extent in satellite record during the summer of 2012. Scatterometers can be used in sea ice identification, due to its ability to measure the backscatter characteristics of surface coverage. Thus, daily scatterometer data can be used in Arctic sea ice monitoring. In this paper, we compared the similarity and difference of three different scatterometer datasets, including ASCAT(METOP-A/B Advanced scatterometer) data, OSCAT(Oceansat-2 scatterometer)data and China's HY-2 scatterometer data, and then evaluated their performance in Artic sea ice investigation. We also constructed the sea ice coverage time series in 2012 using different scatterometer data and analyzed its temporal and spatial variation. Preliminary Results show that the maximum extent was set on 19 March, 2012. Cracks started to appear in Arctic sea ice coverage near New Siberian Islands on 18,May. Later, melt process accelerates in July and August. The northeast passage is not open until late August. On 18 September, the extent reached the minimum level and the refreezing process began. The duration of melting season is slightly shorter than the average level over the period of 1978 to 2012(ERS-1/2 scattermeter and Quickscat scatterometer data are used as supplementary records). The record low extent is likely resulted from (1)Arctic dipole pressure pattern, bringing in warm southerly winds and enhancing arctic ice discharge in Fram Strait and (2)relatively warm conditions over the Arctic areas.

  4. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil (United States)


    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  5. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)


    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  6. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal (United States)


    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C

  7. Performance Analysis of Ultra-Wideband Channel for Short-Range Monopulse Radar at Ka-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiko Iwakiri


    Full Text Available High-range resolution is inherently provided with Ka-band ultra-wideband (UWB vehicular radars. The authors have developed a prototype UWB monopulse radar equipped with a two-element receiving antenna array and reported its measurement results. In this paper, a more detailed verification using these measurements is presented. The measurements were analyzed employing matched filtering and eigendecomposition, and then multipath components were extracted to examine the behavior of received UWB monopulse signals. Next, conventional direction finding algorithms based on narrowband assumption were evaluated using the extracted multipath components, resulting in acceptable angle-of-arrival (AOA from the UWB monopulse signal regardless of wideband signals. Performance degradation due to a number of averaging the received monopulses was also examined to design suitable radar's waveforms.

  8. The diurnal pattern of microwave backscattering by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisco, B.; Brown, R.J.; Koehler, J.A.; Sofko, G.J.; McKibben, M.J.


    A truck-mounted Ku-, C-, and L-band scatterometer system was used to obtain diurnal multiparameter radar backscatter measurements of wheat in August 1987 and June and July 1988. Concurrent field measurements of plant and soil moisture content were made in support of the radar data. Analyses of these data demonstrate the sensitivity of the microwave signals to the daily movement of water in the soil/plant system. The dependence of frequency, incidence angle, and polarization are discussed in relationship to the diurnal and seasonal changes in the soil and plant water content. The results are used to identify potential agronomic applications and future research requirements. (author)

  9. Field Experiments on SAR Detection of Film Slicks (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Kapustin, I.; Sergievskaya, I.


    Field experiments on radar detection of film slicks using satellite synthetic aperture radar TerraSAR-X and X-band scatterometer on board a research vessel are described. The experiments were carried out with surfactant films with known physical parameters, the surface tension and the film elasticity, at low to moderate wind conditions and at different radar incidence angles. It is shown that the depression of radar backscatter (contrast) in films slicks for X-band SAR weakly depends on wind velocity/direction, film elasticity and incidence angles within the range of 200-400. Scatterometer contrasts obtained at incidence angles of about 600 are larger than SAR contrasts. Theoretical analysis of radar contrasts for low-to-moderate incidence angles has been carried out based on a hydrodynamic model of wind wave damping due to films and on a composite radar imaging model. The hydrodynamic model takes into account wave damping due to viscoelastic films, wind wave generation and a phenomenological term describing nonlinear limitation of the wind wave spectrum. The radar model takes into account Bragg scattering and specular scattering mechanisms, the latter is usually negligible compared to the Bragg mechanism at moderate incidence angles (larger than 30-35 degrees), but gives noticeable contribution to radar backscattering at smaller incidence angles particularly for slick areas when cm-scale ripples are strongly depressed by films. Calculated radar contrasts in slicks are compared with experiments and it is concluded that development of the model is needed to predict quantitatively observations.

  10. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl (United States)


    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  11. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)


    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  12. Relating P-band AIRSAR backscatter to forest stand parameters (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Melack, John M.; Davis, Frank W.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.


    As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (Duke, Forest, North Carolina), boreal forest (Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska), and northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest (Michigan Biological Station, Michigan). The major research goals were to improve understanding of the relationships between radar backscatter and phenological variables (e.g. stand density, tree size, etc.), to improve radar backscatter models of tree canopy properties, and to develop a radar-based scheme for monitoring forest phenological changes. In September 1989, AIRSAR backscatter data were acquired over the Duke Forest. As the aboveground biomass of the loblolly pine forest stands at Duke Forest increased, the SAR backscatter at C-, L-, and P-bands increased and saturated at different biomass levels for the C-band, L-band, and P-band data. We only use the P-band backscatter data and ground measurements here to study the relationships between the backscatter and stand density, the backscatter and mean trunk dbh (diameter at breast height) of trees in the stands, and the backscatter and stand basal area.

  13. Knowledge-based decision tree approach for mapping spatial distribution of rice crop using C-band synthetic aperture radar-derived information (United States)

    Mishra, Varun Narayan; Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Rai, Praveen Kumar


    Updated and accurate information of rice-growing areas is vital for food security and investigating the environmental impact of rice ecosystems. The intent of this work is to explore the feasibility of dual-polarimetric C-band Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) data in delineating rice crop fields from other land cover features. A two polarization combination of RISAT-1 backscatter, namely ratio (HH/HV) and difference (HH-HV), significantly enhanced the backscatter difference between rice and nonrice categories. With these inputs, a QUEST decision tree (DT) classifier is successfully employed to extract the spatial distribution of rice crop areas. The results showed the optimal polarization combination to be HH along with HH/HV and HH-HV for rice crop mapping with an accuracy of 88.57%. Results were further compared with a Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) optical sensor-derived rice crop map. Spatial agreement of almost 90% was achieved between outputs produced from Landsat-8 OLI and RISAT-1 data. The simplicity of the approach used in this work may serve as an effective tool for rice crop mapping.

  14. Impact of Surface Soil Moisture Variations on Radar Altimetry Echoes at Ku and Ka Bands in Semi-Arid Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fatras


    Full Text Available Radar altimetry provides information on the topography of the Earth surface. It is commonly used for the monitoring not only sea surface height but also ice sheets topography and inland water levels. The radar altimetry backscattering coefficient, which depends on surface roughness and water content, can be related to surface properties such as surface soil moisture content. In this study, the influence of surface soil moisture on the radar altimetry echo and backscattering coefficient is analyzed over semi-arid areas. A semi-empirical model of the soil’s complex dielectric permittivity that takes into account that small-scale roughness and large-scale topography was developed to simulate the radar echoes. It was validated using waveforms acquired at Ku and Ka-bands by ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL AltiKa respectively over several sites in Mali. Correlation coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 at Ku-band and from 0.27 to 0.96 at Ka-band were found. The increase in surface soil moisture from 0.02 to 0.4 (i.e., the typical range of variations in semi-arid areas increase the backscattering from 10 to 15 dB between the core of the dry and the maximum of the rainy seasons.

  15. Wide Band and Wide Azimuth Beam Effect on High-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jun


    Full Text Available Passive corner reflectors and active transponders are often used as man-made reference targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR radiometric calibration, With the emergence of new radar systems and the increasing demand for greater accuracy, wide-band and wide-beam radars challenge the hypothesis that the Radar Cross Section (RCS of reference targets is constant. In this study, the FEKO electromagnetic simulation software is used to obtain the change curve of the target RCS as a function of frequency and aspect angle while incorporating high-resolution point-target SAR simulation, and quantitatively analyzing the effect of the modulation effect on SAR images. The simulation results suggest that the abovementioned factors affect the SAR calibration by more than 0.2 dB within a fractional bandwidth greater than 10% or azimuth beam width of more than 20°, which must be corrected in the data processing.

  16. The Next Generation of Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: NCAR/EOL Airborne Phased Array Radar (APAR) Development (United States)

    Moore, James; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Grubišić, Vanda; Tsai, Peisang; Dixon, Mike; Emmett, Jonathan; Lord, Mark; Lussier, Louis; Hwang, Kyuil; Ranson, James


    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth observing Laboratory (EOL) is entering the third year of preliminary system design studies, engineering prototype testing and project management plan preparation for the development of a novel Airborne Phased Array Radar (APAR). This system being designed by NCAR/EOL will be installed and operated on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. The APAR system will consist of four removable C-band Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) strategically placed on the fuselage of the aircraft. Each AESA measures approximately 1.5 x 1.9 m and is composed of 3000 active radiating elements arranged in an array of line replaceable units (LRU) to simplify maintenance. APAR will provide unprecedented observations, and in conjunction with the advanced radar data assimilation schema, will be able to address the key science questions to improve understanding and predictability of significant and high-impact weather APAR, operating at C-band, allows the measurement of 3-D kinematics of the more intense portions of storms (e.g. thunderstorm dynamics and tornadic development, tropical cyclone rainband structure and evolution) with less attenuation compared with current airborne Doppler radar systems. Polarimetric measurements are not available from current airborne tail Doppler radars. However, APAR, with dual-Doppler and dual polarization diversity at a lesser attenuating C-band wavelength, will further advance the understanding of the microphysical processes within a variety of precipitation systems. The radar is sensitive enough to provide high resolution measurements of winter storm dynamics and microphysics. The planned APAR development that would bring the system to operational readiness for research community use aboard the C-130 is expected to take 8 years once major funding support is realized. The authors will review the overall APAR design and provide new details of the system based on our Technical Requirements Document

  17. Rainfall Estimation and Performance Characterization Using an X-band Dual-Polarization Radar in the San Francisco Bay Area (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.


    The San Francisco Bay area is home to over 5 million people. In February 2016, the area also hosted the NFL Super bowl, bringing additional people and focusing national attention to the region. Based on the El Nino forecast, public officials expressed concern for heavy rainfall and flooding with the potential for threats to public safety, costly flood damage to infrastructure, negative impacts to water quality (e.g., combined sewer overflows) and major disruptions in transportation. Mitigation of the negative impacts listed above requires accurate precipitation monitoring (quantitative precipitation estimation-QPE) and prediction (including radar nowcasting). The proximity to terrain and maritime conditions as well as the siting of existing NEXRAD radars are all challenges in providing accurate, short-term near surface rainfall estimates in the Bay area urban region. As part of a collaborative effort between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Colorado State University (CSU), and Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), an X-band dual-polarization radar was deployed in Santa Clara Valley in February of 2016 to provide support for the National Weather Service during the Super Bowl and NOAA's El Nino Rapid Response field campaign. This high-resolution radar was deployed on the roof of one of the buildings at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant. The main goal was to provide detailed precipitation information for use in weather forecasting and assists the water district in their ability to predict rainfall and streamflow with real-time rainfall data over Santa Clara County especially during a potentially large El Nino year. The following figure shows the radar's coverage map, as well as sample reflectivity observations on March 06, 2016, at 00:04UTC. This paper presents results from a pilot study from February, 2016 to May, 2016 demonstrating the use of X-band weather radar for quantitative precipitation

  18. Experimentelles FMCW-Radar zur hochfrequenten Charakterisierung von Windenergieanlagen (United States)

    Schubert, Karsten; Werner, Jens; Schwartau, Fabian


    During the increasing dissemination of renewable energy sources the potential and actual interference effects of wind turbine plants became obvious. Turbines reflect the signals of weather radar and other radar systems. In addition to the static radar echoes, in particular the Doppler echoes are to be mentioned as an undesirable impairment Keränen (2014). As a result, building permit is refused for numerous new wind turbines, as the potential interference can not be reliably predicted. As a contribution to the improvement of this predictability, measurements are planned which aim at the high-frequency characterisation of wind energy installations. In this paper, a cost-effective FMCW radar is presented, which is operated in the same frequency band (C-band) as the weather radars of the German weather service. Here, the focus is on the description of the hardware design including the considerations used for its dimensioning.

  19. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.


    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  20. Identification of sea ice types in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Kwok, Ronald; Rignot, Eric; Holt, Benjamin; Onstott, R.


    This study presents an approach for identification of sea ice types in spaceborne SAR image data. The unsupervised classification approach involves cluster analysis for segmentation of the image data followed by cluster labeling based on previously defined look-up tables containing the expected backscatter signatures of different ice types measured by a land-based scatterometer. Extensive scatterometer observations and experience accumulated in field campaigns during the last 10 yr were used to construct these look-up tables. The classification approach, its expected performance, the dependence of this performance on radar system performance, and expected ice scattering characteristics are discussed. Results using both aircraft and simulated ERS-1 SAR data are presented and compared to limited field ice property measurements and coincident passive microwave imagery. The importance of an integrated postlaunch program for the validation and improvement of this approach is discussed.

  1. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)


    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  2. Modeling C-band single scattering properties of hydrometeors using discrete-dipole approximation and T-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyynelae, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Goeke, Sabine; Muinonen, Karri


    We study the applicability of the discrete-dipole approximation by modeling centimeter (C-band) radar echoes for hydrometeors, and compare the results to exact theories. We use ice and water particles of various shapes with varying water-content to investigate how the backscattering, extinction, and absorption cross sections change as a function of particle radius. We also compute radar parameters, such as the differential reflectivity, the linear depolarization ratio, and the copolarized correlation coefficient. We find that using discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) to model pure ice and pure water particles at the C-band, is a lot more accurate than particles containing both ice and water. For coated particles, a large grid-size is recommended so that the coating is modeled adequately. We also find that the absorption cross section is significantly less accurate than the scattering and backscattering cross sections. The accuracy of DDA can be increased by increasing the number of dipoles, but also by using the filtered coupled dipole-option for the polarizability. This halved the relative errors in cross sections.

  3. Toward an optimal inversion method for synthetic aperture radar wind retrieval


    Portabella, M.; Stoffelen, A.; Johannessen, Johnny A.


    In recent years, particular efforts have been made to derive wind fields over the oceans from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In contrast with the scatterometer, the SAR has a higher spatial resolution and therefore has the potential to provide higher resolution wind information. Since there are at least two geophysical parameters (wind speed and wind direction) modulating the single SAR backscatter measurements, the inversion of wind fields from SAR observations has an inherent proble...

  4. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  5. Evaluation of X-band polarimetric radar estimation of rainfall and rain drop size distribution parameters in West Africa (United States)

    Koffi, A. K.; Gosset, M.; Zahiri, E.-P.; Ochou, A. D.; Kacou, M.; Cazenave, F.; Assamoi, P.


    As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field campaign an X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar was deployed in Benin, West-Africa, in 2006 and 2007, together with a reinforced rain gauge network and several optical disdrometers. Based on this data set, a comparative study of several rainfall estimators that use X-band polarimetric radar data is presented. In tropical convective systems as encountered in Benin, microwave attenuation by rain is significant and quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at X-band is a challenge. Here, several algorithms based on the combined use of reflectivity, differential reflectivity and differential phase shift are evaluated against rain gauges and disdrometers. Four rainfall estimators were tested on twelve rainy events: the use of attenuation corrected reflectivity only (estimator R(ZH)), the use of the specific phase shift only R(KDP), the combination of specific phase shift and differential reflectivity R(KDP,ZDR) and an estimator that uses three radar parameters R(ZH,ZDR,KDP). The coefficients of the power law relationships between rain rate and radar variables were adjusted either based on disdrometer data and simulation, or on radar-gauges observations. The three polarimetric based algorithms with coefficients predetermined on observations outperform the R(ZH) estimator for rain rates above 10 mm/h which explain most of the rainfall in the studied region. For the highest rain rates (above 30 mm/h) R(KDP) shows even better scores, and given its performances and its simplicity of implementation, is recommended. The radar based retrieval of two parameters of the rain drop size distribution, the normalized intercept parameter NW and the volumetric median diameter Dm was evaluated on four rainy days thanks to disdrometers. The frequency distributions of the two parameters retrieved by the radar are very close to those observed with the disdrometer. NW retrieval based on a combination of ZH

  6. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.


    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.


    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  8. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren


    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  9. Characterization of hydrometeors in Sahelian convective systems with an X-band radar and comparison with in situ measurements. Part I : Sensitivity of polarimetric radar particle identification retrieval and case study evaluation


    Cazenave, Frédéric; Gosset, Marielle; Kacou, M.; Alcoba, M.; Fontaine, E.; Duroure, C.; Dolan, B.


    The particle identification scheme developed by Dolan and Rutledge for X-band polarimetric radar is tested for the first time in Africa and compared with in situ measurements. The data were acquired during the Megha-Tropiques mission algorithm-validation campaign that occurred in Niger in 2010. The radar classification is compared with the in situ observations gathered by an instrumented aircraft for the 13 August 2010 squall-line case. An original approach has been developed for the radar-in...

  10. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve


    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  11. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  12. Impact of scatterometer wind (ASCAT-A/B) data assimilation on semi real-time forecast system at KIAPS (United States)

    Han, H. J.; Kang, J. H.


    Since Jul. 2015, KIAPS (Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems) has been performing the semi real-time forecast system to assess the performance of their forecast system as a NWP model. KPOP (KIAPS Protocol for Observation Processing) is a part of KIAPS data assimilation system and has been performing well in KIAPS semi real-time forecast system. In this study, due to the fact that KPOP would be able to treat the scatterometer wind data, we analyze the effect of scatterometer wind (ASCAT-A/B) on KIAPS semi real-time forecast system. O-B global distribution and statistics of scatterometer wind give use two information which are the difference between background field and observation is not too large and KPOP processed the scatterometer wind data well. The changes of analysis increment because of O-B global distribution appear remarkably at the bottom of atmospheric field. It also shows that scatterometer wind data cover wide ocean where data would be able to short. Performance of scatterometer wind data can be checked through the vertical error reduction against IFS between background and analysis field and vertical statistics of O-A. By these analysis result, we can notice that scatterometer wind data will influence the positive effect on lower level performance of semi real-time forecast system at KIAPS. After, long-term result based on effect of scatterometer wind data will be analyzed.

  13. Evaluation of HY-2A Scatterometer Wind Vectors Using Data from Buoys, ERA-Interim and ASCAT during 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Xing


    Full Text Available The first Chinese operational Ku-band scatterometer on board Haiyang-2A (HY-2A, launched in August 2011, is designed for monitoring the global ocean surface wind. This study estimates the quality of the near-real-time (NRT retrieval wind speed and wind direction from the HY-2A scatterometer for 36 months from 2012 to 2014. We employed three types of sea-surface wind data from oceanic moored buoys operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC and the Tropical Atmospheric Ocean project (TAO, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, and the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT to calculate the error statistics including mean bias, root mean square error (RMSE, and standard deviation. In addition, the rain effects on the retrieval winds were investigated using collocated Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH precipitation data. All data were collocated with the HY-2A scatterometer wind data for comparison. The quality performances of the HY-2A NRT wind vectors data (especially the wind speeds were satisfactory throughout the service period. The RMSEs of the HY-2A wind speeds relative to the NDBC, TAO, ERA-Interim, and ASCAT data were 1.94, 1.73, 2.25, and 1.62 m·s−1, respectively. The corresponding RMSEs of the wind direction were 46.63°, 43.11°, 39.93°, and 47.47°, respectively. The HY-2A scatterometer overestimated low wind speeds, especially under rainy conditions. Rain exerted a diminishing effect on the wind speed retrievals with increasing wind speed, but its effect on wind direction was robust at low and moderate wind speeds. Relative to the TAO buoy data, the RMSEs without rain effect were reduced to 1.2 m·s−1 and 39.68° for the wind speed direction, respectively, regardless of wind speed. By investigating the objective laws between rain and the retrieval winds from HY-2A, we could improve the quality of wind retrievals through future studies.

  14. Forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition relationships with multipolarization L-band synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.


    The effect of forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition on L-band synthetic aperature radar data at 44 southern Mississippi bottomland hardwood and pine-hardwood forest sites was investigated. Cross-polarization mean digital values for pine forests were significantly correlated with green weight biomass and stand structure. Multiple linear regression with five forest structure variables provided a better integrated measure of canopy roughness and produced highly significant correlation coefficients for hardwood forests using HV/VV ratio only. Differences in biomass levels and canopy structure, including branching patterns and vertical canopy stratification, were important sources of volume scatter affecting multipolarization radar data. Standardized correction techniques and calibration of aircraft data, in addition to development of canopy models, are recommended for future investigations of forest biomass and structure using synthetic aperture radar.

  15. Compact U-Slotted Antenna for Broadband Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo


    Full Text Available The original U-shaped patch antenna is properly modified in this work to provide a compact and broadband antenna configuration with reduced cross-polar effects, well suitable for modern radar applications. The proposed antenna layout is applied to design, realize, and test two different prototypes working at P-band and C-band, typically adopted for ground-penetrating radar. The experimental results successfully demonstrate a large operating bandwidth between 15% and 20%, a significant reduction of size (about half of the standard configuration, and a low cross-polarization level within the operating frequency range.

  16. The DSS-14 C-band exciter (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.


    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  17. Study of sea-surface slope distribution and its effect on radar backscatter based on Global Precipitation Measurement Ku-band precipitation radar measurements (United States)

    Yan, Qiushuang; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Chenqing; Wang, Jing; Meng, Junmin


    The collocated normalized radar backscattering cross-section measurements from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and the winds from the moored buoys are used to study the effect of different sea-surface slope probability density functions (PDFs), including the Gaussian PDF, the Gram-Charlier PDF, and the Liu PDF, on the geometrical optics (GO) model predictions of the radar backscatter at low incidence angles (0 deg to 18 deg) at different sea states. First, the peakedness coefficient in the Liu distribution is determined using the collocations at the normal incidence angle, and the results indicate that the peakedness coefficient is a nonlinear function of the wind speed. Then, the performance of the modified Liu distribution, i.e., Liu distribution using the obtained peakedness coefficient estimate; the Gaussian distribution; and the Gram-Charlier distribution is analyzed. The results show that the GO model predictions with the modified Liu distribution agree best with the KuPR measurements, followed by the predictions with the Gaussian distribution, while the predictions with the Gram-Charlier distribution have larger differences as the total or the slick filtered, not the radar filtered, probability density is included in the distribution. The best-performing distribution changes with incidence angle and changes with wind speed.

  18. Evaluation of two "integrated" polarimetric Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) algorithms at C-band (United States)

    Tabary, Pierre; Boumahmoud, Abdel-Amin; Andrieu, Hervé; Thompson, Robert J.; Illingworth, Anthony J.; Le Bouar, Erwan; Testud, Jacques


    SummaryTwo so-called "integrated" polarimetric rate estimation techniques, ZPHI ( Testud et al., 2000) and ZZDR ( Illingworth and Thompson, 2005), are evaluated using 12 episodes of the year 2005 observed by the French C-band operational Trappes radar, located near Paris. The term "integrated" means that the concentration parameter of the drop size distribution is assumed to be constant over some area and the algorithms retrieve it using the polarimetric variables in that area. The evaluation is carried out in ideal conditions (no partial beam blocking, no ground-clutter contamination, no bright band contamination, a posteriori calibration of the radar variables ZH and ZDR) using hourly rain gauges located at distances less than 60 km from the radar. Also included in the comparison, for the sake of benchmarking, is a conventional Z = 282 R1.66 estimator, with and without attenuation correction and with and without adjustment by rain gauges as currently done operationally at Météo France. Under those ideal conditions, the two polarimetric algorithms, which rely solely on radar data, appear to perform as well if not better, pending on the measurements conditions (attenuation, rain rates, …), than the conventional algorithms, even when the latter take into account rain gauges through the adjustment scheme. ZZDR with attenuation correction is the best estimator for hourly rain gauge accumulations lower than 5 mm h -1 and ZPHI is the best one above that threshold. A perturbation analysis has been conducted to assess the sensitivity of the various estimators with respect to biases on ZH and ZDR, taking into account the typical accuracy and stability that can be reasonably achieved with modern operational radars these days (1 dB on ZH and 0.2 dB on ZDR). A +1 dB positive bias on ZH (radar too hot) results in a +14% overestimation of the rain rate with the conventional estimator used in this study (Z = 282R1.66), a -19% underestimation with ZPHI and a +23

  19. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.


    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  20. Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

    A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogotá in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

  1. Detection of hail through the three-body scattering signatures and its effects on radar algorithms observed in Romania




    The Romanian National Meteorological Administration (NMA) radar network consists of five S-band and four C-band radars. Observation of convection in Romania through the Doppler radar network offered a new perspective in understanding the climatologic risk of certain regions and mesoscale environments. Highly organized convective systems, such as supercells, are better observed and their subsequent threat can be better anticipated during the nowcasting process using Doppler velocity fields and...

  2. The impact of scatterometer wind data on global weather forecasting (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Baker, W. E.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.


    The impact of SEASAT-A scatterometer (SASS) winds on coarse resolution atmospheric model forecasts was assessed. The scatterometer provides high resolution winds, but each wind can have up to four possible directions. One wind direction is correct; the remainder are ambiguous or "aliases'. In general, the effect of objectively dealiased-SASS data was found to be negligible in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the impact was larger and primarily beneficial when vertical temperature profile radiometer (VTPR) data was excluded. However, the inclusion of VTPR data eliminates the positive impact, indicating some redundancy between the two data sets.

  3. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat (United States)


    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  4. The lidar dark band: An oddity of the radar bright band analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Although much has sbeen learned from independent radar and lidar studies of atmospheric precipitations, occasionally supported by aircraft profiling, what has been lacking is combined optical, microwave, and insitu observations of the melting layer. Fortunately, the rainshowers on April 21, 1994, during the Remote Cloud Sensing intensive obervations Period (RCSIOP) at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation Testbed (CART) site provided an opportunity for coordinated dual-wavelength University of Utah Polarization Diversity Lidar, University of Massachusetts Cloud Profiling Radar System Doppler Radar, and the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft measurements.

  5. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice, in a...

  6. Plans for the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope and Potential Coordinated Measurements with Kwajalein Radars (United States)

    Stansberry, Gene; Kervin, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office is teaming with the US Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Maui Optical Site to deploy a moderate field-of-view, 1.3 m aperture, optical telescope for orbital debris applications. The telescope will be located on the island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll and is scheduled for completion in the Spring of 2011. The telescope is intended to sample both low inclination/high eccentricity orbits and near geosynchronous orbits. The telescope will have a 1 deg diagonal field-of-view on a 4K x 4K CCD. The telescope is expected to be able to detect 10-cm diameter debris at geosynchronous altitudes (5 sec exposure assuming a spherical specular phase function w/ albedo =0.13). Once operational, the telescope has the potential of conducting simultaneous observations with radars operated by the US Army at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and located on the island of Roi-Namur, approximately 55 km to the north of Legan. Four radars, representing 6 frequency bands, are available for use: ALTAIR (ARPA-Long Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) operating at VHF & UHF, TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiment) operating at L-band and S-band, ALCOR (ARPA-Lincoln C-band Observables Radar) operating at S-band, and MMW (Millimeter Wave) Radar operating at Ka-band. Also potentially available is the X-band GBRP (Ground Based Radar-Prototype located 25 km to the southeast of Legan on the main island of Kwajalein.

  7. Aercibo S-band radar program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.


    The high powered 12.6 cm wavelength radar on the 1000-ft Arecibo reflector is utilized for a number of solar system studies. Chief among these are: (1) surface reflectivity mapping of Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Resolutions achievable on Venus are less than 1.5 km over some areas, for Mercury about 30 km and for the Moon 200 m at present, (2) high time resolution ranging measurements to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. These measurements are used to obtain profiles and scattering parameters in the equatorial region. They can also be used to test relativistic and gravitational theories by monitoring the rate of advance of the perihelion of the orbit of Mercury and placing limits on the stability of the gravitational constant, (3) measurements of the orbital parameters, figure, spin vector and surface properties of asteroids and comets, and (4) observations of the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter and the satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter were re-observed with the 12.6 cm radar for the first time since 1981. Much more accurate measurements of the scattering properties of the three icy satellites were obtained that generally confirmed previous observations. Unambiguous measurements of the cross section and circular polarizations ratio of Io were also obtained for the first time. The radar scattering properties of four mainbelt asteroids and one near-earth asteroid were studied

  8. Observation of Whole Flushing Process of a River Sand Bar by a Flood Using X-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takewaka


    Full Text Available Morphological changes during a flood event in July 2010 were observed with X-band marine radar at the mouth of Tenryu River, Shizuoka, Japan. Radar images were collected hourly for more than 72 h from the beginning of the flood and processed into time-averaged images. Changes in the morphology of the area were interpreted from the time-averaged images, revealing that the isolated river dune was washed away by the flood, the width of the river mouth increased gradually, and the river mouth terrace expanded radially. Furthermore, image analysis of the radar images was applied to estimate the migration speed of the brightness pattern, which is assumed to be a proxy of bottom undulation of the river bed. The migration was observed to be faster when the water level gradient between the river channel and sea increased.

  9. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (United States)


    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  10. 50 MW C-band pulse klystron; 50MW C band pulse klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    C-band pulse klystron E3746 with an output of 50 MW class was developed jointly with the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization in the Ministry of Education as the klystron for a linear accelerator. For a large-sized linear accelerator in the next generation, a klystron with higher operating frequency has been required to obtain a compact and efficient accelerator. In E3746, the problem of power resistance during high-frequency operation was solved by mounting a traveling-wave multi-cell output circuit. Moreover, stable operation in the pulse width of 2.5 {mu}s and the output of 54 MW was performed at the same operation efficiency (44%) as the conventional S-band tube by using the frequency (in a C-band frequency band) that is two times as high as the conventional general accelerator. (translated by NEDO)

  11. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ludeno


    Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.

  12. Validation of attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration estimation methods using two dual polarization X band weather radars (United States)

    Diederich, M.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.; Mühlbauer, K.


    The amplitude a of radar wave reflected by meteorological targets can be misjudged due to several factors. At X band wavelength, attenuation of the radar beam by hydro meteors reduces the signal strength enough to be a significant source of error for quantitative precipitation estimation. Depending on the surrounding orography, the radar beam may be partially blocked when scanning at low elevation angles, and the knowledge of the exact amount of signal loss through beam blockage becomes necessary. The phase shift between the radar signals at horizontal and vertical polarizations is affected by the hydrometeors that the beam travels through, but remains unaffected by variations in signal strength. This has allowed for several ways of compensating for the attenuation of the signal, and for consistency checks between these variables. In this study, we make use of several weather radars and gauge network measuring in the same area to examine the effectiveness of several methods of attenuation and beam blockage corrections. The methods include consistency checks of radar reflectivity and specific differential phase, calculation of beam blockage using a topography map, estimating attenuation using differential propagation phase, and the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. in 2000. Results show the high effectiveness of differential phase in estimating attenuation, and potential of the ZPHI method to compensate attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration errors.

  13. L-band brightness temperature disaggregation for use with S-band and C-band radiometer data for WCOM (United States)

    Yao, P.; Shi, J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.


    There are two passive microwave sensors onboard the Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM), which includes a synthetic aperture radiometer operating at L-S-C bands and a scanning microwave radiometer operating from C- to W-bands. It provides a unique opportunity to disaggregate L-band brightness temperature (soil moisture) with S-band C-bands radiometer data. In this study, passive-only downscaling methodologies are developed and evaluated. Based on the radiative transfer modeling, it was found that the TBs (brightness temperature) between the L-band and S-band exhibit a linear relationship, and there is an exponential relationship between L-band and C-band. We carried out the downscaling results by two methods: (1) downscaling with L-S-C band passive measurements with the same incidence angle from payload IMI; (2) downscaling with L-C band passive measurements with different incidence angle from payloads IMI and PMI. The downscaling method with L-S bands with the same incident angle was first evaluated using SMEX02 data. The RMSE are 2.69 K and 1.52 K for H and V polarization respectively. The downscaling method with L-C bands is developed with different incident angles using SMEX03 data. The RMSE are 2.97 K and 2.68 K for H and V polarization respectively. These results showed that high-resolution L-band brightness temperature and soil moisture products could be generated from the future WCOM passive-only observations.

  14. Innovative operating modes and techniques for the spaceborne imaging radar-C instrument (United States)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.


    The operation of the spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) is discussed. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization radar images from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter imaging radar which will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument has been designed to operate in innovative modes such as the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument has been designed to demonstrate innovative engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse-repetition frquency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for radar parameter flexibility, block floating point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.

  15. Hurricane Rita Track Radar Image with Topographic Overlay (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Animation About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Galveston and portions of south Houston was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by a 17-foot sea wall against storm surges, flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes remains a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. About the image: The Gulf Coast from the Mississippi Delta through the Texas coast is shown in this satellite image from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) overlain with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and the predicted storm track for Hurricane Rita. The prediction from the National Weather Service was published Sept. 22 at 4 p.m. Central Time, and shows the expected track center in black with the lighter shaded area indicating the range of potential tracks the storm could take. Low-lying terrain along the coast has been highlighted using the SRTM elevation data, with areas within 15 feet of sea level shown in red, and within 30 feet in yellow. These areas are more at risk for flooding and the destructive effects of storm surge and high waves. Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  16. Developing Lightning Prediction Tools for the CCAFS Dual-Polarimetric Radar (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L. D.; Deierling, W.; Johnson, E.; Bateman, M.


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama Huntsville are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) to develop improved lightning prediction capabilities for the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar being acquired for use by 45WS and launch weather forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). In particular, these algorithms will focus on lightning onset, cessation and combined lightning-radar applications for convective winds assessment. Research using radar reflectivity (Z) data for prediction of lightning onset has been extensively discussed in the literature and subsequently applied by launch weather forecasters as it pertains to lightning nowcasting. Currently the forecasters apply a relatively straight forward but effective temperature-Z threshold algorithm for assessing the likelihood of lightning onset in a given storm. In addition, a layered VIL above the freezing level product is used as automated guidance for the onset of lightning. Only limited research and field work has been conducted on lightning cessation using Z and vertically-integrated Z for determining cessation. Though not used operationally vertically-integrated Z (basis for VIL) has recently shown promise as a tool for use in nowcasting lightning cessation. The work discussed herein leverages and expands upon these and similar reflectivity-threshold approaches via the application/addition of over two decades of polarimetric radar research focused on distinct multi-parameter radar signatures of ice/mixed-phase initiation and ice-crystal orientation in highly electrified convective clouds. Specifically, our approach is based on numerous previous studies that have observed repeatable patterns in the behavior of the vertical hydrometeor column as it relates to the temporal evolution of differential reflectivity and depolarization (manifested in either LDR or p(sub hv)), development of in-situ mixed and ice phase microphysics, electric fields, and

  17. The Interaction of C-Band Microwaves with Large Plasma Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Liang; Huo Wenqing; Yang Xinjie; Xu Yuemin


    A large plasma sheet 60 cm×60 cm×2 cm in size was generated using a hollow cathode, and measurements were conducted for interactions including transmission, reflection and absorption. With different discharge parameters, plasma sheets can vary and influence microwave strength. Microwave reflection decreases when the discharge current rises, and the opposite occurs in transmission. The C-band microwave is absorbed when it is propagated through large plasma sheets at higher pressure. When plasma density and collision frequency are fitted with incident microwave frequency, a large amount of microwave energy is consumed. Reflection, transmission and absorption all exist simultaneously. Plasma sheets are an attractive alternative to microwave steering at low pressure, and the microwave reflection used in receiving radar can be altered by changing the discharge parameters.

  18. Identification of corn fields using multidate radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugan, K.S.; Ulaby, F.T.; Narayanan, V.; Dobson, C.


    Airborne C- and L-band radar data acquired over a test site in western Kansas were analyzed to determine corn-field identification accuracies obtainable using single-channel, multichannel, and multidate radar data. An automated pattern-recognition procedure was used to classify 144 fields into three categories: corn, pasture land, and bare soil (including wheat stubble and fallow). Corn fields were identified with accuracies ranging from 85% for single channel, single-date data to 100% for single-channel, multidate data. The effects of radar parameters such as frequency, polarization, and look angle as well as the effects of soil moisture on the classification accuracy are also presented

  19. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der


    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  20. Use of the X-Band Radar to Support the Detection of In-Flight Icing Hazards by the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System (United States)

    Serke, David J.; Politovich, Marcia K.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Gaydos, Andrew


    The Alliance Icing Research Study-II (AIRS-II) field program was conducted near Montreal, Canada during the winter of 2003. The NASA Icing Remote Detection System (NIRSS) was deployed to detect in-flight icing hazards and consisted of a vertically pointing multichannel radiometer, a ceilometer and an x-band cloud radar. The radiometer was used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water, while the ceilometer and radar were used only to define cloud boundaries. The purpose of this study is to show that the radar reflectivity profiles from AIRS-II case studies could be used to provide a qualitative icing hazard.

  1. Characterization of wetland, forest, and agricultural ecosystems in Belize with airborne radar (AIRSAR) (United States)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Rey-Benayas, Jose Maria; Paris, Jack F.


    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Experiment includes the study of wetland dynamics in the seasonal tropics. In preparation for these wetland studies, airborne P, L, and C band radar (AIRSAR) data of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico acquired by NASA and JPL in March 1990 were analyzed. The first phase of our study focuses on AIRSAR data from the Gallon Jug test site in northwestern Belize, for which ground data were also collected during the three days prior to the overflight. One of the main objectives of the Gallon Jug study is to develop a method for characterizing wetland vegetation types and their flooding status with multifrequency polarimetric radar data.

  2. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Hess, L.L.; Filoso, S.; Melack, J.M.


    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  3. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and stochastic flow forecasting for use in real-time control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...

  4. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and stochastic flow forecasting for use in real-time control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...

  5. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar Corrections Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, Tami [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The KAZRCOR Value -added Product (VAP) performs several corrections to the ingested KAZR moments and also creates a significant detection mask for each radar mode. The VAP computes gaseous attenuation as a function of time and radial distance from the radar antenna, based on ambient meteorological observations, and corrects observed reflectivities for that effect. KAZRCOR also dealiases mean Doppler velocities to correct velocities whose magnitudes exceed the radar’s Nyquist velocity. Input KAZR data fields are passed through into the KAZRCOR output files, in their native time and range coordinates. Complementary corrected reflectivity and velocity fields are provided, along with a mask of significant detections and a number of data quality flags. This report covers the KAZRCOR VAP as applied to the original KAZR radars and the upgraded KAZR2 radars. Currently there are two separate code bases for the different radar versions, but once KAZR and KAZR2 data formats are harmonized, only a single code base will be required.

  6. Design and fabrication of a microstrip patch antenna with a low radar cross section in the X-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Jun; Kim, Chun-Gon


    In this study, the authors developed a radar absorbing method to reduce the antenna radar cross section (RCS) without any loss of antenna performance. The new method was based upon an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) absorber using conducting polymer (CP). First, a microstrip patch antenna was made by using a copper film and glass/epoxy composite materials, which are typically used for load-bearing structures, such as aircraft and other vehicles. Then, CP EBG patterns were also designed that had a 90% electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing performance within the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). Finally, the CP EBG patterns were printed on the top surface of the microstrip patch antenna. The measured radar absorbing performance of the fabricated patch antenna showed that the frontal RCS of the antenna declined by nearly 95% at 10 GHz frequency while the CP EBG patterns had almost no effect on the antenna's performance

  7. X-band COSMO-SkyMed wind field retrieval, with application to coastal circulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montuori


    Full Text Available In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© synthetic aperture radar (SAR wind field retrieval is investigated, and the obtained data are used to force a coastal ocean circulation model. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the summer and winter seasons of 2010. The SAR-based wind vector field estimation is accomplished by resolving both the SAR-based wind speed and wind direction retrieval problems independently. The sea surface wind speed is retrieved by means of a SAR wind speed algorithm based on the azimuth cut-off procedure, while the sea surface wind direction is provided by means of a SAR wind direction algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform multi-resolution analysis. The obtained wind fields are compared with ground truth data provided by both ASCAT scatterometer and ECMWF model wind fields. SAR-derived wind vector fields and ECMWF model wind data are used to construct a blended wind product regularly sampled in both space and time, which is then used to force a coastal circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area to simulate wind-driven circulation processes. The modeling results show that X-band COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data can be valuable in providing effective wind fields for coastal circulation modeling.

  8. A Space View of Radar Archaeological Marks: First Applications of COSMO-SkyMed X-Band Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen


    Full Text Available With the development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, space radar remote sensing for archaeology has become a potential field for research. Nevertheless, the archaeological detection capability of this technology has so far not been fully assessed. This paper is a pioneering effort to assess the potential of satellite SAR X-band data in the detection of archaeological marks. We focus on the results obtained from a collaborative contribution jointly carried out by archaeologists and remote sensing experts in order to test the use of COSMO-SkyMed data in different contexts and environmental conditions. The methodological approaches we adopted are based on two different feature-enhancement procedures: (i multi-temporal analysis performed to reduce noise and highlight archaeological marks; (ii single-date analysis to assess the ability of the single SAR scene to detect archaeological features like with optical remote sensing. Results from multi-temporal data analysis, conducted using 40 scenes from COSMO-SkyMed X-band Stripmap data (27 February to 17 October 2013, enable us to detect unknown archaeological crop, soil, and shadow marks representing Luoyang city, dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties. Single-date analyses were conducted using COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight scenes acquired for Sabratha (Libya and Metapontum (southern Italy. These case studies were selected because they are characterized by diverse superficial conditions (desert and Mediterranean area and archaeological marks (crop, soil and shadow. The results we obtained for both of them show that even a single SAR X-band acquisition is a feasible and effective approach for archaeological prospection. Overall, the methodological approach adopted demonstrated that both multi-temporal and single-date analysis are suitable for the enhancement of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental features.

  9. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew


    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  10. Development of Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials at X-band (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Samarjit


    The present review gives a brief account on some of the technical features of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). The paper has been presented with a concentrated approach towards the material aspects for achieving enhanced radar absorption characteristics for its application as a promising candidate in stealth technology and electromagnetic interference (EMI) minimization problems. The effect of metal particles doping/dispersion in the ferrites and dielectrics has been discussed for obtaining tunable radar absorbing characteristics. A short theoretical overview on the development of absorber materials, implementation of genetic algorithm (GA) in multi-layering and frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based multi-layer has also been presented for the development of radar absorbing coatings for achieving better absorption augmented with broadband features in order to counter the radar detection systems.

  11. Per-point and per-field contextual classification of multipolarization and multiple incidence angle aircraft L-band radar data (United States)

    Hoffer, Roger M.; Hussin, Yousif Ali


    Multipolarized aircraft L-band radar data are classified using two different image classification algorithms: (1) a per-point classifier, and (2) a contextual, or per-field, classifier. Due to the distinct variations in radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle, the data are stratified into three incidence-angle groupings, and training and test data are defined for each stratum. A low-pass digital mean filter with varied window size (i.e., 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 pixels) is applied to the data prior to the classification. A predominately forested area in northern Florida was the study site. The results obtained by using these image classifiers are then presented and discussed.

  12. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.


    Ground based weather radar observations of volcanic ash clouds are gaining momentum after recent works which demonstrated their potential use either as stand alone tool or in combination with satellite retrievals. From an operational standpoint, radar data have been mainly exploited to derive the height of ash plume and its temporal-spatial development, taking into account the radar limitation of detecting coarse ash particles (from approximately 20 microns to 10 millimeters and above in terms of particle's radius). More sophisticated radar retrievals can include airborne ash concentration, ash fall rate and out-flux rate. Marzano et al. developed several volcanic ash radar retrieval (VARR) schemes, even though their practical use is still subject to a robust validation activity. The latter is made particularly difficult due to the lack of field campaigns with multiple observations and the scarce repetition of volcanic events. The radar variable, often used to infer the physical features of actual ash clouds, is the radar reflectivity named ZHH. It is related to ash particle size distribution and it shows a nice power law relationship with ash concentration. This makes ZHH largely used in radar-volcanology studies. However, weather radars are often able to detect Doppler frequency shifts and, more and more, they have a polarization-diversity capability. The former means that wind speed spectrum of the ash cloud is potentially inferable, whereas the latter implies that variables other than ZHH are available. Theoretically, these additional radar variables are linked to the degree of eccentricity of ash particles, their orientation and density as well as the presence of strong turbulence effects. Thus, the opportunity to refine the ash radar estimates so far developed can benefit from the thorough analysis of radar Doppler and polarization diversity. In this work we show a detailed analysis of Doppler shifts and polarization variables measured by the X band radar

  13. Analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C-Band high power klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badola, Richa; Kaushik, Meenu; Baloda, Suman; Kirti; Vrati; Lamba, O.S.; Joshi, L.M.


    Klystron is a microwave tube which is used as a power amplifier in various applications like radar, particle accelerators and thermonuclear reactors. The paper deals with the analysis of RF section of 250 kW CW C band high power klystron for 50 to 60 kV beam voltage The simulation is done using Poisson's superfish and AJ disk software's Design of cavity is done using superfish. The result of superfish is used to decide the dimensions of the geometry of the cavity and AJ disk is used to determined the centre to centre distances between the cavities in order to obtain the desired powers. (author)

  14. Operational Implementation of ERS Satellite Scatterometer Wind Retrieval and Ambiguity Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Christy


    .... The European Space Agency uses this data to generate a wind Fast Delivery Product (FDP). However, this product is insufficient in its resolution of the scatterometer's inherent wind direction ambiguity...

  15. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.


    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  16. Ku-Band radar penetration into Snow over Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    is the snow/air interface, whereas radar waves interact with the variable physical properties of the snow cover on the Arctic sea ice. In addition, radar elevation measurements may vary for different retracker algorithms, which determine the track point of the scattered echo power distribution. Since accurate...... knowledge of the reflection horizon is critical for sea ice thickness retrieval, validation data is necessary to investigate the penetration of radar waves into the snow for the upcoming CryoSat-2 mission. Furthermore, the combination of both optical and RF wavelengths might be used to derive snow thickness......, if radar altimeters are capable of measuring the distance to the snow-ice interface reliably. We present the results of aircraft campaigns in the Arctic with a scanning laser altimeter and the Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) of the European Space Agency. The elevation...

  17. Deployment and Performance of an X-Band Dual-Polarization Radar during the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shi


    Full Text Available An X-band dual-polarization radar (XPRAD was deployed in Guangdong province as part of the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SCMREX during the storm season in 2016. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of XPRAD observations during SCMREX with emphasis on data processing and rainfall products. The differential phase-based attenuation correction and radar calibration using self-consistency of dual-polarization observables are presented. It is found that the standard deviation of the Z d r bias is less than 0.2 dB based on ‘light rain at low angle’ and ‘dry aggregate snow’ observations. Cross-comparison with two standard S-band China New Generation Weather Radars (CINRAD shows that the bias of Z h has a mean value less than 1.5 dBZ and a standard deviation less than 0.5 dBZ. In addition, fifteen rainfall events that occurred during the intensive observing period (IOP are analyzed to demonstrate the rainfall estimation performance of XPRAD. In particular, rainfall accumulations at 1-, 2- and 3-h scales derived using R( K d p and R( Z h , Z d r relations are evaluated using national level rain gauge data and CINRAD-based rainfall estimation. The results show that both R( K d p - and R( Z h , Z d r -based products agree well with the rain gauge observations and CINRAD estimation. The difference between R ( K d p and R ( Z h , Z d r is not significant, although R ( K d p shows slightly better performance than R ( Z h , Z d r .

  18. Observation of snowfall with a low-power FM-CW K-band radar (Micro Rain Radar) (United States)

    Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Peters, Gerhard; Simmer, Clemens


    Quantifying snowfall intensity especially under arctic conditions is a challenge because wind and snow drift deteriorate estimates obtained from both ground-based gauges and disdrometers. Ground-based remote sensing with active instruments might be a solution because they can measure well above drifting snow and do not suffer from flow distortions by the instrument. Clear disadvantages are, however, the dependency of e.g. radar returns on snow habit which might lead to similar large uncertainties. Moreover, high sensitivity radars are still far too costly to operate in a network and under harsh conditions. In this paper we compare returns from a low-cost, low-power vertically pointing FM-CW radar (Micro Rain Radar, MRR) operating at 24.1 GHz with returns from a 35.5 GHz cloud radar (MIRA36) for dry snowfall during a 6-month observation period at an Alpine station (Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, UFS) at 2,650 m height above sea level. The goal was to quantify the potential and limitations of the MRR in relation to what is achievable by a cloud radar. The operational MRR procedures to derive standard radar variables like effective reflectivity factor ( Z e) or the mean Doppler velocity ( W) had to be modified for snowfall since the MRR was originally designed for rain observations. Since the radar returns from snowfall are weaker than from comparable rainfall, the behavior of the MRR close to its detection threshold has been analyzed and a method is proposed to quantify the noise level of the MRR based on clear sky observations. By converting the resulting MRR- Z e into 35.5 GHz equivalent Z e values, a remaining difference below 1 dBz with slightly higher values close to the noise threshold could be obtained. Due to the much higher sensitivity of MIRA36, the transition of the MRR from the true signal to noise can be observed, which agrees well with the independent clear sky noise estimate. The mean Doppler velocity differences between both radars

  19. Observations of a Cold Front at High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using an X-Band Phased Array Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mahre


    Full Text Available While the vertical structure of cold fronts has been studied using various methods, previous research has shown that traditional methods of observing meteorological phenomena (such as pencil-beam radars in PPI/volumetric mode are not well-suited for resolving small-scale cold front phenomena, due to relatively low spatiotemporal resolution. Additionally, non-simultaneous elevation sampling within a vertical cross-section can lead to errors in analysis, as differential vertical advection cannot be distinguished from temporal evolution. In this study, a cold front from 19 September 2015 is analyzed using the Atmospheric Imaging Radar (AIR. The AIR transmits a 20-degree fan beam in elevation, and digital beamforming is used on receive to generate simultaneous receive beams. This mobile, X-band, phased-array radar offers temporal sampling on the order of 1 s (while in RHI mode, range sampling of 30 m (37.5 m native resolution, and continuous, arbitrarily oversampled data in the vertical dimension. Here, 0.5-degree sampling is used in elevation (1-degree native resolution. This study is the first in which a cold front has been studied via imaging radar. The ability of the AIR to obtain simultaneous RHIs at high temporal sampling rates without mechanical steering allows for analysis of features such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and feeder flow.

  20. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements (United States)


    common radar bands. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank David Jillson (UML STL – Electrical Engineer) for efforts involved in RF and DC wiring...Waldman J., Fetterman H.R., Duffy P.E., Bryant T.G., Tannenwald P.E., “Submillimeter Model Measurements and Their Applications to Millimeter Radar

  1. Assimilation of Global Radar Backscatter and Radiometer Brightness Temperature Observations to Improve Soil Moisture and Land Evaporation Estimates (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Miralles, D. G.


    Active radar backscatter (s?) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) to improve its simulations of soil moisture and land evaporation. To enable s? and TB assimilation, GLEAM is coupled to the Water Cloud Model and the L-band Microwave Emission from the Biosphere (L-MEB) model. The innovations, i.e. differences between observations and simulations, are mapped onto the model soil moisture states through an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The validation of surface (0-10 cm) soil moisture simulations over the period 2010-2014 against in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows that assimilating s? or TB alone improves the average correlation of seasonal anomalies (Ran) from 0.514 to 0.547 and 0.548, respectively. The joint assimilation further improves Ran to 0.559. Associated enhancements in daily evaporative flux simulations by GLEAM are validated based on measurements from 22 FLUXNET stations. Again, the singular assimilation improves Ran from 0.502 to 0.536 and 0.533, respectively for s? and TB, whereas the best performance is observed for the joint assimilation (Ran = 0.546). These results demonstrate the complementary value of assimilating radar backscatter observations together with brightness temperatures for improving estimates of hydrological variables, as their joint assimilation outperforms the assimilation of each observation type separately.

  2. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of the ER-2...

  3. CAMEX-4 ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Doppler Radar dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of ER-2. The...

  4. C-Band SAR Imagery for Snow-Cover Monitoring at Treeline, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique C. Pivot


    Full Text Available RADARSAT and ERS-2 data collected at multiple incidence angles are used to characterize the seasonal variations in the backscatter of snow-covered landscapes in the northern Hudson Bay Lowlands during the winters of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The study evaluates the usefulness of C-band SAR systems for retrieving the snow water equivalent under dry snow conditions in the forest–tundra ecotone. The backscatter values are compared against ground measurements at six sampling sites, which are taken to be representative of the land-cover types found in the region. The contribution of dry snow to the radar return is evident when frost penetrates the first 20 cm of soil. Only then does the backscatter respond positively to changes in snow water equivalent, at least in the open and forested areas near the coast, where 1-dB increases in backscatter for each approximate 5–10 mm of accumulated water equivalent are observed at 20–31° incidence angles. Further inland, the backscatter shows either no change or a negative change with snow accumulation, which suggests that the radar signal there is dominated by ground surface scattering (e.g., fen when not attenuated by vegetation (e.g., forested and transition. With high-frequency ground-penetrating radar, we demonstrate the presence of a 10–20-cm layer of black ice underneath the snow cover, which causes the reduced radar returns (−15 dB and less observed in the inland fen. A correlation between the backscattering and the snow water equivalent cannot be determined due to insufficient observations at similar incidence angles. To establish a relationship between the snow water equivalent and the backscatter, only images acquired with similar incidence angles should be used, and they must be corrected for both vegetation and ground effects.

  5. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers (United States)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  6. High-resolution mapping of wetland vegetation biomass and distribution with L-band radar in southeastern coastal Louisiana (United States)

    Thomas, N. M.; Simard, M.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Bevington, A. E.; Christensen, A.


    Louisiana coastal wetlands account for approximately one third (37%) of the estuarine wetland vegetation in the conterminous United States, yet the spatial distribution of their extent and aboveground biomass (AGB) is not well defined. This knowledge is critical for the accurate completion of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. We generated high-resolution baselines maps of wetland vegetation extent and biomass at the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne basins in coastal Louisiana using a multi-sensor approach. Optical satellite data was used within an object-oriented machine learning approach to classify the structure of wetland vegetation types, offering increased detail over currently available land cover maps that do not distinguish between wetland vegetation types nor account for non-permanent seasonal changes in extent. We mapped 1871 km2 of wetlands during a period of peak biomass in September 2015 comprised of flooded forested wetlands and leaf, grass and emergent herbaceous marshes. The distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) was mapped using JPL L-band Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Relationships between time-series radar imagery and field data collected in May 2015 and September 2016 were derived to estimate AGB at the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya deltas. Differences in seasonal biomass estimates reflect the increased AGB in September over May, concurrent with periods of peak biomass and the onset of the vegetation growing season, respectively. This method provides a tractable means of mapping and monitoring biomass of wetland vegetation types with L-band radar, in a region threatened with wetland loss under projections of increasing sea-level rise and terrestrial subsidence. Through this, we demonstrate a method that is able to satisfy the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement requirement for Tier 2/Tier 3 reporting of coastal wetland GHG inventories.

  7. The Use of C-/X-Band Time-Gapped SAR Data and Geotechnical Models for the Study of Shanghai’s Ocean-Reclaimed Lands through the SBAS-DInSAR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pepe


    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of ground deformation affecting the ocean-reclaimed lands of the Shanghai (China megacity, from 2007 to 2016, by applying the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR technique known as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS algorithm. For the analysis, we exploited two sets of non-time-overlapped synthetic aperture radar (SAR data, acquired from 2007 to 2010, by the ASAR/ENVISAT (C-band instrument, and from 2014 to 2016 by the X-band COSMO-SkyMed (CSK sensors. The long time gap (of about three years existing between the available C- and X-band datasets made the generation of unique displacement time-series more difficult. Nonetheless, this problem was successfully solved by benefiting from knowledge of time-dependent geotechnical models, which describe the temporal evolution of the expected deformation affecting Shanghai’s ocean-reclaimed platforms. The combined ENVISAT/CSK (vertical deformation time-series were analyzed to gain insight into the future evolution of displacement signals within the investigated area. As an outcome, we find that ocean-reclaimed lands in Shanghai experienced, between 2007 and 2016, average cumulative (vertical displacements extending down to 25 centimeters.

  8. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-ying


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direct multiplier and divider. Azimuth ISLR degradation owing to the crystal oscillator phase noise is negligible. The standard deviation of the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of HJ-1-C SAR is lower than 2ns (rms and the azimuth random phase error in the synthetic aperture time slightly degrades the side lobe of the azimuth impulse response. The mathematical expressions and simulation results are presented and suggest that the coherent performance of the HJ-1-C SAR system meets the requirements of synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  9. Radar detection of Vesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.


    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  10. Wave Height Estimation from Shadowing Based on the Acquired X-Band Marine Radar Images in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Wei


    Full Text Available In this paper, the retrieving significant wave height from X-band marine radar images based on shadow statistics is investigated, since the retrieving accuracy can not be seriously affected by environmental factors and the method has the advantage of without any external reference to calibrate. However, the accuracy of the significant wave height estimated from the radar image acquired at the near-shore area is not ideal. To solve this problem, the effect of water depth is considered in the theoretical derivation of estimated wave height based on the sea surface slope. And then, an improved retrieving algorithm which is suitable for both in deep water area and shallow water area is developed. In addition, the radar data are sparsely processed in advance in order to achieve high quality edge image for the requirement of shadow statistic algorithm, since the high resolution radar images will lead to angle-blurred for the image edge detection and time-consuming in the estimation of sea surface slope. The data acquired from Pingtan Test Base in Fujian Province were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved method which takes into account the water depth is more efficient and effective and has better performance for retrieving significant wave height in the shallow water area, compared to the in situ buoy data as the ground truth and that of the existing shadow statistic method.

  11. Perancangan Low Noise Amplifier dengan Teknik Non Simultaneous Conjugate Match untuk Aplikasi Radar S-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Taryana


    Full Text Available Radar merupakan sistem pemancar dan penerima gelombang elektromagnetik untuk mendeteksi, mengukur jarak dan membuat peta benda benda seperti pesawat terbang, kapal laut, kendaran bermotor dan informasi cuaca. Salah satu kendala yang dihadapi pada sistem radar adalah sinyal pantulan yang memiliki daya yang rendah sehingga kualitas penerimaan menjadi kurang baik. Untuk mengatasi kendala tersebut dibutuhkan penguat daya pada sistem penerima yaitu Low Noise Amplifier (LNA. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini memaparkan perancangan LNA dengan menggunakan teknik Non Simultaneous Conjugate Match (NSCM untuk aplikasi radar S-Band. Teknik ini memberikan kemudahan dalam menentukan nilai trade off (TO untuk nilai gain, noise figure (NF dan Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR yang diinginkan. Dalam proses perancangannya, perangkat lunak Agilent Design System (ADS 2011 digunakan untuk mendapatkan hubungan antara lingkaran gain, lingkaran NF, lingkaran VSWR, dan lingkaran mismatch factor (M. Dari hubungan tersebut diperoleh nilai impedansi masukan dan keluaran dari komponen aktif. Dalam tulisan ini, LNA dirancang dua tingkat untuk mendapatkan penguatan yang tinggi. Masing-masing tingkat menggunakan komponen aktif BJT BFP420 dengan penguatan dirancang sebesar 13,50 dB untuk tingkat pertama dan kedua, dan M sebesar 0,98. Sedangkan untuk saluran penyesuai impedansinya menggunakan substrat teflon fiberglass DiClad527. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan karakteristik LNA pada frekuensi 3 GHz yaitu gain sebesar 28,80 dB, NF sebesar 2,80 dB, VSWRin sebesar 1,05 dan VSWRout sebesar 1,1.

  12. Mapping Changes and Damages in Areas of Conflict: From Archive C-Band SAR Data to New HR X-Band Imagery, Towards the Sentinels (United States)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Donoghue, Daniel N. M.; Philip, Graham


    On the turn of radar space science with the recent launch of Sentinel-1A, we investigate how to better exploit the opportunities offered by large C-band SAR archives and increasing datasets of HR to VHR X-band data, to map changes and damages in urban and rural areas affected by conflicts. We implement a dual approach coupling multi-interferogram processing and amplitude change detection, to assess the impact of the recent civil war on the city of Homs, Western Syria, and the surrounding semi-arid landscape. More than 280,000 coherent pixels are retrieved from Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) processing of the 8year-long ENVISAT ASAR IS2 archive, to quantify land subsidence due to pre-war water abstraction in rural areas. Damages in Homs are detected by analysing the changes of SAR backscattering (σ0), comparing 3m-resolution StripMap TerraSAR-X pairs from 2009 to 2014. Pre-war alteration is differentiated from war-related damages via operator-driven interpretation of the σ0 patterns.

  13. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  14. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  15. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and skill score evaluation of stochastic volume forecasts in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup


    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...... improves runoff forecasts compared with using the original radar data and that rain gauge measurements as forecast input are also outperformed. Combining the data merging approach with short-term rainfall forecasting algorithms may result in further improved runoff forecasts that can be used in real time...

  16. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Radar image, color as height (United States)


    This topographic radar image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  17. High Resolution Radar Imaging using Coherent MultiBand Processing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Ebeling, R.P.; Huizing, A.G.


    High resolution radar imaging techniques can be used in ballistic missile defence systems to determine the type of ballistic missile during the boost phase (threat typing) and to discriminate different parts of a ballistic missile after the boost phase. The applied radar imaging technique is 2D

  18. Sea-ice deformation state from synthetic aperture radar imagery - Part I: comparison of C- and L-band and different polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang; Dall, Jørgen


    configuration and ice conditions. Optical imagery of sufficient quality for comparison is available only in a very few cases. To characterize the deformation state, the areal fraction of deformation features and the average distance between these features are evaluated. The values obtained for both parameters...... negligible. In comparison to optical images, it was observed that deformed-ice areas can be distinguished from level ice over their whole length and extension at L-band, whereas at C-band, often, only prominent parts are visible....

  19. Quantitative measurement of precipitation using radar in comparison with ground-level measurements, taking orographic influences into account; Quantitative Niederschlagsmessung mit Radar im Vergleich mit Bodenmessungen in orographisch gegliedertem Gelaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysi, H. [Radar-Info, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The methods of correction applied to the determination of the spatial distribution of precipitation on the basis of the volumes established by the Karlsruhe C-band precipitation radar distinctly enhance the quality of statements regarding precipitation intensities and their time integration both in summer and winter. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die fuer die Bestimmung der raeumlichen Niederschlagsverteilung aus Volumendaten des Karlsruher C-Band Niederschlagradars angewandten Korrekturverfahren verbessern sowohl im Sommer als auch im Winter deutlich die Qualitaet und quantitative Aussagekraft der dargestellten Niederschlagsintensitaeten und deren zeitlichen Integrationen. (orig./KW)

  20. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen


    estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable......Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling...... overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5–30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall...

  1. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld


      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  2. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.


    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  3. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  4. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns (United States)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe


    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  5. Radar Observations of Main-Belt M-class Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Clark, B. E.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.; Stephens, R. D.; Mueller, M.


    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we have observed 19 Tholen M-class asteroids. The mean radar albedo for all our targets is 0.28 ± 0.13, considerably higher than the mean radar albedo of every other class (Magri et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 126-151). We find approximately one-third (six)

  6. Weather Radar Estimations Feeding an Artificial Neural Network Model Weather Radar Estimations Feeding an Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Han


    Full Text Available The application of ANNs (Artifi cial Neural Networks has been studied by many researchers in modelling rainfall runoff processes. However, the work so far has been focused on the rainfall data from traditional raingauges. Weather radar is a modern technology which could provide high resolution rainfall in time and space. In this study, a comparison in rainfall runoff modelling between the raingauge and weather radar has been carried out. The data were collected from Brue catchment in Southwest of England, with 49 raingauges covering 136 km2 and two C-band weather radars. This raingauge network is extremely dense (for research purposes and does not represent the usual raingauge density in operational flood forecasting systems. The ANN models were set up with both lumped and spatial rainfall input. The results showed that raingauge data outperformed radar data in all the events tested, regardless of the lumped and spatial input. La aplicación de Redes Neuronales Artificiales (RNA en el modelado de lluvia-flujo ha sido estudiada ampliamente. Sin embargo, hasta ahora se han utilizado datos provenientes de pluviómetros tradicionales. Los radares meteorológicos son una tecnología moderna que puede proveer datos de lluvia de alta resolución en tiempo y espacio. Este es un trabajo de comparación en el modelado lluvia-flujo entre pluviómetros y radares meteorológicos. Los datos provienen de la cuenca del río Brue en el suroeste de Inglaterra, con 49 pluviómetros cubriendo 136 km2 y dos radares meteorológicos en la banda C. Esta red de pluviómetros es extremadamente densa (para investigación y no representa la densidad usual en sistemas de predicción de inundaciones. Los modelos de RNA fueron implementados con datos de entrada de lluvia tanto espaciados como no distribuidos. Los resultados muestran que los datos de los pluviómetros fueron mejores que los datos de los radares en todos los eventos probados.

  7. Estimating snow water equivalent (SWE) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) (United States)

    Deeb, Elias J.

    Since the early 1990s, radar interferometry and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) have been used extensively to measure changes in the Earth's surface. Previous research has presented theory for estimating snow properties, including potential for snow water equivalent (SWE) retrieval, using InSAR. The motivation behind using remote sensing to estimate SWE is to provide a more complete, continuous set of "observations" to assist in water management operations, climate change studies, and flood hazard forecasting. The research presented here primarily investigates the feasibility of using the InSAR technique at two different wavelengths (C-Band and L-Band) for SWE retrieval of dry snow within the Kuparuk watershed, North Slope, Alaska. Estimating snow distribution around meteorological towers on the coastal plain using a three-day repeat orbit of C-Band InSAR data was successful (Chapter 2). A longer wavelength L-band SAR is evaluated for SWE retrievals (Chapter 3) showing the ability to resolve larger snow accumulation events over a longer period of time. Comparisons of InSAR estimates and late spring manual sampling of SWE show a R2 = 0.61 when a coherence threshold is used to eliminate noisy SAR data. Qualitative comparisons with a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) highlight areas of scour on windward slopes and areas of deposition on leeward slopes. When compared to a mid-winter transect of manually sampled snow depths, the InSAR SWE estimates yield a RMSE of 2.21cm when a bulk snow density is used and corrections for bracketing the satellite acquisition timing is performed. In an effort to validate the interaction of radar waves with a snowpack, the importance of the "dry snow" assumption for the estimation of SWE using InSAR is tested with an experiment in Little Cottonwood Canyon, Alta, Utah (Chapter 5). Snow wetness is shown to have a significant effect on the velocity of propagation within the snowpack. Despite the radar

  8. Design of a C- Band Circular Polarization Microstrip Antenna (United States)

    Yohandri; Jumiah, Yusna; Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat


    The development of circularly polarized microstrip antenna is an interesting topic in current research, due to its superiority in various applications. In this work, the design of a circular polarization antenna that will be operated in the C-band range will be described. The developed antenna is intended to be used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications. Through this application, various targets or areas on the surface of the earth, such as buildings, soil and land can be observed. To get the ideal antenna characteristic, in this research the various parameters in antenna design will be simulated. A software CST Studio will be operated in this simulation. Based on the simulation results, the optimum parameters are obtained in term of reflection coefficient, VSWR, axial ratio, and gain. The reflection coefficient of the antenna (S11) is obtained at -19.75 dB and VSWR of 1.23. Meanwhile, the axial ratio and gain of the antenna were obtained at 2.66 dB and 2.1 dBi, respectively. Based on this simulated results, antenna design is potential to be developed and fabricated for SAR sensor applications.

  9. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.


    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  10. C-band Joint Active/Passive Dual Polarization Sea Ice Detection (United States)

    Keller, M. R.; Gifford, C. M.; Winstead, N. S.; Walton, W. C.; Dietz, J. E.


    A technique for synergistically-combining high-resolution SAR returns with like-frequency passive microwave emissions to detect thin (Radar (SAR) is high resolution (5-100m) but because of cross section ambiguities automated algorithms have had difficulty separating thin ice types from water. The radiometric emissivity of thin ice versus water at microwave frequencies is generally unambiguous in the early stages of ice growth. The method, developed using RADARSAT-2 and AMSR-E data, uses higher-ordered statistics. For the SAR, the COV (coefficient of variation, ratio of standard deviation to mean) has fewer ambiguities between ice and water than cross sections, but breaking waves still produce ice-like signatures for both polarizations. For the radiometer, the PRIC (polarization ratio ice concentration) identifies areas that are unambiguously water. Applying cumulative statistics to co-located COV levels adaptively determines an ice/water threshold. Outcomes from extensive testing with Sentinel and AMSR-2 data are shown in the results. The detection algorithm was applied to the freeze-up in the Beaufort, Chukchi, Barents, and East Siberian Seas in 2015 and 2016, spanning mid-September to early November of both years. At the end of the melt, 6 GHz PRIC values are 5-10% greater than those reported by radiometric algorithms at 19 and 37 GHz. During freeze-up, COV separates grease ice (cross-pol/co-pol SAR ratio corrects for COV deficiencies. In general, the dual-sensor detection algorithm reports 10-15% higher total ice concentrations than operational scatterometer or radiometer algorithms, mostly from ice edge and coastal areas. In conclusion, the algorithm presented combines high-resolution SAR returns with passive microwave emissions for automated ice detection at SAR resolutions.

  11. Classification of Agricultural Crops in Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.


    For the past few years an accurate X-band SLAR system with digital recording has been available in The Netherlands. The images of this system are corrected to indicate radar backscatter coefficients (gamma) instead of arbitrary greytones. In 1980 a radar measurement campaign was organized in the

  12. Applying volumetric weather radar data for rainfall runoff modeling: The importance of error correction. (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.


    In the current study half a year of volumetric radar data for the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003 is being analyzed which was sampled at 5 minutes intervals by C-band Doppler radar situated at an elevation of 600 m in the southern Ardennes region, Belgium. During this winter half year most of the rainfall has a stratiform character. Though radar and raingauge will never sample the same amount of rainfall due to differences in sampling strategies, for these stratiform situations differences between both measuring devices become even larger due to the occurrence of a bright band (the point where ice particles start to melt intensifying the radar reflectivity measurement). For these circumstances the radar overestimates the amount of precipitation and because in the Ardennes bright bands occur within 1000 meter from the surface, it's detrimental effects on the performance of the radar can already be observed at relatively close range (e.g. within 50 km). Although the radar is situated at one of the highest points in the region, very close to the radar clutter is a serious problem. As a result both nearby and farther away, using uncorrected radar results in serious errors when estimating the amount of precipitation. This study shows the effect of carefully correcting for these radar errors using volumetric radar data, taking into account the vertical reflectivity profile of the atmosphere, the effects of attenuation and trying to limit the amount of clutter. After applying these correction algorithms, the overall differences between radar and raingauge are much smaller which emphasizes the importance of carefully correcting radar rainfall measurements. The next step is to assess the effect of using uncorrected and corrected radar measurements on rainfall-runoff modeling. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Using a lumped hydrological model serious improvement in simulating observed discharges is found when using corrected radar

  13. The use of multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR data in geologic studies of Bir Safsaf, Egypt (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Breed, C.S.


    Bir Safsaf, within the hyperarid 'core' of the Sahara in the Western Desert of Egypt, was recognized following the SIR-A and SIR-B missions in the 1980s as one of the key localities in northeast Africa, where penetration of dry sand by radar signals delineates previously unknown, sand-buried paleodrainage valleys ('radar-rivers') of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age. The Bir Safsaf area was targeted as a focal point for further research in sand penetration and geologic mapping using the multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR sensors. Analysis of the SIR-C/X-SAR data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and structures mostly hidden from view on the ground and on Landsat TM images by a relatively thin, but extensive blanket of blow sand. Basement rock units (granitoids and gneisses) and the fractures associated with them at Bir Safsaf are shown here for the first time to be clearly delineated using C- and L-band SAR images. The detectability of most geologic features is dependent primarily on radar frequency, as shown for wind erosion patterns in bedrock at X-band (3 cm wavelength), and for geologic units and sand and clay-filled fractures in weathered crystal-line basement rocks at C-band (6 cm) and L-band (24 cm). By contrast, Quaternary paleodrainage channels are detectable at all three radar frequencies owing, among other things, to an usually thin cover of blow sand. The SIR-C/X-SAR data investigated to date enable us to make specific recommendations about the utility of certain radar sensor configurations for geologic and paleoenvironmental reconnaissance in desert regions.Analysis of the shuttle imaging radar-C/X-synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and

  14. Hydrometeor discrimination in melting layer using multiparameter airborne radar measurement (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Meneghini, R.; Kozu, T.


    Results from a multiparameter airborne radar/radiometer experiment (the Typhoon experiment) are presented. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific with the NASA DC-8 aircraft, in which a dual-wavelength at X-band and Ka-band and dual-polarization at X-band radar was installed. The signatures of dBZ(X), dBZ(Ka), LDR (linear depolarization ratio) at X-band and DZ=dBZ(X)-dBZ(Ka) are discussed for the data obtained in the penetration of the typhoon Flo. With emphasis on discrimination of hydrometeor particles, some statistical features of the brightband in stratiform rain are discussed.

  15. Mini-RF S- and X-band Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater (United States)

    Patterson, Gerald Wesley; Stickle, Angela; Turner, Franklin; Jensen, James; Cahill, Joshua; Mini-RF Team


    The Mini-RF instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a hybrid dual-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and operates in concert with the Arecibo Observatory (AO) and the Goldstone deep space communications complex 34 meter antenna DSS-13 to collect S- and X-band bistatic radar data of the Moon. Bistatic radar data provide a means to probe the near subsurface for the presence of water ice, which exhibits a strong response in the form of a Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE). This effect has been observed in radar data for the icy surfaces of the Galilean satellites, the polar caps of Mars, polar craters on Mercury, and terrestrial ice sheets in Greenland. Previous work using Mini-RF S-band (12.6 cm) bistatic data suggests the presence of a CBOE associated with the floor of the lunar south polar crater Cabeus. The LRO spacecraft has begun its third extended mission. For this phase of operations Mini-RF is leveraging the existing AO architecture to make S-band radar observations of additional polar craters (e.g., Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini). The purpose of acquiring these data is to determine whether other polar craters exhibit the response observed for Cabeus. Mini-RF has also initiated a new mode of operation that utilizes the X-band (4.2cm) capability of the instrument receiver and a recently commissioned X/C-band transmitter within the Deep Space Network’s (DSN) Goldstone complex to collect bistatic X-band data of the Moon. The purpose of acquiring these data is to constrain the depth/thickness of materials that exhibit a CBOE response - with an emphasis on observing the floor of Cabeus. Recent Mini-RF X-band observations of the floors of the craters Cabeus do not show evidence for a CBOE. This would suggest that the upper ~0.5 meters of the regolith for the floor of Cabeus do not harber water ice in a form detectable at 4.2 cm wavelengths.

  16. Suitability of GaN and LDMOS for 70–82% efficiency 120–200W HPA addressing spaceborne P-band radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gallou, N.; Vidkjær, Jens; Poivey, C.


    This paper addresses the development of P-band (435 MHz) HPA based on different technologies (GaN HEMT, LDMOS FET) for future use in pace radar applications in the context of the Biomass project. In particular best in class PAE of 70%–82% is targeted and achieved for power levels of 120W. In order...

  17. Offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring using space-borne fully polarimetric C and X band synthetic aperture radar. (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf


    Use of polarimetric SAR data for offshore pollution monitoring is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. This paper describes the development of an automated oil spill detection chain for operational purposes based on C-band (RADARSAT-2) and X-band (TerraSAR-X) fully polarimetric images, wherein we use polarimetric features to characterize oil spills and look-alikes. Numbers of near coincident TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images have been acquired over offshore platforms. Ten polarimetric feature parameters were extracted from different types of oil and 'look-alike' spots and divided into training and validation dataset. Extracted features were then used to develop a pixel based Artificial Neural Network classifier. Mutual information contents among extracted features were assessed and feature parameters were ranked according to their ability to discriminate between oil spill and look-alike spots. Polarimetric features such as Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction and Span proved to be most suitable for operational services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Madrid, Spain (United States)


    The white, mottled area in the right-center of this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is Madrid, the capital of Spain. Located on the Meseta Central, a vast plateau covering about 40 percent of the country, this city of 3 million is very near the exact geographic center of the Iberian Peninsula. The Meseta is rimmed by mountains and slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form the boundary with Portugal. The plateau is mostly covered with dry grasslands, olive groves and forested hills.Madrid is situated in the middle of the Meseta, and at an elevation of 646 meters (2,119 feet) above sea level is the highest capital city in Europe. To the northwest of Madrid, and visible in the upper left of the image, is the Sistema Central mountain chain that forms the 'dorsal spine' of the Meseta and divides it into northern and southern subregions. Rising to about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet), these mountains display some glacial features and are snow-capped for most of the year. Offering almost year-round winter sports, the mountains are also important to the climate of Madrid.Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image in the flat areas.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  19. Scatterometer Observes Extratropical Transition of Pacific Typhoons (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing; Dunbar, R. Scott


    From September 15 to 25, 1996, NASA's scatterometer (NSCAT) monitored the evolution of twin typhoons, Violet and Tom, as they moved north from the western tropical Pacific, acquiring features of mid-latitude storms. The typhoons developed frontal structures, increased asymmetry, and dry air was introduced into their cores. Violet hit Japan, causing death and destruction (Figure 1), and Tom merged with a mid-latitude trough and evolved into a large extratropical storm with gale-force winds (Figure 2). We understand relatively little about the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones because of the complex thermodynamics involved [e.g., Sinclair, 1993], but we do know that the mid-latitude storms resulting from tropical cyclones usually generate strong winds and heavy precipitation. Since the transition usually occurs over the ocean, few measurements have been made. The transition is a fascinating science problem, but it also has important economic consequences. The transition occurs over the busiest trans-ocean shipping lanes, and when the resulting storms hit land, they usually devastate populated areas. NSCAT was successfully launched into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit on the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) in August 1996 from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. NSCAT's six antennas send microwave pulses at a frequency of 14 GHz to the Earth's surface and measure the backscatter. The antennas scan two 600-km bands of the ocean, which are separated by a 330-km data gap. From NSCAT observations, surface wind vectors can be derived at 25-km spatial resolution, covering 77% of the ice-free ocean in one day and 97% of the ocean in two days, under both clear and cloudy conditions.

  20. A procedure to correct the effects of a relative delay between the quadrature components of radar signals at base band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The real and imaginary parts of baseband signals are obtained from a real narrow-band signal by quadrature mixing, i.e. by mixing with cosine and sine signals at the narrow band's selected center frequency. We address the consequences of a delay between the outputs of the quadrature mixer, which arise when digital samples of the quadrature baseband signals are not synchronised, i.e. when the real and imaginary components have been shifted by one or more samples with respect to each other. Through analytical considerations and simulations of such an error on different synthetic signals, we show how this error can be expected to afflict different measurements. In addition, we show the effect of the error on actual incoherent scatter radar data obtained by two different digital receiver systems used in parallel at the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. The analytical considerations indicate a procedure to correct the error, albeit with some limitations due to a small singular region. We demonstrate the correction procedure on actually afflicted data and compare the results to simultaneously acquired unafflicted data. We also discuss the possible data analysis strategies, including some that avoid dealing directly with the singular region mentioned above.

  1. Simultaneous observations of ESF irregularities over Indian region using radar and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sripathi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present simultaneous observations of temporal and spatial variability of total electron content (TEC and GPS amplitude scintillations on L1 frequency (1.575 GHz during the time of equatorial spread F (ESF while the MST radar (53 MHz located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, Dip latitude 6.3° N, a low latitude station, made simultaneous observations. In particular, the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of TEC and L-band scintillations was studied in the Indian region for different types of ESF structures observed using the MST radar during the low solar activity period of 2004 and 2005. Simultaneous radar and GPS observations during severe ESF events in the pre-midnight hour reveal that significant GPS L band scintillations, depletions in TEC, and the double derivative of the TEC index (DROTI, which is a measure of fluctuations in TEC, obtained at low latitudes coincide with the appearance of radar echoes at Gadanki. As expected, when the irregularities reach higher altitudes as seen in the radar map during pre-midnight periods, strong scintillations on an L-band signal are observed at higher latitudes. Conversely, when radar echoes are confined to only lower altitudes, weak scintillations are found and their latitudinal extent is small. During magnetically quiet periods, we have recorded plume type radar echoes during a post-midnight period that is devoid of L-band scintillations. Using spectral slopes and cross-correlation index of the VHF scintillation observations, we suggest that these irregularities could be "dead" or "fossil" bubbles which are just drifting in from west. This scenario is consistent with the observations where suppression of pre-reversal enhancement (PRE in the eastward electric field is indicated by ionosonde observations of the height of equatorial F layer and also occurrence of low spectral width in the radar observations relative to pre-midnight period. However, absence of L-band scintillations during

  2. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.


    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  3. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR-based mapping of volcanic flows: Manam Island, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Weissel


    Full Text Available We present new radar-based techniques for efficient identification of surface changes generated by lava and pyroclastic flows, and apply these to the 1996 eruption of Manam Volcano, Papua New Guinea. Polarimetric L- and P-band airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR data, along with a C-band DEM, were acquired over the volcano on 17 November 1996 during a major eruption sequence. The L-band data are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms on a per pixel basis using radar target decomposition techniques. A classification method is presented, and when applied to the L-band polarimetry, it readily distinguishes bare surfaces from forest cover over Manam volcano. In particular, the classification scheme identifies a post-1992 lava flow in NE Valley of Manam Island as a mainly bare surface and the underlying 1992 flow units as mainly vegetated surfaces. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Network reports allow us to speculate whether the bare surface is a flow dating from October or November in the early part of the late-1996 eruption sequence. This work shows that fully polarimetric SAR is sensitive to scattering mechanism changes caused by volcanic resurfacing processes such as lava and pyroclastic flows. By extension, this technique should also prove useful in mapping debris flows, ash deposits and volcanic landslides associated with major eruptions.

  4. Advancing NASA’s AirMOSS P-Band Radar Root Zone Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm via Incorporation of Richards’ Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi


    Full Text Available P-band radar remote sensing applied during the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS mission has shown great potential for estimation of root zone soil moisture. When retrieving the soil moisture profile (SMP from P-band radar observations, a mathematical function describing the vertical moisture distribution is required. Because only a limited number of observations are available, the number of free parameters of the mathematical model must not exceed the number of observed data. For this reason, an empirical quadratic function (second order polynomial is currently applied in the AirMOSS inversion algorithm to retrieve the SMP. The three free parameters of the polynomial are retrieved for each AirMOSS pixel using three backscatter observations (i.e., one frequency at three polarizations of Horizontal-Horizontal, Vertical-Vertical and Horizontal-Vertical. In this paper, a more realistic, physically-based SMP model containing three free parameters is derived, based on a solution to Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow in soils. Evaluation of the new SMP model based on both numerical simulations and measured data revealed that it exhibits greater flexibility for fitting measured and simulated SMPs than the currently applied polynomial. It is also demonstrated that the new SMP model can be reduced to a second order polynomial at the expense of fitting accuracy.

  5. Value of a dual-polarized gap-filling radar in support of southern California post-fire debris-flow warnings (United States)

    Jorgensen, David P.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L; Staley, Dennis M.; Kean, Jason W.; Restrepo, Pedro J.


    A portable truck-mounted C-band Doppler weather radar was deployed to observe rainfall over the Station Fire burn area near Los Angeles, California, during the winter of 2009/10 to assist with debris-flow warning decisions. The deployments were a component of a joint NOAA–U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research effort to improve definition of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows from steep topography within recent wildfire burn areas. A procedure was implemented to blend various dual-polarized estimators of precipitation (for radar observations taken below the freezing level) using threshold values for differential reflectivity and specific differential phase shift that improves the accuracy of the rainfall estimates over a specific burn area sited with terrestrial tipping-bucket rain gauges. The portable radar outperformed local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) National Weather Service network radars in detecting rainfall capable of initiating post-fire runoff-generated debris flows. The network radars underestimated hourly precipitation totals by about 50%. Consistent with intensity–duration threshold curves determined from past debris-flow events in burned areas in Southern California, the portable radar-derived rainfall rates exceeded the empirical thresholds over a wider range of storm durations with a higher spatial resolution than local National Weather Service operational radars. Moreover, the truck-mounted C-band radar dual-polarimetric-derived estimates of rainfall intensity provided a better guide to the expected severity of debris-flow events, based on criteria derived from previous events using rain gauge data, than traditional radar-derived rainfall approaches using reflectivity–rainfall relationships for either the portable or operational network WSR-88D radars. Part of the reason for the improvement was due to siting the radar closer to the burn zone than the WSR-88Ds, but use of the dual-polarimetric variables

  6. Physics-Based Predictions for Coherent Change Detection Using X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Preiss


    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The model is derived using a dyadic form for surface reflectivity in the Kirchhoff approximation. This permits the combination of Kirchhoff theory and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR image formation theory. The resulting model is used to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The theoretical model is applied to SAR images formed before and after surface changes observed by a repeat-pass SAR system. The change in surface associated with a tyre track following vehicle passage is modelled and SAR coherency estimates are obtained. Predicted coherency distributions for both the change and no-change scenarios are used to estimate receiver operator curves for the detection of the changes using a high-resolution, X-band SAR system.

  7. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  8. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan


    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  9. TDMA X-band FMCW MIMO radar for short range surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Maas, A.P.M.; Hoogeboom, P.; Rossum, W.L. van


    The work presented in this paper was aimed at the design of a compact radar device to be used for private area surveillance applications. The radar is connected to a pan tilt zoom camera and it provides the camera system with high accuracy position information (bearing and range) of moving targets;

  10. Coherent and non-coherent processing of multiband radar sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tejero


    Full Text Available Increasing resolution is an attractive goal for all types of radar sensor applications. Obtaining high radar resolution is strongly related to the signal bandwidth which can be used. The currently available frequency bands however, restrict the available bandwidth and consequently the achievable range resolution. As nowadays more sensors become available e.g. on automotive platforms, methods of combining sensor information stemming from sensors operating in different and not necessarily overlapping frequency bands are of concern. It will be shown that it is possible to derive benefit from perceiving the same radar scenery with two or more sensors in distinct frequency bands. Beyond ordinary sensor fusion methods, radar information can be combined more effectively if one compensates for the lack of mutual coherence, thus taking advantage of phase information. At high frequencies, complex scatterers can be approximately modeled as a group of single scattering centers with constant delay and slowly varying amplitude, i.e. a set of complex exponentials buried in noise. The eigenanalysis algorithms are well known for their capability to better resolve complex exponentials as compared to the classical spectral analysis methods. These methods exploit the statistical properties of those signals to estimate their frequencies. Here, two main approaches to extend the statistical analysis for the case of data collected at two different subbands are presented. One method relies on the use of the band gap information (and therefore, coherent data collection is needed and achieves an increased resolution capability compared with the single-band case. On the other hand, the second approach does not use the band gap information and represents a robust way to process radar data collected with incoherent sensors. Combining the information obtained with these two approaches a robust estimator of the target locations with increased resolution can be built.

  11. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert


    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  12. Ku/Ka/W-band Antenna for Electronically-Scanned Cloud and Precipitation Radar (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previously, cloud radars such as CloudSat have been separated from precipitation radars such as TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) and GPM (Global...

  13. Reconstruction of the sea surface elevation from the analysis of the data collected by a wave radar system (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Lugni, Claudio; Fucile, Fabio; Bulian, Gabriele


    X-band radar system is able to provide information about direction and intensity of the sea surface currents and dominant waves in a range of few kilometers from the observation point (up to 3 nautical miles). This capability, together with their flexibility and low cost, makes these devices useful tools for the sea monitoring either coastal or off-shore area. The data collected from wave radar system can be analyzed by using the inversion strategy presented in [1,2] to obtain the estimation of the following sea parameters: peak wave direction; peak period; peak wavelength; significant wave height; sea surface current and bathymetry. The estimation of the significant wave height represents a limitation of the wave radar system because of the radar backscatter is not directly related to the sea surface elevation. In fact, in the last period, substantial research has been carried out to estimate significant wave height from radar images either with or without calibration using in-situ measurements. In this work, we will present two alternative approaches for the reconstruction of the sea surface elevation from wave radar images. In particular, the first approach is based on the basis of an approximated version of the modulation transfer function (MTF) tuned from a series of numerical simulation, following the line of[3]. The second approach is based on the inversion of radar images using a direct regularised least square technique. Assuming a linearised model for the tilt modulation, the sea elevation has been reconstructed as a least square fitting of the radar imaging data[4]. References [1]F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-band radar data," IEEE Geosci.Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 231-235, Apr. 2010. [2]Ludeno, G., Brandini, C., Lugni, C., Arturi, D., Natale, A., Soldovieri, F., Serafino, F. (2014). Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa

  14. Mesoscale kinematics derived from X-band Doppler radar observations of convective versus stratiform precipitation and comparison with GPS radiosonde profiles (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin M.; Dhangar, N.; Das, S. K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Chakravarty, K.; Sonbawne, S.; Konwar, M.


    Single Doppler analysis techniques known as velocity azimuth display (VAD) and volume velocity processing (VVP) are used to analyze kinematics of mesoscale flow such as horizontal wind and divergence using X-band Doppler weather radar observations, for selected cases of convective, stratiform, and shallow cloud systems near tropical Indian sites Pune (18.58°N, 73.92°E, above sea level (asl) 560 m) and Mandhardev (18.51°N, 73.85°E, asl 1297 m). The vertical profiles of horizontal wind estimated from radar VVP/VAD methods agree well with GPS radiosonde profiles, with the low-level jet at about 1.5 km during monsoon season well depicted in both. The vertical structure and temporal variability of divergence and reflectivity profiles are indicative of the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of shallow convective, deep convective, and stratiform cloud systems. In shallow convective systems, vertical development of reflectivity profiles is limited below 5 km. In deep convective systems, reflectivity values as large as 55 dBZ were observed above freezing level. The stratiform system shows the presence of a reflectivity bright band (~35 dBZ) near the melting level. The diagnosed vertical profiles of divergence in convective and stratiform systems are distinct. In shallow convective conditions, convergence was seen below 4 km with divergence above. Low-level convergence and upper level divergence are observed in deep convective profiles, while stratiform precipitation has midlevel convergence present between lower level and upper level divergence. The divergence profiles in stratiform precipitation exhibit intense shallow layers of "melting convergence" at 0°C level, near 4.5 km altitude, with a steep gradient on the both sides of the peak. The level of nondivergence in stratiform situations is lower than that in convective situations. These observed vertical structures of divergence are largely indicative of latent heating profiles in the atmosphere, an

  15. Synthetic Swan band profile of (1,0) of 12C12C and (0,0) of 12C12C and 12C13C in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, K.S.K.


    The statistical equilibrium calculations of the 12 C 13 C molecule based on the resonance fluorescence process give similar results to those of the normal molecule. Therefore the assumption that the observed intensities of bands of the normal and the isotopic molecule differ only by their abundance ratio is reasonable. The synthetic profile of the (1,0) Swan band of 12 C 13 C (0,0) band of 12 C 12 C and 12 C 13 C have been calculated. The relative merits of using the rotational structure of the (1,0) or (0,0) band for the determination of the isotopic ratio 12 C/ 13 C is discussed briefly. (author)

  16. Evaluation of dual polarization scattering matrix radar rain backscatter measurements in the X- and Q-bands (United States)

    Agrawal, A. P.; Carnegie, D. W.; Boerner, W.-M.

    This paper presents an evaluation of polarimetric rain backscatter measurements collected with coherent dual polarization radar systems in the X (8.9 GHz) and Q (45GHz) bands, the first being operated in a pulsed mode and the second being a FM-CW system. The polarimetric measurement data consisted for each band of fifty files of time-sequential scattering matrix measurements expressed in terms of a linear (H, V) antenna polarization state basis. The rain backscattering takes place in a rain cell defined by the beam widths and down range distances of 275 ft through 325 ft and the scattering matrices were measured far below the hydrometeoric scattering center decorrelation time so that ensemble averaging of time-sequential scattering matrices may be applied. In the data evaluation great care was taken in determining: (1) polarimetric Doppler velocities associated with the motion of descending oscillating raindrops and/or eddies within the moving swaths of coastal rain showers, and (2) also the properties of the associated co/cross-polarization rain clutter nulls and their distributions on the Poincare polarization sphere.

  17. Mangrove vegetation structure in Southeast Brazil from phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Francisca Rocha; Kampel, Milton; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia


    The potential use of phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data for discriminating distinct physiographic mangrove types with different forest structure developments in a subtropical mangrove forest located in Cananéia on the Southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, is investigated. The basin and fringe physiographic types and the structural development of mangrove vegetation were identified with the application of the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test to the SAR backscatter values of 10 incoherent attributes. The best results to separate basin to fringe types were obtained using copolarized HH, cross-polarized HV, and the biomass index (BMI). Mangrove structural parameters were also estimated using multiple linear regressions. BMI and canopy structure index were used as explanatory variables for canopy height, mean height, and mean diameter at breast height regression models, with significant R2=0.69, 0.73, and 0.67, respectively. The current study indicates that SAR L-band images can be used as a tool to discriminate physiographic types and to characterize mangrove forests. The results are relevant considering the crescent availability of freely distributed SAR images that can be more utilized for analysis, monitoring, and conservation of the mangrove ecosystem.

  18. Bathymetry Determination via X-Band Radar Data: A New Strategy and Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Soldovieri


    Full Text Available This work deals with the question of sea state monitoring using marine X-band radar images and focuses its attention on the problem of sea depth estimation. We present and discuss a technique to estimate bathymetry by exploiting the dispersion relation for surface gravity waves. This estimation technique is based on the correlation between the measured and the theoretical sea wave spectra and a simple analysis of the approach is performed through test cases with synthetic data. More in detail, the reliability of the estimate technique is verified through simulated data sets that are concerned with different values of bathymetry and surface currents for two types of sea spectrum: JONSWAP and Pierson-Moskowitz. The results show how the estimated bathymetry is fairly accurate for low depth values, while the estimate is less accurate as the bathymetry increases, due to a less significant role of the bathymetry on the sea surface waves as the water depth increases.

  19. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL) (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.


    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  20. Monitoring of the MU radar antenna pattern by Satellite Ohzora (EXOS-C) (United States)

    Sato, T.; Inooka, Y.; Fukao, S.; Kato, S.


    As the first attempt among MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) type radars, the MU (middle and upper atmosphere) radar features an active phased array system. Unlike the conventional large VHF radars, in which output power of a large vacuum tube is distributed to individual antenna elements, each of 475 solid state power amplifier feeds each antenna element. This system configuration enables very fast beam steering as well as various flexible operations by dividing the antenna into independent subarrays, because phase shift and signal division/combination are performed at a low signal level using electronic devices under control of a computer network. The antenna beam can be switched within 10 microsec to any direction within the zenith angle of 30 deg. Since a precise phase alignment of each element is crucial to realize the excellent performance of this system, careful calibration of the output phase of each power amplifier and antenna element was carried out. Among various aircraft which may be used for this purpose artificial satellites have an advantage of being able to make a long term monitoring with the same system. An antenna pattern monitoring system for the MU radar was developed using the scientific satellite OHZORA (EXOS-C). A receiver named MUM (MU radar antenna Monitor) on board the satellite measures a CW signal of 100 to 400 watts transmitted from the MU radar. The principle of the measurement and results are discussed.

  1. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.


    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  2. Meteorological radar services: a brief discussion and a solution in practice (United States)

    Nicolaides, K. A.


    The Department of Meteorology is the organization designated by the Civil Aviation Department and by the National Supervisory Authority of the Republic of Cyprus, as an air navigation service provider, based on the regulations of the Single European Sky. Department of Meteorology holds and maintains also an ISO: 9001/2008, Quality System, for the provision of meteorological and climatological services to aeronautic and maritime community, but also to the general public. In order to fulfill its obligations the Department of Meteorology customs the rather dense meteorological stations network, with long historical data series, installed and maintained by the Department, in parallel with modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), along with training and gaining of expertise. Among the available instruments in the community of meteorologists is the meteorological radar, a basic tool for the needs of very short/short range forecasting (nowcasting). The Department of Meteorology installed in the mid 90's a C-band radar over «Throni» location and expanded its horizons in nowcasting, aviation safety and warnings issuance. The radar has undergone several upgrades but today technology has over passed its rather old technology. At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure. Two networked X-band meteorological radar will be installed (the project now is in the phase of infrastructure establishment while the hardware is in the process of assemble), and maintained from Space Hellas (the contractor) for a 13 years' time period. The present article must be faced as a review article of the efforts of the Department of Meteorology to support its weather forecasters with data from meteorological radar.

  3. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar (United States)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.


    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  4. Thermal evolution of the band edges of 6H-SiC: X-ray methods compared to the optical band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, P.S.; Beye, M.; Könnecke, R.; Schiwietz, G.; Föhlisch, A.


    Highlights: • Conduction band minima (CBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with Si 2p XAS. • Valence band maxima (VBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with non-resonant Si 2p XES. • Temperature-dependent VBM and CBM of 6H-SiC show asymmetric band gap closing. • XAS, XES and RIXS band gap estimates are compared with the optical band gap. • XAS + XES versus optical band gap provides core-excitonic screening energies. - Abstract: The band gap of semiconductors like silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) is the key for their device properties. In this research, the band gap of 6H-SiC and its temperature dependence were analyzed with silicon 2p X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) allowing for a separate analysis of the conduction-band minimum (CBM) and valence-band maximum (VBM) components of the band gap. The temperature-dependent asymmetric band gap shrinking of 6H-SiC was determined with a valence-band slope of +2.45 × 10 −4 eV/K and a conduction-band slope of −1.334 × 10 −4 eV/K. The apparent asymmetry, e.g., that two thirds of the band-gap shrinking with increasing temperature is due to the VBM evolution in 6H-SiC, is similar to the asymmetry obtained for pure silicon before. The overall band gap temperature-dependence determined with XAS and non-resonant XES is compared to temperature-dependent optical studies. The core-excitonic binding energy appearing in the Si 2p XAS is extracted as the main difference. In addition, the energy loss of the onset of the first band in RIXS yields to values similar to the optical band gap over the tested temperature range

  5. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications (United States)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    The fields of radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry are compared. The mathematics of optic polarimetry are formulated such that a local right handed coordinate system is always used to describe the polarization states. This is not done in radar polarimetry. Radar optimum polarization theory is redeveloped within the framework of optical polarimetry. The radar optimum polarizations and optic eigenvalues of common scatterers are compared. In addition a novel definition of an eigenpolarization state is given and the accompanying mathematics is developed. The polarization response calculated using optic, radar and novel definitions is presented for a variety of scatterers. Polarimetric transformation provides a means to characterize scatters in more than one polarization basis. Polarimetric transformation for an ensemble of scatters is obtained via two methods: (1) the covariance method and (2) the instantaneous scattering matrix (ISM) method. The covariance method is used to relate the mean radar parameters of a +/-45^circ linear polarization basis to those of a horizontal and vertical polarization basis. In contrast the ISM method transforms the individual time samples. Algorithms are developed for transforming the time series from fully polarimetric radars that switch between orthogonal states. The transformed time series are then used to calculate the mean radar parameters of interest. It is also shown that propagation effects do not need to be removed from the ISM's before transformation. The techniques are demonstrated using data collected by POLDIRAD, the German Aerospace Research Establishment's fully polarimetric C-band radar. The differential phase observed between two copolar states, Psi_{CO}, is composed of two phases: (1) differential propagation phase, phi_{DP}, and (2) differential backscatter phase, delta. The slope of phi_{DP } with range is an estimate of the specific differential phase, K_{DP}. The process of estimating K_{DP} is complicated when

  6. Large power microwave nonlinear effects on multifunction amplifier chip for Ka-band T/R module of phased array radar (United States)

    Guo, Guo; Gu, Ling; Wu, Ruowu; Xu, Xiong; Zhou, Taifu; Niu, Xinjian; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Hui; Wei, Yanyu; Guo, Changyong


    Nonlinear effects of large power millimeter wave on critical chips for the T/R module of phased array radar is experimental studied and analyzed in this paper. A multifunction amplifier chip is selected for our experiments. A solid continuous wave (CW) source and a large power pulsed magnetron are both employed to generate the Ka-band microwave. The input-output characteristics, the degradation and destroy threshold of the chips are obtained through a series of experimental tests. At last, the results are given by figures and analyzed theoretically.

  7. A Compact Band-Pass Filter with High Selectivity and Second Harmonic Suppression. (United States)

    Hadarig, Ramona Cosmina; de Cos Gomez, Maria Elena; Las-Heras, Fernando


    The design of a novel band-pass filter with narrow-band features based on an electromagnetic resonator at 6.4 GHz is presented. A prototype is manufactured and characterized in terms of transmission and reflection coefficient. The selective passband and suppression of the second harmonic make the filter suitable to be used in a C band frequency range for radar systems and satellite/terrestrial applications. To avoid substantial interference for this kind of applications, passive components with narrow band features and small dimensions are required. Between 3.6 GHz and 4.2 GHz the band-pass filter with harmonic suppression should have an attenuation of at least 35 dB, whereas for a passband, less than 10% is sufficient.

  8. Monitoring drought affected crop yields based on ERS-scatterometer data : exploration of possibilities to integrate ERS-scatterometer derived soil moisture into the CGMS crop model for a Russian-Ukrainian study area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.; Savin, I.


    In this study the possibilities of integrating ERS scatterometer-derived soil moisture into CGMS are explored. This remote sensed soil moisture is used to calculate drought stress in grains of barley for a Russian-Ukrainian study area. The results arecompared with drought stress based on the

  9. Monitoring of rain water storage in forests with satellite radar


    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Kuiper, PJC


    The sensitivity of radar backscatter to the amount of intercepted rain in temperate deciduous forests is analyzed to determine the feasibility of retrieval of this parameter from satellite radar data. A backscatter model is validated with X-band radar measurements of a single tree exposed to rain. A good agreement between simulation and measurements is observed and this demonstrates the ability of radar to measure the amount of intercepted rain. The backscatter model is next applied to simula...

  10. Theoretical studies on band structure and optical properties of 3C-SiC by FPLAPW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, F.; Pan, H.


    Full text: SiC has attracted more interests because of its great technological importance in microelectronic and photoelectronic devices. We have studied the band structure and optical properties of 3C-SiC by using a Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves (FPLAPW) method. The partial density of states (DOS) of Si and C atoms as well as the band structure of 3C-SiC are presented. The calculated band gap is 1.30eV, which is much less than the experimental value. It is attributed to a deficiency of the local density theory. The imaginary part of the dielectric function has been obtained directly from the band structure calculation. With the band gap correction, the real part of the dielectric function has been derived from the imaginary part by Kramers Kronig (K-K) dispersion relationship. The calculated results are in good agreement with the results measured by Petalas et al. by using ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon energy range of 5eV-10eV. The band-to-band transition can be identified from the critical points exhibited in the calculated dielectric function, which is consistent with the experimental results of Petalas et al. The refractive index, extinction coefficient and reflectivity have also been calculated from obtained dielectric function, which are in agreement with the experimental results of Logothetidis and Lambrecht

  11. San Andreas Fault, Southern California , Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height (United States)


    This topographic radar image vividly displays California's famous San Andreas Fault along the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 75 kilometers (46 miles) north of downtown Los Angeles. The entire segment of the fault shown in this image last ruptured during the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. This was one of the greatest earthquakes ever recorded in the U.S., and it left an amazing surface rupture scar over 350 kilometers in length along the San Andreas. Were the Fort Tejon shock to happen today, the damage would run into billions of dollars, and the loss of life would likely be substantial, as the communities of Wrightwood, Palmdale, and Lancaster (among others) all lie upon or near the 1857 rupture area. The Lancaster/Palmdale area appears as bright patches just below the center of the image and the San Gabriel Mountains fill the lower left half of the image. At the extreme lower left is Pasadena. High resolution topographic data such as these are used by geologists to study the role of active tectonics in shaping the landscape, and to produce earthquake hazard maps.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an

  12. Weather radar performance monitoring using a metallic-grid ground-scatterer (United States)

    Falconi, Marta Tecla; Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca


    The use of ground return signals is investigated for checks on the calibration of power measurements of a polarimetric C-band radar. To this aim, a peculiar permanent single scatterer (PSS) consisting of a big metallic roof with a periodic mesh grid structure and having a hemisphere-like shape is considered. The latter is positioned in the near-field region of the weather radar and its use, as a reference calibrator, shows fairly good results in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity monitoring. In addition, the use of PSS indirectly allows to check for the radar antenna de-pointing which is another issue usually underestimated when dealing with weather radars. Because of the periodic structure of the considered PSS, simulations of its electromagnetic behavior were relatively easy to perform. To this goal, we used an electromagnetic Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) with an ad-hoc numerical implementation of a full-wave solution to model our PSS in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity factor. Comparison of model results and experimental measurements are then shown in this work. Our preliminary investigation can pave the way for future studies aiming at characterizing ground-clutter returns in a more accurate way for radar calibration purposes.

  13. Potential of airborne radar to support the assessment of land cover in a tropical rain forest environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.


    The potential of airborne radar systems as tools for collecting information in support of the assessment of tropical primary forests and derived cover types was examined. SAR systems operating with high spatial resolutions and different wavelengths (i.e., X-, C-, L- and P-band) acquired data in

  14. α+12C rotational bands in 16O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuma M.


    Full Text Available The total quantum number N of the α+12C rotational bands in 16O is determined by a study of α+12C elastic scattering. The 8+ and 9− states are found around the excitation energy Ex = 30 MeV and they are the member of the known rotational bands. At the same time, the 02+ state (Ex = 6.05 MeV is found to be dominated by N = 8.

  15. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  16. VHF radar observation of atmospheric winds, associated shears and C2n at a tropical location: interdependence and seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jain

    Full Text Available The turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n is an important parameter of the atmosphere. VHF radars have been used extensively for the measurements of C2n. Presently, most of such observations are from mid and high latitudes and only very limited observations are available for equatorial and tropical latitudes. Indian MST radar is an excellent tool for making high-resolution measurements of atmospheric winds, associated shears and turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n. This radar is located at Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, a tropical station in India. The objective of this paper is to bring out the height structure of C2n for different seasons using the long series of data (September 1995 – August 1999 from Indian MST radar. An attempt is also made to understand such changes in the height structure of C2n in relation to background atmospheric parameters such as horizontal winds and associated shears. The height structure of C2n, during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon season, shows specific height features that are found to be related to Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ winds. It is important to examine the nature of the radar back-scatterers and also to understand the causative mechanism of such scatterers. Aspect sensitivity of the received radar echo is examined for this purpose. It is observed that radar back-scatterers at the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are more anisotropic, with horizontal correlation length of 10–20 m, as compared to those observed at lower and middle tropospheric heights.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; tropical meteorology; turbulence


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran


    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  18. Two weather radar time series of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Petersen


    Full Text Available The eruption of Grímsvötn volcano in Iceland in 2011 lasted for a week, 21–28 May. The eruption was explosive and peaked during the first hours, with the eruption plume reaching 20–25 km altitude. The height of the plume was monitored every 5 min with a C-band weather radar located at Keflavík International Airport and a mobile X-band radar, 257 km and 75 km distance from the volcano respectively. In addition, photographs taken during the first half-hour of the eruption give information regarding the initial rise. Time series of the plume-top altitude were constructed from the radar observations. This paper presents the two independent radar time series. The series have been cross validated and there is a good agreement between them. The echo top radar series of the altitude of the volcanic plume are publicly available from the Pangaea Data Publisher (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.778390.

  19. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.


    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  20. Comparison between HF radar current data and moored ADCP currentmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosoli, S.


    A preliminary assessment of accuracy of a two-sites shore-based HF Radar network along the Venice Lagoon littoral was attempted by means of comparison with a 57.5 day-long ADCP current time series for the period September-October 2002. Results showed that radar measurements were accurate ( O . The main differences between the HF radar and surface ADCP currents can be explained in terms of random errors affecting the measurement technique and the daily sea breeze forcing, since low-pass filtering of current time series significantly improved the correlation and decreased the RMS of the differences between the two measured data set. Comparison of the semidiurnal (M2, S2) tidal band suggested good agreement between tidal ellipse amplitudes. Wind forcing on a daily time-scale (sea-breeze) was associated with larger differences between radar and ADCP currents at a diurnal band due to the presence of a vertical shear in the surface layer

  1. Quantifying South East Asia's forest degradation using latest generation optical and radar satellite remote sensing (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Wijaya, A.; Weisse, M.; Stolle, F.


    Deforestation and forest degradation form the 2nd largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While deforestation is being globally mapped with satellite image time series, degradation remains insufficiently quantified. Previous studies quantified degradation for small scale, local sites. A method suitable for accurate mapping across large areas has not yet been developed due to the variability of the low magnitude and short-lived degradation signal and the absence of data with suitable resolution properties. Here we use a combination of newly available streams of free optical and radar image time series acquired by NASA and ESA, and HPC-based data science algorithms to innovatively quantify degradation consistently across Southeast Asia (SEA). We used Sentinel1 c-band radar data and NASA's new Harmonized Landsat8 (L8) Sentinel2 (S2) product (HLS) for cloud free optical images. Our results show that dense time series of cloud penetrating Sentinel 1 c-band radar can provide degradation alarm flags, while the HLS product of cloud-free optical images can unambiguously confirm degradation alarms. The detectability of degradation differed across SEA. In the seasonal forest of continental SEA the reliability of our radar-based alarm flags increased as the variability in landscape moisture decreases in the dry season. We reliably confirmed alarms with optical image time series during the late dry season, where degradation in open canopy forests becomes detectable once the undergrowth vegetation has died down. Conversely, in insular SEA landscape moisture is low, the radar time series generated degradation alarms flags with moderate to high reliability throughout the year, further confirmed with the HLS product. Based on the HLS product we can now confirm degradation within time series provides better results than either one on its own. Our results provide significant information with application for carbon trading policy and land management.

  2. Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoto Nojima


    Full Text Available For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/SAR (L-band SAR images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images.

  3. Analysis of a Pareto Mixture Distribution for Maritime Surveillance Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham V. Weinberg


    Full Text Available The Pareto distribution has been shown to be an excellent model for X-band high-resolution maritime surveillance radar clutter returns. Given the success of mixture distributions in radar, it is thus of interest to consider the effect of Pareto mixture models. This paper introduces a formulation of a Pareto intensity mixture distribution and investigates coherent multilook radar detector performance using this new clutter model. Clutter parameter estimates are derived from data sets produced by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation's Ingara maritime surveillance radar.

  4. Spectral Polarimetric Features Analysis of Wind Turbine Clutter in Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Krasnov, O.A.; Unal, C.M.H.; Medagli, S.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.


    Wind turbine clutter has gradually become a concern for the radar community for its increasing size and quantity worldwide. Based on the S-band polarimetric Doppler PARSAX radar measurements, this paper demonstrates the micro-Doppler features and spectral-polarimetric characteristic of wind turbine

  5. On the Design of Radar Corner Reflectors for Deformation Monitoring in Multi-Frequency InSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Garthwaite


    Full Text Available Trihedral corner reflectors are being increasingly used as point targets in deformation monitoring studies using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques. The frequency and size dependence of the corner reflector Radar Cross Section (RCS means that no single design can perform equally in all the possible imaging modes and radar frequencies available on the currently orbiting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites. Therefore, either a corner reflector design tailored to a specific data type or a compromise design for multiple data types is required. In this paper, I outline the practical and theoretical considerations that need to be made when designing appropriate radar targets, with a focus on supporting multi-frequency SAR data. These considerations are tested by performing field experiments on targets of different size using SAR images from TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and RADARSAT-2. Phase noise behaviour in SAR images can be estimated by measuring the Signal-to-Clutter ratio (SCR in individual SAR images. The measured SCR of a point target is dependent on its RCS performance and the influence of clutter near to the deployed target. The SCR is used as a metric to estimate the expected InSAR displacement error incurred by the design of each target and to validate these observations against theoretical expectations. I find that triangular trihedral corner reflectors as small as 1 m in dimension can achieve a displacement error magnitude of a tenth of a millimetre or less in medium-resolution X-band data. Much larger corner reflectors (2.5 m or greater are required to achieve the same displacement error magnitude in medium-resolution C-band data. Compromise designs should aim to satisfy the requirements of the lowest SAR frequency to be used, providing that these targets will not saturate the sensor of the highest frequency to be used. Finally, accurate boresight alignment of the corner reflector can be critical to the overall

  6. Observations and modeling of fog by cloud radar and optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Hoogeboom, P.; Russchenberg, H.


    Fog is a significant factor affecting the public traffic because visibility is reduced to a large extent. Therefore the determination of optical visibility in fog from radar instruments has received much interest. To observe fog with radar, high frequency bands (millimeter waves) have the best


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hema, B. P.; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.


    Observed spectra of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars are analyzed by synthesizing the C 2 Swan bands (1, 0), (0, 0), and (0, 1) using our detailed line list and the Uppsala model atmospheres. The (0, 1) and (0, 0) C 2 bands are used to derive the 12 C abundance, and the (1, 0) 12 C 13 C band to determine the 12 C/ 13 C ratios. The carbon abundance derived from the C 2 Swan bands is about the same for the adopted models constructed with different carbon abundances over the range 8.5 (C/He = 0.1%) to 10.5 (C/He = 10%). Carbon abundances derived from C I lines are about a factor of four lower than the carbon abundance of the adopted model atmosphere over the same C/He interval, as reported by Asplund et al., who dubbed the mismatch between adopted and derived C abundance as the 'carbon problem'. In principle, the carbon abundances obtained from C 2 Swan bands and that assumed for the model atmosphere can be equated for a particular choice of C/He that varies from star to star. Then, the carbon problem for C 2 bands is eliminated. However, such C/He ratios are in general less than those of the extreme helium stars, the seemingly natural relatives to the RCB and HdC stars. A more likely solution to the C 2 carbon problem may lie in a modification of the model atmosphere's temperature structure. The derived carbon abundances and the 12 C/ 13 C ratios are discussed in light of the double degenerate and the final flash scenarios.

  8. Modeling radar backscattering from melting snowflakes using spheroids with nonuniform distribution of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyynelä, Jani; Leinonen, Jussi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nousiainen, Timo; Lerber, Annakaisa von


    In a number of studies it is reported that at the early stages, melting of aggregate snowflakes is enhanced at lower parts. In this paper, the manifestation of the resulting nonuniform distribution of water is studied for radar backscattering cross sections at C, Ku, Ka and W bands. The melting particles are described as spheroids with a mixture of water and air at the bottom part of the particle and a mixture of ice and air at the upper part. The radar backscattering is modeled using the discrete-dipole approximation in a horizontally pointing geometry. The results are compared to the T-matrix method, Mie theory, and the Rayleigh approximation using the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula. We find that the differential reflectivity and the linear depolarization ratio show systematic differences between the discrete-dipole approximation and the T-matrix method, but that the differences are relatively small. The horizontal cross sections show only small differences between the methods with the aspect ratio and the presence of resonance peaks having a larger effect on it than the nonuniform distribution of water. Overall, the effect of anisotropic distribution of water, reported for early stages of melting, is not significant for radar observations at the studied frequencies. -- Highlights: • We model backscattering from spheroidal melting snowflakes at C, Ku, Ka, and W bands. • We study the effect of anisotropic distribution of meltwater in the snow particles. • We find systematic, but relatively small differences for the backscattering properties. • We find that the aspect ratio and resonance peaks have a bigger effect than anisotropic distribution of water. • Anisotropic distribution of water is not significant for radar observations at early stages of melting

  9. Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment (ShUREX): overview of the campaign with some preliminary results (United States)

    Kantha, Lakshmi; Lawrence, Dale; Luce, Hubert; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Wilson, Richard; Mixa, Tyler; Yabuki, Masanori


    The Shigaraki unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-Radar Experiment (ShUREX) is an international (USA-Japan-France) observational campaign, whose overarching goal is to demonstrate the utility of small, lightweight, inexpensive, autonomous UAVs in probing and monitoring the lower troposphere and to promote synergistic use of UAVs and very high frequency (VHF) radars. The 2-week campaign lasting from June 1 to June 14, 2015, was carried out at the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Observatory in Shigaraki, Japan. During the campaign, the DataHawk UAV, developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and equipped with high-frequency response cold wire and pitot tube sensors (as well as an iMET radiosonde), was flown near and over the VHF-band MU radar. Measurements in the atmospheric column in the immediate vicinity of the radar were obtained. Simultaneous and continuous operation of the radar in range imaging mode enabled fine-scale structures in the atmosphere to be visualized by the radar. It also permitted the UAV to be commanded to sample interesting structures, guided in near real time by the radar images. This overview provides a description of the ShUREX campaign and some interesting but preliminary results of the very first simultaneous and intensive probing of turbulent structures by UAVs and the MU radar. The campaign demonstrated the validity and utility of the radar range imaging technique in obtaining very high vertical resolution ( 20 m) images of echo power in the atmospheric column, which display evolving fine-scale atmospheric structures in unprecedented detail. The campaign also permitted for the very first time the evaluation of the consistency of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in turbulent structures inferred from the spectral broadening of the backscattered radar signal and direct, in situ measurements by the high-frequency response velocity sensor on the UAV. The data also enabled other turbulence parameters such as the temperature

  10. An Improved Semi-Empirical Model for Radar Backscattering from Rough Sea Surfaces at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyeong Jin


    Full Text Available We propose an improved semi-empirical scattering model for X-band radar backscattering from rough sea surfaces. This new model has a wider validity range of wind speeds than does the existing semi-empirical sea spectrum (SESS model. First, we retrieved the small-roughness parameters from the sea surfaces, which were numerically generated using the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum and measurement datasets for various wind speeds. Then, we computed the backscattering coefficients of the small-roughness surfaces for various wind speeds using the integral equation method model. Finally, the large-roughness characteristics were taken into account by integrating the small-roughness backscattering coefficients multiplying them with the surface slope probability density function for all possible surface slopes. The new model includes a wind speed range below 3.46 m/s, which was not covered by the existing SESS model. The accuracy of the new model was verified with two measurement datasets for various wind speeds from 0.5 m/s to 14 m/s.

  11. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Fall


    Full Text Available Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR, which are onboard NASA’s CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE. This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors’ type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  12. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr


    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  13. A study of the feasibility of using sea and wind information from the ERS-1 satellite. Part 1: Wind scatterometer data (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Hollingsworth, A.; Uppala, S.; Woiceshyn, P.


    The use of scatterometer and altimeter data in wind and wave assimilation, and the benefits this offers for quality assurance and validation of ERS-1 data were examined. Real time use of ERS-1 data was simulated through assimilation of Seasat scatterometer data. The potential for quality assurance and validation is demonstrated by documenting a series of substantial problems with the scatterometer data, which are known but took years to establish, or are new. A data impact study, and an analysis of the performance of ambiguity removal algorithms on real and simulated data were conducted. The impact of the data on analyses and forecasts is large in the Southern Hemisphere, generally small in the Northern Hemisphere, and occasionally large in the Tropics. Tests with simulated data give more optimistic results than tests with real data. Errors in ambiguity removal results occur in clusters. The probabilities which can be calculated for the ambiguous wind directions on ERS-1 contain more information than is given by a simple ranking of the directions.

  14. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Heggeler, ten M.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Dierickx, P.; Wit, de M.


    This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two

  15. PHARUS: A C-band Airborne SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Pouwels, H.; Snoeij, P.


    In The Netherlands a plan to design aircraft and build a polarimetric C-band SAR system of a novel design, called PHARUS (PHased Array Universal SAR) is carried out by three institutes. These institutes are the Physics and Electronics Laboratory TNO in The Hague (prime contractor and project

  16. Using raindrop size distributions from different types of disdrometer to establish weather radar algorithms (United States)

    Baldini, Luca; Adirosi, Elisa; Roberto, Nicoletta; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Russo, Fabio; Napolitano, Francesco


    Radar precipitation retrieval uses several relationships that parameterize precipitation properties (like rainfall rate and liquid water content and attenuation (in case of radars at attenuated frequencies such as those at C- and X- band) as a function of combinations of radar measurements. The uncertainty in such relations highly affects the uncertainty precipitation and attenuation estimates. A commonly used method to derive such relationships is to apply regression methods to precipitation measurements and radar observables simulated from datasets of drop size distributions (DSD) using microphysical and electromagnetic assumptions. DSD datasets are determined both by theoretical considerations (i.e. based on the assumption that the radar always samples raindrops whose sizes follow a gamma distribution) or from experimental measurements collected throughout the years by disdrometers. In principle, using long-term disdrometer measurements provide parameterizations more representative of a specific climatology. However, instrumental errors, specific of a disdrometer, can affect the results. In this study, different weather radar algorithms resulting from DSDs collected by diverse types of disdrometers, namely 2D video disdrometer, first and second generation of OTT Parsivel laser disdrometer, and Thies Clima laser disdrometer, in the area of Rome (Italy) are presented and discussed to establish at what extent dual-polarization radar algorithms derived from experimental DSD datasets are influenced by the different error structure of the different type of disdrometers used to collect the data.

  17. Playback system designed for X-Band SAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuquan, Liu; Changyong, Dou


    SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) has extensive application because it is daylight and weather independent. In particular, X-Band SAR strip map, designed by Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides high ground resolution images, at the same time it has a large spatial coverage and a short acquisition time, so it is promising in multi-applications. When sudden disaster comes, the emergency situation acquires radar signal data and image as soon as possible, in order to take action to reduce loss and save lives in the first time. This paper summarizes a type of X-Band SAR playback processing system designed for disaster response and scientific needs. It describes SAR data workflow includes the payload data transmission and reception process. Playback processing system completes signal analysis on the original data, providing SAR level 0 products and quick image. Gigabit network promises radar signal transmission efficiency from recorder to calculation unit. Multi-thread parallel computing and ping pong operation can ensure computation speed. Through gigabit network, multi-thread parallel computing and ping pong operation, high speed data transmission and processing meet the SAR radar data playback real time requirement

  18. Playback system designed for X-Band SAR (United States)

    Yuquan, Liu; Changyong, Dou


    SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) has extensive application because it is daylight and weather independent. In particular, X-Band SAR strip map, designed by Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides high ground resolution images, at the same time it has a large spatial coverage and a short acquisition time, so it is promising in multi-applications. When sudden disaster comes, the emergency situation acquires radar signal data and image as soon as possible, in order to take action to reduce loss and save lives in the first time. This paper summarizes a type of X-Band SAR playback processing system designed for disaster response and scientific needs. It describes SAR data workflow includes the payload data transmission and reception process. Playback processing system completes signal analysis on the original data, providing SAR level 0 products and quick image. Gigabit network promises radar signal transmission efficiency from recorder to calculation unit. Multi-thread parallel computing and ping pong operation can ensure computation speed. Through gigabit network, multi-thread parallel computing and ping pong operation, high speed data transmission and processing meet the SAR radar data playback real time requirement.

  19. E-region decameter-scale plasma waves observed by the dual TIGER HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Carter


    Full Text Available The dual Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER HF radars regularly observe E-region echoes at sub-auroral magnetic latitudes 58°–60° S including during geomagnetic storms. We present a statistical analysis of E-region backscatter observed in a period of ~2 years (late 2004–2006 by the TIGER Bruny Island and Unwin HF radars, with particular emphasis on storm-time backscatter. It is found that the HF echoes normally form a 300-km-wide band at ranges 225–540 km. In the evening sector during geomagnetic storms, however, the HF echoes form a curved band joining to the F-region band at ~700 km. The curved band lies close to the locations where the geometric aspect angle is zero, implying little to no refraction during geomagnetic storms, which is an opposite result to what has been reported in the past. The echo occurrence, Doppler velocity, and spectral width of the HF echoes are examined in order to determine whether new HF echo types are observed at sub-auroral latitudes, particularly during geomagnetic storms. The datasets of both TIGER radars are found to be dominated by low-velocity echoes. A separate population of storm-time echoes is also identified within the datasets of both radars with most of these echoes showing similar characteristics to the low-velocity echo population. The storm-time backscatter observed by the Bruny Island radar, on the other hand, includes near-range echoes (r<405 km that exhibit some characteristics of what has been previously termed the High Aspect angle Irregularity Region (HAIR echoes. We show that these echoes appear to be a storm-time phenomenon and further investigate this population by comparing their Doppler velocity with the simultaneously measured F- and E-region irregularity velocities. It is suggested that the HAIR-like echoes are observed only by HF radars with relatively poor geometric aspect angles when electron density is low and when the electric field is particularly

  20. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve


    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  1. Radar studies of arctic ice and development of a real-time Arctic ice type identification system (United States)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.; Permenter, J. A.


    Studies were conducted to develop a real-time Arctic ice type identification system. Data obtained by NASA Mission 126, conducted at Pt. Barrow, Alaska (Site 93) in April 1970 was analyzed in detail to more clearly define the major mechanisms at work affecting the radar energy illuminating a terrain cell of sea ice. General techniques for reduction of the scatterometer data to a form suitable for application of ice type decision criteria were investigated, and the electronic circuit requirements for implementation of these techniques were determined. Also, consideration of circuit requirements are extended to include the electronics necessary for analog programming of ice type decision algorithms. After completing the basic circuit designs a laboratory model was constructed and a preliminary evaluation performed. Several system modifications for improved performance are suggested. (Modified author abstract)

  2. A simple device for long-term radar cross section recordings. (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ruoskanen, Jukka; Peltonen, Jouni


    A sample and hold circuit with settable delay can be used for recording of radar echo amplitude variations having time scales up to 100 s at the selected range bin in systems utilizing short rf pulses. The design is based on two integrated circuits and gives 1% uncertainty for 70 ns pulses. The key benefit is a real-time display of lengthy amplitude variations because the sample rate is defined by the radar pulse repetition frequency. Additionally we get a reduction in file size at least by the inverse of the radar's duty cycle. Examples of 10 and 100 s recordings with a Ka-band short pulse radar are described.

  3. A comparison of L-band and C-band rf guns as sources for inline-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Meyerer, T.


    We consider the beam dynamics associated with installing a BNL type 1 1/2 cell L-band or C-band rf gun before two TESLA L-band cryomodules. This system will deliver a 25 MeV electron beam with peak currents on the order of 100 A suitable for further magnetic compression. evaluate the injection systems utilizing the electron beam dynamic code PARMELA from the point of view of minimizing the transverse invariant emittance

  4. C-band RF-system development for e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, T.; Akasaka, N.; Matsumoto, H. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Oh, J.S.; Yoshida, M.; Watanabe, K.; Ohkubo, Y.; Yonezawa, H.; Baba, H.


    Hardware R and D on the C-band (5712 MHz) RF-system for an electron/positron linear collider started in 1996 at KEK. During two years R and D, we have developed a 50-MW C-band klystron (TOSHIBA E3746), a 'Smart Modulator', a traveling-wave resonator (TWR) and a cold model of the rf-pulse compressor. A C-band accelerating structure, which uses the choke-mode cavity, is under development. Its HOM damping performance will be tested using short-bunch beams of ASSET beam-line at SLAC in this year. The C-band system is able to accelerate a high-current beam at an accelerating gradient higher than that in a conventional S-band system, therefore, there will be various applications in the future beside the linear collider. For example, we can build an injector for a SR-ring and for various physics experiments within a short site-length. Additionally, since the C-band components are compact, it has a big potentiality to be widely used in various medical and industrial applications, such as an electron-beam radiotherapy machine, or a compact non-destructive X-ray imaging system. (author)

  5. Eight years of wind measurements from scatterometer for wind resource mapping in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furevik, Birgitte R.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Cavaleri, Luigi


    that the scatterometer is able to provide similar long-term statistics as available from buoy data, such as annual and monthly wind indexes. Such statistics is useful to give an overview of the climatology in the different areas. The correlation between QuikScat and in situ observations is degraded towards the coast...

  6. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey (United States)


    close to Istanbul that could kill many more than the 1999 event.Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Northwest-facing slopes appear dark and southeast-facing slopes appear bright. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image to add detail, especially in the flat areas.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 2x2 degrees (168 by 222 kilometers; 104 by 138 miles) Location: 40-42 degrees North latitude, 28-30 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model, with SRTM radar intensity added Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM))

  7. Synergistic Use of Spacecraft Telecom Links for Collection of Planetary Radar Science Data (United States)

    Asmar, S.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Decrossas, E.; Dobreva, T.; Duncan, C.; Ellliot, H.; Jin, C.; Lazio, J.; Miller, J.; Preston, R.


    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. Example spacecraft radar instruments are the 90 MHz CONSERT radar used to probe the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to a depth of 760m, the 20 MHz SHARAD instrument used to investigate Mars subsurface ice features from Mars orbit at depths of 300 to 3000 meters and the upcoming RIMFAX 150 MHz to 1200 MHz ground penetrating radar that will ride on the Mars 2020 rover investigating to a depth of 10m below the rover. In all of these applications, the radar frequency and signal structures were chosen to match science goals of desired depth of penetration and spatial resolution combined with the expected subsurface materials and structures below the surface. Recently, JPL investigators have proposed a new radar science paradigm, synergistic use of the telecom hardware and telecom links to collect bistatic or monostatic radar signatures. All JPL spacecraft employ telecom hardware that operates at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz), X-band (8 GHz) or Ka-band (32 GHz). Using existing open-loop record functions in these radios, the telecom hardware can be used to capture opportunistic radar signatures from telecom signals penetrating the surface and reflecting off of subsurface structures. This paper reports on telecom strategies, radar science applications and recent laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of telecom link based radar data collection.

  8. Global composites of surface wind speeds in tropical cyclones based on a 12 year scatterometer database (United States)

    Klotz, Bradley W.; Jiang, Haiyan


    A 12 year global database of rain-corrected satellite scatterometer surface winds for tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to produce composites of TC surface wind speed distributions relative to vertical wind shear and storm motion directions in each TC-prone basin and various TC intensity stages. These composites corroborate ideas presented in earlier studies, where maxima are located right of motion in the Earth-relative framework. The entire TC surface wind asymmetry is down motion left for all basins and for lower strength TCs after removing the motion vector. Relative to the shear direction, the motion-removed composites indicate that the surface wind asymmetry is located down shear left for the outer region of all TCs, but for the inner-core region it varies from left of shear to down shear right for different basin and TC intensity groups. Quantification of the surface wind asymmetric structure in further stratifications is a necessary next step for this scatterometer data set.

  9. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EDOP provides vertically profiled reflectivity and Doppler velocity at aircraft nadir along the flight track. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) is an X-band (9.6...

  10. Wind turbine clutter mitigation in coastal UHF radar. (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Pan, Chao; Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang


    Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness.

  11. Balloon-borne pressure sensor performance evaluation utilizing tracking radars (United States)

    Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.


    The pressure sensors on balloon-borne sondes relate the sonde measurements to height above the Earth's surface through the hypsometric equation. It is crucial that sondes used to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere do not contribute significant height errors to their measurements of atmospheric constituent concentrations and properties. A series of radiosonde flights was conducted. In most cases, each flight consisted of two sondes attached to a single balloon and each flight was tracked by a highly accurate C-band radar. For the first 19 radiosonde flights, the standard aneroid cell baroswitch assembly used was the pressure sensor. The last 26 radiosondes were equipped with a premium grade aneroid cell baroswitch assembly sensor and with a hypsometer. It is shown that both aneroid cell baroswitch sensors become increasingly inaccurate with altitude. The hypsometer radar differences are not strongly dependent upon altitude and it is found that the standard deviation of the differences at 35 km is 0.179 km.

  12. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  13. A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission (United States)

    Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.


    The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

  14. Reconfigurable L-band Radar Transceiver using Digital Signal Synthesis, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal, builds upon the extensive research and digital radar design that has been successfully completed during the Phase I contract. Key innovations...

  15. Validation and downscaling of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture using ground measurements in the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, J


    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of soil water content (SWC) is a promising technology for hydrological applications to overcome large spatiotemporal variabilities of SWC. This study investigated the performance of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT...

  16. Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models (United States)

    Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James


    We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

  17. Monsoon Convection during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment Observed from Shipboard Radar and the TRMM Satellite (United States)

    Rickenbach, Tom; Cifelli, Rob; Halverson, Jeff; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina; Liu, Ching-Hwang; hide


    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed during the active monsoon periods in a southwesterly flow regime. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from ship-based and spacebome radar reflectivity data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Further examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will be discussed. A strong waterspout was observed very near the ship from an isolated cell in the pre-monsoon period, and was well documented with photography, radar, sounding, and sounding data.

  18. Radar-acoustic interaction for IFF applications (United States)

    Saffold, James A.; Williamson, Frank R.; Ahuja, Krishan; Stein, Lawrence R.; Muller, Marjorie


    This paper describes the results of an internal development program (IDP) No. 97-1 conducted from August 1-October 1 1996 at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. The IDP program was implemented to establish theoretical relationships and verify the interaction between X-band radar waves and ultrasonic acoustics. Low cost, off-the-shelf components were used for the verification in order to illustrate the cost savings potential of developing and utilizing these systems. The measured data was used to calibrate the developed models of the phenomenology and to support extrapolation for radar systems which can exploit these interactions. One such exploitation is for soldier identification IFF and radar taggant concepts. The described IDP program provided the phenomenological data which is being used to extrapolate concept system performances based on technological limitations and battlefield conditions for low cost IFF and taggant configurations.

  19. Semi-Empirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for Co-Polarized L-Band Backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Baghdadi


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to extend the semi-empirical calibration of the backscattering Integral Equation Model (IEM initially proposed for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data at C- and X-bands to SAR data at L-band. A large dataset of radar signal and in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness over bare soil surfaces were used. This dataset was collected over numerous agricultural study sites in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany and Italy using various SAR sensors (AIRSAR, SIR-C, JERS-1, PALSAR-1, ESAR. Results showed slightly better simulations with exponential autocorrelation function than with Gaussian function and with HH than with VV. Using the exponential autocorrelation function, the mean difference between experimental data and Integral Equation Model (IEM simulations is +0.4 dB in HH and −1.2 dB in VV with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE about 3.5 dB. In order to improve the modeling results of the IEM for a better use in the inversion of SAR data, a semi-empirical calibration of the IEM was performed at L-band in replacing the correlation length derived from field experiments by a fitting parameter. Better agreement was observed between the backscattering coefficient provided by the SAR and that simulated by the calibrated version of the IEM (RMSE about 2.2 dB.

  20. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang


    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  1. Modulation, resolution and signal processing in radar, sonar and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, R; Costrell, L


    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 35: Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems presents the practical limitations and potentialities of advanced modulation systems. This book discusses the concepts and techniques in the radar context, but they are equally essential to sonar and to a wide range of signaling and data-processing applications, including seismology, radio astronomy, and band-spread communications.Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal developments sought in pulse radar. This text then provides a

  2. Surface Roughness of the Moon Derived from Multi-frequency Radar Data (United States)

    Fa, W.


    Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and modification mechanisms of impact craters. Since the Apollo era, lunar surface roughness has been studied using different approaches, such as direct estimation from lunar surface digital topographic relief, and indirect analysis of Earth-based radar echo strengths. Submillimeter scale roughness at Apollo landing sites has been studied by computer stereophotogrammetry analysis of Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures, whereas roughness at meter to kilometer scale has been studied using laser altimeter data from recent missions. Though these studies shown lunar surface roughness is scale dependent that can be described by fractal statistics, roughness at centimeter scale has not been studied yet. In this study, lunar surface roughnesses at centimeter scale are investigated using Earth-based 70 cm Arecibo radar data and miniature synthetic aperture radar (Mini-SAR) data at S- and X-band (with wavelengths 12.6 cm and 4.12 cm). Both observations and theoretical modeling show that radar echo strengths are mostly dominated by scattering from the surface and shallow buried rocks. Given the different penetration depths of radar waves at these frequencies (< 30 m for 70 cm wavelength, < 3 m at S-band, and < 1 m at X-band), radar echo strengths at S- and X-band will yield surface roughness directly, whereas radar echo at 70-cm will give an upper limit of lunar surface roughness. The integral equation method is used to model radar scattering from the rough lunar surface, and dielectric constant of regolith and surface roughness are two dominate factors. The complex dielectric constant of regolith is first estimated

  3. Airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar: trade-offs between various engineering specifications (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Loew, Eric


    NCAR EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next-generation airborne phased array radar (APAR) that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. The APAR will operate at C band. The APAR will use the electronic scanning (e-scan) feature to acquire the optimal number of independent samples for recording research-quality measurements. Since the airborne radar has only a limited time for collecting measurements over a specified region (moving aircraft platform ˜ 100 m s-1), beam multiplexing will significantly enhance its ability to collect high-resolution, research-quality measurements. Beam multiplexing reduces errors in radar measurements while providing rapid updates of scan volumes. Beamwidth depends on the size of the antenna aperture. Beamwidth and directivity of elliptical, circular, and rectangular antenna apertures are compared and radar sensitivity is evaluated for various polarimetric configurations and transmit-receive (T/R) elements. In the case of polarimetric measurements, alternate transmit with alternate receive (single-channel receiver) and simultaneous reception (dual-channel receiver) is compared. From an overall architecture perspective, element-level digitization of T/R module versus digital sub-array is considered with regard to flexibility in adaptive beamforming, polarimetric performance, calibration, and data quality. Methodologies for calibration of the radar and removing bias in polarimetric measurements are outlined. The above-mentioned engineering options are evaluated for realizing an optimal APAR system suitable for measuring the high temporal and spatial resolutions of Doppler and polarimetric measurements of precipitation and clouds.

  4. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain forest sigma deg data. [Brazil (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Bracalente, E. M.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator)


    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Ocean Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT-1 scatterometer system show the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which is insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence may be adequately modeled as sigma deg (dB) = alpha theta + beta with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 dB deg to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum likelihood estimation algorithms are presented which permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  5. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain sigma(0) data (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K.


    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT Scatterometer System (SASS) showed the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which was insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence was adequately modeled as scattering coefficient (dB) = a theta b with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum-likelihood estimation algorithms presented here permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  6. On the Use of a 77 GHz Automotive Radar as a Microwave Rain Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertoldo


    Full Text Available The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI defines the frequency band of 77 GHz (W-band as the one dedicated to automatic cruise control long-range radars. A car can be thought as a moving integrated weather sensor since it can provide meteorological information exploiting the sensors installed on board. This work presents the preliminary analysis of how a 77 GHz mini radar can be used as a short range microwave rain gauge. After the discussion of the Mie scattering formulation applied to a microwave rain gauge working in the W-band, the proposal of a new Z-R equation to be used for correct rain estimation is given. Atmospheric attenuation and absorption are estimated taking into account the ITU-T recommendations. Functional requirements in adapting automatic cruise control long-range radar to a microwave rain gauge are analyzed. The technical specifications are determined in order to meet the functional requirements.

  7. SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)


    about EarthKAM is available at .The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was carried onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, which launched on February 11,2000. It uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.Size: 35 by 35 kilometers (22 by 22 miles) Location: 21.4 degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet), EarthKAM Electronic Still Camera, 40 meters (132 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; EarthKAM, February 12, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA



    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro


    Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flown with Space Shuttle Endeavour, which was launched on 11 February 2000 , aimed to obtain the Earth digital elevation data (DEM). These data were acquired using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in C (5.6cm – 5.3GHz) and X (3.1cm – 9.6GHz) bands. This paper presents a comparative analysis of elevation data from SRTM and Topographic map (1:50.000) with Differential - GPS field data. The study was conducted in Planalto das Araucárias ar...

  9. Development of C-band Accelerating Section for SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Kamitani, T; Ikeda, M; Kakihara, K; Ohsawa, S; Oogoe, T; Sugimura, T; Takatomi, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yokoyama, K


    For the luminosity upgrade of the present KEK B-factory to SuperKEKB, the injector linac has to increase the positron acceleration energy from 3.5 to 8.0 GeV. In order to double the acceleration field gradient from 21 to 42 MV/m, design studies on C-band accelerator module has started in 2002. First prototype 1-m long accelerating section has been fabricated based upon a design which is half scale of the present S-band section. High power test of the C-band section has been performed at a test stand and later at an accelerator module in the KEKB injector linac. In a beam acceleration test, a field gradient of 41 MV/m is achieved with 43 MW RF power from a klystron. This paper report on the recent status of the high-power test and also the development of a second prototype section.

  10. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  11. CPM Signals for Satellite Navigation in the S and C Bands. (United States)

    Xue, Rui; Sun, Yanbo; Zhao, Danfeng


    Frequency allocations in the L band suitable for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) services are getting crowded and system providers face an ever tougher job when they try to bring in new signals and services while maintaining radio frequency compatibility. With the successive opening of the S and C bands to GNSS service, the multi-band combined navigation is predicted to become a key technology for future high-precision positioning navigation systems, and a single modulation scheme satisfying the requirements in each band is a promising solution for reducing user terminal complexity. A universal modulation scheme based on the continuous phase modulation (CPM) family suitable for the above bands' demands is proposed. Moreover, this paper has put forward two specific CPM signals for the S and C bands, respectively. Then the proposed modulation schemes, together with existing candidates, are comprehensively evaluated. Simulation results show that the proposed CPM signals can not only satisfy the constraint condition of compatibility in different bands well and reduce user terminal complexity, but also provide superior performance in terms of tracking accuracy, multi-path mitigation and anti-jamming compared to other candidate modulation schemes.

  12. Empirical wind retrieval model based on SAR spectrum measurements (United States)

    Panfilova, Maria; Karaev, Vladimir; Balandina, Galina; Kanevsky, Mikhail; Portabella, Marcos; Stoffelen, Ad

    The present paper considers polarimetric SAR wind vector applications. Remote-sensing measurements of the near-surface wind over the ocean are of great importance for the understanding of atmosphere-ocean interaction. In recent years investigations for wind vector retrieval using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been performed. In contrast with scatterometers, a SAR has a finer spatial resolution that makes it a more suitable microwave instrument to explore wind conditions in the marginal ice zones, coastal regions and lakes. The wind speed retrieval procedure from scatterometer data matches the measured radar backscattering signal with the geophysical model function (GMF). The GMF determines the radar cross section dependence on the wind speed and direction with respect to the azimuthal angle of the radar beam. Scatterometers provide information on wind speed and direction simultaneously due to the fact that each wind vector cell (WVC) is observed at several azimuth angles. However, SAR is not designed to be used as a high resolution scatterometer. In this case, each WVC is observed at only one single azimuth angle. That is why for wind vector determination additional information such as wind streak orientation over the sea surface is required. It is shown that the wind vector can be obtained using polarimetric SAR without additional information. The main idea is to analyze the spectrum of a homogeneous SAR image area instead of the backscattering normalized radar cross section. Preliminary numerical simulations revealed that SAR image spectral maxima positions depend on the wind vector. Thus the following method for wind speed retrieval is proposed. In the first stage of the algorithm, the SAR spectrum maxima are determined. This procedure is carried out to estimate the wind speed and direction with ambiguities separated by 180 degrees due to the SAR spectrum symmetry. The second stage of the algorithm allows us to select the correct wind direction

  13. Oil Slick Observation at Low Incidence Angles in Ku-Band (United States)

    Panfilova, M. A.; Karaev, V. Y.; Guo, Jie


    On the 20 April 2010 the oil platform Deep Water Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico suffered an explosion during the final phases of drilling an exploratory well. As a result, an oil film covered the sea surface area of several thousand square kilometers. In the present paper the data of the Ku-band Precipitation Radar, which operates at low incidence angles, were used to explore the oil spill event. The two-scale model of the scattering surface was used to describe radar backscatter from the sea surface. The algorithm for retrieval of normalized radar cross section at nadir and the total slope variance of large-scale waves compared to the wavelength of electromagnetic wave (22 mm) was developed for the Precipitation Radar swath. It is shown that measurements at low incidence angles can be used for oil spill detection. This is the first time that the dependence of mean square slope of large-scale waves on wind speed has been obtained for oil slicks from Ku-band data, and compared to mean square slope obtained by Cox and Munk from optical data.

  14. Kronig-Penney-like description for band gap variation in SiC polytypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, W.H.; Nooij, de F.C.; Bobbert, P.A.; van Haeringen, W.


    A one-dimensional Kronig-Penney-like model for envelope wave functions is presented to explain the band gap variation of SiC polytypes. In this model the envelope functions obey discontinuous boundary conditions. The electronic band gaps of cubic and several hexagonal and rhombohedral SiC polytypes

  15. Investigation of Weather Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Methodologies in Complex Orography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montopoli


    vertical extrapolations. In this work, a definition of complex orography is also given, introducing a radar orography index to objectively quantify the degree of terrain complexity when dealing with radar QPE in heterogeneous environmental scenarios. Three case studies observed by the research C-band polarization agility Doppler radar named Polar 55C, managed by the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR, were used to prove the concept of VPR. Our results indicate that the combined algorithm, which merges together differential phase shift (Kdp, single polarization reflectivity factor (Zhh, and differential reflectivity (Zdr, once accurately processed, in most cases performs better among those tested and those that make use of Zhh alone, Kdp alone, and Zhh, and Zdr. Improvements greater than 25% are found for the total rain accumulations in terms of normalized bias when the VPR extrapolation is applied.

  16. Application of Volumetric Weather Radar Data and the Distributed Rainfall Runoff Model REW in the Ourthe Catchment (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Torfs, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.; Delobbe, L.


    In the southern Ardennes region of Belgium near the border with Luxembourg, the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) installed a C-band Doppler weather radar at an elevation of 600 m in the year 2001. This volumetric weather radar scans over multiple elevations at a temporal resolution of 5 minutes. The current study explores the possibility of using the volumetric information of the precipitation field to correct for the effects of the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity (VPR) over the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003. During this winter half year storm events are mainly stratiform, giving rise to bright band effects which can decrease the performance of the radar. Previous studies have shown multiple drawbacks in applying a single estimated VPR profile to correct such reflectivity data. Therefore, the focus here is on the temporal variability of the VPR as measured by the radar and its variability over different spatial scales. This information is applied to generate a number of possible rainfall fields. These realizations are employed to try to quantify some of the discrepancies in precipitation intensities as estimated by the weather radar and those measured by a raingauge network. The final step then is to assess their potential within a distributed rainfall runoff model. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Over this medium sized watershed ten raingauges measuring at an hourly interval are more or less equally distributed. Near the outlet discharge data are collected at the same time step. The distributed hydrological Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) model is applied to model the hydrological behavior of the Ourthe over the six month period. The benefits of the high spatial and temporal resolution of weather radar data compared to a conventional raingauge network plus the possibility of generating multiple realizations of the precipitation field are expected to yield more information about the hydrological

  17. Characterization of VHF radar observations associated with equatorial Spread F by narrow-band optical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sekar


    Full Text Available The VHF radars have been extensively used to investigate the structures and dynamics of equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. However, unambiguous identification of the nature of the structures in terms of plasma depletion or enhancement requires another technique, as the return echo measured by VHF radar is proportional to the square of the electron density fluctuations. In order to address this issue, co-ordinated radar backscatter and thermospheric airglow intensity measurements were carried out during March 2003 from the MST radar site at Gadanki. Temporal variations of 630.0-nm and 777.4-nm emission intensities reveal small-scale ("micro" and large-scale ("macro" variations during the period of observation. The micro variations are absent on non-ESF nights while the macro variations are present on both ESF and non-ESF nights. In addition to the well-known anti-correlation between the base height of the F-region and the nocturnal variation of thermospheric airglow intensities, the variation of the base height of the F-layer, on occasion, is found to manifest as a bottomside wave-like structure, as seen by VHF radar on an ESF night. The micro variations in the airglow intensities are associated with large-scale irregular plasma structures and found to be in correspondence with the "plume" structures obtained by VHF radar. In addition to the commonly observed depletions with upward movement, the observation unequivocally reveals the presence of plasma enhancements which move downwards. The observation of enhancement in 777.4-nm airglow intensity, which is characterized as plasma enhancement, provides an experimental verification of the earlier prediction based on numerical modeling studies.

  18. Application of the Tikhonov regularization method to wind retrieval from scatterometer data I. Sensitivity analysis and simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Huang Si-Xun; Du Hua-Dong; Zhang Liang


    Scatterometer is an instrument which provides all-day and large-scale wind field information, and its application especially to wind retrieval always attracts meteorologists. Certain reasons cause large direction error, so it is important to find where the error mainly comes. Does it mainly result from the background field, the normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) or the method of wind retrieval? It is valuable to research. First, depending on SDP2.0, the simulated ‘true’ NRCS is calculated from the simulated ‘true’ wind through the geophysical model function NSCAT2. The simulated background field is configured by adding a noise to the simulated ‘true’ wind with the non-divergence constraint. Also, the simulated ‘measured’ NRCS is formed by adding a noise to the simulated ‘true’ NRCS. Then, the sensitivity experiments are taken, and the new method of regularization is used to improve the ambiguity removal with simulation experiments. The results show that the accuracy of wind retrieval is more sensitive to the noise in the background than in the measured NRCS; compared with the two-dimensional variational (2DVAR) ambiguity removal method, the accuracy of wind retrieval can be improved with the new method of Tikhonov regularization through choosing an appropriate regularization parameter, especially for the case of large error in the background. The work will provide important information and a new method for the wind retrieval with real data. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. The development for C-band whole sealed vacuum accelerating tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenzhen; Zhang Xiangyang; Ding Shulin; Hu Jinquan; Yang Zhenyuan


    S-Band standing wave electron linacs have got wide-ranging application for industry nondestructive testing and formed varied kinds of products. X-band electron linac for NDT has been developed by Schonberg Company USA in 1985. Because of bigger structure of S-band linac and difficult machining of X-Band linac, an C-band portable linac for NDT has been developed in CIAE at present, a whole sealed vacuum accelerating tuber will be given here. It consists of 4 cavities, the phase velocity of the first two cavities is 0.5 and 0.9, respectively, and that of the second two cavities is 1. The high power testing proved that the design of the accelerating tuber is good for 1.5 MeV electron linac for NDT

  20. Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Clausen, Anders


    A novel method is presented for implementing an L-band erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) making use of forward amplified spontaneous emission pumping, from a commercially available c-band EDFA, in an erbium doped fibre. Tuning of the length of erbium doped fibre enables a flat gain characteristic...... to be obtained with a low noise figure over the entire L-band window....

  1. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.


    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  2. Monitoring flooding and vegetation on seasonally inundated floodplains with multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Hess, Laura Lorraine

    The ability of synthetic aperture radar to detect flooding and vegetation structure was evaluated for three seasonally inundated floodplain sites supporting a broad variety of wetland and upland vegetation types: two reaches of the Solimoes floodplain in the central Amazon, and the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Territory, Australia. For each site, C- and L-band polarimetric Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data was obtained at both high- and low-water stages. Inundation status and vegetation structure were documented simultaneous with the SIR-C acquisitions using low-altitude videography and ground measurements. SIR-C images were classified into cover states defined by vegetation physiognomy and presence of standing water, using a decision-tree model with backscattering coefficients at HH, VV, and HV polarizations as input variables. Classification accuracy was assessed using user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient for a test population of pixels. At all sites, both C- and L-band were necessary to accurately classify cover types with two dates. HH polarization was most. useful for distinguishing flooded from non-flooded vegetation (C-HH for macrophyte versus pasture, L-HH for flooded versus non-flooded forest), and cross-polarized L-band data provided the best separation between woody and non-woody vegetation. Increases in L-HH backscattering due to flooding were on the order of 3--4 dB for closed-canopy varzea and igapo forest, and 4--7 dB, for open Melaleuca woodland. The broad range of physiognomies and stand structures found in both herbaceous and woody wetland communities, combined with the variation in the amount of emergent canopy caused by water level fluctuations and phenologic changes, resulted in a large range in backscattering characteristics of wetland communities both within and between sites. High accuracies cannot be achieved for these communities using single-date, single-band, single-polarization data, particularly in the

  3. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique (United States)

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.


    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Baldina


    Full Text Available The new European space satellites Sentinel-1A and 1B with C-band radars on board, launched in 2014 and 2016 respectively, provide regular radar data on the Earth’s surface with high temporal resolution. These new non-commercial data provides extensive opportunities for research of remote Arctic territories, poorly supplied with optical images due to cloud conditions. Difficulties in recognizing objects on radar images can be compensated for by the possibility of using multiple repeated surveys, which make it possible to identify areas of the terrain which are similar in character of changes. In the study, four Sentinel-1A images of the largest from the New Siberian islands – Kotelny – were used, which were acquired during the summer period from July 3 to August 20, 2015. After preprocessing aimed at improving the visual properties and coregistration of the multitemporal images, an automated clustering of the multitemporal image set was carried out. Clustering results were analyzed on comparison with additional sources of spatial information. Both specialized software for Sentinel-1 radar data processing - SNAP, and the GIS software complex ArcGIS were used. The latter provided the creation of the spatial data base for comparing the results of radar data processing and cartographic sources. The map of the territory zoning was obtained as clustering results which is based on the changes in the normalized radar cross section (sigma nought over the summer period, and the approximate correspondence of the areas to the main types of the relief and landscapes of the island was established.

  5. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  6. Chinese HJ-1C SAR And Its Wind Mapping Capability (United States)

    Huang, Weigen; Chen, Fengfeng; Yang, Jingsong; Fu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Chan


    Chinese Huan Jing (HJ)-1C synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite has been planed to be launched in 2010. HJ-1C satellite will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit of 500-km altitude. SAR will be the only sensor on board the satellite. It operates in S band with VV polarization. Its image mode has the incidence angles 25°and 47°at the near and far sides of the swath respectively. There are two selectable SAR modes of operation, which are fine resolution beams and standard beams respectively. The sea surface wind mapping capability of the SAR has been examined using M4S radar imaging model developed by Romeiser. The model is based on Bragg scattering theory in a composite surface model expansion. It accounts for contributions of the full ocean wave spectrum to the radar backscatter from ocean surface. The model reproduces absolute normalized radar cross section (NRCS) values for wide ranges of wind speeds. The model results of HJ-1C SAR have been compared with the model results of Envisat ASAR. It shows that HJ-1C SAR is as good as Envisat ASAR at sea surface wind mapping.

  7. Analysis of Resonance Response Performance of C-Band Antenna Using Parasitic Element (United States)

    Islam, M. T.; Misran, N.; Mandeep, J. S.


    Analysis of the resonance response improvement of a planar C-band (4–8 GHz) antenna is proposed using parasitic element method. This parasitic element based method is validated for change in the active and parasitic antenna elements. A novel dual-band antenna for C-band application covering 5.7 GHz and 7.6 GHz is designed and fabricated. The antenna is composed of circular parasitic element with unequal microstrip lines at both sides and a rectangular partial ground plane. A fractional bandwidth of 13.5% has been achieved from 5.5 GHz to 6.3 GHz (WLAN band) for the lower band. The upper band covers from 7.1 GHz to 8 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 12%. A gain of 6.4 dBi is achieved at the lower frequency and 4 dBi is achieved at the upper frequency. The VSWR of the antenna is less than 2 at the resonance frequency. PMID:24895643

  8. Design and characteristics of L-C thin films filter at microwave frequency band (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Min, Bok-Ki; Song, Jae-Sung


    Multifunction corresponding to multimedia age has furthermore required high integration to the devices at microwave band, so more evolution for multi-layer integration like system on chip(SoC) becomes to be necessary. In wireless mobile communication, portable mobile phones grew up to a huge market. Microwave devices have played an important role in the wireless communication systems. One challenge in the implementation of circuit integration is in the design of micro wave band pass filter with thin film MOM capacitor and spiral inductor. In this paper, Cu and TaO thin film with RF sputtering was deposited for inductor and capacitor on the SiO II/Si(100) substrate. MIM capacitor and spiral inductor was fabricated for L-C band pass filter by sputtering and lift-off. We are analyzed and designed thin films L-C passive components for band pass filter at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, an important devices for mobile communication. Based on the high-Q values of passive components, MIM capacitor and spiral inductors for L-C band pass filter, a low insertion loss of L-C passive components can be realized with a minimized chip area. The insertion loss was 3 dB for a 1.8 GHz filter, and was 5 dB for a 900 MHz filter. This paper also discusses a theoretical analysis and practical design to L-C band pass filter.

  9. Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass in Miombo Savanna Woodlands (Mozambique, East Africa Using L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available The quantification of forest above-ground biomass (AGB is important for such broader applications as decision making, forest management, carbon (C stock change assessment and scientific applications, such as C cycle modeling. However, there is a great uncertainty related to the estimation of forest AGB, especially in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to test a combination of field data and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR backscatter intensity data to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of forest AGB in the Miombo savanna woodlands of Mozambique (East Africa. A machine learning algorithm, based on bagging stochastic gradient boosting (BagSGB, was used to model forest AGB as a function of ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD backscatter intensity metrics. The application of this method resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R between observed and predicted (10-fold cross-validation forest AGB values of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 5.03 Mg·ha−1. However, as a consequence of using bootstrap samples in combination with a cross validation procedure, some bias may have been introduced, and the reported cross validation statistics could be overoptimistic. Therefore and as a consequence of the BagSGB model, a measure of prediction variability (coefficient of variation on a pixel-by-pixel basis was also produced, with values ranging from 10 to 119% (mean = 25% across the study area. It provides additional and complementary information regarding the spatial distribution of the error resulting from the application of the fitted model to new observations.

  10. Development of an ultra wide band microwave radar based footwear scanning system (United States)

    Rezgui, Nacer Ddine; Bowring, Nicholas J.; Andrews, David A.; Harmer, Stuart W.; Southgate, Matthew J.; O'Reilly, Dean


    At airports, security screening can cause long delays. In order to speed up screening a solution to avoid passengers removing their shoes to have them X-ray scanned is required. To detect threats or contraband items hidden within the shoe, a method of screening using frequency swept signals between 15 to 40 GHz has been developed, where the scan is carried out whilst the shoes are being worn. Most footwear is transparent to microwaves to some extent in this band. The scans, data processing and interpretation of the 2D image of the cross section of the shoe are completed in a few seconds. Using safe low power UWB radar, scattered signals from the shoe can be observed which are caused by changes in material properties such as cavities, dielectric or metal objects concealed within the shoe. By moving the transmission horn along the length of the shoe a 2D image corresponding to a cross section through the footwear is built up, which can be interpreted by the user, or automatically, to reveal the presence of concealed threat within the shoe. A prototype system with a resolution of 6 mm or less has been developed and results obtained for a wide range of commonly worn footwear, some modified by the inclusion of concealed material. Clear differences between the measured images of modified and unmodified shoes are seen. Procedures for enhancing the image through electronic image synthesis techniques and image processing methods are discussed and preliminary performance data presented.

  11. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.


    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  12. Low-resolution Airborne Radar Air/ground Moving Target Classification and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-you


    Full Text Available Radar Target Recognition (RTR is one of the most important needs of modern and future airborne surveillance radars, and it is still one of the key technologies of radar. The majority of present algorithms are based on wide-band radar signal, which not only needs high performance radar system and high target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, but also is sensitive to angle between radar and target. Low-Resolution Airborne Surveillance Radar (LRASR in downward-looking mode, slow flying aircraft and ground moving truck have similar Doppler velocity and Radar Cross Section (RCS, leading to the problem that LRASR air/ground moving targets can not be distinguished, which also disturbs detection, tracking, and classification of low altitude slow flying aircraft to solve these issues, an algorithm based on narrowband fractal feature and phase modulation feature is presented for LRASR air/ground moving targets classification. Real measured data is applied to verify the algorithm, the classification results validate the proposed method, helicopters and truck can be well classified, the average discrimination rate is more than 89% when SNR ≥ 15 dB.

  13. Identification of sensitive parameters of a tropical forest in Southern Mexico to improve the understanding of C-band radar images (United States)

    Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos, J.; Zempoaltecatl-Ramirez, E.


    Forest areas cover the 32% of the Mexican territory. Due to their geographical location, Mexico presents heterogeneous climatic and topographic conditions. The country is divided into two different regions: an arid /semiarid zone (North) and a tropical/temperate zone (South). Due to the effects of climate change, Mexico has been affected in two ways. In the North, there has been a desertification of regions as result of the absence of rainfall and a low rate of soil moisture. On the other hand, in the South, there has been an increase in the intensity of rainfall causing serious flooding. Another effect is the excessive deforestation in Southern Mexico. The FAO has determined that Mexico could present one of the highest losses of forest areas mainly in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. The Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul is the protected area with the largest surface of tropical forest in Mexico. The Biosphere Reserve of Calakmul is located in the state of Campeche that the flora and fauna are being affected. The type of vegetation located in the reserve of Calakmul Biosphere is rainforest with high spatial density and highly heterogeneous due to multiple plant species and the impact of human activities in the area. The satellite remote sensing techniques becomes a very useful tool to monitor the area because a large area can be covered. To understand the radar images, the identification of sensitive parameters governing the radar signal is necessary. With the launch of the satellites Radarsat-2, ASAR-Envisat and ALOSPalSAR, significant progress has been done in the interpretation of satellite radar images. Directly applying physical models becomes a problem due to the large number of input parameters in the models, together with the difficulty in measuring these parameters in the field. The models developed so far have been applied and validated for homogeneous forests with low or average spatial density of trees. This is why it is recommended in a comprehensive

  14. Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea, French Polynesia, Landsat and SIR-C Images Compared to SRTM Shaded (United States)


    actually measure topographic height. They therefore have not fully characterized the three-dimensional shape of landforms. The shape and height of Earth's landforms affects nearly every natural process and human activity that occurs at Earth's surface, including vegetative growth, water supply, transportation, and radio communication. Thus, the new information provided by SRTM is highly valuable in understanding and interacting with our environment. The Landsat image is an enhanced display of natural visible color (Landsat bands 1,2,3 in blue, green, red). As is evident from the cloud shadows, the morning sun shines from the northeast (upper right). The SIR-C image displays the L-band radar data (23.5 centimeter wavelength, vertical transmit and receive) in red, C-band radar data (5.8 centimeter wavelength, vertical transmit and receive) in green, and a difference of the two (L minus C) in blue. Cosmetic color adjustments were used to enhance the green and blue display of land and water. The 'side-looking' transmitted radar illumination was from the northeast as the Space Shuttle Endeavour passed from northwest to southeast on a descending orbit. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the SRTM image: color coding of topographic height plus shading of the topographic model. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Shading was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark, generally consistent with the Landsat and SIR-C illumination directions. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  15. Gesture recognition for smart home applications using portable radar sensors. (United States)

    Wan, Qian; Li, Yiran; Li, Changzhi; Pal, Ranadip


    In this article, we consider the design of a human gesture recognition system based on pattern recognition of signatures from a portable smart radar sensor. Powered by AAA batteries, the smart radar sensor operates in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. We analyzed the feature space using principle components and application-specific time and frequency domain features extracted from radar signals for two different sets of gestures. We illustrate that a nearest neighbor based classifier can achieve greater than 95% accuracy for multi class classification using 10 fold cross validation when features are extracted based on magnitude differences and Doppler shifts as compared to features extracted through orthogonal transformations. The reported results illustrate the potential of intelligent radars integrated with a pattern recognition system for high accuracy smart home and health monitoring purposes.

  16. LBA-ECO LC-15 JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics of L-band...

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry


    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.


    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  19. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen


    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  20. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar-Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik


    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses...... cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model....

  1. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew


    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  2. A Twin Spiral Planar Antenna for UWB Medical Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe A. Zito


    Full Text Available A planar-spiral antenna to be used in an ultrawideband (UWB radar system for heart activity monitoring is presented. The antenna, named “twin,” is constituted by two spiral dipoles in a compact structure. The reflection coefficient at the feed point of the dipoles is lower than −8 dB over the 3–12 GHz band, while the two-dipoles coupling is about −20 dB. The radiated beam is perpendicular to the plane of the spiral, so the antenna is wearable and it may be an optimal radiator for a medical UWB radar for heart rate detection. The designed antenna has been also used to check some hypotheses about the UWB radar heart activity detection mechanism. The radiation impedance variation, caused by the thorax vibrations associated with heart activity, seems to be the most likely explanation of the UWB radar operation.

  3. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K


    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  4. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  5. NASA 3D Models: QuikSCAT (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) is equipped with a specialized microwave radar that measures near-surface wind speed and direction under all weather and cloud...

  6. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation (United States)


    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada by the McMaster University Intelligent PIXel (IPIX) X-band Polarimetric Coherent Radar during the OHGR - Dartmouth...following coefficients [ q2, 4p22q, 12p12q, 12p11q, 12|P | ] (26) for A4 and [ q2, 4p22q, 4q(3 p12 + r22), 12(p11q + p22r22 − qr12), 12(|P |+ 2r22p12

  7. UAV-Borne Profiling Radar for Forest Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Chen


    Full Text Available Microwave Radar is an attractive solution for forest mapping and inventories because microwave signals penetrates into the forest canopy and the backscattering signal can provide information regarding the whole forest structure. Satellite-borne and airborne imaging radars have been used in forest resources mapping for many decades. However, their accuracy with respect to the main forest inventory attributes substantially varies depending on the wavelength and techniques used in the estimation. Systems providing canopy backscatter as a function of canopy height are, practically speaking, missing. Therefore, there is a need for a radar system that would enable the scientific community to better understand the radar backscatter response from the forest canopy. Consequently, we undertook a research study to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-borne profiling (i.e., waveform radar that could be used to improve the understanding of the radar backscatter response for forestry mapping and inventories. A frequency modulation continuous waveform (FMCW profiling radar, termed FGI-Tomoradar, was introduced, designed and tested. One goal is the total weight of the whole system is less than 7 kg, including the radar system and georeferencing system, with centimetre-level positioning accuracy. Achieving this weight goal would enable the FGI-Tomoradar system to be installed on the Mini-UAV platform. The prototype system had all four linear polarization measuring capabilities, with bistatic configuration in Ku-band. In system performance tests in this study, FGI-Tomoradar was mounted on a manned helicopter together with a Riegl VQ-480-U laser scanner and tested in several flight campaigns performed at the Evo site, Finland. Airborne laser scanning data was simultaneously collected to investigate the differences and similarities of the outputs for the same target area for better understanding the penetration of the microwave signal into the forest canopy

  8. Uncertainties in the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Heights: Insights from the Indian Himalaya and Peninsula. (United States)

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay


    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) are used with the consensus view that it has a minimum vertical accuracy of 16 m absolute error at 90% confidence (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 9.73 m) world-wide. However, vertical accuracy of the data decreases with increase in slope and elevation due to presence of large outliers and voids. Therefore, studies using SRTM data "as is", especially in regions like the Himalaya, are not statistically meaningful. New data from ~200 high-precision static Global Position System (GPS) Independent Check Points (ICPs) in the Himalaya and Peninsular India indicate that only 1-arc X-Band data are usable "as is" in the Himalaya as it has height accuracy of 9.18 m (RMSE). In contrast, recently released (2014-2015) "as-is" 1-arc and widely used 3-arc C-Band data have a height accuracy of RMSE 23.53 m and 47.24 m and need to be corrected before use. Outlier and void filtering improves the height accuracy to RMSE 8 m, 10.14 m, 14.38 m for 1-arc X and C-Band and 3-arc C-Band data respectively. Our study indicates that the C-Band 90 m and 30 m DEMs are well-aligned and without any significant horizontal offset implying that area and length computations using both the datasets have identical values.

  9. Karyotype and C-banding analyses of haploid male chromosomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the swarming season, drone-brood cells were added adjoining to the lower rows of the worker-brood cells. Testes from young larvae were removed, fixed in acetic acid methanol (1:3), and stored at -20°C. The slides pretreatment were made by usual air dry method. C-banding and staining was carried out by barium ...

  10. Kinematics of deformation bands in an austenitic FeMnC TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, J P; Jacques, A; Lebedkina, T A; Lebyodkin, M A; Allain, S


    Tensile tests on a Fe22Mn0.6C steel at room temperature and different strain rates show serrations on the curves similar to Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) serrations of type A, associated with negative strain rate sensitivity. Propagation of deformation bands have been observed by high-rate extensometry over more than two orders of magnitude of the applied strain rate. This constitutes a remarkable difference with the PLC effect which shows a transition to static bands (type B or C) when the applied strain rate decreases. In this steel, bands moving as slow as a few tenth of mm/s are observed instead of static bands, which is two orders of magnitude lower than what is reported for type A PLC bands. This emphasises a strong correlation between plastic events, also confirmed by multifractal analysis of the tensile curves. Twinning which is responsible of the high strain hardening rate of this steel at room temperature is discussed as one of mechanisms of correlation between instabilities.

  11. Low noise InP-based MMIC receivers for W-band (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.


    A program to develop a monolithic W-band low noise amplifier (a critical element in any W-band communications, sensors, or radar application) is described. Goals of the program include a completely monolithic low noise amplifier, less than a 3.5 dB noise figure, and a monolithic mixer suitable for integration with the LNA.

  12. Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Dietmar


    The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.

  13. Strain-engineered band parameters of graphene-like SiC monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam


    Using full-potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations we show that the band gap and effective masses of charge carriers in SiC monolayer (ML-SiC) in graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure are tunable by strain engineering. ML-SiC was found to preserve its flat 2D graphene-like structure under compressive strain up to 7%. A transition from indirect-to-direct gap-phase is predicted to occur for a strain value lying within the interval (1.11 %, 1.76%). In both gap-phases band gap decreases with increasing strain, although the rate of decrease is different in the two gap-phases. Effective mass of electrons show a non-linearly decreasing trend with increasing tensile strain in the direct gap-phase. The strain-sensitive properties of ML-SiC, may find applications in future strain-sensors, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) and other nano-devices

  14. Addition of a Digital Receiver to the X-BADGER Radar System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past year, the X-Band Atmospheric Doppler Ground-based Radar (X-BADGER) transmitter has undergone a major upgrade from a high voltage traveling-wave tube to...

  15. Development of small C-band standing-wave accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, S.; Takahashi, A.; Hisanaga, N.; Sekido, H.; Yoshizumi, A.


    We have newly developed a compact C-band (5712 MHz) standing-wave accelerator for the medical product/waste sterilization applications. The accelerator consists of an electron gun operating at 25 kV DC followed by a single-cell pre-buncher and 3-cell buncher section, and 11-cell of the side-coupled standing-wave accelerating structure. The total length including the electron gun is about 600 mm. The first high-power test was performed in March 2000, where the accelerator successively generated the electron beam of 9 MeV energy and 160 mA peak-current at 3.8 MW RF input power. Mitsubishi Heavy Industry starts to serve the sterilization systems using C-band accelerator reported here, and also supplies the accelerator components for the medical oncology applications. (author)

  16. Maximum Available Accuracy of FM-CW Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny


    Full Text Available This article deals with the principles and above all with the maximum available measuring accuracy analyse of FM-CW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radars, which are usually employed for distance and velocity measurements of moving objects in road traffic, as well as air traffic and in other applications. These radars often form an important part of the active safety equipment of high-end cars – the so-called anticollision systems. They usually work in the frequency bands of mm waves (24, 35, 77 GHz. Function principles and analyses of factors, that dominantly influence the distance measurement accuracy of these equipments especially in the modulation and demodulation part, are shown in the paper.

  17. Numerical analysis on the absorption, reflection and transmission of radar waves by a uniform magnetized plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Deli; Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming


    The absorption, reflection, and transmission of radar waves by a uniform and magnetized plasma slab are studied. The effect of various plasma parameters and different values of magnetic field intensity on the absorbed, reflected and transmitted power are discussed. The calculated results show that the effects of magnetic field on the absorbed power as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant. More than 90% of radar wave power can be absorbed and the resonant absorption band is about 2G Hz

  18. CURIE: a new clear air doppler radar dedicated to the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer (20 m- 750m)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sakka, H; Weill, A; Gac, C Le; Ney, R; Dupont, E


    A new X-band miniradar, the CURIE radar (Canopy Urban Research on Interactions and Exchanges), mainly adapted to low Atmospheric Boundary Layer sounding has been developed at CETP. After a brief description of the opportunity and working conditions in a turbulent atmosphere, main characteristics are presented. Though this radar works in presence of precipitation as all X-band radar can do, this paper is more dedicated to clear air used in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. We are presented comparisons with UHF observations and boundary layer information which can be inferred from CURIE as entrainment across the inversion layer

  19. Feasibility Study on Passive-radar Detection of Space Targets Using Spaceborne Illuminators of Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tie-zhen


    Full Text Available Space target surveillance generally uses active radars. To take full advantage of passive radars, the idea of using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity for space target detection is presented in this paper. Analysis of the detectable time and direct wave suppression shows that passive radar using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity can effectively detect a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO target. Meanwhile, Ku and L band bi-static radar cross section of passive radars that use spaceborne illuminators of opportunity are presented by simulation, providing the basis of choosing space target forward scatter. Finally the key parameters, mainly system gain, accumulation time and radiation source selection are studied. Results show that system size using satellite TV signals as illuminators of opportunity is relatively small. These encouraging results should stimulate the development of passive radar detection of space targets using spaceborne illuminators of opportunity.

  20. 77 FR 3323 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment... to cancel Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's intent to cancel TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter...

  1. Monsoon Convective During the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment: Observations from Ground-Based Radar and the TRMM Satellite (United States)

    Cifelli, Rob; Rickenbach, Tom; Halverson, Jeff; Keenan, Tom; Kucera, Paul; Atkinson, Lester; Fisher, Brad; Gerlach, John; Harris, Kathy; Kaufman, Cristina


    A main goal of the recent South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study convective processes associated with the onset of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon. The NASA TOGA C-band scanning radar was deployed on the Chinese research vessel Shi Yan #3 for two 20 day cruises, collecting dual-Doppler measurements in conjunction with the BMRC C-Pol dual-polarimetric radar on Dongsha Island. Soundings and surface meteorological data were also collected with an NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS). This experiment was the first major tropical field campaign following the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. These observations of tropical oceanic convection provided an opportunity to make comparisons between surface radar measurements and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite in an oceanic environment. Nearly continuous radar operations were conducted during two Intensive Observing Periods (IOPS) straddling the onset of the monsoon (5-25 May 1998 and 5-25 June 1998). Mesoscale lines of convection with widespread regions of both trailing and forward stratiform precipitation were observed following the onset of the active monsoon in the northern South China Sea region. The vertical structure of the convection during periods of strong westerly flow and relatively moist environmental conditions in the lower to mid-troposphere contrasted sharply with convection observed during periods of low level easterlies, weak shear, and relatively dry conditions in the mid to upper troposphere. Several examples of mesoscale convection will be shown from the ground (ship)-based and spaceborne radar data during times of TRMM satellite overpasses. Examples of pre-monsoon convection, characterized by isolated cumulonimbus and shallow, precipitating congestus clouds, will also be discussed.

  2. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi


    Full Text Available The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave. Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow state (wet/dry and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR. Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH and differential reflectivity (ZDR in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal


    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model is ...

  4. Combined wind profiler-weather radar observations of orographic rainband around Kyushu, Japan in the Baiu season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Umemoto


    Full Text Available A special observation campaign (X-BAIU, using various instruments (wind profilers, C-band weather radars, X-band Doppler radars, rawinsondes, etc., was carried out in Kyushu (western Japan during the Baiu season, from 1998 to 2002. In the X-BAIU-99 and -02 observations, a line-shaped orographic rainband extending northeastward from the Koshikijima Islands appeared in the low-level strong wind with warm-moist airs. The weather radar observation indicated that the rainband was maintained for 11h. The maximum length and width of the rainband observed in 1999 was ~200km and ~20km, respectively. The rainband observed in 2002 was not so developed compared with the case in 1999. The Froude number averaged from sea level to the top of the Koshikijima Islands (~600m was large (>1, and the lifting condensation level was below the tops of the Koshikijima Islands. Thus, it is suggested that the clouds organizing the rainband are formed by the triggering of the mountains on the airflow passing over them. The vertical profile of horizontal wind in/around the rainband was investigated in the wind profiler observations. In the downdraft region 60km from the Koshikijima Islands, strong wind and its clockwise rotation with increasing height was observed below 3km altitude. In addition, a strong wind component perpendicular to the rainband was observed when the rainband was well developed. These wind behaviors were related to the evolution of the rainband.

  5. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco


    Identification of rainfall thresholds for the prediction of debris-flow occurrence is a common approach for warning procedures. Traditionally the debris-flow triggering rainfall is derived from the closest available raingauge. However, the spatial and temporal variability of intense rainfall on mountainous areas, where debris flows take place, may lead to large uncertainty in point-based estimates. Nikolopoulos et al. (2014) have shown that this uncertainty translates into a systematic underestimation of the rainfall thresholds, leading to a step degradation of the performances of the rainfall threshold for identification of debris flows occurrence under operational conditions. A potential solution to this limitation lies on use of rainfall estimates from weather radar. Thanks to their high spatial and temporal resolutions, these estimates offer the advantage of providing rainfall information over the actual debris flow location. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of radar precipitation estimations for the identification of debris flow precipitation thresholds. Seven rainfall events that triggered debris flows in the Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) are analyzed using data from a dense raingauge network and a C-Band weather radar. Radar data are elaborated by using a set of correction algorithms specifically developed for weather radar rainfall application in mountainous areas. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of debris flows are identified in the form of average intensity-duration power law curves using a frequentist approach by using both radar rainfall estimates and raingauge data. Sampling uncertainty associated to the derivation of the thresholds is assessed by using a bootstrap technique (Peruccacci et al. 2012). Results show that radar-based rainfall thresholds are largely exceeding those obtained by using raingauge data. Moreover, the differences between the two thresholds may be related to the spatial characteristics (i.e., spatial

  6. Reconciling Electrical Properties of Titan's Surface Derived from Cassini RADAR Scatterometer and Radiometer Measurements (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Janssen, M.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team


    We observe Titan, Saturn's largest moon, using active and passive microwave instruments carried on board the Cassini spacecraft. The 2.2-cm wavelength penetrates the thick atmosphere and provides surface measurements at resolutions from 10-200 km over much of the satellite's surface. The emissivity and reflectivity of surface features are generally anticorrelated, and both values are fairly high. Inversion of either set of data alone yields dielectric constants ranging from 1.5 to 3 or 4, consistent with an icy hydrocarbon or water ice composition. However, the dielectric constants retrieved from radiometric data alone are usually less than those inferred from backscatter measurements, a discrepancy consistent with similar analyses dating back to lunar observations in the 1960's. Here we seek to reconcile Titan's reflectivity and emissivity observations using a single physical model of the surface. Our approach is to calculate the energy scattered by Titan's surface and near subsurface, with the remainder absorbed. In equilibrium the absorption equals the emission, so that both the reflectivity and emissivity are described by the model. We use a form of the Kirchhoff model for modeling surface scatter, and a model based on weak localization of light for the volume scatter. With this model we present dielectric constant and surface roughness parameters that match both sets of Cassini RADAR observations over limited regions on Titan's surface, helping to constrain the composition and roughness of the surface. Most regions display electrical properties consistent with solid surfaces, however some of the darker "lake-like" features at higher latitudes can be modeled as either solid or liquid materials. The ambiguity arises from the limited set of observational angles available.

  7. 77 FR 21834 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment... Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This is a confirmation notice of the cancellation of TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For...

  8. Identification of C5+ extraband of butyrylcholinesterase and two protein bands cathodic to it


    F. D. Suyatna; R. Setiabudy; O. Tjandra; E. Herwana


    Electrophoresis of human plasma yields 4 butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) protein bands, i.e. C1, C2, C3, C4 and in some individuals also an extraband C5+. In addition to that other protein bands called "S" bands are also invariably detected. In order to know whether the C5+ and the "S" bands are related to the BChE protein, we have carried out immunological and peptide mapping studies on these proteins. The immunology approach was done by raising polyclonal antibodies against each protein bands ...

  9. Radar imagery from the 1994 Lock Linnhe ship wake experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Lehman, S.K.; Jones, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    The 1994 Loch Linnhe radar ocean imaging trials were held from September 4 through September 17. Two ships were used: the R.V. Colonel Templer, and the RMAS Collie. Thorn EMI, Inc., fielded a dual band, dual polarization radar on a hillside overlooking the loch. A primary purpose of the experiment was to obtain highly visible images of ship generated internal waves. Presented here is imagery for a few of the good ship runs, as well as a study of the environment of the visibility of ship generated internal waves.

  10. Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.

  11. Analysis of 35 GHz Cloud Radar polarimetric variables to identify stratiform and convective precipitation. (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Illingworth, Anthony, J.; Stein, Thorwald


    This study is performed using vertical profiles of radar measurements at 35GHz, for the period going from 29th of February to 1rst October 2016, at the Chilbolton observatory in United Kingdom. During this period, more than 40 days with precipitation events are investigated. The investigation uses the synergy of radar reflectivity factors, vertical velocity, Doppler spectrum width, and linear depolarization ratio (LDR) to differentiate between stratiform and convective rain events. The depth of the layer with Doppler spectrum width values greater than 0.5 m s-1 is shown to be a suitable proxy to distinguish between convective and stratiform events. Using LDR to detect the radar bright band, bright band characteristics such as depth of the layer and maximum LDR are shown to vary with the amount of turbulence aloft. Profiles of radar measurements are also compared to rain gauge measurements to study the contribution of convective and stratiform rainfall to total rain duration and amount. To conclude, this study points out differences between convective and stratiform rains and quantifies their contributions over a precipitation event, highlighting that convective and stratiform rainfall should be considered as a continuum rather than a dichotomy.

  12. JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics...

  13. GEOS-C altimeter attitude bias error correction. [gate-tracking radar (United States)

    Marini, J. W.


    A pulse-limited split-gate-tracking radar altimeter was flown on Skylab and will be used aboard GEOS-C. If such an altimeter were to employ a hypothetical isotropic antenna, the altimeter output would be independent of spacecraft orientation. To reduce power requirements the gain of the altimeter antenna proposed is increased to the point where its beamwidth is only a few degrees. The gain of the antenna consequently varies somewhat over the pulse-limited illuminated region of the ocean below the altimeter, and the altimeter output varies with antenna orientation. The error introduced into the altimeter data is modeled empirically, but close agreements with the expected errors was not realized. The attitude error effects expected with the GEOS-C altimeter are modelled using a form suggested by an analytical derivation. The treatment is restricted to the case of a relatively smooth sea, where the height of the ocean waves are small relative to the spatial length (pulse duration times speed of light) of the transmitted pulse.

  14. Tropical-forest biomass estimation at X-Band from the spaceborne TanDEM-X interferometer (United States)

    R. Treuhaft; F. Goncalves; J.R. dos Santos; M. Keller; M. Palace; S.N. Madsen; F. Sullivan; P.M.L.A. Graca


    This letter reports the sensitivity of X-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the first dual-spacecraft radar interferometer, TanDEM-X, to variations in tropical-forest aboveground biomass (AGB). It also reports the first tropical-forest AGB estimates fromTanDEM-X data. Tropical forests account for...

  15. Characterizing vertical heterogeneity of permafrost soils in support of ABoVE radar retrievals (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Chen, R. H.; Silva, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Moghaddam, M.


    Permafrost-affected soils, including the top active layer and underlying permafrost, have unique seasonal variations in terms of soil temperature, soil moisture, and freeze/thaw-state profiles. The presence of a perennially frozen and impermeable substrate maintains the required temperature gradient for the descending thawing front, and causes meltwater to accumulate and form the saturated zone in the active layer. Radar backscattering measurements are sensitive to dielectric properties of subsurface soils, which are strongly correlated with unfrozen water content and soil texture/composition. To enable accurate radar retrievals, we need to properly characterize soil profile heterogeneity, which can be modeled with layered soil or depth-dependent functions. To this end, we first cross compare the measured radar backscatter and model-predicted radar backscatter using in-situ dielectric profile measurements as well as mathematical or hydrologic-based profile functions. Since radar signal's backscatter has limited penetration, to fully capture the true heterogeneity profile, we determine the optimal profile function by minimizing the error between predicted and measured radar backscatter signals as well as between in-situ and fitted profiles. The in-situ soil profile data (temperature, dielectric constant, unfrozen water content, organic/mineral soils) are collected from the Soil Moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) sensor networks and from the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign in August 2017 (concurrent with the ABoVE August flights over Alaska North Slope) while the radar data are acquired by NASA's P-band AirMOSS and L-band UAVSAR as part of the ABoVE airborne campaign. The retrieval results using our new heterogeneity model will be compared with the results from retrievals that model soil as a layered medium. This analysis can advance the accuracy of retrieval of active layer properties using low-frequency SAR

  16. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas


    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  17. Detection of motion and posture change using an IR-UWB radar. (United States)

    Van Nguyen; Javaid, Abdul Q; Weitnauer, Mary A


    Impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar has recently emerged as a promising candidate for non-contact monitoring of respiration and heart rate. Different studies have reported various radar based algorithms for estimation of these physiological parameters. The radar can be placed under a subject's mattress as he lays stationary on his back or it can be attached to the ceiling directly above the subject's bed. However, advertent or inadvertent movement on part of the subject and different postures can affect the radar returned signal and also the accuracy of the estimated parameters from it. The detection and analysis of these postural changes can not only lead to improvement in estimation algorithms but also towards prevention of bed sores and ulcers in patients who require periodic posture changes. In this paper, we present an algorithm that detects and quantifies different types of motion events using an under-the-mattress IR-UWB radar. The algorithm also indicates a change in posture after a macro-movement event. Based on the findings of this paper, we anticipate that IR-UWB radar can be used for extracting posture related information in non-clinical enviroments for patients who are bed-ridden.

  18. C/X-band SAR interferometry applied to ground monitoring: examples and new potential (United States)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Wasowski, Janusz; Chiaradia, Maria T.


    Classical applications of the MTInSAR techniques have been carried out in the past on medium resolution data acquired by the ERS, Envisat (ENV) and Radarsat sensors. The new generation of high-resolution X-Band SAR sensors, such as TerraSAR-X (TSX) and the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation allows acquiring data with spatial resolution reaching metric/submetric values. Thanks to the finer spatial resolution with respect to C-band data, X-band InSAR applications result very promising for monitoring single man-made structures (buildings, bridges, railways and highways), as well as landslides. This is particularly relevant where C-band data show low density of coherent scatterers. Moreover, thanks again to the higher resolution, it is possible to infer reliable estimates of the displacement rates with a number of SAR scenes significantly lower than in C-band within the same time span or by using more images acquired in a narrower time span. We present examples of the application of a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique, namely the SPINUA algorithm, to data acquired by ENV, TSX and CSK on selected number of sites. Different cases are considered concerning monitoring of both instable slopes and infrastructure. Results are compared and commented with particular attention paid to the advantages provided by the new generation of X-band high resolution space-borne SAR sensors.

  19. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data (United States)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.


    SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with

  20. Estimating tropical forest structure using LIDAR AND X-BAND INSAR (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Treuhaft, R. N.; Keller, M. M.; Sullivan, F.; Roberto dos Santos, J.; Goncalves, F. G.; Shimbo, J.; Neumann, M.; Madsen, S. N.; Hensley, S.


    Tropical forests are considered the most structurally complex of all forests and are experiencing rapid change due to anthropogenic and climatic factors. The high carbon stocks and fluxes make understanding tropical forests highly important to both regional and global studies involving ecosystems and climate. Large and remote areas in the tropics are prime targets for the use of remotely sensed data. Radar and lidar have previously been used to estimate forest structure, with an emphasis on biomass. These two remote sensing methods have the potential to yield much more information about forest structure, specifically through the use of X-band radar and waveform lidar data. We examined forest structure using both field-based and remotely sensed data in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. We measured multiple structural parameters for about 70 plots in the field within a 25 x 15 km area that have TanDEM-X single-pass horizontally and vertically polarized radar interferometric data. High resolution airborne lidar were collected over a 22 sq km portion of the same area, within which 33 plots were co-located. Preliminary analyses suggest that X-band interferometric coherence decreases by about a factor of 2 (from 0.95 to 0.45) with increasing field-measured vertical extent (average heights of 7-25 m) and biomass (10-430 Mg/ha) for a vertical wavelength of 39 m, further suggesting, as has been observed at C-band, that interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is substantially more sensitive to forest structure/biomass than SAR. Unlike InSAR coherence versus biomass, SAR power at X-band versus biomass shows no trend. Moreover, airborne lidar coherence at the same vertical wavenumbers as InSAR is also shown to decrease as a function of biomass, as well. Although the lidar coherence decrease is about 15% more than the InSAR, implying that lidar penetrates more than InSAR, these preliminary results suggest that X-band InSAR may be useful for structure and

  1. Fourier spectroscopy of the 12C2, 13C2, and 12C13C (0-0) swan bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiot, C.


    The (0-0) band of the C 2 Swan electronic system d 3 Pi/sub g/→a 3 Pi/sub u/ has been recorded by Fourier spectroscopy. The three isotopes species 12 C 2 , 13 C 2 , and 12 C 13 C were investigated. The observed wavenumbers were reduced to molecular parameters using a nonlinear least-square fitting procedure. Well-known perturbations at N' = 47 and N' = 51 again observed in the e 12 C 2 d 3 Pi/sub g/ (v = 0) level. Perturbations of the same kind are present in the 13 C 2 spectrum at N' = 34 and N' = 44,48,52. The 12 C 13 C spectrum exhibits in the observed spectral range a unique perturbation for N' = 41

  2. A Doppler Radar System for Sensing Physiological Parameters in Walking and Standing Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Pour Ebrahim


    Full Text Available Doppler radar can be implemented for sensing physiological parameters wirelessly at a distance. Detecting respiration rate, an important human body parameter, is essential in a range of applications like emergency and military healthcare environments, and Doppler radar records actual chest motion. One challenge in using Doppler radar is being able to monitor several patients simultaneously and in different situations like standing, walking, or lying. This paper presents a complete transmitter-receiver Doppler radar system, which uses a 4 GHz continuous wave radar signal transmission and receiving system, to extract base-band data from a phase-shifted signal. This work reports experimental evaluations of the system for one and two subjects in various standing and walking positions. It provides a detailed signal analysis of various breathing rates of these two subjects simultaneously. These results will be useful in future medical monitoring applications.

  3. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  4. Codesign of Beam Pattern and Sparse Frequency Waveforms for MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai


    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar takes the advantages of high degrees of freedom for beam pattern design and waveform optimization, because each antenna in centralized MIMO radar system can transmit different signal waveforms. When continuous band is divided into several pieces, sparse frequency radar waveforms play an important role due to the special pattern of the sparse spectrum. In this paper, we start from the covariance matrix of the transmitted waveform and extend the concept of sparse frequency design to the study of MIMO radar beam pattern. With this idea in mind, we first solve the problem of semidefinite constraint by optimization tools and get the desired covariance matrix of the ideal beam pattern. Then, we use the acquired covariance matrix and generalize the objective function by adding the constraint of both constant modulus of the signals and corresponding spectrum. Finally, we solve the objective function by the cyclic algorithm and obtain the sparse frequency MIMO radar waveforms with desired beam pattern. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Status of the C-band RF System for the SPARC-LAB high brightness photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Boni, R.; Bellaveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Spataro, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.


    The high brightness photo-injector in operation at the SPARC-LAB facility of the INFN-LNF, Italy, consists of a 150 MeV S-band electron accelerator aiming to explore the physics of low emittance high peak current electron beams and the related technology. Velocity bunching techniques, SASE and Seeded FEL experiments have been carried out successfully. To increase the beam energy so improving the performances of the experiments, it was decided to replace one S-band travelling wave accelerating cavity, with two C-band cavities that allow to reach higher energy gain per meter. The new C-band system is in advanced development phase and will be in operation early in 2013. The main technical issues of the C-band system and the R&D activities carried out till now are illustrated in detail in this paper.

  6. Tunable band gap and optical properties of surface functionalized Sc2C monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shun; Du Yu-Lei; Liao Wen-He


    Using the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional Sc 2 C monolayer with OH, F, or O chemical groups. The electronic structures reveal that the functionalized Sc 2 C monolayers are semiconductors with a band gap of 0.44–1.55 eV. The band gap dependent optical parameters, like dielectric function, absorption coefficients, reflectivity, loss function, and refraction index were also calculated for photon energy up to 20 eV. At the low-energy region, each optical parameter shifts to red, and the peak increases obviously with the increase of the energy gap. Consequently, Sc 2 C monolayer with a tunable band gap by changing the type of surface chemical groups is a promising 2D material for optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  7. Use of a W-band polarimeter to measure microphysical characteristics of clouds (United States)

    Galloway, John Charles


    This dissertation presents W-Band measurements of the copolar correlation co-efficient and Doppler spectrum taken from the University of Wyoming King Air research airplane. These measurements demonstrate the utility of making W-Band polarimetric and Doppler spectrum measurements from an airborne platform in investigations of cloud microphysical properties. Comparison of copolar correlation coefficient measurements with aircraft in situ probe measurements verifies that polarimetric measurements indicate phase transitions, and hydrometeor alignment in ice clouds. Melting layers in clouds were measured by the W-Band system on board the King Air during 1992 and 1994. Both measurements established the use of the linear depolarization ratio, LDR, to locate the melting layer using an airborne W-Band system. The measurement during 1994 allowed direct comparison of the magnitude of the copolar correlation coefficient with the values of LDR. The relation between the measurements corresponds with a predicted relationship between the two parameters for observation of particles exhibiting isotropy in the plane of polarization. Measurements of needle crystals at horizontal and vertical incidence provided further evidence that the copolar correlation coefficient values agreed with the expected response from hydrometeors possessing a preferred alignment for the side looking case, and hydrometeors without a preferred alignment for the vertical incidence case. Observation of significant specific differential phase at vertical incidence, the first reported at W-Band, corresponded to a significant increase in differential reflectivity overhead, which was most likely produced by hydrometeor alignment driven by cloud electrification. Comparison of the drop size distributions estimated using the Doppler spectra with those measured by the wingtip probes on the King Air reveals that the radar system is better suited under some liquid cloud conditions to provide microphysical measurements

  8. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Yoshikazu


    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  9. Intercomparison of spaceborne precipitation radars and its applications in examining precipitation-topography relationships in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Tang, G.; Gao, J.; Long, D.


    Precipitation is one of the most important components in the water and energy cycles. Spaceborne radars are considered the most direct technology for observing precipitation from space since 1998. This study compares and evaluates the only three existing spaceborne precipitation radars, i.e., the Ku-band precipitation radar (TRMM PR), the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CloudSat CPR), and the Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM DPR). In addition, TRMM PR and GPM DPR are evaluated against hourly rain gauge data in Mainland China. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is known as the Earth's third pole where precipitation is affected profoundly by topography. However, ground gauges are extremely sparse in the TP, and spaceborne radars can provide valuable data with relatively high accuracy. The relationships between precipitation and topography over the TP are investigated using 17-year TRMM PR data and 2-year GPM DPR data, in combination with rain gauge data. Results indicate that: (1) DPR and PR agree with each other and correlate very well with gauges in Mainland China. DPR improves light precipitation detectability significantly compared with PR. However, DPR high sensitivity scans (HS) deviates from DPR normal and matched scans (NS and MS) and PR in the comparison based on global coincident events and rain gauges in China; (2) CPR outperforms the other two radars in terms of light precipitation detection. In terms of global snowfall estimation, DPR and CPR show very different global snowfall distributions originating from different frequencies, retrieval algorithms, and sampling characteristics; and (3) Precipitation generally decreases exponentially with increasing elevation in the TP. The precipitation-topography relationships are regressed using exponential fitting in seventeen river basins in the TP with good coefficients of determination. Due to the short time span of GPM DPR, the relationships based on GPM DPR data are less robust than those derived from

  10. Project PHARUS: Towards a polarimetric C-band airborne SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Pouwels, H.; Snoeij, P.


    A few years ago three institutes in the Netherlands developed a plan to design and build a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR system of a novel design, called PHARUS (PHased Array Universal SAR), meant as a replacement for our current digital SLAR system. These institutes are the Physics and

  11. Annual and interannual variability of scatterometer ocean surface wind over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GS; Xu, Q.; Gong, Z.


    To investigate the annual and interannual variability of ocean surface wind over the South China Sea (SCS), the vector empirical orthogonal function (VEOF) method and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method were employed to analyze a set of combined satellite scatterometer wind data during.......3% of the total variance and represents the East Asian monsoon features. The second mode of VEOF corresponds to a spring-autumn oscillation which accounts for 8.3% of the total variance. To analyze the interannual variability, the annual signal was removed from the wind data set and the VEOFs of the residuals...

  12. Integration of airborne altimetry and in situ radar measurements to estimate marine ice thickness beneath the Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    McGrath, D.; Steffen, K.; Rodriguez Lagos, J.


    Observed atmospheric and oceanic warming is driving significant retreat and / or collapse of ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula totaling over 25,000 km2 in the past five decades. Basal melting of meteoric ice can occur near the grounding line of deep glacier inflows if the ocean water is above the pressure melting point. Buoyant meltwater will develop thermohaline circulation, rising beneath the ice shelf, where it may become supercooled and subsequently refreeze in ice draft minima. Marine ice, due to its warm and thus relatively viscous nature, is hypothesized to suture parallel flow bands, increasing ice shelf stability by arresting fracture propagation and controlling iceberg calving dimensions. Thus efforts to model ice shelf stability require accurate estimates of marine ice location and thickness. Ice thickness of a floating ice shelf can be determined in two manners: (1) from measurements of ice elevation above sea level and the calculation of ice thickness from assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, and (2) from radar echo measurements of the ice-water interface. Marine ice can confound the latter because its high dielectric constant and strong absorptive properties attenuate the radar energy, often preventing a return signal from the bottom of the ice shelf. These two methods are complementary for determining the marine ice component though because positive anomalies in (1) relative to (2) suggest regions of marine ice accretion. Nearly 350 km of ice penetrating radar (25 MHz) surveys were collected on the Larsen C ice shelf, in conjunction with kinematic GPS measurements and collocated with surface elevation data from the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) as part of the ICE Bridge mission in 2009. Basal ice topography and total ice thickness is accurately mapped along the survey lines and compared with calculated ice thickness from both the kinematic GPS and ATM elevation data. Positive anomalies are discussed in light of visible imagery and

  13. A Technique for Real-Time Ionospheric Ranging Error Correction Based On Radar Dual-Frequency Detection (United States)

    Lyu, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Chen


    Ionospheric refraction is one of the principal error sources for limiting the accuracy of radar systems for space target detection. High-accuracy measurement of the ionospheric electron density along the propagation path of radar wave is the most important procedure for the ionospheric refraction correction. Traditionally, the ionospheric model and the ionospheric detection instruments, like ionosonde or GPS receivers, are employed for obtaining the electron density. However, both methods are not capable of satisfying the requirements of correction accuracy for the advanced space target radar system. In this study, we propose a novel technique for ionospheric refraction correction based on radar dual-frequency detection. Radar target range measurements at two adjacent frequencies are utilized for calculating the electron density integral exactly along the propagation path of the radar wave, which can generate accurate ionospheric range correction. The implementation of radar dual-frequency detection is validated by a P band radar located in midlatitude China. The experimental results present that the accuracy of this novel technique is more accurate than the traditional ionospheric model correction. The technique proposed in this study is very promising for the high-accuracy radar detection and tracking of objects in geospace.

  14. Effects of inter-fullerene π-band mixings in the photoexcitation of hybrid plasmons in the C60@C240 molecule (United States)

    de, Rume; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri


    We perform a detailed study of the ground state electronic structure of a two-layer fullerene onion molecule C60@C240. Calculations are carried out in a quantum mechanical framework of local density approximation (LDA) where the onion's ion-core of sixty C4+ ions from C60 and two hundred and forty of those from C240 is smeared into a classical jellium distribution. Significant inter-fullerene mixing between the bands of single-node radial symmetry, the π-bands, is found. We then compute the photoionization from all the levels of the system using a time-dependent version of LDA at photon energies where the ionization is dominated by the inter-layer hybridization of collective plasmon resonances. It is determined, by comparing the isolated fullerene cross sections with the cross section of the onion system for both π and σ (having nodeless radial waves) symmetry, that the π-band mixing is predominantly responsible for the production of plasmon hybrids. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  15. Monitoring of the Liquid Water Content During Snowmelt Using C-Band SAR Data and the Snow Model CROCUS (United States)

    Rondeau-Genesse, G.; Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.


    Coupling C-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to a multilayer snow model is a step in better understanding the temporal evolution of the radar backscattering coefficient during snowmelt. The watershed used for this study is the Nechako River Basin, located in the Rocky Mountains of British-Columbia (Canada). This basin has a snowpack of several meters in depth and part of its water is diverted to the Kemano hydropower system, managed by Rio-Tinto Alcan. Eighteen RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR Wide archive images were acquired in VV/VH polarization for the winter of 2011-2012, under different snow conditions. They are interpreted along with CROCUS, a multilayer physically-based snow model developed by Météo-France. This model discretizes the snowpack into 50 layers, which makes it possible to monitor various characteristics, such as liquid water content (LWC), throughout the season. CROCUS is used to model three specific locations of the Nechako River Basin. Results vary from one site to another, but in general there is a good agreement between the modeled LWC of the first layer of the snowpack and the backscattering coefficient of the RADARSAT-2 images, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.80 and more. The radar images themselves were processed using an updated version of Nagler's methodology, which consists of subtracting an image in wet snow conditions to one in dry snow conditions, as wet snow can then be identified using a soft threshold centered around -3 dB. A second filter was used in order to differentiate dry snow and bare soil. That filter combines a VH/VV ratio threshold and an altitude criterion. The ensuing maps show a good agreement with the MODIS snow-covered area, which is already obtained daily over the Nechako River Basin, but with additional information on the location of wet snow and without sensibility to cloud cover. As a next step, the outputs of CROCUS will be used in Mätzler's Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) to

  16. Stochastic simulation experiment to assess radar rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with attenuation and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uijlenhoet


    Full Text Available As rainfall constitutes the main source of water for the terrestrial hydrological processes, accurate and reliable measurement and prediction of its spatial and temporal distribution over a wide range of scales is an important goal for hydrology. We investigate the potential of ground-based weather radar to provide such measurements through a theoretical analysis of some of the associated observation uncertainties. A stochastic model of range profiles of raindrop size distributions is employed in a Monte Carlo simulation experiment to investigate the rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with weather radars operating at X-, C-, and S-band. We focus in particular on the errors and uncertainties associated with rain-induced signal attenuation and its correction for incoherent, non-polarimetric, single-frequency, operational weather radars. The performance of two attenuation correction schemes, the (forward Hitschfeld-Bordan algorithm and the (backward Marzoug-Amayenc algorithm, is analyzed for both moderate (assuming a 50 km path length and intense Mediterranean rainfall (for a 30 km path. A comparison shows that the backward correction algorithm is more stable and accurate than the forward algorithm (with a bias in the order of a few percent for the former, compared to tens of percent for the latter, provided reliable estimates of the total path-integrated attenuation are available. Moreover, the bias and root mean square error associated with each algorithm are quantified as a function of path-averaged rain rate and distance from the radar in order to provide a plausible order of magnitude for the uncertainty in radar-retrieved rain rates for hydrological applications.

  17. Performance of a fully automated scatterometer for BRDF and BTDF measurements at visible and infrared wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.; Shepard, D.F.; Pompea, S.M.; Castonguay, R.


    The general performance of a fully automated scatterometer shows that the instrument can make rapid, accurate BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) and BTDF (bidirectional transmittance distribution function) measurements of optical surfaces over a range of approximately ten orders of magnitude in BRDF. These measurements can be made for most surfaces even with the detector at the specular angle, because of beam-attenuation techniques. He-Ne and CO2 lasers are used as sources in conjunction with a reference detector and chopper

  18. Irrigated Grassland Monitoring Using a Time Series of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-Band SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad El Hajj


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of radar signals in the X-band in irrigated grassland conditions. The backscattered radar signals were analyzed according to soil moisture and vegetation parameters using linear regression models. A time series of radar (TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed and optical (SPOT and LANDSAT images was acquired at a high temporal frequency in 2013 over a small agricultural region in southeastern France. Ground measurements were conducted simultaneously with the satellite data acquisitions during several grassland growing cycles to monitor the evolution of the soil and vegetation characteristics. The comparison between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI computed from optical images and the in situ Leaf Area Index (LAI showed a logarithmic relationship with a greater scattering for the dates corresponding to vegetation well developed before the harvest. The correlation between the NDVI and the vegetation parameters (LAI, vegetation height, biomass, and vegetation water content was high at the beginning of the growth cycle. This correlation became insensitive at a certain threshold corresponding to high vegetation (LAI ~2.5 m2/m2. Results showed that the radar signal depends on variations in soil moisture, with a higher sensitivity to soil moisture for biomass lower than 1 kg/m². HH and HV polarizations had approximately similar sensitivities to soil moisture. The penetration depth of the radar wave in the X-band was high, even for dense and high vegetation; flooded areas were visible in the images with higher detection potential in HH polarization than in HV polarization, even for vegetation heights reaching 1 m. Lower sensitivity was observed at the X-band between the radar signal and the vegetation parameters with very limited potential of the X-band to monitor grassland growth. These results showed that it is possible to track gravity irrigation and soil moisture variations from SAR

  19. Continuously tunable S and C+L bands ultra wideband erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Yu, Q X


    This paper presents an ultra wideband tunable silica-based erbium doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) that can be continuously tuned in S and C+L bands from 1475 to 1619 nm. It is the first time that a fiber ring laser's tuning range reaches 144 nm using a standard silica-based C-band erbium-doped fiber as gain media. In the laser configuration two isolators are used in the fiber loop for suppressing the ASE in C-band and elevating the lasing gain in S-band. As a result the available lasing wavelength is extended toward the shorter wavelength of the gain bandwidth. The optimized erbium-doped fiber length, output coupling ratio and pumping laser power have been obtained through experimental study. This ring fiber laser has simple configuration, low threshold, flat laser spectral distribution and high signal-to-ASE-noise ratio. The laser will have many potential applications in fiber sensor wavelength interrogation, high-resolution spectroscopy and fiber optic communications

  20. Precipitation evidences on X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery: an approach for quantitative detection and estimation (United States)

    Mori, Saverio; Marzano, Frank S.; Montopoli, Mario; Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno


    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) operating at L-band and above are nowadays a well-established tool for Earth remote sensing; among the numerous civil applications we can indicate flood areas detection and monitoring, earthquakes analysis, digital elevation model production, land use monitoring and classification. Appealing characteristics of this kind of instruments is the high spatial resolution ensured in almost all-weather conditions and with a reasonable duty cycle and coverage. This result has achieved by the by the most recent generation of SAR missions, which moreover allow polarimetric observation of the target. Nevertheless, atmospheric clouds, in particular the precipitating ones, can significantly affect the signal backscattered from the ground surface (e.g. Ferrazzoli and Schiavon, 1997), on both amplitude and phase, with effects increasing with the operating frequency. In this respect, proofs are given by several recent works (e.g. Marzano et al., 2010, Baldini et al., 2014) using X-Band SAR data by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) missions. On the other hand, this sensitivity open interesting perspectives towards the SAR observation, and eventually quantification, of precipitations. In this respect, a proposal approach for X-SARs precipitation maps production and cloud masking arise from our work. Cloud masking allows detection of precipitation compromised areas. Respect precipitation maps, satellite X-SARs offer the unique possibility to ingest within flood forecasting model precipitation data at the catchment scale. This aspect is particularly innovative, even if work has been done the late years, and some aspects need to still address. Our developed processing framework allows, within the cloud masking stage, distinguishing flooded areas, precipitating clouds together with permanent water bodies, all appearing dark in the SAR image. The procedure is mainly based on image segmentation techniques and fuzzy logic (e.g. Pulvirenti et

  1. Millimeter-Wave Radar Field Measurements and Inversion of Cloud Parameters for the 1999 Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (United States)

    Pazmany, Andrew L.; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)


    The Mount Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) was a multi-investigator experiment with participants from Quadrant Engineering, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL), the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) of the University of Massachusetts (UMass), and others. Radar systems from UMass and NOAA/ETL were used to measure X-, Ka-, and W-band backscatter data from the base of Mt. Washington, while simultaneous in-situ particle measurements were made from aircraft and from the observatory at the summit. This report presents range and time profiles of liquid water content and particle size parameters derived from range profiles of radar reflectivity as measured at X-, Ka-, and W-band (9.3, 33.1, and 94.9 GHz) using an artificial neural network inversion algorithm. In this report, we provide a brief description of the experiment configuration, radar systems, and a review of the artificial neural network used to extract cloud parameters from the radar data. Time histories of liquid water content (LWC), mean volume diameter (MVD) and mean Z diameter (MZD) are plotted at 300 m range intervals for slant ranges between 1.1 and 4 km. Appendix A provides details on the extraction of radar reflectivity from measured radar power, and Appendix B provides summary logs of the weather conditions for each day in which we processed data.

  2. A Machine Learning-based Rainfall System for GPM Dual-frequency Radar (United States)

    Tan, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, H.


    Precipitation measurement produced by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) plays an important role in researching the water circle and forecasting extreme weather event. Compare with its predecessor - Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), GRM DPR measures precipitation in two different frequencies (i.e., Ku and Ka band), which can provide detailed information on the microphysical properties of precipitation particles, quantify particle size distribution and quantitatively measure light rain and falling snow. This paper presents a novel Machine Learning system for ground-based and space borne radar rainfall estimation. The system first trains ground radar data for rainfall estimation using rainfall measurements from gauges and subsequently uses the ground radar based rainfall estimates to train GPM DPR data in order to get space based rainfall product. Therein, data alignment between space DPR and ground radar is conducted using the methodology proposed by Bolen and Chandrasekar (2013), which can minimize the effects of potential geometric distortion of GPM DPR observations. For demonstration purposes, rainfall measurements from three rain gauge networks near Melbourne, Florida, are used for training and validation purposes. These three gauge networks, which are located in Kennedy Space Center (KSC), South Florida Water Management District (SFL), and St. Johns Water Management District (STJ), include 33, 46, and 99 rain gauge stations, respectively. Collocated ground radar observations from the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in Melbourne (i.e., KMLB radar) are trained with the gauge measurements. The trained model is then used to derive KMLB radar based rainfall product, which is used to train GPM DPR data collected from coincident overpasses events. The machine learning based rainfall product is compared against the GPM standard products

  3. Basic study for tsunami detection with DBF ocean radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shin'ichi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Okuda, Kouzou; Uehara, Fumihiro


    To develop early tsunami warning system utilizing ocean radars, the evaluation of the variety of measuring coverage and data accuracy is indispensable in real oceans. The field observation was carried out at 5 minutes interval with two digital beam forming ocean radars with VHF band from 2012 to 2014 in the sea of Enshu. The high data acquisition areas are found in the extent of 17 km off the coast on a hill site and of 13 km on a low ground site. The measured current by the ocean radar were well correlated with that by the current-meter in the depth of 2 m near the coast with the correlation coefficient of ∼0.6. It is inferred that the main factor of difference in both data sets was due to the presence of wind-driven current through the multi-regression analysis with both current data and wind data. In addition, the order of the temporal current deviations as to the representative time-scale of one hour is about 5 cm/s under the ordinary sea conditions, which suggest that ocean radars could sufficiently detect the current deviation due to grant tsunami. (author)

  4. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry for Assessing Wenchuan Earthquake (2008 Deforestation in the Sichuan Giant Panda Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen


    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR has been an unparalleled tool in cloudy and rainy regions as it allows observations throughout the year because of its all-weather, all-day operation capability. In this paper, the influence of Wenchuan Earthquake on the Sichuan Giant Panda habitats was evaluated for the first time using SAR interferometry and combining data from C-band Envisat ASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR data. Coherence analysis based on the zero-point shifting indicated that the deforestation process was significant, particularly in habitats along the Min River approaching the epicenter after the natural disaster, and as interpreted by the vegetation deterioration from landslides, avalanches and debris flows. Experiments demonstrated that C-band Envisat ASAR data were sensitive to vegetation, resulting in an underestimation of deforestation; in contrast, L-band PALSAR data were capable of evaluating the deforestation process owing to a better penetration and the significant coherence gain on damaged forest areas. The percentage of damaged forest estimated by PALSAR decreased from 20.66% to 17.34% during 2009–2010, implying an approximate 3% recovery rate of forests in the earthquake impacted areas. This study proves that long-wavelength SAR interferometry is promising for rapid assessment of disaster-induced deforestation, particularly in regions where the optical acquisition is constrained.

  5. A portable W-band radar system for enhancement of infrared vision in fire fighting operations (United States)

    Klenner, Mathias; Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kühn, Jutta; Schlechtweg, Michael; Hahmann, Konstantin; Kleiner, Bernhard; Ulrich, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver


    In this paper, we present a millimeter wave radar system which will enhance the performance of infrared cameras used for fire-fighting applications. The radar module is compact and lightweight such that the system can be combined with inertial sensors and integrated in a hand-held infrared camera. This allows for precise distance measurements in harsh environmental conditions, such as tunnel or industrial fires, where optical sensors are unreliable or fail. We discuss the design of the RF front-end, the antenna and a quasi-optical lens for beam shaping as well as signal processing and demonstrate the performance of the system by in situ measurements in a smoke filled environment.

  6. Quantitative precipitation estimation in complex orography using quasi-vertical profiles of dual polarization radar variables (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Baldini, Luca


    . To avoid facing such a complexity, especially with a view to operational implementation, we propose to look at the features of the vertical profile of rain (VPR), i.e. after performing the rain estimation. This procedure allows characterizing a single variable (i.e. rain) when dealing with vertical extrapolations. Some case studies of severe thunderstorms that hit the mountainous area surrounding Rome in Italy causing floodings and damages and observed by the research C-band polarization agility Doppler radar named Polar 55C, managed by the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC) at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), are used to support the concept of VPR. Our results indicate that the combined algorithm, which merges together the differential phase shift (Kdp), the reflectivity factor at horizontal polarization (Zhh), and differential reflectivity (Zdr), once accurately processed, performs best among those tested that make use of Zhh alone, Kdp alone, and Zhh and Zdr pair. Improvements from 25% to 80% are found for the total rain accumulations in terms of normalized bias when the VPR extrapolation is applied.

  7. Radar observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Hine, A.A.; Campbell, D.B.; Shapiro, I.I.; Marsden, B.G.


    A detailed analysis and interpretation of the Arecibo S-band radar observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d are presented. The very high signal strengths are used to make an accurate determination of the shape of the echo spectrum in the two orthogonal senses of circular polarization. The narrow-band component is used to place constraints on the size, rotation, period, reflectivity, and roughness of the nucleus. Detailed analysis of the broadband component yields estimates of, or bounds on, the spatial extent, position, and mass of the particle cloud, as well as the effective size of the constituent particles. 41 references

  8. On the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding of the Antarctic ice sheet at P-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Corr, Hugh

    . In this study the feasibility of space-based radar ice sounding is assessed. A two-step approach is applied: (1) Key ice sheet parameters are estimated from the airborne POLARIS data acquired in Antarctica. (2) The performance of potential space-based ice sounding radars is simulated based on the estimated ice...... data analysis estimating the scattering patterns via the Doppler spectra of the POLARIS data. The scattering patterns of the ice surfaces are relevant because the geometry of a space-based radar increases the risk that off-nadir surface clutter masks the nadir depth-signal of interest. Currently...... the ice sheet model is being established and validated. At the symposium measured and simulated satellite waveforms will be compared, and the feasibility of space-based ice sounding will be addressed....

  9. Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Two-Dimensional Metal Covered with Radar Absorbing Material and Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Chaohui; Hu Xiwei; Jiang Zhonghe


    A two-dimensional metal model is established to investigate the stealth mechanisms of radar absorbing material (RAM) and plasma when they cover the model together. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the model can be studied. In this paper, three covering cases are considered: a. RAM or plasma covering the metal solely; b. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while plasma is placed outside; c. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while RAM is placed outside. The calculated results show that the covering order has a great influence on the absorption of EM waves. Compared to case a, case b has an advantage in the absorption of relatively high-frequency EM waves (HFWs), whereas case c has an advantage in the absorption of relatively low-frequency EM waves (LFWs). Through the optimization of the parameters of both plasma and RAM, it is hopeful to obtain a broad absorption band by RAM and plasma covering. Near-field attenuation rate and far-field radar cross section (RCS) are employed to compare the different cases. (low temperature plasma)

  10. A Truncated Waveguide Fed by a Microstrip as a Radiating Element for High-Performance Automotive Anticollision Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula


    Full Text Available A small truncated waveguide fed by a microstrip line through a transverse coupling slot is proposed and assessed as a high-performance antenna and array element in the K band and above. This antenna allows to obtain a high radiated power, with a very low cross-polar component in the radiated field. It is therefore particularly suitable for application in automotive anticollision radars. The proposed radiating element has been analyzed by a numerical code based on an in-house method of moments, and the microstrip feeding line has been modeled by its equivalent magnetic-wall waveguide. A linear array of such elements has been designed and matched with a BPF-inspired matching network allowing an in-band behavior suitable for anti-collision radar use, with an out-of-band rejection large enough to avoid the first receiving BPF.

  11. SRTM mission-cross comparison of X adn C band data properties (United States)

    Rosen, P.; Eineder, M.; Rabus, B.; Gurrola, E.; Hensley, S.; Knopfle, W.; Breit, H.; Roth, A.; Werner, M.


    This paper compares the specific properties of the X and C band data sets with respect to global coverage, height accuracy, sensor specific errors, product definition, product format and availability.

  12. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole


    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  13. Identification and Quantification of Uncertainties Related to Using Distributed X-band Radar Estimated Precipitation as input in Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a small scale weather radar providing distributed measurements of rainfall primarily for use as input in hydrological applications. As any other weather radar the LAWR measurement of the rainfall is an indirect measurement since it does not measure the rainf......The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a small scale weather radar providing distributed measurements of rainfall primarily for use as input in hydrological applications. As any other weather radar the LAWR measurement of the rainfall is an indirect measurement since it does not measure...... are quantified using statistical methods. Furthermore, the present calibration method is reviewed and a new extended calibration method has been developed and tested resulting in improved rainfall estimates. As part of the calibration analysis a number of elements affecting the LAWR performance were identified...... in connection with boundary assignment besides general improved understanding of the benefits and pitfalls in using distributed rainfall data as input to models. In connection with the use of LAWR data in urban drainage context, the potential for using LAWR data for extreme rainfall statistics has been studied...

  14. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.


    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X-band

  15. Doped Sc2C(OH)2 MXene: new type s-pd band inversion topological insulator. (United States)

    Balcı, Erdem; Akkuş, Ünal Özden; Berber, Savas


    The electronic structures of Si and Ge substitutionally doped Sc 2 C(OH) 2 MXene monolayers are investigated in density functional theory. The doped systems exhibit band inversion, and are found to be topological invariants in Z 2 theory. The inclusion of spin orbit coupling results in band gap openings. Our results point out that the Si and Ge doped Sc 2 C(OH) 2 MXene monolayers are topological insulators. The band inversion is observed to have a new mechanism that involves s and pd states.

  16. Doped Sc2C(OH)2 MXene: new type s-pd band inversion topological insulator (United States)

    Balcı, Erdem; Özden Akkuş, Ünal; Berber, Savas


    The electronic structures of Si and Ge substitutionally doped Sc2C(OH)2 MXene monolayers are investigated in density functional theory. The doped systems exhibit band inversion, and are found to be topological invariants in Z 2 theory. The inclusion of spin orbit coupling results in band gap openings. Our results point out that the Si and Ge doped Sc2C(OH)2 MXene monolayers are topological insulators. The band inversion is observed to have a new mechanism that involves s and pd states.

  17. Identification of hydrometeor mixtures in polarimetric radar measurements and their linear de-mixing (United States)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis


    entropy values: low for pure volumes, and high for different possible combinations of mixed hydrometeors. The parametrized entropy is further on applied to real polarimetric C and X band radar datasets, where we demonstrate the potential of linear de-mixing using a simplex formed by a set of pre-defined centroids in the five-dimensional space. As main outcome, the proposed approach allows to provide plausible proportions of the different hydrometeors contained in a given radar sampling volume. [1] Besic, N., Figueras i Ventura, J., Grazioli, J., Gabella, M., Germann, U., and Berne, A.: Hydrometeor classification through statistical clustering of polarimetric radar measurements: a semi-supervised approach, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4425-4445, doi:10.5194/amt-9-4425-2016, 2016.

  18. A high resolution polarimetric L-band SAR-design and first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim


    the range of the radar is 64 km with a noise equivalent sigma naught of -20 dB. The antenna is a stacked microstrip patch array with the feed structure on the back side of the antenna panel to reduce unwanted radiation. The cross polar level is below -35 dB. The polarization switch is a relatively...... over the EMISAR calibration scene: An agricultural site in Denmark featuring a range of different fields and forested areas as well as several trihedrals and dihedrals. Based on the imagery data, sensor performance is assessed. The L- & C-band polarimetric EMISAR instrument is one of the key sensors...

  19. Model-based surface soil moisture (SSM) retrieval algorithm using multi-temporal RISAT-1 C-band SAR data (United States)

    Pandey, Dharmendra K.; Maity, Saroj; Bhattacharya, Bimal; Misra, Arundhati


    Accurate measurement of surface soil moisture of bare and vegetation covered soil over agricultural field and monitoring the changes in surface soil moisture is vital for estimation for managing and mitigating risk to agricultural crop, which requires information and knowledge to assess risk potential and implement risk reduction strategies and deliver essential responses. The empirical and semi-empirical model-based soil moisture inversion approach developed in the past are either sensor or region specific, vegetation type specific or have limited validity range, and have limited scope to explain physical scattering processes. Hence, there is need for more robust, physical polarimetric radar backscatter model-based retrieval methods, which are sensor and location independent and have wide range of validity over soil properties. In the present study, Integral Equation Model (IEM) and Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) model were used to simulate averaged backscatter coefficients in various soil moisture (dry, moist and wet soil), soil roughness (smooth to very rough) and crop conditions (low to high vegetation water contents) over selected regions of Gujarat state of India and the results were compared with multi-temporal Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in σ°HH and σ°HV polarizations, in sync with on field measured soil and crop conditions. High correlations were observed between RISAT-1 HH and HV with model simulated σ°HH & σ°HV based on field measured soil with the coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.84 to 0.77 and RMSE varying from 0.94 dB to 2.1 dB for bare soil. Whereas in case of winter wheat crop, coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.84 to 0.79 and RMSE varying from 0.87 dB to 1.34 dB, corresponding to with vegetation water content values up to 3.4 kg/m2. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods were adopted for model-based soil moisture inversion. The training datasets for the NNs were

  20. A compact O-plus C-band switchable quad-wavelength fiber laser using arrayed waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A A; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Ahmad, H; Harun, S W; Ghani, Z A


    In this paper, a design of a quad-wavelength fiber laser (QWFL) operating in two different regions namely the O-band covering from 1302 nm to1317.4 nm and C-band from 1530.5 nm to 1548.0 nm is presented. Two different ASE sources from semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are used, one at 1310 nm and the other at1550 nm. By using a 1×24 channels arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with 100 GHz interchannel spacing, the system is capable of generating 24 different wavelengths in more than 24 ways of quad-wavelength fiber laser with 0.6 nm and 0.8 nm of interval channel for O-band and C-band regions, respectively

  1. Exploration of factors limiting biomass estimation by polarimetric radar in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Fernández, M.J.; Hoekman, D.H.


    Direct inversion of radar return signals for forest biomass estimation is limited by signal saturation at medium biomass levels (roughly 150 ton/ha for P-band). Disturbing factors such as forest structural differences-and, notably, at low biomass levels, terrain roughness, and soil moisture

  2. Mapping Palaeohydrography in Deserts: Contribution from Space-Borne Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Paillou


    Full Text Available Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has the capability to image subsurface features down to several meters in arid regions. A first demonstration of this capability was performed in the Egyptian desert during the early eighties, thanks to the first Shuttle Imaging Radar mission. Global coverage provided by recent SARs, such as the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR sensor, allowed the mapping of vast ancient hydrographic systems in Northern Africa. We present a summary of palaeohydrography results obtained using PALSAR data over large deserts such as the Sahara and the Gobi. An ancient river system was discovered in eastern Lybia, connecting in the past the Kufrah oasis to the Mediterranean Sea, and the terminal part of the Tamanrasett river was mapped in western Mauritania, ending with a large submarine canyon. In southern Mongolia, PALSAR images combined with topography analysis allowed the mapping of the ancient Ulaan Nuur lake. We finally show the potentials of future low frequency SAR sensors by comparing L-band (1.25 GHz and P-band (435 MHz airborne SAR acquisitions over a desert site in southern Tunisia.

  3. Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder polarimeter as applied to a tunable infrared Mueller-matrix scatterometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vap, J C; Nauyoks, S E; Marciniak, M A


    The value of Mueller-matrix (Mm) scatterometers lies in their ability to simultaneously characterize the polarimetric and directional scatter properties of a sample. To extend their utility to characterizing modern optical materials in the infrared (IR), which often have very narrow resonances yet interesting polarization and directional properties, the addition of tunable IR lasers and an achromatic dual-rotating-retarder (DRR) polarimeter is necessary. An optimization method has been developed for use with the tunable IR Mm scatterometer. This method is rooted in the application of random error analysis to three different DRR retardances, λ/5, λ/4 and λ/3, for three different analyzer (A)-to-generator (G) retarder rotation ratios, θ A :θ G = 34:26, 25:5 and 37.5:7.5, and a variable number of intensity measurements. The product of the error analysis is in terms of the level of error that could be expected from a free-space Mm extraction for the various retardances, retarder rotation ratios and number of intensity measurements of the DRR. The optimal DRR specifications identified are a λ/3 retardance and a Fourier rotation ratio, with the number of required collected measurements dependent on the level of error acceptable to the user. Experimental results corroborate this error analysis using an achromatic 110-degree retardance-configured DRR polarimeter at 5 µm wavelength, which resulted in consistent 1% error in its free-space Mm extractions. (paper)

  4. Compact printed high rejection triple band-notch UWB antenna with multiple wireless applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma


    Full Text Available In this paper, small printed urn-shape triple notch ultra-wideband (UWB monopole antenna with diverse wireless applications is presented. Notch bands include WiMAX (IEEE802.16 3.30–3.80 GHz, WLAN IEEE802.11a/h/j/n (5.15–5.35 GHz, 5.25–5.35 GHz, 5.47–5.725 GHz, 5.725–5.825 GHz, and X-band downlink satellite system (7.25–7.75 GHz and other multiple wireless services as close range radar (8–12 GHz in X-band & satellite communication (12–18 GHz in Ku-band. By including T-shape stub and etching two C-shaped slots on the radiating patch, triple band-notch function is obtained with measured high band rejection (VSWR = 16.54 at 3.60 GHz, VSWR = 22.35 at 5.64 GHz and VSWR = 6.38 at 7.64 GHz and covers a wide useable fractional bandwidth of 154.56% (2.49–19.41 GHz. In short the antenna offers triple band-notch UWB systems as a compact multifunctional antenna to reduce the number of antennas installed in wireless devices for accessing multiple wireless networks with wide radiation pattern.

  5. Assessing the accuracy of weather radar to track intense rain cells in the Greater Lyon area, France (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Comby, Jacques


    The Greater Lyon is a dense area located in the Rhône Valley in the south east of France. The conurbation counts 1.3 million inhabitants and the rainfall hazard is a great concern. However, until now, studies on rainfall over the Greater Lyon have only been based on the network of rain gauges, despite the presence of a C-band radar located in the close vicinity. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to investigate the hydrological quality of this radar. This assessment, based on comparison of radar estimations and rain-gauges values concludes that the radar data has overall a good quality since 2006. Given this good accuracy, this study made a next step and investigated the characteristics of intense rain cells that are responsible of the majority of floods in the Greater Lyon area. Improved knowledge on these rainfall cells is important to anticipate dangerous events and to improve the monitoring of the sewage system. This paper discusses the analysis of the ten most intense rainfall events in the 2001-2010 period. Spatial statistics pointed towards straight and linear movements of intense rainfall cells, independently on the ground surface conditions and the topography underneath. The speed of these cells was found nearly constant during a rainfall event, but depend from event to ranges on average from 25 to 66 km/h.

  6. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonelli


    Full Text Available Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, fast and high resolution data for the detection of convective systems and for following their dynamics. The whole of northern Italy is covered by radar with a resolution of 1 km and by a lightning network with a mean accuracy of 0.5 km on the single point of impact. The authors present an algorithm developed for tracking high intensity storm cells by means of radar and lightning data. Application to northern Italy reveals that tracking thunderstorm cells can be used as an alert system that may help prevent damages from extreme weather, as well as allowing for studying the correlation among lightning, rainfall and tornado occurrence. Assessing the algorithm skill is also discussed, and a forecast verification method is described and applied for the duration of a thunderstorm season.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul


    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  8. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun


    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  9. Earth-Space Link Attenuation Estimation via Ground Radar Kdp (United States)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Benjamin, Andrew L.; Chandrasekar, V.


    A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.

  10. Design and use of a mobile, x-band, high range resolution, radar research facility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ


    Full Text Available industries of the Centre for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR) (South Africa) and King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) (Saudi Arabia). The radar employs true wideband processing in its complete RF and IF chain, supporting instantaneous...

  11. C-band main linac rf system for e+e- linear collider of 0.5 to 1.0 TeV C.M. energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, T.; Akasaka, N.; Kubo, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Takeda, Shigeru; Oide, K.; Yokoya, K.; Pearce, P.; Lee, H.S.; Cho, M.H.; Watanabe, K.; Takeda, Osamu; Baba, H.


    A hardware R and D for the C-band (5712 MHz) rf system for a linear collider started in 1996 at KEK. An accelerating gradient of 32 MV/m (including beam loading) will be generated by 50 MW C-band klystrons in combination with an rf-compression system. The klystron and its power supply can be fabricated by conventional technology. The straightness tolerance for the accelerating structures is 30 μm, which is also achievable with conventional fabrication processes. No critical new technology is required in a C-band system. Therefore, a reliable system can be constructed at low cost with a minimum of R and D studies. The first high-power test is scheduled for 1997. (author)

  12. Is there radar evidence for liquid water on Mars? (United States)

    Roth, L. E.


    The hypothesis that an extraordinary radar smoothness of a lunar target suggests that ground moisture is rest on the assumption that on the penetration-depth scale, the dielectric constant be an isotropic quantity. In other words, the planet's surface should have no vertical structure. Results of modeling exercises (based on the early lunar two-layer models) conducted to simulate the behavior of radar reflectivity, at S-band, over Solis Lacus, without manipulating the dielectric constant of the base layer (i.e., without adding moisture) are summarized. More sophisticated, explicit, rather than iterative multi-layer models involving dust, duricrust, mollisol, and permafrost are under study. It is anticipated that a paradoxical situation will be reached when each improvement in the model introduces additional ambiguities into the data interpretation.

  13. Emergent radar technologies and innovative multifractal methodologies for new prospects in urban hydrology (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Paz, Igor; Gires, Auguste; Ichiba, Abdellah; Scour-Plakali, Elektra; Lee, Jisun


    To make our cities weather ready and climate proof has become a fundamental societal issue in the context of an on-going urbanization and growing population density ( This is a challenging question in a region like Île-de-France, which corresponds to one of the largest, if not the largest, concentration of assets and infrastructures in Europe. More than ever, there is an urgent need to cross-fertilise research and operational hydrology, whereas they have both suffered from a long-lasting divorce (Schertzer et al., 2010). A preliminary step is to use the best available measurement technologies. In this presentation we discuss the potentials of the polarimetric X-band radar technology to measure small scale rainfalls in urban environment. Particularly intense rainy episodes have struck hard various regions of France during the period of May-June 2016, notably Ile-de-France and its neighbourhoods. The data collected during those days by the X-band radar of Ecole des Pont ParisTech ( allow to observe the fast aggregation of strong cells of small sizes in a multi-cellular thunderstorm. Certain cells make initially hardly more than a radar pixel (250m x 250m), while just three quarters of hour later they form a multi-cellular well-organised thunderstorm over tenths of kilometres. These observations have triggered the development of new methods of immediate forecast taking into account the multi-scale and strongly intermittent character of such rainfall fields to better manage the crises, particularly for strongly vulnerable urban systems. We present the results of the multifractal analysis and simulations of the polarimetric X-band radar data that first contribute to better understanding of the three-dimensional dynamics of such events, and then allows representing of how strong cores of haste precipitation contribute to the rainfall amounts striking the ground. The

  14. Design of Compact Flower Shape Dual Notched-Band Monopole Antenna for Extended UWB Wireless Applications (United States)

    Sharma, Manish; Awasthi, Y. K.; Singh, Himanshu; Kumar, Raj; Kumari, Sarita


    In this letter, a compact monopole antenna for ultra wideband (UWB) applications is proposed with small size of 18×20=360 mm2. Antenna consist of a flower shape radiating patch with a pair of C-shaped slots which offer two notch bands for WiMAX (3.04-3.68 GHz) & WLAN (4.73-5.76 GHz) and two rectangular shaped slots in the ground plane which provides a wide measured usable fractional extended bandwidth of 163 % (2.83-14.0 GHz) with improved VSWR. Moreover, it is also convenient for other wireless application as close range radar, 8-12 GHz in X-band. Measured radiation patterns exhibits nearly omnidirectional in H-plane and dipole like pattern in E-plane across the bandwidth and furthermore exhibits good time domain performance.

  15. Development of Low-Noise Small-Area 24 GHz CMOS Radar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yoon


    Full Text Available We present a low-noise small-area 24 GHz CMOS radar sensor for automotive collision avoidance. This sensor is based on direct-conversion pulsed-radar architecture. The proposed circuit is implemented using TSMC 0.13 μm RF (radio frequency CMOS (fT/fmax=120/140 GHz technology, and it is powered by a 1.5 V supply. This circuit uses transmission lines to reduce total chip size instead of real bulky inductors for input and output impedance matching. The layout techniques for RF are used to reduce parasitic capacitance at the band of 24 GHz. The proposed sensor has low cost and low power dissipation since it is realized using CMOS process. The proposed sensor showed the lowest noise figure of 2.9 dB and the highest conversion gain of 40.2 dB as compared to recently reported research results. It also showed small chip size of 0.56 mm2, low power dissipation of 39.5 mW, and wide operating temperature range of −40 to +125°C.

  16. A comparative cepstral based analysis of simulated and measured S-band and X-band radar Doppler spectra of human motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Eeden, WD


    Full Text Available targets. It is also shown that, whereas the motion of most body parts of a human target can be observed in the X-band data, only the main torso sway can be observed at S-band. This implies that X-band data is well suited to cepstrum based human motion...

  17. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy


    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  18. Classification of surface types using SIR-C/X-SAR, Mount Everest Area, Tibet (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Fielding, Eric


    Imaging radar is a promising tool for mapping snow and ice cover in alpine regions. It combines a high-resolution, day or night, all-weather imaging capability with sensitivity to hydrologic and climatic snow and ice parameters. We use the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) to map snow and glacial ice on the rugged north slope of Mount Everest. From interferometrically derived digital elevation data, we compute the terrain calibration factor and cosine of the local illumination angle. We then process and terrain-correct radar data sets acquired on April 16, 1994. In addition to the spectral data, we include surface slope to improve discrimination among several surface types. These data sets are then used in a decision tree to generate an image classification. This method is successful in identifying and mapping scree/talus, dry snow, dry snow-covered glacier, wet snow-covered glacier, and rock-covered glacier, as corroborated by comparison with existing surface cover maps and other ancillary information. Application of the classification scheme to data acquired on October 7 of the same year yields accurate results for most surface types but underreports the extent of dry snow cover.

  19. The Python ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART, a Library for Working with Weather Radar Data in the Python Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Helmus


    Full Text Available The Python ARM Radar Toolkit is a package for reading, visualizing, correcting and analysing data from weather radars. Development began to meet the needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility and has since expanded to provide a general-purpose framework for working with data from weather radars in the Python programming language. The toolkit is built on top of libraries in the Scientific Python ecosystem including NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib, and makes use of Cython for interfacing with existing radar libraries written in C and to speed up computationally demanding algorithms. The source code for the toolkit is available on GitHub and is distributed under a BSD license.

  20. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation


    Jenn, David


    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  1. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  2. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.


    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  3. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  4. Effects of Atmospheric Refraction on an Airborne Weather Radar Detection and Correction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of atmospheric refraction, affected by temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity, on airborne weather radar beam paths. Using three types of typical atmospheric background sounding data, we established a simulation model for an actual transmission path and a fitted correction path of an airborne weather radar beam during airplane take-offs and landings based on initial flight parameters and X-band airborne phased-array weather radar parameters. Errors in an ideal electromagnetic beam propagation path are much greater than those of a fitted path when atmospheric refraction is not considered. The rates of change in the atmospheric refraction index differ with weather conditions and the radar detection angles differ during airplane take-off and landing. Therefore, the airborne radar detection path must be revised in real time according to the specific sounding data and flight parameters. However, an error analysis indicates that a direct linear-fitting method produces significant errors in a negatively refractive atmosphere; a piecewise-fitting method can be adopted to revise the paths according to the actual atmospheric structure. This study provides researchers and practitioners in the aeronautics and astronautics field with updated information regarding the effect of atmospheric refraction on airborne weather radar detection and correction methods.

  5. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  6. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu


    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  7. 3D radar wavefield tomography of comet interiors (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik


    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their surface and interior structure in detail and at high resolution. The interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography. Radar tomography can be performed using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology. Our feasibility study primarily focuses on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated in various frequency bands between 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Using realistic numerical experiments, we demonstrate that wavefield techniques can generate high resolution tomograms of comets nuclei with arbitrary shape and complex interior properties.

  8. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft. (United States)

    Rowland, J. R.


    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  9. Space-borne polarimetric SAR sensors or the golden age of radar polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier E.


    Full Text Available SAR Polarimetry represents an active area of research in Active Earth Remote Sensing. This interest is clearly supported by the fact that nowadays there exists, or there will exist in a very next future, a non negligible quantity of launched Polarimetric SAR Spaceborne sensors. The ENVISAT satellite, developed by ESA, was launched on March 2002, and was the first Spaceborne sensor offering an innovative dualpolarization Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR system operating at C-band. The second Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is ALOS, a Japanese Earth-Observation satellite, developed by JAXA and was launched in January 2006. This mission includes an active L-band polarimetric radar sensor (PALSAR whose highresolution data may be used for environmental and hazard monitoring. The third Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is TerraSAR-X, a new German radar satellite, developed by DLR, EADS-Astrium and Infoterra GmbH, was launched on June 2007. This sensor carries a dual-polarimetric and high frequency X-Band SAR sensor that can be operated in different modes and offers features that were not available from space before. At least, the Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor, developed by CSA and MDA, and named RADARSAT-2 was launched in December 2007 The Radarsat program was born out the need for effective monitoring of Canada’s icy waters, and some Radarsat-2 capabilities that benefit sea- and river ice applications are the multi-polarization options that will improve ice-edge detection, ice-type discrimination and structure information. The many advances in these different Polarimetric Spaceborne platforms were developed to respond to specific needs for radar data in environmental monitoring applications around the world, like : sea- and river-ice monitoring, marine surveillance, disaster management, oil spill detection, snow monitoring, hydrology, mapping, geology, agriculture, soil characterisation, forestry applications (biomass, allometry, height

  10. Linkage Map of the Long Arm of Barley Chromosome 3 Using C-Bands and Marker Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib


    locations. No recombination was observed between the two proximal C-band locations whereas the two distal locations recombined with a frequency of 12 2 per cent. The three C-band locations were linked with loci cer-zd, uz, and cer-zn, but not with the tightly linked loci Est-1 and Est-4. The order...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The relevance of different models, such as the one-band t-J model and the three-band Emery model, as a realistic description of the electronic structure of high-T(c) materials is discussed. Starting from a multiband approach using cluster calculations and an impurity approach, the following

  12. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations (United States)

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.


    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100-200 % for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASC measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18 % difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36 % for the individual events. Use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122 % for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. More accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.

  13. Spaceborne Radar for Mapping Forest and Land Use Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha Pankaj

    Degradation (REDD+). The implementation and effectiveness of such mechanisms relies partially on continuous observations of forests using satellite technology and partially on ground-based measurements of forest aboveground volume/biomass (AGV/AGB), carbon density and changes therein. Together, these means...... of forest monitoring enable the development of policies and measures to alter current trends in global forest and biodiversity loss. This thesis investigates the use of long wavelength (~23 cm, L-band) spaceborne radar, which has all-weather and canopy-penetration capabilities, acquired by the Advanced Land...... Observing Satellite (ALOS) for forest monitoring. Using a combination of local expert knowledge, plot inventories, and data from lidar and optical sensors, it aims to understand (1) whether forest disturbance dynamics may be detected with radar, and (2) what physical and macroecological properties influence...

  14. Feasibility of automotive radar at frequencies beyond 100 GHz


    Köhler, Mike; Hasch, Jürgen; Blöcher, Hans Ludwig; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter


    Radar sensors are used widely in modern driver assistance systems. Available sensors nowadays often operate in the 77 GHz band and can accurately provide distance, velocity, and angle information about remote objects. Increasing the operation frequency allows improving the angular resolution and accuracy. In this paper, the technical feasibility to move the operation frequency beyond 100 GHz is discussed, by investigating dielectric properties of radome materials, the attenuation of rain and ...

  15. SAT-WIND project. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten

    microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data...

  16. Synergetic Combination of Radar Information and Gauge Measurements - with the Conflict between Two Types of Data Being Removed via Displacement and Downscaling (United States)

    Yan, J.; Bardossy, A.


    Rain gauges are the foundation in hydrology to collect rainfall data, however, gauge measurements alone are limited at representing the complete rainfall distribution. On the other hand, the reliability of radar data is often limited because of the errors in the radar signal (e.g. clutter, variation of the vertical reflectivity profile, beam blockage, attenuation, etc). Thus, merging radar information and gauge rainfall measurements is in an area of active research. The merging method proposed here is to use the radar data in its [0, 1] format (p-value). The actual precipitation values come from the gauge measurements. At each measurement location, two types of data are available, the radar p-value and the gauge measurement in mm. It happens very frequently that there exists a contradiction between these two types of data. A very likely reason is the influence of the unknown process between the radar measurement height and the surface onto which the hydrometeors fall. A method for quantification of the impact of the unknown process is proposed to fix the conflict, but only to a certain degree. Another possible source that can explain the discrepancy between these two types of data is discretization, i.e., the spatial variability cannot be identified by coarse discretization. Thus, downscaling is also considered to further remove the conflict. Based on the p-value from the radar data and the precipitation from the gauge measurements, a distribution function can be built up. The ultimate goal is to simulate the precipitation field for nowcasting purpose. The conditions to be fulfilled by the simulated field is as the following: honoring the measurements at the gauge locations; sharing a similar pattern with the radar image; preserving the inherent covariance structure. The simulation approach employed here is random mixing. The study domain is located in Reutlingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (Latitude 48.49N, Longitude 9.20E). The radar data are obtained from a C-band

  17. Relating multifrequency radar backscattering to forest biomass: Modeling and AIRSAR measurement (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qing; Ranson, K. Jon


    During the last several years, significant efforts in microwave remote sensing were devoted to relating forest parameters to radar backscattering coefficients. These and other studies showed that in most cases, the longer wavelength (i.e. P band) and cross-polarization (HV) backscattering had higher sensitivity and better correlation to forest biomass. This research examines this relationship in a northern forest area through both backscatter modeling and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data analysis. The field measurements were used to estimate stand biomass from forest weight tables. The backscatter model described by Sun et al. was modified to simulate the backscattering coefficients with respect to stand biomass. The average number of trees per square meter or radar resolution cell, and the average tree height or diameter breast height (dbh) in the forest stand are the driving parameters of the model. The rest of the soil surface, orientation, and size distributions of leaves and branches, remain unchanged in the simulations.

  18. Significance of scatter radar studies of E and F region irregularities at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.


    This chapter considers the mechanisms by which electron density irregularities may be generated in the high latitude ionosphere and the techniques through which they are observed with ground base radars. The capabilities of radars used for studying these irregularities are compared with the capabilities of radars used for incoherent scatter measurements. The use of irregularity scatter techniques for dynamic studies of larger scale structured phenomena is discussed. Topics considered include E-region irregularities, observations with auroral radars, plasma drifts associated with a westward travelling surge, and ionospheric plasma motions associated with resonant waves. It is shown why high latitude F-region irregularity studies must be made in the HF frequency band (3-30 MHz). The joint use of the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT), STARE and SAFARI facilities is examined, and it is concluded that the various techniques will enhance each other and provide a better understanding of the various processes being studied

  19. Design and performance Assessment of an Airborne Ice Sounding Radar Front-End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens


    The paper describes the design and experimental performance assessment of the RF front-end of an airborne P-band ice sounding radar. The ice sounder design features newly developed components at a centre frequency of 435 MHz, such as, antenna 20% bandwidth at RL ≪ 13 dB, compact high power in...

  20. Full C-band Tunable MEMS-VCSEL for Next Generation G.metro Mobile Front- and Backhauling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Zou, Shihuan Jim; Ortsiefer, Markus


    We report full C-band tunable, 10 Gbit/s capability, directly modulated MEMS-VCSEL for next generation converged mobile fronthaul and backhaul applications. Bit error rates below 10(-9) were achieved over up to 40 km SSMF.......We report full C-band tunable, 10 Gbit/s capability, directly modulated MEMS-VCSEL for next generation converged mobile fronthaul and backhaul applications. Bit error rates below 10(-9) were achieved over up to 40 km SSMF....

  1. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.


    In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the K-u band synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL (Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter), which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined...... knowledge of ice and snow properties, the composition of radar backscatter and therefore the interpretation of radar echoes is crucial. This has consequences in the selection of retracker algorithms which are used to track the main scattering horizon and assign a range estimate to each CryoSat-2 measurement...... of sea-ice freeboard and higher-level products that arise from the choice of the retracker threshold only, independent of the uncertainties related to snow and ice properties. Our study shows that the choice of retracker thresholds does have a significant impact on magnitudes of estimates of sea...

  2. Effect of radar rainfall time resolution on the predictive capability of a distributed hydrologic model (United States)

    Atencia, A.; Llasat, M. C.; Garrote, L.; Mediero, L.


    The performance of distributed hydrological models depends on the resolution, both spatial and temporal, of the rainfall surface data introduced. The estimation of quantitative precipitation from meteorological radar or satellite can improve hydrological model results, thanks to an indirect estimation at higher spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, composed radar data from a network of three C-band radars, with 6-minutal temporal and 2 × 2 km2 spatial resolution, provided by the Catalan Meteorological Service, is used to feed the RIBS distributed hydrological model. A Window Probability Matching Method (gage-adjustment method) is applied to four cases of heavy rainfall to improve the observed rainfall sub-estimation in both convective and stratiform Z/R relations used over Catalonia. Once the rainfall field has been adequately obtained, an advection correction, based on cross-correlation between two consecutive images, was introduced to get several time resolutions from 1 min to 30 min. Each different resolution is treated as an independent event, resulting in a probable range of input rainfall data. This ensemble of rainfall data is used, together with other sources of uncertainty, such as the initial basin state or the accuracy of discharge measurements, to calibrate the RIBS model using probabilistic methodology. A sensitivity analysis of time resolutions was implemented by comparing the various results with real values from stream-flow measurement stations.

  3. Non-contact acquisition of respiration and heart rates using Doppler radar with time domain peak-detection algorithm. (United States)

    Xiaofeng Yang; Guanghao Sun; Ishibashi, Koichiro


    The non-contact measurement of the respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) using a Doppler radar has attracted more attention in the field of home healthcare monitoring, due to the extremely low burden on patients, unconsciousness and unconstraint. Most of the previous studies have performed the frequency-domain analysis of radar signals to detect the respiration and heartbeat frequency. However, these procedures required long period time (approximately 30 s) windows to obtain a high-resolution spectrum. In this study, we propose a time-domain peak detection algorithm for the fast acquisition of the RR and HR within a breathing cycle (approximately 5 s), including inhalation and exhalation. Signal pre-processing using an analog band-pass filter (BPF) that extracts respiration and heartbeat signals was performed. Thereafter, the HR and RR were calculated using a peak position detection method, which was carried out via LABVIEW. To evaluate the measurement accuracy, we measured the HR and RR of seven subjects in the laboratory. As a reference of HR and RR, the persons wore contact sensors i.e., an electrocardiograph (ECG) and a respiration band. The time domain peak-detection algorithm, based on the Doppler radar, exhibited a significant correlation coefficient of HR of 0.92 and a correlation coefficient of RR of 0.99, between the ECG and respiration band, respectively.

  4. 3D high-resolution radar imaging of small body interiors (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik


    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their interior structure in detail and at high resolution (Asphaug, 2009). We often infer internal structure from surface observations, e.g. that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a primordial agglomeration of cometesimals (Massironi et al., 2015). However, the interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data, as suggested by the CONSERT experiment on Rosetta. Interior imaging depends on observations from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography.We discuss radar imaging using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology (Sava et al., 2015). We primarily focus on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors characterized by complex structure and large contrasts of physical properties. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated at two frequency bands, centered around 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Assuming that the spin period is significantly (e.g. 5x) faster than the orbital period, this configuration allows repeated views from multiple directions (Safaeinili et al., 2002)Using realistic numerical experiments, we argue that (1) the comet/asteroid imaging problem is intrinsically 3D and conventional SAR methodology does not satisfy imaging, sampling and resolution requirements; (2) imaging at different frequency bands can provide information about internal surfaces (through migration) and internal volumes (through tomography); (3) interior imaging can be accomplished progressively as data are being acquired through successive orbits around the studied object; (4) imaging resolution can go beyond the apparent radar frequency band by deconvolution of the point-spread-function characterizing the imaging system; and (5

  5. Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment. (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Andrea; Nico, Giovanni; Pitullo, Alfredo; Prezioso, Giuseppina


    The aim of this paper is to describe how ground-based radar interferometry can provide displacement measurements of earth dam surfaces and of vibration frequencies of its main concrete infrastructures. In many cases, dams were built many decades ago and, at that time, were not equipped with in situ sensors embedded in the structure when they were built. Earth dams have scattering properties similar to landslides for which the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) technique has been so far extensively applied to study ground displacements. In this work, SAR and Real Aperture Radar (RAR) configurations are used for the measurement of earth dam surface displacements and vibration frequencies of concrete structures, respectively. A methodology for the acquisition of SAR data and the rendering of results is described. The geometrical correction factor, needed to transform the Line-of-Sight (LoS) displacement measurements of GBSAR into an estimate of the horizontal displacement vector of the dam surface, is derived. Furthermore, a methodology for the acquisition of RAR data and the representation of displacement temporal profiles and vibration frequency spectra of dam concrete structures is presented. For this study a Ku-band ground-based radar, equipped with horn antennas having different radiation patterns, has been used. Four case studies, using different radar acquisition strategies specifically developed for the monitoring of earth dams, are examined. The results of this work show the information that a Ku-band ground-based radar can provide to structural engineers for a non-destructive seismic assessment of earth dams.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  7. Modified retrieval algorithm for three types of precipitation distribution using x-band synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Xie, Yanan; Zhou, Mingliang; Pan, Dengke


    The forward-scattering model is introduced to describe the response of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of precipitation with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Since the distribution of near-surface rainfall is related to the rate of near-surface rainfall and horizontal distribution factor, a retrieval algorithm called modified regression empirical and model-oriented statistical (M-M) based on the volterra integration theory is proposed. Compared with the model-oriented statistical and volterra integration (MOSVI) algorithm, the biggest difference is that the M-M algorithm is based on the modified regression empirical algorithm rather than the linear regression formula to retrieve the value of near-surface rainfall rate. Half of the empirical parameters are reduced in the weighted integral work and a smaller average relative error is received while the rainfall rate is less than 100 mm/h. Therefore, the algorithm proposed in this paper can obtain high-precision rainfall information.

  8. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter


    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940s. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analysts understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  9. Halogenation of SiC for band-gap engineering and excitonic functionalization (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.; Lounis, S.


    The optical excitation spectra and excitonic resonances are investigated in systematically functionalized SiC with Fluorine and/or Chlorine utilizing density functional theory in combination with many-body perturbation theory. The latter is required for a realistic description of the energy band-gaps as well as for the theoretical realization of excitons. Structural, electronic and optical properties are scrutinized and show the high stability of the predicted two-dimensional materials. Their realization in laboratory is thus possible. Large band-gaps of the order of 4 eV are found in the so-called GW approximation, with the occurrence of bright excitons, optically active in the four investigated materials. Their binding energies vary from 0.9 eV to 1.75 eV depending on the decoration choice and in one case, a dark exciton is foreseen to exist in the fully chlorinated SiC. The wide variety of opto-electronic properties suggest halogenated SiC as interesting materials with potential not only for solar cell applications, anti-reflection coatings or high-reflective systems but also for a possible realization of excitonic Bose-Einstein condensation.

  10. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berne


    Full Text Available This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two contrasting rainfall events confirms the expected differences between stratiform and convective precipitation. The mean areal rainfall over the Ourthe catchment upstream of Tabreux estimated from the Wideumont weather radar using the standard Marshall-Palmer reflectivity-rain rate relation shows biases between +128% and –42% for six selected precipitation events. For two rainfall events the radar-estimated mean areal rainfall is applied to the gauge-calibrated (lumped HBV-model for the Ourthe upstream of Tabreux, resulting in a significant underestimation with respect to the observed discharge for one event and a closer match for another. A bootstrap analysis using the radar data reveals that the uncertainty in the hourly discharge from the ~1600km2} catchment associated with the sampling uncertainty of the mean areal rainfall estimated from 10 rain gauges evenly spread over the catchment amounts to ±25% for the two events analyzed. This uncertainty is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as that associated with the model variables describing the initial state of the model.

  11. An experimental vital signs detection radar using low-IF heterodyne architecture and single-sideband transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Yan, Lei


    In this paper an experimental X-band radar system, called DTU-VISDAM, developed for the detection and monitoring of human vital signs is described. The DTU-VISDAM radar exploits a low intermediate frequency (IF) heterodyne RF front-end architecture and single-sideband (SSB) transmission for easier...... and more reliable extraction of the vital signs. The hardware implementation of the proposed low-IF RF front-end architecture and associated IF circuitry is discussed. Furthermore, the signal processing and calibration steps necessary to extract the vital signs information measured on a human subject...

  12. Flood occurrence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satellite radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayat


    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.

  13. Observations of copolar correlation coefficient through a bright band at vertical incidence (United States)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.


    This paper discusses an application of polarimetric measurements at vertical incidence. In particular, the correlation coefficients between linear copolar components are examined, and measurements obtained with the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'s and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s polarimetric radars are presented. The data are from two well-defined bright bands. A sharp decrease of the correlation coefficient, confined to a height interval of a few hundred meters, marks the bottom of the bright band.

  14. Lightning and radar observations of hurricane Rita landfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Bradley G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Suszcynsky, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamlin, Timothy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeffery, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Kyle C [TEXAS TECH U.; Orville, R E [TEXAS A& M


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) owns and operates an array of Very-Low Frequency (VLF) sensors that measure the Radio-Frequency (RF) waveforms emitted by Cloud-to-Ground (CG) and InCloud (IC) lightning. This array, the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA), has approximately 15 sensors concentrated in the Great Plains and Florida, which detect electric field changes in a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 500 kHz (Smith et al., 2002). Recently, LANL has begun development of a new dual-band RF sensor array that includes the Very-High Frequency (VHF) band as well as the VLF. Whereas VLF lightning emissions can be used to deduce physical parameters such as lightning type and peak current, VHF emissions can be used to perform precise 3d mapping of individual radiation sources, which can number in the thousands for a typical CG flash. These new dual-band sensors will be used to monitor lightning activity in hurricanes in an effort to better predict intensification cycles. Although the new LANL dual-band array is not yet operational, we have begun initial work utilizing both VLF and VHF lightning data to monitor hurricane evolution. In this paper, we present the temporal evolution of Rita's landfall using VLF and VHF lightning data, and also WSR-88D radar. At landfall, Rita's northern eyewall experienced strong updrafts and significant lightning activity that appear to mark a transition between oceanic hurricane dynamics and continental thunderstorm dynamics. In section 2, we give a brief overview of Hurricane Rita, including its development as a hurricane and its lightning history. In the following section, we present WSR-88D data of Rita's landfall, including reflectivity images and temporal variation. In section 4, we present both VHF and VLF lightning data, overplotted on radar reflectivity images. Finally, we discuss our observations, including a comparison