WorldWideScience

Sample records for c-14 ingestion dose

  1. Ingestion dose pathway parameters of H-3 and C-14 in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang-Geun Chung; Gab-Bock Lee; Sun-Young Bang [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Seung-Ong Lee [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Cooperation (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: H-3 and C-14 are the main nuclides for public ingestion dose around nuclear power plants in Korea. Key parameters of H-3 and C-14 ingestion dose pathways are the fractions of moisture, hydrogen, and carbon in agricultural vegetation. In this study, representative values of the moisture, hydrogen, and carbon contents for categorized food groups were established. The food stuffs are classified into four groups such as grain, leafy vegetable, root vegetable, and fruit. Methods Weighting factors for individual food items were considered to calculate representative values of each food group using the 2001-2002 national dietary survey, published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW). The weighting factor for individual food stuff was determined by the ratio of each food item to the total intake of each food group. Representative values of the moisture, hydrogen, and carbon contents for the four food groups were calculated using the annual weighting factor and the fractions of moisture, hydrogen, and carbon of individual food stuff based on the sixth revision of Food Composition Table published by the Rural Living Science Research Institute (RLSI). Results The weighting factor of rice in grain group was 95% on a yearly basis. Those of Chinese cabbage in leafy vegetable group and radish in root vegetable group were 58% and 52%, respectively. The fruit consumption varied with seasons. Annual weighting factors of apple, persimmon, water melon, and pear in fruit were 21%, 18%, 17%, and 15%, respectively. The respective fractions of moisture in grain, leafy vegetable, root vegetable, and fruit were 10.8%, 93.0%, 88.3%, and 88.0%: those of hydrogen were 5.6%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 0.74%: those of carbon were 39.68%, 2.84%, 4.98%, and 5.23%. The hydrogen fraction of root vegetable was 75% larger than that of leafy vegetable. The values of moisture, hydrogen, and carbon contents in agricultural vegetation calculated from the Food Composition

  2. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  4. Dose estimation for repeated phosphorus-32 ingestion in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H.; Tseng, C.L.; Hsieh, W.A.; Hung, D.Z.; Chang, W.P. E-mail: wpc94@mailsrv.ym.edu.tw

    2001-01-15

    Dose estimation was conducted for internal phosphorus-32 exposure in one young male subject from repeated oral mis-ingestion for >1 year. Since disclosure for previous continuous contamination, a series of urine samples were collected from this individual weekly for a period of >2 months. P-32 radioactivity in urine samples were measured by the acid precipitation method. Estimation for retrospective total effective dose equivalent received by this subject was conducted for cumulative internal dose estimation. A minimum of 9.4 mSv was estimated for an assumed single ingestion. As this was a rare case in radiation protection and internal radiation dosimetry, its implications were of considerable significance.

  5. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  6. Modeling Considerations for Ingestion Pathway Dose Calculations Using CAP88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuenkel, David

    2017-04-01

    The CAP88-PC computer model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to demonstrate compliance under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS). The program combines atmospheric transport models with the terrestrial food chain models in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 to compute the radionuclide concentrations in the air, on ground surfaces and plants, and the concentrations in food to estimate the dose to individuals living in the area around a facility emitting radionuclides into the atmosphere. CAP88 allows the user to select the size of the assessment area and the receptor locations used to calculate the radionuclide concentrations in non-leafy vegetables, leafy vegetables, milk, and meat consumed by the receptors. Depending on the food scenario selected and the type of calculation ("Population" or "Individual") chosen, the annual effective dose from ingestion can depend on both the size of the assessment area and the location of the receptors. Illustrative examples demonstrate the effect of the choice of these input parameters on the annual effective dose from ingestion. An understanding of the model used in CAP88 and the differences between "Population" and "Individual" run types will enable the CAP88 user to better model the ingestion dose.

  7. Improving ingestion dose modelling for the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems: A Nordic Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    A Nordic work group under the NKS-B activity PARDNOR has revised the input parameters in the ECOSYS model that is incorporated for ingestion dose modelling in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems. The new parameterisation takes into account recent measurement data, and targets the model...

  8. Effect of Nordic ciets on ECOSYS model predictions of ingestion doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne S.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2010-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is used to estimate ingestion dose in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. It is recommended that nation-specific values for several parameters are used in the model. However, this is generally overlooked when the systems are used in prac...

  9. Parametric improvement for the ingestion dose module of the European ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, H.

    2011-01-01

    The European decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS rely on the ECOSYS model for prognoses of ingestion doses. ECOSYS needs an update of various parameter values to provide reliable estimates. This paper reports on some results of a Nordic initiative to derive parameter values that are specific...

  10. Characterizing the Toxicity and Dose-Effect Profile of Tramadol Ingestions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinos, Gina L; Gonzales, Lawrence; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-02-21

    Tramadol can cause life-threatening toxicity in overdose; however, data on its toxicity in children are lacking. This study investigates toxicity associated with tramadol ingestions in children. The hypothesis is that children will experience dose-related central nervous system and respiratory depression and seizures. A retrospective evaluation of cases from the National Poison Center Data System between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, was performed. Inclusion criteria were age below 6 years and single-substance acute tramadol ingestion. For dose-effect analysis, cases with sufficient dose quantity information were included. There were 7334 cases that met inclusion criteria. Outcomes were 84.8% no effect, 12.6% minor, 2.2% moderate, and 0.4% major effect. There was 1 fatality. Most of the children (36.4%) were treated/released from the emergency department; other management sites were home (36.4%), admission (5.9%), and others (3.2%). In the 1115 children with symptoms, drowsiness (N = 611) and vomiting (N = 178) occurred most frequently. More serious clinical effects included respiratory depression in 36 and seizures in 24 children. Of 2772 children with milligram dose recorded, there were 10 cases of respiratory depression and 6 of seizure. Median doses for respiratory depression and seizure were 225 (range, 50-600 mg) and 525 mg (range, 50-1050 mg), respectively. The minimum weight-based dose for respiratory depression/arrest was 7.9 mg/kg and for seizures, 4.8 mg/kg. Seizure and respiratory depression are uncommon in pediatric tramadol ingestions. Given the small number of patients with dose data and lack of laboratory confirmation of dose, more studies are needed to determine the minimum dose at which medical management is recommended.

  11. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  12. Caffeine ingestion impairs insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner in both men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Allen, Brian; Mazzetti, Gillian; Sullivan, Peter J; Graham, Terry E

    2013-02-01

    The effects of alkaloid caffeine on insulin sensitivity have been investigated primarily in men, and with a single caffeine dose most commonly of 5-6 mg·kg(-1) of body weight (BW). It is unknown if the effects of caffeine on glucose homeostasis are sex-specific and (or) dose-dependent. This study examined whether caffeine ingestion would disrupt glucose homeostasis in a dose-dependent or threshold manner. It also examined whether sex-specific responses to caffeine exist. It was hypothesized that women would have an exaggerated response to caffeine, and that caffeine would only impair glucose metabolism once a threshold was reached. Twenty-four healthy volunteers (12 males, 12 females) participated in 4 trials, in a crossover, randomized, and double-blind fashion. They ingested caffeine (1, 3, or 5 mg·kg(-1) of BW) or placebo followed, 1 h later, by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide area under the curve (AUC), and insulin sensitivity index data were fitted to a segmented linear model to determine dose-responses. There were no differences between sexes for any endpoints. Regression slopes were significantly different from zero (p fashion beginning at very low doses (0-1 mg·kg(-1) BW) in both healthy men and women.

  13. Determination of the uncertainties in radiation doses from ingestion of strontium-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoaei, Andrei Iulian

    Quantification of the uncertainties in the internal dosimetry is important because it can impact the outcome of dose reconstruction, risk assessment or epidemiological studies. This research focused on determination of the uncertainties in the dose factors from a single ingestion of 90Sr by adults, and analyzed the changes with age and the effect of gender. The uncertainties in the estimated dose factors are a factor of 6 for the bone surface, 5 for the red bone marrow, 2.5 for bladder and stomach, 2.2 for the small intestine, 2.1 for the upper large intestine and 2.7 for the lower large intestine. For the rest of the organs the uncertainty is a factor of 3. Only four parameters of the biokinetic model showed an age-dependency within the adult age group: the fractional transfers of strontium from plasma to cortical and trabecular bone, and the removal rates from the cortical and trabecular bone, respectively. When age-dependent biokinetic parameters were used, the estimated dose-factors are very close to the dose factors obtained using age-independent kinetics (within 40%). Thus, the dose factors based on age-independent parameters should suffice for most practical purposes. The dose factors and the associated uncertainties were also calculated as a function of age-at-exposure and attained age. These age dependent curves can be used for estimating doses from continuous intakes, or doses delivered over a limited portion of time. In addition to the committed dose, an expected dose is also estimated in this work. The expected dose is calculated using the dose rate weighted by the probability of surviving up to the age when the dose-rate is delivered. For exposure at young ages the expected dose and the committed dose are similar, but the committed dose decreases to zero when exposure occurs close to age 70, while the expected dose has elevated values pass age 70. No gender differences were found for bone surface, for red bone marrow, and the large intestine. The doses

  14. Estimates of internal-dose equivalent from inhalation and ingestion of selected radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents internal radiation dose conversion factors for radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of nuclear fuel cycles. This volume provides an updated summary of estimates of committed dose equivalent for radionuclides considered in three previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. Intakes by inhalation and ingestion are considered. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group Lung Model has been used to simulate the deposition and retention of particulate matter in the respiratory tract. Results corresponding to activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m are given. The gastorintestinal (GI) tract has been represented by a four-segment catenary model with exponential transfer of radioactivity from one segment to the next. Retention of radionuclides in systemic organs is characterized by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions, recommended in ICRP Publication 30. The first-year annual dose rate, maximum annual dose rate, and fifty-year dose commitment per microcurie intake of each radionuclide is given for selected target organs and the effective dose equivalent. These estimates include contributions from specified source organs plus the systemic activity residing in the rest of the body; cross irradiation due to penetrating radiations has been incorporated into these estimates. 15 references.

  15. Level of natural radionuclides in foodstuffs and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The natural radioactivities in three major groups of foodstuff widely consumed in Upper Egypt were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in cereals, leguminosae, and flour were measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. Another group of hay, water, and soil samples from the same location were also analyzed. Hay samples were found to contain the highest radioactivity concentration among all the samples that were investigated. This increment could be due to the high water content in the shoots which tends to accumulate soluble radionuclides. The average calculated concentrations of soil samples in the present study exhibits the lowest values with respect to those from different countries. In the case of water samples, the average activities of both 232Th and 40K were similar to those for soil while 226Ra was twice that of water sample. The annual ingestion dose from each radionuclide was calculated. The computed annual dose owing to daily intake of radium, thorium, and potassium via wheat flour, lentils,and bean in the present study (214.8 μSv) is ten times lower than the global average annual radiation dose (2400 μSv)from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. The obtained results show that the dose values are quite low and carry insignificant radiation dose to the public.

  16. Is received dose from ingested soil independent of soil PAH concentrations?-Animal model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle; Cave, Mark; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability from ingested soils will vary between soils; however, the nature of this variation is not well characterized. A juvenile swine model was used to link external exposure to internal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and anthracene exposure following oral PAH ingestion of 27 different impacted site soils, soots, or spiked artificial soils. Internal exposure of BaP and anthracene, represented by area under the plasma-time curve, did not relate to soil concentration in impacted site soils, but did relate in spiked artificial soil. Point of departure modeling identified soil PAH concentrations greater than 1900 mg kg(-1) as the point where area under the curve becomes proportional to external dose. A BaP internal exposure below 1900 mg kg(-1) had an upper 95% confidence interval estimate of 33% of external exposure. Weak relationships between soil:simulated gastrointestinal fluid PAH partitioning and area under the curve values suggest that differences in internal PAH exposure between soils may not be dominated by differences in PAH partitioning. The data seem to best support exposure assessment assuming constant internal PAH exposure below soil concentrations of 1900 mg kg(-1) . However, because constant internal exposure would challenge several existing paradigms, a bioavailability estimate of 33% of the external exposure is suggested as a likely workable solution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2261-2269. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Bioaccessibility of Fukushima-Accident-Derived Cs in Soils and the Contribution of Soil Ingestion to Radiation Doses in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shogo; Ikegami, Maiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Kondo, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto

    2016-09-30

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture.

  18. Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross; Cordery, Philip; Funnell, Mark; Mears, Stephen; James, Lewis; Watson, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers ( 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla]). During the supplementation period a second V̇O2peak test was completed on day 21 before a final, acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine trial (postcaf) on day 29. Trials consisted of 60 min cycle exercise at 60% V̇O2peak followed by a 30 min performance task. All participants produced more external work during the precaf trial than testpla, with increases in the caffeine (383.3 ± 75 kJ vs. 344.9 ± 80.3 kJ; Cohen's d effect size [ES] = 0.49; P = 0.001) and placebo (354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. 333.1 ± 56.4 kJ; ES = 0.38; P = 0.004) supplementation group, respectively. This performance benefit was no longer apparent after 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation (precaf: 383.3 ± 75.0 kJ vs. postcaf: 358.0 ± 89.8 kJ; ES = 0.31; P = 0.025), but was retained in the placebo group (precaf: 354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. postcaf: 351.8 ± 49.4 kJ; ES = 0.05; P > 0.05). Circulating caffeine, hormonal concentrations and substrate oxidation did not differ between groups (all P > 0.05). Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine develops tolerance in low-caffeine consumers. Therefore, individuals with low-habitual intakes should refrain from chronic caffeine supplementation to maximise performance benefits from acute caffeine ingestion.

  19. POTRE: A computer code for the assessment of dose from ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanusik, V.; Mitro, A.; Niedel, S.; Grosikova, B.; Uvirova, E.; Stranai, I. (Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the computer code PORET and the auxiliary database system which allow to assess the radiation exposure from ingestion of foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides released from a nuclear facility during normal operation into the atmosphere. (orig.).

  20. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    patterns could easily lead to a difference in long term ingestion doses by a factor of at least two between the Nordic countries. It was also demonstrated that early phase doses received before countermeasures can be effectively implemented may deviate by at least an order of magnitude. Finally, typical animal feeding regimes have been examined and described for the different Nordic countries. Here it has been found that both the fodder items and the seasonal variation in their application vary considerably. (au)

  1. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 +/- 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 +/- 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected.

  2. Dose dependence of breath hydrogen and methane in healthy volunteers after ingestion of a commercial disaccharide mixture, Palatinit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, M; Siebert, G; Kasper, H

    1985-09-01

    Breath hydrogen and methane were determined by gas chromatography in eleven normal individuals given a low-fibre, mixed diet (control) and after ingestion of 20-50 g Palatinit/d, an equimolar mixture of D-glucosyl-alpha(1----1)-D-mannitol and D-glucosyl-alpha(1----6)-D-glucitol (Isomalt). A linear relation was found (r 0.85; P less than 0.001) between the amount of Palatinit ingested and breath H2 per 10 h in subjects who did not exhale methane. If methane was formed in addition to H2, the sum of both gases followed a linear dose-effect relation. The mouth-to-caecum time, indicated by the first increase in breath H2 after ingestion, was shortened by about half, yet no sign of diarrhoea was observed. Stool weight and stool frequency did not change significantly. The linear relation between a dose of 20-50 g Palatinit and exhalation of H2 (eventually plus methane) indicated that a relatively constant fraction of the dose given underwent cleavage and absorption in the small intestine, the remainder being transported into the large bowel. Microbial gas formation in the colon as well as the fractional transfer of these gases into the expiratory air occurred at fixed proportions, thus allowing an insight into colonic microbial contributions to carbohydrate utilization in the human large bowel.

  3. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Moore, Daniel R; Breithaupt, Peter; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Offord, Elizabeth A; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Background: Protein ingestion is important in enhancing whole-body protein balance in children. The effect of discrete bolus protein ingestion on acute postexercise recovery has yet to be determined.Objective: This study determined the effect of increasing doses of ingested protein on postexercise whole-body leucine balance in healthy, active children.Methods: Thirty-five children (26 boys, 9 girls; age range: 9-13 y; weight mean ± SD: 44.9 ± 10.6 kg) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet (0.95 g protein ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) before performing 20 min of cycling 3 times with a concurrent, primed, constant infusion of [(13)C]leucine. After exercise, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage (140 kcal) containing variable amounts of bovine skim-milk protein and carbohydrates (sucrose) (0, 5, 10, and 15 g protein made up with 35, 30, 25, and 20 g carbohydrates, respectively). Blood and breath samples were taken over the 3 h of recovery to determine non-steady state whole-body leucine oxidation (LeuOX) and net leucine balance (LeuBAL).Results: LeuOX (secondary outcome) peaked 60 min after beverage ingestion and demonstrated a relative dose-response over the 3 h of recovery (15 g = 10 > 5 > 0 g; P 10 g (11.6 ± 4.3 mg/kg) > 5 g (5.7 ± 1.9 mg/kg) > 0 g (-3.0 ± 1.7 mg/kg); all P ingestion alone; however, the co-ingestion of carbohydrates and 5 g high-quality dietary protein was sufficient to promote a positive postexercise whole-body protein balance in healthy, active children. Moreover, LeuBAL increased in a dose-dependent manner within the protein range studied. Children should consider consuming a source of dietary protein after physical activity to enhance whole-body anabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01598935. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Dose-related gastrointestinal response to the ingestion of either isomalt, lactitol or maltitol in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsou, G A; Storey, D M; Lee, A; Zumbe, A; Flourie, B; leBot, Y; Olivier, P h

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether there were differences between different polyols (sugar alcohols) in terms of their ability to stimulate intolerance symptoms when consumed in milk chocolate. Also to discover whether symptomatology can be related to the dose of polyol ingested. The study was of a randomised double-blind cross-over design. 59 healthy volunteers aged 18-24 years were recruited from the student population of the University of Salford. All subjects successfully completed the trial. Subjects ingested 100 g milk chocolate containing 40 g bulk sweetner as either sucrose, isomalt, lactitol or maltitol or a mixture (10:30 w/w) of sucrose and isomalt, sucrose and lactitol or sucrose and maltitol. Each bar was taken as breakfast on one day with following products consumed at 1-week intervals. Subjects reported the incidence and severity of the symptoms of flatulence, borborygms, colic, motion frequency and loose stools. The ingestion of 30 g or 40 g lactitol resulted in a significant increase in the incidence and severity of all symptoms examined compared to reactions after the consumption of standard sucrose-containing chocolate (P chocolate. However, with all three polyols the incidence and severity of symptomatology was dose dependent.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and lung fibrosis after ingestion of a high dose of ortho-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2005-08-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium salt are used as fungicides and antibacterial agents, ingestion of which has been found to cause liver toxicity, renal toxicity and carcinomas in the urinary tract of rats. Lung damage due to OPP ingestion has not been reported in humans. We report a suicidal 39-year-old woman with stage II cervical cancer who drank a potentially lethal dose of OPP in the form of a commercial antiseptic, which led to the complication of liver and renal function impairment, severe lung damage with acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequent severe lung fibrosis. Open lung biopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage. She was discharged after 34 days of hospitalization with continuing domiciliary oxygen therapy.

  6. Method for evaluation of doses from ingestion of polonium, bismuth and lead as natural radioactive material(NORM); Metodo de evaluacion de dosis por ingestion de polonio, bismuto y plomo como materiales radiactivos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Vanessa; Puerta, Anselmo; Morales, Javier, E-mail: vpenam@ullal.edu.co, E-mail: japuerta@unal.edu.co, E-mail: jmorales@unal.cdu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Fisica Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    In this work was carried out an evaluation of dose from ingestion of radioactive daughters of radon (lead, bismuth and polonium), taking into account ages from three months up to adult men, using the new model of the human alimentary tract HATM and methodology of calculating doses proposed by the ICRP publication 103, which allows the estimation of dose based on the concentration of the radionuclide present in the diet or in the water of consumption.

  7. Evaluation of effective dose in consequence of Para chestnut ingestion; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em consequencia da ingestao de castanha do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellintani, Sandra A.; Oliveira, Joselens de; Carvalho, Jurandyr S. de; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Commercial samples of Brazil nut tree seed (Bertholletia excelsa) were analysed for the presence or uranium and thorium series of natural radionuclides. The samples were analysed for the content of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, {sup 232} Th, {sup 228} Th. Mean values 1.4 {+-} 0.4 Bq/kg for {sup 238} U, 26.3{+-}4.1 Bq/kG for {sup 226} Ra, 4.7{sup {+-}}1.8 Bq/kg for {sup 210} Pb, 16.5{+-}4.3 Bq/kg for {sup 232} Th, 31.3{+-}6.4 Bq/Kg for {sup 228} Ra and 12.3{+-}5.1 Bq/kg for {sup 228} Th. The effective dose due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides contained in the Brazil nuts, is 2.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/kg ingested per year. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard;

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops...

  9. Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyń, Piotr; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew; Moliszewska, Ewa

    The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected for the study. Edible parts of these plants were collected in experimental fields of the KWS Lochów Polska Sp. z o.o. seeding company in Kondratowice (Poland). On the basis of the obtained study results, it can be stated that in consequence of consumption of the selected food products, people may receive increased doses from both natural and artificial radioactive isotopes. The doses calculated for several age groups do not show any health hazards in consequence of consumption of the tested food. One of the determined radionuclides was (137)Cs; however, its presence in the absorbed dose is lower than the doses from natural radioactive isotopes, in particular (40)K.

  10. Radon-222 in groundwater and effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet Ayobami; Oyeleke, Oyebode Akanni

    2017-03-20

    Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l(-1) with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l(-1), respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l(-1) with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3.04, respectively. About 58% of the 84 water samples examined had a higher concentration of radon than the 11.1 Bq l(-1) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); the AMs of six LGAs and GMs of three LGAs were higher than the recommended value. However the AMs and GMs of all the LGAs with about 93% of the water sampled were lower than the 100 Bq l(-1) recommended by the World Health Organization and EURATOM drinking water directive. The concentration of radon varied with the geological formation of the area. The AMs of the annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water ranged from 0.036 to 1.261 mSv y(-1), 0.071 to 2.521 mSv y(-1) and 0.042 to 1.471 mSv y(-1) for adult, child and infant, respectively and the GMs in the range of 0.026 to 0.813, 0.055 to 1.625 and 0.032 to 0.948 mSv y(-1), respectively. The AMs of 10 LGAs and GMs of 7 LGAs were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y(-1) from the consumption of water for the duration of one year for all the three categories of people. The AMs and GMs of the annual effective dose due to inhalation of radon in drinking water ranged from 0.533 to 18.82 μSv y(-1) and 0.411 to 12.13 μSv y(-1), respectively, contributing less to the overall dose.

  11. Dose assessment for ingestion of a 330 kilo-becquerel {sup 60}Co hot particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whillans, D.W.; Chase, W.J.; Wolodarsky, W.H. [Health Physics Department, Ontario Power Generation, Whitby, Ontario, L1 N 9E3 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    On leaving the irradiated fuel bay at Pickering A nuclear power station, a worker triggered a whole body monitor alarm with activity in or on his head, and despite careful decontamination techniques he subsequently swallowed a hot particle. Over the next 3 d, the radioactivity was tracked through the body. It was then excreted in a single faecal sample and recovered for physical and radiochemical analysis. This analysis demonstrated that the particle contained 330 kBq of {sup 60}Co and only traces of other radioactivity. Its dimensions were {approx}50-130 {mu}m and its composition was consistent with that of Stellite 6. A dose assessment was carried out taking into account the residence time of the particle in the mouth and its transit through the body. The estimated committed effective dose was 1.4 mSv, and the equivalent dose to the maximally exposed 1 cm{sup 2} of skin, 81 mSv. (authors)

  12. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K. Prabhath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spectrometry was performed for estimation of polonium. Radiochemical recovery was ascertained by the addition of 209Po tracer. Radiochemical recovery of 209Po tracer was ranged from 14.7 to 98.1 %. The 210Po concentration in the samples was in the range of 0.08–0.23 Bq kg−1 on measured date and the corresponding daily dose, calculated on normalized date which is at mid-point of the shelf life of the sample, was ranged from 0.04 to 0.89 μSv d−1 as per the recommended daily consumption. The annual committed effective dose estimated based on the average of daily dose was found to be 150 μSv.

  13. Dose calculation for {sup 40}K ingestion in samples of beans using spectrometry and MCNP; Calculo de dose devido a ingestao de {sup 40}K em amostras de feijao utilizando espectrometria e MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, R.W.D.; Lopes, J.M.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/PEN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Domingues, A.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Lima, M.A.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia

    2014-07-01

    A method based on gamma spectroscopy and on the use of voxel phantoms to calculate dose due to ingestion of {sup 40}K contained in bean samples are presented in this work. To quantify the activity of radionuclide, HPGe detector was used and the data entered in the input file of MCNP code. The highest value of equivalent dose was 7.83 μSv.y{sup -1} in the stomach for white beans, whose activity 452.4 Bq.Kg{sup -1} was the highest of the five analyzed. The tool proved to be appropriate when you want to calculate the dose in organs due to ingestion of food. (author)

  14. Annual committed effective dose from olive oil (due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn) estimated for members of the Moroccan public from ingestion and skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Touti, R

    2012-03-01

    Olive oil is traditionally refined and widely consumed by Moroccan rural populations. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) contents were measured in various locally produced olive oil samples collected in rural areas of Morocco. These radionuclides were also measured inside various bottled virgin olive oils consumed by the Moroccan populations. CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by the members of the general public were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by adult members of Moroccan rural populations was found equal to 5.9 µSv y-1. The influence of pollution due to building material dusts and phosphates on the radiation dose to workers from the ingestion of olive oil was investigated, and it was found that the maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was on the order of 0.22 mSy y-1. Committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the application of olive oil masks by rural women were evaluated. The maximum total committed effective dose to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was found equal to 0.07 mSy y-1 cm-2.

  15. Hyperhaploid and tetraploid sperm detected in men who ingested ultra-high doses of diazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[GSF-Inst. Saeugetiergenetik, Neuherberg (Germany); Adler, I.D.; Schmid, T.E. [GSF-Inst. Saeugetiergenetik, Neuherberg (Germany)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Diazepam is widely administered as a sedative, muscle relaxant and anxiolytic drug. Five young non-smoking men who were hospitalized after their suicide attempt using diazepam, {approximately}1-7 mg/kg (oral intake), provided semen samples 40-50 days and {approximately}100 days after exposure to assess drug effects on meiotic cells and to evaluate persistence. Five healthy men served as local clinical controls. A multicolor FISH assay was applied to detect aneuploidy for chromosome X, Y, and 21 in sperm. Sex ratios were not significantly different from 1:1 among 133,143 cells analyzed. The 40-day samples showed an increase in several sperm aneuploidy groups: disomy 21 (1.5 fold, p=0.04); disomy X (2.7 fold, p=0.0006), and XY aneuploidy (1.6 folk, p=0 0.017). The results for {approximately}100 days after exposure were similar to controls suggesting that hyperhaploidy effects may not persist. Phase contrast microscopy was used to identify flagellated tetraploid sperm, i.e., X-X-Y-Y-21-21-21-21. Tetraploid sperm were found among 8 semen samples provided by five patients (1.4 {+-} 1.2 per 10,000 cells; >80,000 cells) while none were detected among >50,000 cells from healthy men. Our findings are consistent with the possible aneuploidy-inducing effect of diazepam during male meiosis but further studies are needed before these results can be extrapolated to therapeutic dosing because suicide patients are a highly exposed cohort and other confounding factors (alcohol, drugs, antidotes) cannot be ruled out.

  16. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas. Status report for the NKS-B activity 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-03-15

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, analyses have been performed for each Nordic country to determine the sensitivity of the ingestion dose end-point in ECOSYS to variation in 9 selected, potentially important parameters (human dietary components and animal fodder components). This parametric sensitivity was found to vary considerably between the different Nordic countries, reflecting considerable differences in diet and domestic production, and highlighting the importance of last year's work to identify appropriate location-specific parameters. A simple empirical Danish soil temperature based methodology for calculation of more reliable location-specific values of leaf area index (LAI) was tested for Swedish conditions and applied to estimate the seasonal LAI variation in other countries. The leaf area index reaches its maximum value much earlier in the southern parts of the Nordic region than in the northern. This means that the conditions for deposition and interception to vegetation would over a certain time span be very different in different Nordic areas. Also the influence on ECOSYS dose estimates of resuspension enrichment factors, leaching rates, fixation rates and desorption rates was investigated in the reported activity period, identifying new data sets where needed.(au)

  17. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  18. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  19. Chronic exposure to a low dose of ingested petroleum disrupts corticosterone receptor signalling in a tissue-specific manner in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Stress-induced concentrations of glucocorticoid hormones (including corticosterone, CORT) can be suppressed by chronic exposure to a low dose of ingested petroleum. However, endocrine-disrupting chemicals could interfere with CORT signalling beyond the disruption of hormone titres, including effects on receptors in different target tissues. In this study, we examined the effects of 6 weeks of exposure to a petroleum-laced diet (1% oil weight:food weight) on tissue mass and intracellular CORT ...

  20. Reporting C-14 activities and concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, WG; van der Plicht, J

    1999-01-01

    Three modes of reporting C-14 activities are in use, in part analogous to the internationally accepted (IAEA) conventions for stable isotopes: (1) absolute activity, the specific activity of C-14 or the activity per gram of carbon; (2) activity ratio, the ratio between the absolute activities of a s

  1. Safety analysis for the Abadia de Goias repository: alternative evaluation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance; Analise de seguranca para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: avaliacao alternativa da distancia critica de taxa de dose de ingestao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, A.S. de; Passos, E.M. dos [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    An alternative calculation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance due to a hypothetical release of Cs-137 from the structure of the Repository of Abadia de Goias is presented. The release pathway considers the repository - groundwater region - well - and food chain. The main adopted modification comparing to the previous work is the inclusion of the convective and molecular diffusion terms in the radionuclide transport equation in addition to the radioactive decay term. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab.

  2. Determination of transfer factors of uranium, thorium, radium and lead from soil to agricultural product in Japan for estimating internal radiation dose through ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomozo [Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Fujinaga, Hideshi [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishii, Tomoaki; Gunji, Yasuyoshi [Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    The transfer factors (TFs) of uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra) and lead (Pb) from soil to agricultural products were determined in order to estimate the internal radiation dose to the human body through ingestion. Samples of rice, potato, onion, cabbage, mandarin orange, spinach, apple and soil were collected from various districts in Japan. After appropriate pretreatment of the samples, concentrations in the sample solutions were measured by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (for U, Th and Pb) and liquid scintillation counter (for Ra). It was recognized that TFs were 4.9 x 10{sup -6} (apple) and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} (spinach) for U, 2.8 x 10{sup -6} (apple) and 2.3 x 10{sup -4} (spinach) for Th, and 4.0 x 10{sup -3} (hulled rice), 7.0 x 10{sup -5} (onion) and 5.0 x 10{sup -3} (hulled rice) for Pb. The TF of Ra, however, was not determined due to detection limitations. TF values obtained in the present study range from the same order of magnitude to 1/100 compared to the data in Technical Report Series No.364 (TRS364) as reported by IAEA. It was revealed that the internal radiation dose caused by the intake of uranium series radioactive nuclides through agricultural food ingestion was 16 {mu}Sv/y, where Pb was the most contributory nuclide. (author)

  3. [Caustic ingestions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Mazeikiene, Sandra; Rumba, Arvydas; Vizgirdaite, Venta

    2009-01-01

    Caustic ingestions (alkalis, acids) may cause severe chemical burns and lifelong complications, which worsen life quality. Approximately 80% of caustic ingestions occur in children. They mostly intoxicate because of chemical substances kept insecurely or in inappropriate containers. Until now, there is no general opinion about diagnostics and management of caustic ingestions. Therefore, the main aim of this article is accurately represent diagnostic and treatment options believing that this information would help physicians to diagnose caustic ingestions easier and faster, to provide emergency management correctly, and to avoid acute and chronic complications.

  4. Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Effects of the chronic ingestion of therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine on the behavioral action of agonists and antagonists of serotonin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1983-08-01

    Locomotor activity and hole-board exploration (frequency and time spent head-dipping) were impaired in male rats by injecting IP the 5-HT agonists, fluoxetine and 5-HTP. This treatment produced also myoclonus and increased the time spent resting during trials. The chronic ingestion of chlorimipramine (CIM) or the injection of the 5-HT receptor blocker, methysergide (15 mg/kg) prevented the action of the 5-HT agonists on locomotion and resting and blocked the appearance of myoclonus. Both CIM and methysergide prevented to a minor degree the fluoxetine-5-HTP-induced decrease of exploration. The chronic ingestion of CIM clearly potentiated the effects of methysergide on hole-board exploration. Results suggest that the chronic treatment with therapeutic doses of CIM reduces the functional activity of some 5-HT systems in the brain of the rat, probably by blockade of post-synaptic 5-HT receptors. This does not preclude, however, that CIM may also alter some NA systems.

  6. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas - Status report for the NKS-B activity 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G. (eds.) (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-01-15

    incorporation and excretion by farm animals of ingested contaminants were also examined, and new datasets for transfer parameters and biological half-lives were derived. (author)

  7. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Montero-Cabrera, M E; Manjón-Collado, G; Colmenero-Sujo, L; Rentería-Villalobos, M; Cano-Jiménez, A; Rodríguez-Pineda, A; Dávila-Rangel, I; Quirino-Torres, L; Herrera-Peraza, E F

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222Rn, 226Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 microSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality.

  8. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  9. A kinematic-based methodology for radiological protection: Runoff analysis to calculate the effective dose for internal exposure caused by ingestion of radioactive isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Syota; Yamada, Tadashi; Yamada, Tomohito J.

    2014-05-01

    We aim to propose a kinematic-based methodology similar with runoff analysis for readily understandable radiological protection. A merit of this methodology is to produce sufficiently accurate effective doses by basic analysis. The great earthquake attacked the north-east area in Japan on March 11, 2011. The system of electrical facilities to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was completely destroyed by the following tsunamis. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive isotopes had leaked and been diffused in the vicinity of the plant. Radiological internal exposure caused by ingestion of food containing radioactive isotopes has become an issue of great interest to the public, and has caused excessive anxiety because of a deficiency of fundamental knowledge concerning radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactivity in the human body and internal exposure have been studied extensively. Previous radiologic studies, for example, studies by International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP), employ a large-scale computational simulation including actual mechanism of metabolism in the human body. While computational simulation is a standard method for calculating exposure doses among radiology specialists, these methods, although exact, are too difficult for non-specialists to grasp the whole image owing to the sophistication. In this study, the human body is treated as a vessel. The number of radioactive atoms in the human body can be described by an equation of continuity, which is the only governing equation. Half-life, the period of time required for the amount of a substance decreases by half, is only parameter to calculate the number of radioactive isotopes in the human body. Half-life depends only on the kinds of nuclides, there are no arbitrary parameters. It is known that the number of radioactive isotopes decrease exponentially by radioactive decay (physical outflow). It is also known that radioactive isotopes

  10. Radionuclides in deer and elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory and the doses to humans from the ingestion of muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, P R; Biggs, J R; Bennett, K D; Kraig, D H; Mullen, M A; Ferenbaugh, J K

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and totU) in muscle and bone tissue of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer (n = 11) and elk (n = 22) collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) than in similar tissues from deer (n = 3) and elk (n = 7) collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% of LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDEs (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (50 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.22 mrem y-1 (2.2 microSv y-1), deer bone = 3.8 mrem y-1 (38 microSv y-1), elk muscle = 0.12 mrem y-1 (1.2 microSv y-1), and elk bone = 1.7 mrem y-1 (17 microSv y-1). All CEDEs were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem y-1 (1000 microSv y-1), and the highest muscle plus bone net CEDE corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06, which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E-04.

  11. Review of C-14 inventory for the SFR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham; Merino, Joan; Kerrigan, Emma

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is currently reviewing SKB's continuing assessment for disposal of radioactive waste to the SFR facility at Forsmark. Among the wastes disposed are reactor operating wastes. Among the relevant radionuclides is C-14, which is relatively difficult to measure and to control because of its mobility. This report documents a review of the C-14 inventory material submitted by SKB for the SFR-facility, to determine its validity and comment on the appropriate assumptions for C-14 content of wastes due to be disposed of to the SFR. The review is based on information provided by SSI as well as other relevant international experience. Conclusions are drawn upon: the chemical form of the C-14 in the waste from BWRs and PWRs; the production rate of C-14 in BWRs and PWRs and quantification of the source term in the IEX waste; the distribution of the C-14 in the IEX waste from BWR between the resins used for treatment of the primary cooling water and the resins used for treatment of the condensate water; quantification of the uncertainties. A suggestion is made that the C-14 inventory could be better developed based upon a mass balance assessment of all the C-14 produced in reactors, and its ultimate fate in effluent and solid wastes, taking account of the reactor specific operational factors identified in the review as relevant to C-14 inventory assessment.

  12. Dosimetry and reproducibility of a capsule-based C-14 urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, M.J.; Stubbs, J.B.; Buck, D.A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the excretion of the C-14 and associated radiation dose and (2) to examine the reproducibility of a commercial C-14 urea breath test for H.pylori diagnosis. Tests were performed on twenty consenting volunteers (13M, 7F, 24-48 yr). Breath samples containing 1 mmol CO{sub 2} were obtained at 0,5,10,15,20,25,30 min. and 1,2,3,4,5,6,12, 24 hrs following administration of the 37kBq C-14 urea test capsule. A 24 hr urine collection was performed with each voiding collected separately. A repeat breath test was performed 24 hr after the first. H. pylori positive (HP+) was defined as a 15 minute breath sample >=50 dpm. Total urine excretion was obtained directly. Breath excretion was modeled by estimating the area under the excretion curve and using a constant factor of 884 mmol CO{sub 2}/ hr. Urine and breath excretion data in HP+ and H. pylori-negative (HP-) volunteers were pooled and fit to a monoexponential function thus estimating the cumulative urinary excretion of unmetabolized urea. Previously reported biokinetic models of C-14 urea and bicarbonate were used to estimate radiation doses form each compound. Weighted sums were calculated for each dose estimate using each group`s excretion fraction distribution. Both HP+ and HP- volunteers excreted an average of 73% of the C-14 over the first 24 hr. HP+ excretion was evenly divided between breath (34%) and urine (38%). HP-excretion is almost solely by the urinary pathway. The maximum dose for HP= was to the red marrow (0.0033 mGy) and a maximum of 0.0054 mGy to the urinary bladder wall for HP-. There was no difference between 15 inch breath samples on the two days (t-test, p>0.6). The minimum HP+ result at 15 inch was 270 dpm and the maximum HP- result at 15 inch was 18 dpm, indicating great separation between HP+ and HP- results. This study verifies previous dose estimates using C-14 excretion data. The test is sensitive and reproducible with a low radiation dose.

  13. Capture reactions on C-14 in nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescher, Michael; Gorres, Joachim; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    1990-01-01

    Nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis leads to the production of C-14. The further reaction path depends on the depletion of C-14 by either photon, alpha, or neutron capture reactions. The nucleus C-14 is of particular importance in these scenarios because it forms a bottleneck for the production of heavier nuclei A greater than 14. The reaction rates of all three capture reactions at big bang conditions are discussed, and it is shown that the resulting reaction path, leading to the production of heavier elements, is dominated by the (p, gamma) and (n, gamma) rates, contrary to earlier suggestions.

  14. Can the C-14 urea breath test reflect the extent and degree of ongoing helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Taik; Jeong, Myung Ja [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The C-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) is the most specific noninvasive method to detect Helicobacter (H) pylori infection. We investigated if the C-14 UBT can reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx). One hundred fifty patients (M:F=83:67,age 48.6{+-}11.2 yrs) underwent C-14 UBT, rapid urease test (CLO test) and GBx on the same day. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (137 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate ( 50 {approx} 199 dpm) or negative ( < 50 dpm). The results of CLO tests were classified as positive or negative according to color change. The results of GBx on giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4(diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.5%, 88.4%, 97.1%, 88.4% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the CLO test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 83.2%, 81.4%, 91.8%, 81.4% and 82.7%, respectively. The quantitative values of the C-14 UBT were 45 {+-} 27 dpm in grade 0, 707 {+-}584 dpm in grade 1, 1558{+-}584 dpm in grade 2, 1851{+-}604 dpm in grade 3, and 2719 {+-} 892 dpm in grade 4. A significant correlation (r=0.848, p<0.01) was found between C-14 UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection on GBx with giemsa stain. We conclude that the C-14 UBT is a highly accurate, simple and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of ongoing H. pylori infection and reflects the degree of bacterial distribution.

  15. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Ingesting a high-dose carbohydrate solution during the cycle section of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon improves subsequent run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Shannon, Oliver; Betts, James

    2012-08-01

    The well-established ergogenic benefit of ingesting carbohydrates during single-discipline endurance sports has only been tested once within an Olympic-distance (OD) triathlon. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ingesting a 2:1 maltodextrin/fructose solution with a placebo on simulated OD triathlon performance. Six male and 4 female amateur triathletes (age, 25 ± 7 years; body mass, 66.8 ± 9.2 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 4.2 ± 0.6 L·min(-1)) completed a 1500-m swim time-trial and an incremental cycle test to determine peak oxygen uptake before performing 2 simulated OD triathlons. The swim and cycle sections of the main trials were of fixed intensities, while the run section was completed as a time-trial. Two minutes prior to completing every quarter of the cycle participants consumed 202 ± 20 mL of either a solution containing 1.2 g·min(-1) of maltodextrin plus 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose at 14.4% concentration (CHO) or a sugar-free, fruit-flavored drink (PLA). The time-trial was 4.0% ± 1.3% faster during the CHO versus PLA trial, with run times of 38:43 ± 1:10 min:s and 40:22 ± 1:18 min:s, respectively (p = 0.010). Blood glucose concentrations were higher in the CHO versus PLA trial (p triathlon enhances subsequent 10-km run performance in triathletes.

  17. Determination of the equivalent doses due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series presents in drinking waters of the region of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil; Determinacao das doses equivalentes devido a ingestao de radionuclideos das series do uranio e torio presentes em aguas de consumo do municipio de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Valeria F. da S., E-mail: vpastura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRSN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear. Coordenacao de Materias Primas e Minerais; Campos, Thomas F. da C.; Petta, Reinaldo A., E-mail: thomascampos@geologia.ufrn.b, E-mail: petta@geologia.ufrn.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (LARANA/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radioatividade Natural

    2011-10-26

    This paper determined the original dose equivalents from radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in a drinking water of well which is supplied to the population of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil. The collected waters are near to the mineralized phlegmatic bodies in rose quartz and amazonite feldspar. Radiometric measurements performed on the feldspar vein point out counting ratios surrounding 30000 cps and the analysis of collected samples of minerals presented tenors for the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 219}Pb varying from 0.50 to 2.30 Bq/sw. For determination of concentration of radionuclides U{sub Total}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 219}Pb, found in the not desalinated, two methods were used, spectrophotometry with arsenazo and radiochemistry, both realized in the CNEN-LAPOC laboratories. For the calculation of dose equivalent it was taken into consideration the following parameters: the dose coefficients for incorporation by ingestion for public individuals with ages over 17 years (Norma CNEN-NN-3.01, Regulatory Position 3.01/011) and daily ingestion of 4 liters of water, which is over the recommended by the WHO of 2L/day - 1993. The obtained values were compared with the reference value for compromised dose equivalent established by WHO for evaluate the risk potential to the health of population, by ingestion. The radionuclide concentrations in the wells varies from 0.054 to 0.21 Bq/L, resulting dose equivalents of 3.94 x 10{sup -3} mSv/year and 0.17 mSv/year in the studied population

  18. RADIATION DOSE AND RISK TO RECREATIONAL FISHERMEN FROM INGESTION OF FISH CAUGHT NEAR EIGHT OIL PLATFORMS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEINHOLD,A.F.; HOLTZMAN,S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. The assessment used data collected at eight discharging offshore platforms and two reference locations. These data were collected in a USDOE funded project titled ``Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations'', here called the USDOE Field Study. The risk assessments were done to support risk managers in developing regulations and permits for offshore discharges of produced water.

  19. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  20. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  1. Lipid metabolism of orchiectomised rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Satoru; Kishida, Taro; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether lipid metabolism in orchiectomised (ORX) rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose. Sucrose was used as a fructose source. Sham-operated and ORX rats were fed one of the following three diets for 28 d: a maize starch-based diet without sucrose (SU0), a diet by which half or all of maize starch was replaced by sucrose (SU50 or SU100). Body-weight gain and food intake were increased by sucrose ingestion, but decreased by ORX. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was increased by ORX and dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma TAG concentration was decreased by ORX, but was increased dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration was decreased by ORX, but was not affected by sucrose ingestion. Liver TAG was increased by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, liver cholesterol concentration was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX. The hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, faecal excretion of bile acids was decreased. The mRNA level of microsomal TAG transfer protein, which is the gene related to hepatic VLDL production, was increased by ORX and sucrose ingestion. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein-1 was decreased by ORX, but not by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration tended to correlate with the level of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA (r 0·747, P = 0·088). These results show that lipid metabolism in ORX rats would be affected by the consumption of fructose-rich sweeteners such as sucrose and high-fructose syrup.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Cesar, Thais B; Manthey, John A; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Raithore, Smita

    2014-12-31

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids considered beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two styles of orange juice, fresh-squeezed (FOJ) and commercially processed (POJ), differing in their amounts of soluble and insoluble forms of these compounds. Healthy human subjects consumed 11.5 mL/kg body weight of FOJ, and after an interval of 30 days, consumed the same quantity of POJ. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two styles of juices, and corrected for differences in doses in the POJ and FOJ, there were also no significant differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds.

  3. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Home Gardening Near a Mining Site in an Arsenic-Endemic Region of Arizona: Assessing Arsenic Exposure Dose and Risk via Ingestion of Home Garden Vegetables, Soils, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund Site in Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common household vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their household gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water > garden soils > homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener’s daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10−8 to 10−4, 10−6 to 10−4, and 10−5 to 10−2, respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae >> Fabaceae > Amaranthaceae > Liliaceae > Brassicaceae > Solanaceae >> Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10−6. The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg−1, 5.39 mg kg−1, 11.6 mg kg−1 and 12.4 mg kg−1 for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. PMID:23562690

  5. Estimation of Polonium-210 activity in marine and terrestrial samples and computation of ingestion dose to the public in and around Kanyakumari coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Macklin Rani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown mussel Perna perna, an effective bioindicator species for monitoring radioactive pollution, was used to evaluate the concentration of 210Po in and around the coastal areas of Kanyakumari, a Monazite rich region. 210Po concentration in P. perna collected from ten different locations in this region exhibited values ranging between 78.09 ± 5.5 and 320.00 ± 18.1 Bq/kg (wet. Kalluvilai recorded the maximum concentration of 210Po (320.00 ± 18.1 Bq/kg, and hence further studies involving the activity of 210Po in other marine organisms and terrestrial samples were carried out from this site. The annual intake of 210Po by the population residing in this location via dietary sources was estimated. Similarly, the total annual committed effective dose to the public was found to be 2.24 mSv/year. The results obtained were compared to the values reported by earlier studies in India and also in other countries.

  6. A moderate dose of caffeine ingestion does not change energy expenditure but decreases sleep time in physically active males: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júdice, Pedro B; Magalhães, João P; Santos, Diana A; Matias, Catarina N; Carita, Ana Isabel; Armada-Da-Silva, Paulo A S; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of caffeine on energy expenditure (EE), physical activity (PA), and total sleep time (TST) during free-living conditions using objective measures is scarce. We aimed to determine the impact of a moderate dose of caffeine on TST, resting EE (REE), physical activity EE (PAEE), total EE (TEE), and daily time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activities in a 4-day period and the acute effects on heart rate (HR) and EE in physically active males. Using a double-blind crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01477294) with two conditions (4 days each with 3-day washout) randomly ordered as caffeine (5 mg/kg of body mass/day) and placebo (maltodextrin) administered twice per day (2.5 mg/kg), 30 nonsmoker males, low-caffeine users (caffeine intake, while no differences were found between conditions for REE, PAEE, TEE, and PA patterns. Also, no acute effects on HR and EE were found between conditions. Though a large individual variability was observed, our findings revealed no acute or long-term effects of caffeine on EE and PA but decreased TST during free-living conditions in healthy males.

  7. Familial Anaphylaxis after Silkworm Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreau, Marc; Restuccia, Marc; Senser, Kevin; Weisberg, Stacy N

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present a case of anaphylaxis in multiple family members after ingesting silkworms, an Asian delicacy. While food allergies, including anaphylaxis are unfortunately common, there are no previous reports of multiple family members suffering an anaphylactic reaction after eating silkworms. In addition, both family members required multiple doses of epinephrine and eventually an epinephrine infusion to improve their blood pressures. All interventions, including the epinephrine infusions, were started by emergency medical services (EMS) with on-line medical direction. Both the reaction and the required treatment are not extensively documented in the medical literature.

  8. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  9. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 μm microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health.

  10. The synthetic cationic lipid diC14 activates a sector of the Arabidopsis defence network requiring endogenous signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiagno, Damián Alejandro; Lonez, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, María Elena

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic elicitors have contributed significantly to the study of plant immunity. Pathogen-derived proteins and carbohydrates that bind to immune receptors, allow the fine dissection of certain defence pathways. Lipids of a different nature that act as defence elicitors, have also been studied, but their specific effects have been less well characterized, and their receptors have not been identified. In animal cells, nanoliposomes of the synthetic cationic lipid 3-tetradecylamino-tert-butyl-N-tetradecylpropionamidine (diC14) activate the TLR4-dependent immune cascade. Here, we have investigated whether this lipid induces Arabidopsis defence responses. At the local level, diC14 activated early and late defence gene markers (FRK1, WRKY29, ICS1 and PR1), acting in a dose-dependent manner. This lipid induced the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, but not jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent, pathway and protected plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), but not Botrytis cinerea. diC14 was not toxic to plant or pathogen, and potentiated pathogen-induced callose deposition. At the systemic level, diC14 induced PR1 expression and conferred resistance against Pst. diC14-induced defence responses required the signalling protein EDS1, but not NDR1. Curiously, the lipid-induced defence gene expression was lower in the fls2/efr/cerk1 triple mutant, but still unchanged in the single mutants. The amidine headgroup and chain length were important for its activity. Given the robustness of the responses triggered by diC14, its specific action on a defence pathway and the requirement for well-known defence components, this synthetic lipid is emerging as a useful tool to investigate the initial events involved in plant innate immunity.

  11. (CH4)-C-14 Measurements in Greenland Ice: Investigating Last Glacial Termination CH4 Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Smith, A. M.; Brook, E. J.;

    2009-01-01

    The cause of a large increase of atmospheric methane concentration during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt climatic transition (similar to 11,600 years ago) has been the subject of much debate. The carbon-14 (C-14) content of methane ((CH4)-C-14) should distinguish between wetland and clathrate...... contributions to this increase. We present measurements of (CH4)-C-14 in glacial ice, targeting this transition, performed by using ice samples obtained from an ablation site in west Greenland. Measured (CH4)-C-14 values were higher than predicted under any scenario. Sample (CH4)-C-14 appears to be elevated...... by direct cosmogenic C-14 production in ice. C-14 of CO was measured to better understand this process and correct the sample (CH4)-C-14. Corrected results suggest that wetland sources were likely responsible for the majority of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal CH4 rise....

  12. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO{sub 2}. We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4{+-}13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate (50{approx}199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive ({>=}2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT

  13. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mistake it for liquid refreshment. Rom et al.5 ... These are containers used to dispense paraffin into appliances. ... This is because children's fluid intake increases on hotter days. .... Modernisation, determined by economic systems, level of education .... Effect of safety packaging on aspirin ingestion by children. Pediatrics ...

  14. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  15. Absorption, Distribution, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of C14-Pyronaridine Tetraphosphate in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to determine the absorption, distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug pyronaridine tetraphosphate (PNDP in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following oral administration of a single dose (10 mg/Kg of C14-PNDP, it was observed that the drug was readily absorbed from the small intestine within 1 hour following oral administration and was widely distributed in most of the tissues investigated as determined from the observed radioactivity in the tissues. The peak value of the drug in the blood was reached at around 8 hours postadministration, and radioactivity was detected in most of the tissues from 4 hours onwards. C14-PNDP showed a poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and the absorption, distribution, and excretion of C14-PNDP were found to be gender-independent as both male and female rats showed a similar pattern of radioactivity. Excretion of the drug was predominantly through the urine with a peak excretion post 24 hours of administration. A small amount of the drug was also excreted in the feces and also in the breath. It was found that the Cmax, AUC (0-inf, and Tmax values were similar to those observed in the Phase II clinical trials of pyronaridine/artesunate (Pyramax conducted in Uganda.

  16. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego R.G. Tudela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at "Luz" Monastery, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments.Este artigo apresenta os resultados de datação por TL e OSL de solos, e fragmentos de tijolos de um túmulo, que foi ocupado por duas freiras mumificadas encontradas no Mosteiro da "Luz", localizado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As idades encontradas por TL e OSL foram comparadas às obtidas a partir de C-14 dos colágenos contidos em amostras de osso das múmias. A maioria das idades obtidas são do século XVIII. A espectroscopia de radiação-gama foi utilizada para avaliar concentrações de radioisótopos naturais nas amostras e para calcular as taxas de dose anual que resultaram em 3,0 a 5,3 Gy/kano. As concentrações radioativas são próximas daquelas obtidas através de Análise por Ativação de Nêutrons. Os conteúdos de elementos U, Th e Ce são superiores aos encontrados na maioria dos sedimentos.

  17. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies.

  18. Future needs and requirements for AMS C-14 standards and reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, EM; Boaretto, E; Bryant, C; Cook, GT; Gulliksen, S; Harkness, DD; Heinemeier, J; McGee, E; Naysmith, P; Possnert, G; van der Plicht, H; van Strydonck, M; Cook, Gordon T.

    2004-01-01

    C-14 measurement uses a number of standards and reference materials with different properties. Historically the absolute calibration of C-14 measurement was tied to 1890 wood, through the 'primary' standard of NBS-OxI (produced by the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST - National Institute of St

  19. Determination of the thermal neutron induced O-17(n,alpha) C-14 reaction cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J; Wagemans, C; Bieber, R; Geltenbort, P

    1998-01-01

    The. O-17(n(th),alpha)C-14 reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known N-14(n(th),p)C-14 cross section. For the flux calibration measurements, N-14(2) from the air was used. The O-17(n,alpha) measurements were performed with several hig

  20. A transport and fate model of C-14 in a bay of the Baltic Sea at SFR. Today and in future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2001-06-01

    The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical release of radioactive carbon-14 from SFR-1 (the final repository for radioactive operational waste) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. The approach involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web. Carbon-14 was in the model introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the aquatic ecosystem above SFR-1 was then assessed assuming a release of 5.13 x 10{sup 7} Bq/year for 1,000 years. Modelling results were used to estimate steady-state C-14 concentrations in biota, exposure (Gy) of biota and dose (Sv) to humans consuming contaminated organisms both if the discharge occurred today (2000 AD)and if it occurred in the future (4000 AD). Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged C-14 was flushed out of the system more or less immediately (99.8% and 98.4% at 2000 AD and 4000 AD, respectively). However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers (0.18% and 2.11%), which enabled subsequent transfer of C-14 to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). The exported C-14 from the area was diluted to very low concentrations in the large recipient outside. Estimated exposures were very low, and differed significantly among the studied biota (17.2 x 10{sup -12} to 2.3 x 10{sup -6} Gy). In general the highest exposures were observed in benthic plants and benthic grazers followed by fish and benthos. Humans consuming large quantities of locally produced food (e.g.fish, mussels and algae) will receive an exposure in case of C-14 contamination. Estimated doses to humans were approximately 10-100 nSv per year, which is significantly lower than restrictions by the authorities. The developed model was also used to evaluate implications of various assumptions concerning the

  1. Synthesis and structural characterization of (C14H16N2)3 (C14H17N2)2 [-Mo8 O26

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ikram Zebiri; Sihem Boufas; Salima Mosbah; Leïla Bencharif; Mustapha Bencharif

    2015-10-01

    A novel polyoxomolybdate (C14H16N2)3 (C14H17N2)2 [-Mo8 O26] (1) has been synthesized from hydrothermal reaction of tolidine and molybdenum trioxide in water and characterized by its IR and UV spectra, 1H NMR, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, space group P$\\bar{ı}$, with the crystal cell parameters of =11.5360 Å, =11.6080 Å, =15.2520 Å, =72.50° , =79.46° , =86.91° , =1915.00 Å3 and =1. The asymmetric unit of the crystal structure of (C14H16N2)3 (C14H17N2)2 [-Mo8 O26] contains -octamolybdate [-Mo8 O26]4− anions, two tolidine molecules and shows the presence of monoprotonated tolidine cations. One tolidine molecule and a -Mo8 O26 polyanions species lie across crystallographic inversion centres while the two tolidine molecules occupy general sites.

  2. Spectral analysis of colour-quenched and chemically quenched C-14 samples; Estudio espectral de muestras de C-14 con extincion quimica y por color en centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P. E.; Grau, A.

    1987-07-01

    In this paper pairs of pulse height distribution curves, of C-14 samples, colour-quenched and chemically quenched was obtained. The possibility to choose a counting window in order to obtain the counting efficiency curves, for both type of quenching was studied. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Design, total synthesis, and evaluation of C13-C14 cyclopropane analogues of (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Xian, Ming; Liu, Fenghua

    2005-10-13

    [structure: see text] The design, total synthesis, and biological evaluation of two C13-C14-cyclopropyl analogues [(+)-1 and (+)-2] of (+)-discodermolide have been achieved. Key features of the syntheses include highly stereoselective, hydroxyl-directed cyclopropanations of vinyl iodides and higher order cuprate-mediated cross-coupling reactions between cyclopropyl iodides and alkyl iodides. Biological evaluation revealed that neither orientation of the cyclopropyl methylene completely substitutes for the C14 methyl found in (+)-discodermolide (3).

  4. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  5. Identification of Site of Morphine Action in Pregnant Wistar Rat Placenta Tissue: A C14-Morphine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In previous studies it has been emphasized that the site of morphine action may be either in the embryo or the placenta. In the present study, we attempt to identify the site of morphine action on the fetal section of Wistar rat placenta by using C14-morphine.Materials and Methods: In this study (experimental, female Wistar rats (weights: 170-200 g were mated with male rats and their coupling times recorded. Experimental groups received daily doses of 0.05 mg/ml of C14-morphine in their drinking water. On the 9th and14th embryonic days, the pregnant rats were anesthetized and the placenta and uterus surgically removed. Placentas were fixed in 10% formalin for two weeks, then processed, sectioned in 5 μm and 25 μm thicknesses, and fixed on glass slides for further evaluation. The 25 μm sections were delivered to black and white film for three days. Films were processed and evaluated with a digital inverse microscope for possible radiological impression. The 5 μm sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and evaluated by light microscope and MOTIC software.Results: Our results indicated that the site of action of C14-morphine was possibly located on the blood plexus of the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, oral morphine consumption was shown to inhibit fetal and maternal placental development in the experimental groups.Conclusion: We conclude that morphine’s effectiveness on the reduction of embryo growth and development may be via its effects on the blood plexus of the fetal section of the placenta.

  6. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  7. THRUST REVERSER PERFORMANCE AND THE INGESTION PROBLEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    THRUST REVERSAL, INGESTION ), (*JET TRANSPORT PLANE, THRUST), (*TURBOJET ENGINES, INGESTION ), JET TRANSPORT PLANES, PELLETS, ROCK (GEOLOGY), PARTICLES, DESIGN, MODEL, INSTALLATION, EFFECTIVENESS, COMMERICAL.

  8. Microbial Substrate Usage Indicated by C-14 Contents of Phospholipid Fatty Acids From Soil Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethemeyer, J.; Nadeau, M. J.; Grootes, P. M.; Kramer, C.; Gleixner, G.

    2004-05-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA's) are generally associated with viable (bacterial) cell membranes. They are thought to be short-lived under normal soil conditions. We compare the C-14 levels in PLFA's obtained from soil samples from the,clean" experimental site at Rotthalmünster (Germany) with those from the agricultural research station at Halle (Germany), where the soil is contaminated with,old" carbon from lignite mining and industry. The most abundant PLFA's were isolated via preparative capillary gas chromatography of their methyl-esters at the Max-Planck Institute, Jena, and their C-14 concentration was determined via accelerator mass spectrometry at the Leibniz-Labor, Kiel. The C-14 levels of three mono-unsaturated fatty acids (n-C17:1, n-C18:1 (and n-C16:1)) are not statistically significant different from those of the contemporaneous atmosphere, indicating these fatty acids were derived from fresh plant material. C-14 levels significantly above those of the atmosphere in three saturated fatty acids (i/a-C15:0, n-C16:0 and cy-C18:0) from the surface soil of Rotthalmünster must derive from carbon fixed from the atmosphere several years earlier, when levels of bomb-C-14, remaining from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, especially of the early 1960's, were still higher. Lower C-14 levels in the same compounds from the Halle surface soil indicate the incorporation of "old" contaminant carbon. A below- atmospheric C-14 concentration in n-C18:0 in Rotthalmünster surface soil may reflect the partial incorporation of carbon from older, pre-bomb times. The C-14 concentrations show these PLFA's were synthesized predominantly from recent to sub-recent photosynthetic compounds, while the significant differences in C-14 concentration, observed between the PLFA's, indicate their production from soil organic matter fractions of different (recent) age and C-14 content. The Halle results show "old" carbon may be incorporated into PLFA's and thus reenter the soil

  9. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio L.M., E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br [Faculdades de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATECs/CEETEPS/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Estadual de Educacao Tecnologica Paula Souza; Morais, Jose L.; Morais, Daisy de; Piedade, Silvia C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Munita, Casimiro S.P.; Hazenfratz, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at 'Luz' Monastery, located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments. (author)

  10. The ecosystem models used for dose assessments in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    chronic contamination. From the simulations for the different release cases, activity concentrations in water and soil are obtained and then multiplied with the aggregated transfer factors to obtain concentrations in food products. For terrestrial ecosystems, the aggregated transfer factors in Becquerel per Kilogram of edible carbon in the food are used to calculate the activity intake and from this the effective dose rate per unit release to an adult individual. For aquatic ecosystems, only doses from the ingestion of water (for lakes) and food (for sea and lakes) are considered, as previous assessments have shown that in these types of ecosystems other exposure pathways give a very low contribution to the total doses. A sensitivity analysis of the ecosystem models is presented in the report, identifying which parameters have the largest effect on the simulation endpoints of interest. The endpoints considered are the fraction of the release that is retained in the ecosystem, the activity concentrations in soil, water and sediments, and the total dose rates from external exposure, inhalation, and ingestion of water and food. These endpoints are evaluated at different times within the simulation and a sensitivity analysis using the Morris method is carried out. For some of the scenarios considered in SR-Can, the LDF concept is not applicable. One of these scenarios comprises the contamination of ground caused by inadvertent drilling into the repository. Doses which would arise for a family using this contaminated ground for housing and food production are estimated. The other scenario which is assessed separately is the release of C-14 and Rn-222 from the repository in gaseous form, entering the biosphere via soil as a diffuse source. Pathways considered are doses from ingestion of C-14 and from inhalation of C-14 and Rn-222 outdoors as well as indoors. For these scenarios, specific dose calculations were carried out. The methods applied for these calculations and the

  11. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  12. Monte Carlo simulations to calculate energy doses in a cow after continuous ingestion of CS 137 and K 40; Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zur Berechnung der Energiedosis in einem Rind nach kontinuierlicher Aufnahme von CS 137 und K 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Rabitsch, H. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Arbeitsgebiet Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    Currently ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) develops a new recommendation to estimate the natural radiation exposure of an agreed set of animals and reference plants. For estimating effective dose in humans and animals, the incorporated activities of natural and artificial radionuclides in body tissues and contents of the digestive system have to be known. It was the aim of this investigation to calculate energy doses caused by Cs 137 and K 40 in the reproductive organs (uterus, ovaries) of a cow. During its whole lifetime from 1986 to 1992, the cow incorporated continuously Cs 137 which was due to the fallout following the Chernobyl accident. K 40 occurs naturally in the cow's fodder. The cow was born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, and was infertile since 1990. The activities of Cs 137 and K 40 in the cow's fodder and in tissues, organs and contents of the digestive system of the carcass were measured simultaneously with the help of semiconductor detectors. To calculate the specific absorbed fractions by means of the Monte Carlo code MCNP, an appropriate simulation model for the reproductive organs and their surrounding tissues was developed. The contents of rectum and urinary bladder account for the main part of the energy dose in the reproductive organs. Comparison of our results with data from other investigations showed, that lifetime accumulation of Cs 137 and K 40 was too low to cause radiation inferred infertility. (orig.)

  13. Distribution of the (/sup 3/H)-label from low doses of radioactive ochratoxin A ingested by rats, and evidence for DNA single-strand breaks caused in liver and kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, A.; Creppy, E.E.; Dirheimer, G.; Roth, A.; Roeschenthaler, R.

    1986-04-01

    The distribution of a single low dose of (/sup 3/H)-ochratoxin A (OTA) in different tissues of male Wistar rats, after administration by intubation, was investigated after 5 h, 24 h and 48 h. This dose corresponds to concentrations encountered in naturally contaminated feed (4 ppm). The distribution of (/sup 3/H)-label varied with the time elapsed after administration; at 5 h the highest specific label was found in the stomach contents and in decreasing order in: intestinal contents, lung, liver, kidney, heart, fat, intestine, testes, and the lowest in muscles, spleen and brain. With exception of brain, fat, stomach and lung, all tissues showed maximum levels at 24 h, after which time the label decreased steadily, whereas in fat it increased. After a 12-week feeding experiment, with doses of 288.8 ..mu..g/kg corresponding to an intake of 4 ppm in feed each 48 h, the DNA in liver and kidneys was investigated for damage. By the alkaline elution method combined with micro-spectrofluorimetric determinations of DNA, evidence for DNA single-strand breaks was obtained. These findings support reports on the carcinogenic action of OTA.

  14. High-accuracy C-14 measurements for atmospheric CO2 samples by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Pertuisot, M.H.; van der Plicht, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to achieve high-accuracy radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (ANIS) and present measurement series (performed on archived CO2) of (CO2)-C-14 between 1985 and 1991 for Point Barrow (Alaska) and the South Pole. We report in detail the measurement

  15. The early history of Moscow : C-14 dates from Red Square

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, AL; Van Der Plicht, J; Krenke, N; Chichagova, O; Kovaliukh, N; Sulerzhitsky, LD; Mook, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    For the first time, a series of C-14 dates has been obtained for samples from the archaeological excavations in Red Square, the historical center of Moscow. The remains of burned dwellings from the bottom of the cultural layer were dated as well as dispersed charcoal from the underlying plough soil.

  16. A tree-ring and C-14 chronology of the key Sayan-Altai monuments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaitseva, GI; Vasiliev, SS; Marsadolov, LS; Van der Plicht, J; Sementsov, AA; Dergachev, VA; Lebedeva, LM

    1998-01-01

    We present a radiocarbon chronology of key Sayan-Altai monuments from the Scythian period, based on a statistical analysis of dates produced in the 1980s and now supplemented with new dates. These new C-14 dates were produced for samples from the Tuekta-1 barrows (burial mounds) and were measured bo

  17. Algal C-14 and total carbon metabolisms 2. Experimental observations with the diatom Skeletonema costatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, P.J.L.; Robinson, C.; Søndergaard, M.

    1996-01-01

    of 2-3), C-14 uptake into the particulate plus the dissolved fractions approximated to net photosynthesis. Rate constants derived from the chemically determined changes were used to parameterize models that accounted for the respiration of photosynthetic products and for the recycling of respiratory CO...

  18. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  19. Foreign bodies ingestion: what responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Serafino; Massoni, Francesco; Schiffino, Luigi; Pelosi, Marcello; Salesi, Marialucia

    2014-03-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is one of the most important and difficult emergencies for a physician to diagnose. Accidental ingestion is more common in children, in patients with dental implants, in individuals with mental disability and in drug users. Voluntary ingestion is found in patients who are psychologically unstable, in prisoners or those who attempt suicide. Foreign bodies may be divided into food as fish bones, chicken bones, food bolus, meat, etc. or real foreign bodies such as orthodontic implants, needles, pins, glass, coins, etc. The authors present a case of management, from the medicolegal point of view, of a female patient age 80, who complained, for some weeks of modest pain in the left iliac fossa, and afterwards the endoscopy showed a toothpick into the wall of the sigmoid colon. Assessed of the clinical status of the patient presented severe cardiac comorbidities so that before processing the patient to a second resolutive endoscopy, it was necessary to obtain the hemodynamic stability. However the management of cases of accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is particularly difficult. Medical errors can arise from the very first contact with the patient resulting in delays in appropriate treatment. The doctor to avoid compromising its position on medical liability, must use all the knowledge and diligence known by the art and science of medicine.

  20. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  1. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Shimouchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decreased to the baseline level, whereas ingestion of the same amount of distilled water did not change breath hydrogen (p 0.001. Ingestion of hydrogen water increased both hydrogen peaks and the area under the curve (AUC of breath hydrogen in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of milk showed a delayed and sustained increase of breath hydrogen in subjects with milk intolerance for up to 540 min. Ingestion of hydrogen water produced breath hydrogen at AUC levels of 2 to 9 ppm hour, whereas milk increased breath hydrogen to AUC levels of 164 ppm hour for 540 min after drinking.Conclusion: Hydrogen water caused a rapid increase in breath hydrogen in a dose-dependent manner; however, the rise in breath hydrogen was not sustained compared with milk.

  3. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  4. C-14 content of ten meteorites measured by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, N.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J. C. D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of C-14 in three North American and seven Antarctic meteorites show in most cases that this cosmogenic isotope, which is tightly bound, was separated from absorbed atmospheric radiocarbon by stepwise heating extractions. The present upper limit to age determination by the accelerator method varies from 50,000 to 70,000 years, depending on the mass and carbon content of the sample. The natural limit caused by cosmic ray production of C-14 in silicate rocks at 2000 m elevation is estimated to be 55,000 + or - 5000 years. An estimation is also made of the 'weathering ages' of the Antarctic meteorites from the specific activity of loosely bound CO2 which is thought to be absorbed from the terrestrial atmosphere. Accelerator measurements are found to agree with previous low level counting measurements, but are more sensitive and precise.

  5. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of pleuromutilin derivatives with novel C(14) side chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiang Fu; Chen Yu Ling; Xing Sheng Guo; Hui Li He; Yu She Yang

    2012-01-01

    In order to find novel antibacterial agents with superior antibacterial activity and overcoming multidrug resistance,a series of pleuromutilin derivatives with novel C(14) side chain were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities.The results of antibacterial acticities indicated that most of the derivatives showed potent activities against Gram-positive organisms.In particular,compound 10d exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity compared with pleuromutilin and linezoid,emerged as potential molecule for further investigation.

  6. Biochar-mediated [C-14]atrazine mineralization in atrazine-adapted soils from Belgium and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonowski, N. D.; BORCHARD, N.; ZAJKOSKA, P.; Fernandez Bayo, Jesus; Martinazzo, R.; Berns, A. E.; Burauel,P.

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been reported to reduce the microbial degradation of pesticides due to sorption of the active compound. This study investigated whether the addition of hardwood biochar alters the mineralization of C-14-labeled atrazine in two atrazine-adapted soils from Belgium and Brazil at different moisture regimens. Biochar addition resulted in an equally high or even in a significantly higher atrazine mineralization compared to the soils without biochar. Statistical analysis...

  7. The C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N Ratio in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, Adam M; Lambert, David L

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of C$^{15}$N in diffuse molecular gas from a detailed examination of CN absorption lines in archival VLT/UVES spectra of stars probing local diffuse clouds. Absorption from the C$^{15}$N isotopologue is confidently detected (at $\\gtrsim4\\sigma$) in three out of the four directions studied and appears as a very weak feature between the main $^{12}$CN and $^{13}$CN absorption components. Column densities for each CN isotopologue are determined through profile fitting, after accounting for weak additional line-of-sight components of $^{12}$CN, which are seen in the absorption profiles of CH and CH$^+$ as well. The weighted mean value of C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N for the three sight lines with detections of C$^{15}$N is $274\\pm18$. Since the diffuse molecular clouds toward our target stars have relatively high gas kinetic temperatures and relatively low visual extinctions, their C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N ratios should not be affected by chemical fractionation. The mean C$^{14}$N/C$^{15}$N ratio ...

  8. Determination of representative nitrogen contents for the activity calculation of core components with respect to the C-14 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Philipp [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Huettner, Frank [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear, Hamburg (Germany); Phlippen, Peter-Wilhelm [WTI GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    For the final repository Konrad during operating and decommissioning phase, ten radionuclides and two radionuclide groups are restricted regarding their maximum storable activity quantities. One of the ten relevant radionuclides is C-14. The determination of the C-14 activities within activation calculations is currently performed with conservative assumptions. With the results of the presented analysis a method for a realistic determination of representative C-14 contents of irradiated steels is available now. The relevant N-14 contents as a source for the C-14 amount are lower than previously estimated.

  9. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  10. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... following: (1) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, all ingestion tests must be conducted...

  11. Button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michael J; Ricca, Robert L; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2017-08-30

    As the demand for small electronics continues to grow so does the risk of oesophageal ingestion of button batteries. These small but powerful sources of energy are ubiquitous in every household and when swallowed, especially in small children, have been shown to create significant injury in a short amount of time leading to long-term morbidity and possible death. This review highlights the latest findings regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of ingested button batteries. Updated epidemiology from the National Capital Poison Center, new bench research looking at injury patterns and possible mitigation strategies, updated ideas on management algorithms including the use of a trauma protocol, close-look second endoscopy and management of button batteries in the lower gastrointestinal tract are reviewed in this paper. Despite advances in the understanding of injury mechanics and innovations leading to early diagnosis and improved management of button battery ingestion, parental and provider education remain the most important tools to keep children well tolerated from the sequelae of these potentially fatal events. Collaboration between healthcare experts, public health and industry is essential to find a safe answer to this ongoing threat.

  12. Comparison of C14- and C15-Predomiated AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys for Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a comparison of the electrochemical hydrogen-storage characteristics of two state-of-art Laves phase-based metal hydride alloys (Zr21.5Ti12.0V10.0Cr7.5Mn8.1Co8.0Ni32.2Sn0.3Al0.4 vs. Zr25.0Ti6.5V3.9Mn22.2Fe3.8Ni38.0La0.3 prepared by induction melting and hydrogen decrepitation. The relatively high contents of lighter transition metals (V and Cr in the first composition results in an average electron density below the C14/C15 threshold ( e / a ~ 6.9 and produces a C14-predominated structure, while the average electron density of the second composition is above the C14/C15 threshold and results in a C15-predominated structure. From a combination of variations in composition, main phase structure, and degree of homogeneity, the C14-predominated alloy exhibits higher storage capacities (in both the gaseous phase and electrochemical environment, a slower activation, inferior high-rate discharge, and low-temperature performances, and a better cycle stability compared to the C15-predominated alloy. The superiority in high-rate dischargeability in the C15-predominated alloy is mainly due to its larger reactive surface area. Annealing of the C15-predominated alloy eliminates the ZrNi secondary phase completely and changes the composition of the La-containing secondary phase. While the former change sacrifices the synergetic effects, and degrades the hydrogen storage performance, the latter may contribute to the unchanged surface catalytic ability, even with a reduction in total volume of metallic nickel clusters embedded in the activated surface oxide layer. In general, the C14-predominated alloy is more suitable for high-capacity and long cycle life applications, and the C15-predominated alloy can be used in areas requiring easy activation, and better high-rate and low-temperature performances.

  13. Isoniazid overdose treated with high-dose pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, B E; Wood, J P

    1983-05-01

    Large doses of pyridoxine recently have been shown to prevent the seizures and acidosis caused by ingestion of more than two to three grams of isoniazid. We present three cases of massive isoniazid ingestion, producing seizures and acidosis, that were treated successfully by administration of one gram of pyridoxine intravenously for each gram of isoniazid ingested.

  14. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  15. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  16. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  17. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  18. Studies directed toward the total synthesis of discodermolide: asymmetric synthesis of the C1-C14 fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefolov, Alexander; Panek, James S

    2002-07-11

    [structure: see text] A convergent and stereoselective assembly of the C1-C14 subunit of marine natural product (+)-discodermolide has been completed. The approach employs chiral allylsilane bond construction methodology to establish four of the eight stereogenic centers. Key fragment coupling is achieved via an efficient stereoselective acetate aldol reaction between C1-C6 and C7-C14 subunits.

  19. Adverse reaction to mefloquine associated with ethanol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittes, R C; Saginur, R

    1995-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with no history of neuropsychiatric illness was taking one 250-mg tablet of mefloquine (MFQ) weekly for malaria prophylaxis while in Tanzania. He experienced no adverse reaction in association with his first two doses. Concurrently with both his third and his fourth dose he consumed about half a litre of whisky. On both occasions he experienced hallucinations, paranoid delusions and suicidal ideation. Thereafter he continued taking the MFQ, abstained completely from ethanol ingestion and had no recurrence of psychiatric symptoms. It is hypothesized that the combination of MFQ and ethanol caused the two episodes of severe psychiatric disturbance. PMID:7859199

  20. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Use of miniature C-14 counters in dating and authentication in the museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.; Stoenner, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Curators often do not understand the basis for the C-14 method of age determination and its limitations. Purpose of this paper is to describe the underlying principles, and how these must influence the interpretation of the radiocarbon measurement of a museum specimen in terms of age. Several techniques for that measurement are described briefly, focussing on the miniature proportional counters that were developed for the Smithsonian Institution, and three museum problems are described which were attacked, and some interesting further research on museum objects that has been proposed. Finally some projections on the future applications of the different methods are made, in the context of museum work.

  2. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10

  3. Effective modern C++ 42 specific ways to improve your use of C++11 and C++14

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2015-01-01

    At first glance, C++11 and C++14 are defined by the new features they introduce, e.g., auto type declarations, move semantics, lambda expressions, and concurrency support. Information on these features is easy to come by, but learning to apply them effectively (such that the resulting software is correct, efficient, maintainable, and portable) is more challenging. That’s the role of this book. It describes how to write effective software using C++11 and C++14, i.e., using modern C++. Topics include: * The pros and cons of uniform initialization, noexcept specifications, perfect forwarding, and smart pointer make functions. * The relationships among std::move, std::forward, rvalues references, and universal references. * The most effective forms of lambda capture. * How best practices in “old” C++ programming (i.e., C++98) require revision for modern C++. Effective Modern C++ follows the proven format of Scott Meyers’ earlier Effective books (Effective C++, More Effective C++, and Effective STL), but c...

  4. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  5. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  6. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  7. Management of ingested magnets in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sunny Z; Bousvaros, Athos; Gilger, Mark; Mamula, Petar; Gupta, Sandeep; Kramer, Robert; Noel, R Adam

    2012-09-01

    We describe a comprehensive algorithm for the management of ingested rare-earth magnets in children. These newer and smaller neodymium magnets sold as adult toys are much stronger than the traditional magnets, and can attract each other with formidable forces. If >1 magnet is swallowed at the same time, or a magnet is co-ingested with another metallic object, the loops of intestine can be squeezed between them resulting in bowel damage including perforations. An algorithm that uses the number of magnets ingested, location of magnets, and the timing of ingestion before intervention helps to delineate the roles of the pediatric gastroenterologists and surgeons in the management of these cases.

  8. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  9. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  10. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. March

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1, fresh frozen plasma (FFP, and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione.

  11. Differential vascular reactivity responses acutely following ingestion of a nitrate rich red spinach extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Kephart, Wesley C; Holland, Angelia M; Mobley, Christopher B; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Pascoe, David D; Roberts, Michael D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic nitrate ingestion has been posited to affect arterial blood pressure and vascular function. We sought to determine the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) high in inorganic nitrate on vascular reactivity 1-h after ingestion in peripheral conduit and resistance arteries. Fifteen (n = 15; males 8, females 7) apparently healthy subjects (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in this crossover design, double-blinded study. Subjects reported to the lab ≥2-h post-prandial and consumed RSE (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate) or placebo (PBO). Venipuncture was performed on three occasions: baseline, 30-min post-ingestion and between 65 to 75-min post-ingestion. Baseline vascular measurements [i.e., calf venous occlusion plethysmography, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)], 30-min of continuous blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) analysis, and follow-up vascular measurements beginning at 40-min post-ingestion were also performed. Humoral nitrate following RSE ingestion was significantly higher at 30- (+54 %; P = 0.039) and 65 to 75-min post-ingestion compared to baseline (+255 %, P RSE ingestion, whereas it decreased (-14.0 %; P = 0.008) following PBO ingestion. No significant differential FMD responses were detected (P > 0.05), though RH was decreased following the baseline measure in both conditions. RSE significantly increased plasma nitrate 30-min post-ingestion, but acute microvascular (i.e., resistance vasculature) reactivity increases were isolated to the lower limb and no appreciable change in brachial artery FMD was observed.

  12. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  13. The C14(n,γ) cross section between 10 keV and 1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, R.; Heil, M.; Forssén, C.; Besserer, U.; Couture, A.; Dababneh, S.; Dörr, L.; Görres, J.; Haight, R. C.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; O'Brien, S.; Patronis, N.; Plag, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Wiescher, M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of C14 is of relevance for several nucleosynthesis scenarios such as inhomogeneous Big Bang models, neutron induced CNO cycles, and neutrino driven wind models for the r process. The C14(n,γ) reaction is also important for the validation of the Coulomb dissociation method, where the (n,γ) cross section can be indirectly obtained via the time-reversed process. So far, the example of C14 is the only case with neutrons where both, direct measurement and indirect Coulomb dissociation, have been applied. Unfortunately, the interpretation is obscured by discrepancies between several experiments and theory. Therefore, we report on new direct measurements of the C14(n,γ) reaction with neutron energies ranging from 20 to 800 keV.

  14. 46 CFR 154.1860 - Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral tanks: Cargo colder than â10 °C (14 °F). 154.1860 Section 154.1860 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK....1860 Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F). The master shall ensure that an integral tank...

  15. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  16. Improved Resistance to Engine Bird Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    method was used to design blades having sufficient tolerance to meet the bird- ingestion requirements of FAR 33.77 for turbofan engines in the 6800 to...the 6800 lbf thrust class engine. In addition, two protective devices designed to prevent an ingested bird from striking sensitive engine parts were presented. (Author)

  17. Feasibility of an ingestible sensor-based system for monitoring adherence to tuberculosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Belknap

    Full Text Available Poor adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment hinders the individual's recovery and threatens public health. Currently, directly observed therapy (DOT is the standard of care; however, high sustaining costs limit its availability, creating a need for more practical adherence confirmation methods. Techniques such as video monitoring and devices to time-register the opening of pill bottles are unable to confirm actual medication ingestions. A novel approach developed by Proteus Digital Health, Inc. consists of an ingestible sensor and an on-body wearable sensor; together, they electronically confirm unique ingestions and record the date/time of the ingestion. A feasibility study using an early prototype was conducted in active TB patients to determine the system's accuracy and safety in confirming co-ingestion of TB medications with sensors. Thirty patients completed 10 DOT visits and 1,080 co-ingestion events; the system showed 95.0% (95% CI 93.5-96.2% positive detection accuracy, defined as the number of detected sensors divided by the number of transmission capable sensors administered. The specificity was 99.7% [95% CI 99.2-99.9%] based on three false signals recorded by receivers. The system's identification accuracy, defined as the number of correctly identified ingestible sensors divided by the number of sensors detected, was 100%. Of 11 adverse events, four were deemed related or possibly related to the device; three mild skin rashes and one complaint of nausea. The system's positive detection accuracy was not affected by the subjects' Body Mass Index (p = 0.7309. Study results suggest the system is capable of correctly identifying ingestible sensors with high accuracy, poses a low risk to users, and may have high patient acceptance. The system has the potential to confirm medication specific treatment compliance on a dose-by-dose basis. When coupled with mobile technology, the system could allow wirelessly observed therapy (WOT for

  18. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  19. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  20. Ingestion intakes of (137)Cs by the Czech population: Comparison of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrkal, Jan; Fojtík, Pavel; Malátová, Irena; Bartusková, Miluše

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion intakes of (137)Cs of the Czech population were calculated in two different ways - either from the measured activity of (137)Cs in components of food in combination with statistical data about consumption rates or from retention of (137)Cs in the human body obtained by whole body counting or calculated from daily urinary excretion of (137)Cs. Data from the time period since 1986 to 2015 are used. The daily ingestion intake was about 25 Bq d(-1) in 1986 and is around 0.1 Bq d(-1) at present. Both approaches of ingestion intake calculation have their advantages and disadvantages. Ingestion intake calculated from (137)Cs body content was assumed to be the most accurate as it requires fewer assumptions than the calculation from food consumption. However, calculation of (137)Cs intake from food consumption is an important tool for prediction doses after the release of radionuclides into environment. The best agreement exceeding the intakes from urine measurement 5 times at maximum was achieved when intakes calculated from food also included products from the natural environment. Without this, the ingestion intake could be under-predicted seriously up to 6 times, especially in the longer time after the release of (137)Cs into environment. Ingestion intakes up to 11 Bq d(-1) in a group of people with significant consumption of game meat containing elevated activity of (137)Cs activity were included as a special case. Various groups of foodstuffs had varying effects on the total committed effective dose from (137)Cs. Dose estimates for the Czech population from (137)Cs ingestion intake achieved 80 μSv in 1986 and not more than 2 μSv currently and were similar to those incurred by the population of neighbouring countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ab initio study of C14 laves phases in Fe-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlu J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural properties and energetics of Fe-based C14 Laves phases at various compositions (i.e. Fe2Fe, Fe2X, X2Fe, X2X, where X stands for Si, Cr, Mo, W, Ta were investigated using the pseudopotential VASP (Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package code employing the PAW-PBE (Projector Augmented Wave - Perdew Burke-Ernzerhof pseudopotentials. Full relaxation was performed for all structures studied including the reference states of elemental constituents and the equilibrium structure parameters as well as bulk moduli were found. The structure parameters of experimentally found structures were very well reproduced by our calculations. It was also found that the lattice parameters and volumes of the unit cell decrease with increasing molar fraction of iron. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the Fe2X configurations of Laves phases are more stable than the X2Fe ones. Some of the X2Fe configurations are even unstable with respect to the weighted average of the Laves phases of elemental constituents. Our calculations predict the stability of Fe2Ta. On the other hand, Fe2Mo and Fe2W are slightly unstable (3.19 and 0.68 kJ.mol-1, respectively and hypothetical structures Fe2Cr and Fe2Si are found unstable as well.

  2. Factors affecting the infectivity of tissues from pigs with classical swine fever: thermal inactivation rates and oral infectious dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Lucie; Haines, Felicity J; Everett, Helen E; Crudgington, Bentley; Johns, Helen L; Clifford, Derek; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2015-03-23

    Outbreaks of classical swine fever are often associated with ingestion of pig meat or products derived from infected pigs. Assessment of the disease risks associated with material of porcine origin requires knowledge on the likely amount of virus in the original material, how long the virus may remain viable within the resulting product and how much of that product would need to be ingested to result in infection. Using material from pigs infected with CSFV, we determined the viable virus concentrations in tissues that comprise the majority of pork products. Decimal reduction values (D values), the time required to reduce the viable virus load by 90% (or 1 log10), were determined at temperatures of relevance for chilling, cooking, composting and ambient storage. The rate of CSFV inactivation varied in different tissues. At lower temperatures, virus remained viable for substantially longer in muscle and serum compared to lymphoid and fat tissues. To enable estimation of the temperature dependence of inactivation, the temperature change required to change the D values by 90% (Z values) were determined as 13 °C, 14 °C, 12 °C and 10 °C for lymph node, fat, muscle and serum, respectively. The amount of virus required to infect 50% of pigs by ingestion was determined by feeding groups of animals with moderately and highly virulent CSFV. Interestingly, the virulent virus did not initiate infection at a lower dose than the moderately virulent strain. Although higher than for intranasal inoculation, the amount of virus required for infection via ingestion is present in only a few grams of tissue from infected animals.

  3. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  6. A role in immunity for Arabidopsis cysteine protease RD21, the ortholog of the tomato immune protease C14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Shindo

    Full Text Available Secreted papain-like Cys proteases are important players in plant immunity. We previously reported that the C14 protease of tomato is targeted by cystatin-like EPIC proteins that are secreted by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Pinf during infection. C14 has been under diversifying selection in wild potato species coevolving with Pinf and reduced C14 levels result in enhanced susceptibility for Pinf. Here, we investigated the role C14-EPIC-like interactions in the natural pathosystem of Arabidopsis with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa. In contrast to the Pinf-solanaceae pathosystem, the C14 orthologous protease of Arabidopsis, RD21, does not evolve under diversifying selection in Arabidopsis, and rd21 null mutants do not show phenotypes upon compatible and incompatible Hpa interactions, despite the evident lack of a major leaf protease. Hpa isolates express highly conserved EPIC-like proteins during infections, but it is unknown if these HpaEPICs can inhibit RD21 and one of these HpaEPICs even lacks the canonical cystatin motifs. The rd21 mutants are unaffected in compatible and incompatible interactions with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, but are significantly more susceptible for the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, demonstrating that RD21 provides immunity to a necrotrophic pathogen.

  7. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A255 863 DOT/FA°• I•T91/17 Bird Ingestion into Large FAA Technical Center AtlanticCity International AirportN 4urbofan Engines L -TIC ýEP 1992...Gov.ernm.nt Accistton No, 3, Rec.p.ent’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/CT-91/1 7 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report fote May 1992 BIRD INGESTION INTO LARGE TURBOFAN...study of bird ingestion into certain modern, large high bypass turbofan engines. The engines under consideration were certificated to current FAA

  8. Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    AFAPL-TR-76-77 WATER INGESTION INTO AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS PURDUE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONA UTICS S WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA 47907...CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TITL _07" 0 EREO Final i-7 0 Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressorse 1 Auq 75 -: 31 Au0 a6 114o’ H-WPAFB-T-76-l:P ."CO TACT...necessary and Idenify by block number) Water ingestion , turbomachinery, and jet engines. 20 ABSTRACT (Contlinue on tov.ras side Hi necessary and Identify

  9. Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    RD-Ai45 663 LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS i/i (U) NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CA E R MONSALVE MAY 84 NWC-TP-6545...6545 Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments (JD CD I) by Elisabeth R. Monsalve a y- Safety and Security Department I MAY 1984 NAVAL...COVERED LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS A summary report 6. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) I. CONTRACT O GRANT NUM6ERt

  10. Equation reliability of soil ingestion estimates in mass-balance soil ingestion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Xu, Bo; Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to chemicals from ingestion of contaminated soil may be an important pathway with potential health consequences for children. A key parameter used in assessing this exposure is the quantity of soil ingested, with estimates based on four short longitudinal mass-balance soil ingestion studies among children. The estimates use trace elements in the soil with low bioavailability that are minimally present in food. Soil ingestion corresponds to the excess trace element amounts excreted, after subtracting trace element amounts ingested from food and medications, expressed as an equivalent quantity of soil. The short duration of mass-balance studies, different concentrations of trace elements in food and soil, and potential for trace elements to be ingested from other nonsoil, nonfood sources contribute to variability and bias in the estimates. We develop a stochastic model for a soil ingestion estimator based on a trace element that accounts for critical features of the mass-balance equation. Using results from four mass-balance soil ingestion studies, we estimate the accuracy of soil ingestion estimators for different trace elements, and identify subjects where the difference between Al and Si estimates is larger (>3 RMSE) than expected. Such large differences occur in fewer than 12% of subjects in each of the four studies. We recommend the use of such criteria to flag and exclude subjects from soil ingestion analyses. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  12. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF TURBOPROP ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS DURING BIRD INGESTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURBOPROP ENGINES, * INGESTION (ENGINES), *BIRDS, * INGESTION (ENGINES), PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), RECOVERY, STABILIZATION, TURBOJET INLETS, FLAMEOUT, DAMAGE, INLET GUIDE VANES, IMPACT, AVIATION SAFETY.

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  15. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  16. Successful Laparoscopic Removal of an Ingested Toothbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion...

  17. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  18. Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvar, Miran; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2006-05-01

    Amanita muscaria has a bright red or orange cap covered with small white plaques. It contains the isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscazone and other toxins such as muscarine. The duration of clinical manifestations after A. muscaria ingestion does not usually exceed 24 hours; we report on a 5-day paranoid psychosis after A. muscaria ingestion. A 48-year-old man, with no previous medical history, gathered and ate mushrooms he presumed to be A. caesarea. Half an hour later he started to vomit and fell asleep. He was found comatose having a seizure-like episode. On admission four hours after ingestion he was comatose, but the remaining physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Creatine kinase was 8.33 microkat/l. Other laboratory results and brain CT scan were normal. Toxicology analysis did not find any drugs in his blood or urine. The mycologist identified A. muscaria among the remaining mushrooms. The patient was given activated charcoal. Ten hours after ingestion, he awoke and was completely orientated; 18 hours after ingestion his condition deteriorated again and he became confused and uncooperative. Afterwards paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations appeared and persisted for five days. On the sixth day all symptoms of psychosis gradually disappeared. One year later he is not undergoing any therapy and has no symptoms of psychiatric disease. We conclude that paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations can appear 18 hours after ingestion of A. muscaria and can last for up to five days.

  19. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  20. Short synthesis of the C1-C14 stretch of discodermolide from building blocks prepared by asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huanyan; Parker, Kathlyn A

    2008-04-01

    A convergent and stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C14 stretch of (+)-discodermolide demonstrates the utility of the "asymmetric catalysis approach" to complex polypropionates. The preparation of this complex synthon requires 15 steps in the longest linear sequence and 19 steps total from inexpensive materials.

  1. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Landers, Grant; Fulton, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50). When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02) and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84) in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029), and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004). Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm) and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1) were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s) for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown. Key points A moderate dose of caffeine (3 mg·kg-1) ingested 1 h before a repeat-sprint freestyle set significantly improves mean sprint time in elite swimmers. The combination of at least a moderate dose of caffeine (>3 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes appears the most likely to result in ergogenic benefit to anaerobic

  2. Pulse steroid therapy in adult respiratory distress syndrome following petroleum naphtha ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Y; Soma, K; Asari, Y; Ohwada, T

    2000-01-01

    A suicide attempt by a 23-year-old woman involved ingestion of 1000 mL of petroleum naphtha. Early chemical pneumonitis was complicated by life-threatening, diffuse interstitial lung consolidation with pneumatoceles. Pulse steroid therapy beginning on day 17 was associated with remarkable resolution of interstitial consolidation, although an enlarging secondarily infected pneumatocele ruptured to produce a bronchopleural fistula. Thoracic surgery and antibiotic therapy resulted in improvement of the patient's respiratory condition, and she was discharged with no residual respiratory symptoms. High-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be a useful addition to aggressive supportive treatment in late adult respiratory distress syndrome following hydrocarbon ingestion.

  3. Generalised involuntary limb twitching after ingestion of Mesobuthus martensii Karsch (Quanxie) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P K; Wong, T W; Chan, Y C; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-12-01

    Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, commonly known as the Chinese scorpion or Manchurian scorpion, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as Quanxie to treat chronic pain, tetanus, tremors, convulsion, and paralysis for more than a thousand years. We report a case of poisoning after ingestion of a teaspoon of Quanxie powder. The patient presented with chest pain, dizziness, diaphoresis, generalised involuntary limb twitching, and hypertonia around 15 minutes post-ingestion. The patient recovered uneventfully after supportive management. Intravenous diazepam appeared to be effective in alleviating limb twitching. Failure to accurately measure the dose and to boil before consumption may have contributed to his clinical toxicities.

  4. Acute enteral manganese intoxication with hepatic failure due to ingestion of a joint supplement overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Angela; Epstein, Steven E; Gindiciosi, Blaz; Cartoceti, Andrew; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Manganese is a ubiquitous, essential trace element and a common ingredient of joint supplement tablets. Little information is known about the inherent toxic potential if ingested at higher doses. A 5-year-old female spayed Pug dog presented for evaluation of vomiting and ataxia after accidental ingestion of approximately 100 joint supplement tablets. The dog developed acute hepatic failure and was euthanized 6 days after presentation due to progression of the disease. Necropsy showed severe acute hepatic necrosis. Liver and kidney samples were submitted for toxicology analysis, results of which showed severely elevated manganese concentrations in the liver and kidneys.

  5. SOIL INGESTION COLLOQUIUM (2005) | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 24-25, 2005, the U.S. EPA Colloquium on Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates and Mouthing Behavior for Children and Adults (Colloquium) was held at the Holiday Inn National Airport in Crystal City, Virginia. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults. Because mouthing behavior is closely related to childrens soil and dust ingestion, mouthing behavior research also was included as a major topic. The Colloquium was designed to assist EPA in answering the following questions:What is the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion and mouthing behavior?Where should the state of knowledge be in order for EPA to make better decisions for the protection of children and adults from these pathways?How can EPA and the scientific community advance the science (i.e., what research is needed)?This summary report captures the major content of the presentations, breakout groups, and discussions/recommendations that occurred at the Colloquium. Presentation slides, organized sequentially by the order of presentation, the Colloquium agenda, and contact information of all the participants are included in this report as Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults.

  6. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  7. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  8. Caustic ingestion-a forensic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    The ingestion of corrosive substances may produce severe burns to the upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, particularly if the pH is greater than 12 or less than two. There is a biphasic age grouping with adult cases most often involving self-harm and pediatric cases accidental ingestion. Three cases are reported to demonstrate characteristic features following the ingestion of potassium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid and Lysol(®) , respectively. All deaths were due to the effects of caustic burns to the upper aerodigestive tract, esophagus and stomach with perforation and/or hemorrhage. The extent of injuries in these cases depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. A point to note at autopsy is that tissue damage may also occur from postmortem exposure. Typical injuries involve perioral, limb, and trunk burns, with extensive aerodigestive liquefactive/coagulative necrosis causing hemorrhage and perforation.

  9. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  10. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  11. Acute rhabdomyolysis following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilade A Adedinsewo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy.

  12. Accidental methanol ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of methanol (CH3OH intoxication differs enormously from country to country. Methanol intoxication is extremely rare in the Dutch population. Even a low dose can already be potentially lethal. Patients are conventionally treated with hemodialysis. Therefore we'd like to present a report of a foreign sailor in Rotterdam who accidentally caused himself severe methanol intoxication, with a maximum measured concentration of 4.4 g/L. Case presentation The patient presented with hemodynamic instability and severe metabolic acidosis with pH 6.69. The anion gap was 39 mmol/L and the osmol gap 73 mosmol/kg. Treatment with ethanol and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH-DF was initiated. Despite the hemodynamic instability it is was possible to achieve rapid correction of pH and methanol concentration with CVVH-DF while maintaining a stable and therapeutic ethanol serum concentration. Despite hemodynamic and acid-base improvement, our patient developed massive cerebral edema leading to brain death. Permission for organ donation was unfortunately not ascertained. Conclusions We conclude that in a hemodynamic instable situation high methanol concentrations and methanol-induced derangements of homeostasis are safely and effectively treated with CVVH-DF and that severe cerebral edema is another possible cause of death rather than the classical bleeding in the putamen area.

  13. Electro-removal of H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquid absorbed in soils type Phaeozem; Electrorremocion de H-3 y C-14 contenidos en liquido de centelleo absorbidos en suelos tipo Phaeozem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdovinos, V.; Bustos, E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro s/n, San Fandila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Monroy G, F., E-mail: vvaldovinos@cideteq.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents the results of electro-removal, an electrochemical treatment in soils contaminated with H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquids absorbed in soils. For this purpose the best electrochemical conditions were used, which are: scintillation liquid Ultima Gold Xr, water (1:1) and 1 m A in the passage of current. The media were characterized before and after of applying the different potentials by various analytical techniques, such as: liquids by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, solids and liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and electrodes by scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Later standard samples with H-3 and C-14 were prepared and the electrochemical treatment was applied to previously established conditions. After electrochemical treatment the scintillation liquid characterization was performed by gas chromatography and a scintillation counter to see the disintegrations per minute. According to results of Ftir, soils show no deterioration and in the liquid phase the amount of water increases as the applied potential, due to oxidation-reduction reactions where happen modification or mineralization of organic molecules (H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} formation). In 4 h of treatment, removal percentages in the liquid phase, were: 53.6% of H-3 and 11.6% of C-14. (Author)

  14. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  15. Accidental Ingestion of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizing agent with a variety of uses depending on its concentration. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide is not an uncommon source of poisoning, and results in morbidity through three main mechanisms: direct caustic injury, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. A case of a 39-year-old man who inadvertently ingested 250 mL of unlabelled 35% hydrogen peroxide intended for natural health use is presented. Hydrogen peroxide has purported benefits ranging from HIV treatment to cancer treatment. Its use in the natural health industry represents an emerging source for accidental poisonings.

  16. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  17. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  18. Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on halitosis and body and fecal odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.

  19. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  20. Calcium supplement ingestion may alter lumbar spine bone mineral density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Checovich, Mary; Gemar, Dessa; Wei, Xiaodan; Binkley, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Densitometry centers commonly request patients abstain from ingesting calcium supplements prior to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to avoid interference with bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, it is not clear that this practice is necessary. This study assessed the impact of recent calcium supplement intake on lumbar spine BMD measurement. The phase 1 experiment demonstrated BMD differences when placing a supplement over various areas of two encapsulated phantoms. To determine whether these results were clinically relevant, the phase 2 study enrolled 36 subjects who received spine scans before and after random assignment to ingest one Citracal, OsCal or People's Choice tablet providing 315, 500, and 600 mg of elemental calcium, respectively. The phase 3 study evaluated 15 subjects that had three spine scans with repositioning between to establish BMD precision, and then ingested a calcium carbonate tablet. Post-dosing scans were performed 15 and 30 minutes after tablet ingestion. The difference in L1-L4 BMD on subsequent scans was compared with the study derived least significant change (LSC) of 0.028 g/cm(2). In phase 2, L1-L4 BMD changes outside the LSC occurred in 36% of subjects with 47% having visualized tablets. Similarly, 33% of the phase 3 subjects demonstrated changes outside the LSC after calcium ingestion and 53% of the subjects in phase 3 had tablets visualized. Visualization of calcium tablets was not associated with BMD changes. In conclusion, calcium tablet intake may affect measured L1-L4 BMD within 30 minutes of ingestion. As such, it is appropriate to request patients abstain from calcium tablet ingestion prior to a spine DXA examination.

  1. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lean Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens, on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1 in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35% subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65% against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45% against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67% of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.

  2. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Concise epoxide-based synthesis of the C14–C25 bafilomycin A1 polypropionate chain

    OpenAIRE

    Valentín, Elizabeth M; Mulero, Marlenne; Prieto, José A.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient non-aldol convergent synthesis of the C14–C25 polyketide fragment of bafilomycin A1 was completed in 16% overall yield and 8 steps in its longest linear sequence. This synthesis highlights the formation of the key fragments using a three-step sequence of epoxide cleavage, alkyne reduction, and epoxidation developed in our laboratory; starting from suitably protected enantiomeric epoxides of trans-2,3-epoxybutanol. This chemistry represents a quick asymmetric and diastereoselectiv...

  4. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  5. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  6. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  7. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  8. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  9. Complete recovery after massive ethylene glycol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Kraner, J; Wine, H; Savitt, D; Abuelo, J G

    1992-06-01

    We treated a 64-year-old man who recovered completely from a massive antifreeze ingestion with ethylene glycol levels well above those of previously described survivors. Rapid and aggressive treatment of the patient with recognized methods, including hemodialysis, resulted in the favorable outcome.

  10. Sucrose ingestion induces rapid AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, David S; Ferreira, Jainne M; Antoine, Shannon O; D'amour, James A; Ninan, Ipe; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K; Hartner, Diana T; Guarini, Carlo B; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S; Mahajan, Shahana S; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C; Carr, Kenneth D; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B

    2013-04-03

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPARs containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Electrophysiological, biochemical, and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 d) induced a stable (>24 h) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 h) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7 d protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a noncaloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multistep GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose.

  11. Atypical Presentation of Multiple Foreign Body Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Sultan; Ayan, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is very common in childhood especially under 3 year of age. Pica syndrome is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive. We present a 3-year old girl who presented to ER with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. PMID:28164004

  12. Odorous urine following asparagus ingestion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Land, D; Thorpe, W V

    1987-04-15

    The production of odorous urine after the ingestion of asparagus has been shown to occur in 43% of 800 volunteers investigated. This characteristic is reproducible over a 12-month-period and has been shown to remain with individuals for virtually a lifetime. Family studies suggest that the ability to produce the odorous urine is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  13. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  14. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  15. Ingestion of drugs by "parachuting": a unique drug delivery technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenerson, Katherine L; Lear-Kaul, Kelly C

    2012-06-01

    "Parachuting" is a technique of drug delivery where medications or illicit drugs are ingested by wrapping the drug of choice in a covering, which then will dissolve or unravel in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby releasing the drug for absorption. Parachuting of drugs can entail crushing of a pill prior to packaging to theoretically increase the surface area for absorption or may involve the packaging of a higher than usual dose of a drug in attempts to attain a sustained-release effect as the "parachute" dissolves or unravels. A case is presented in which a prescription drug abuser known to parachute his medications dies from obstruction of his airway by the inhaled packet. Risks of parachuting any drug would include overdose and fatal toxic effect from the drug itself and adverse effects from the packaging including bowel obstruction or perforation, or airway obstruction.

  16. Motor and sensory neuropathy secondary to excessive pyridoxine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foca, F J

    1985-09-01

    This report documents a case of mixed motor and sensory neuropathy that resulted from ingestion of excessive amounts of pyridoxine. An 81-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of difficulty in walking and frequent falls. History revealed that she had been taking large doses of pyridoxine daily for several months as treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Diagnostic work-up failed to suggest a cause for her symptoms. Nerve conduction studies revealed slowing of motor conduction velocities, prolonged F wave latencies, and prolonged sensory latencies in both lower extremities. We believe the patient's complaints and the results of nerve conduction studies were secondary to pyridoxine neurotoxicity. Since the bases for this neurotoxicity are unknown, we suggest that treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with oral pyridoxine be carefully monitored and that dosage limits not be exceeded.

  17. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S.R. Goods, Grant Landers, Sacha Fulton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF, or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50. When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02 and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84 in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029, and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004. Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1 were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1 with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown.

  18. Radionuclides in food and the radiation exposure due to ingestion; Radionuklide in Lebensmitteln und die Strahlenexposition durch Ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi high amounts of radioactive iodine and cesium isotopes were released into the terrestrial and marine Japanese environment. The largest release occurred on March 15, 2011 as a consequence of the containment failure of unit 2. Due to the meteorological conditions large area fallout occurred in the district of Fukushima. Other prefectures in the north of Japan were also contaminated. As a consequence of the high surface contamination the dose limits for drinking water, milk and milky products and food were increased to 200 Bq/kg.It turned out that the contamination of rice was marginal, the contamination of predatory fish higher than that of non-predatory fish. A systematic investigation of food samples could allow a better estimation of ingestion induced exposure.

  19. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2015-04-15

    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foreign body ingestion in Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, Sema; Arikan, Ciğdem; Cakir, Murat; Baran, Maşallah; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Saz, Ulaş Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip

    2009-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion (FBI) is a common problem in the pediatric population. Even though morbidity and mortality due to foreign body ingestion are rare in childhood, they may cause serious anxiety in parents. We aimed to analyze the clinical presentation, etiology and management strategy of FBI in children in our country. Records of children admitting with a history of FBI over a three-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding gender, age, type of the ingested body, management strategy and outcome of the patients were recorded. Of 176 children, 98 (55.6%) were male. Mean age +/- SD of the patients was 3.75 +/- 4.25 years, and most of the patients were below four years of age (71.5%). Most of the children (64.7%) were seen within 48 hours, and most were asymptomatic. Blue beads attached to a safety pin (a cultural good luck charm) (38.6%), coins (27.8%) and turban pins (18.1%) were the most commonly observed foreign bodies. The blue beads/safety pin were found to be ingested primarily by infants, while ingestion of turban pins was mostly seen in adolescent girls who covered their heads. Localization of the foreign bodies was in the distal small intestine, stomach and esophagus in 61.4%, 23.8% and 14.7% of the cases, respectively. Sixty-nine endoscopic interventions were performed in 61 patients (34.6%), and these accounted for 7.3% of all endoscopic interventions during the three-year period. No major complication was observed during the procedure, and none of the patients underwent surgery. The frequently used accessory devices were retrieval net basket (57.9%), snare for pins (17.3%), tripod forceps and rat-tooth forceps. The blue beads/safety pin and turban pin were the commonly ingested foreign bodies in our center due to cultural factors. Education of the parents and of adolescent girls should greatly reduce the incidence of FBI. Endoscopic removal is safe without any major complications.

  1. AMS C-14 chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia : Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenin, VN; van der Plicht, J; Orlova, LA; Kuzmin, YV

    2000-01-01

    We present a series of AMS C-14 dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The C-14 ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained f

  2. Simultaneous ingestion of high-methoxy pectin from apple can enhance absorption of quercetin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Tomohiko; Takida, Yoshiki; Saito, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Iwai, Kunihisa

    2015-05-28

    Chronic ingestion of apple pectin has been shown to increase the absorption of quercetin in rats. The present study was designed to elucidate whether the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with apple pectin could enhance the absorption of quercetin in humans, and the effects of dose dependency and degree of pectin methylation on quercetin absorption were also investigated. Healthy volunteers (n 19) received 200 ml of 0.5 mg/ml of quercetin drinks with or without 10 mg/ml of pectin each in a randomised cross-over design study with over 1-week intervals; urine samples from all the subjects were collected within 24 h after ingestion of the test drinks, and urinary deconjugated quercetin and its metabolites were determined using HPLC. The sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted was increased by 2.5-fold by the simultaneous ingestion of pectin. The metabolism of methylated quercetin (isorhamnetin and tamarixetin) was not affected by pectin ingestion. In six volunteers, who received quercetin drinks containing 0, 3 and 10 mg/ml of pectin, the sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted also increased in a pectin dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with low-methoxy and high-methoxy pectin, respectively, increased the sum of urinary excretion of quercetin and its metabolites by 1.69-fold and significantly by 2.13-fold compared with the ingestion of quercetin without pectin. These results elucidated that apple pectin immediately enhanced quercetin absorption in human subjects, and that its enhancing effect was dependent on the dose and degree of pectin methylation. The results also suggested that the viscosity of pectin may play a role in the enhancement of quercetin absorption.

  3. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-09-27

    Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice. In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration.

  4. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... hail ingestion. (a) All engines. (1) The ingestion of large hailstones (0.8 to 0.9 specific gravity) at... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  5. Button battery ingestion-case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanshettar, Ss; Patil, Sv; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper.

  6. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  7. Successful laparoscopic removal of an ingested toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-07-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion 4 years prior. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because the toothbrush was partially embedded in to the gastric mucosa. We describe the second case to date of laparoscopic removal of a toothbrush via a gastrotomy with subsequent intra-corporeal repair of the defect.

  8. Cost Aspects of Ingest and Normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Archives, and The Royal Library and the State and University Library are in the process of developing a cost model for digital preservation: Each of the functional entities of the OAIS Reference Model are broken down into measurable, cost-critical activities, and formula...... are being tailored for each of these in order to create a generic tool for estimating the short and long-term costs of digital preservation. This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the costs of digital preservation and describes the method used to develop the Danish Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP). It then describes how the OAIS functional entity, Ingest, has been included in the model. For institutions basing their digital preservation strategy on migration, a major cost pertaining to Ingest is normalization, a digital migration from production to preservation format and structure...

  9. A stereoselective synthesis of the C(3)-C(13) and C(14)-C(24) fragments of macrolactin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树坤; 徐睿; 肖相树; 白东鲁

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic studies towards the C(3)-C(13) and C(14)-C(24) segments (3, 4) of the potent antiviral and antitumor compound macrolactin A (1)are presented. Compound 3 was constructed via a convergent and facile apprroach, exploiting Wittig olefination to generate the sensitive E, Z-diene moiety. Compound 4 was synthesized fr om the chiral-pool derived sulfone 39a via an α-alkylation-desulfonation reaction sequence.Cu(Ⅱ)-catalyzed coupling of a Grignard reagent with an allylic bromide and Julia olefination were also investigated for the preparation of compound 4.

  10. 11-year cycle solar modulation of cosmic ray intensity inferred from C-14 content variation in dated tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C. Y.; Chen, T. M.; Yun, S. X.; Dai, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid scintillation-photomultiplier tube counter system was used to measure the Delta-C-14 values of 60 tree rings, dating from 1866 to 1925, that were taken from a white spruce grown in Canada at 68 deg N, 130 deg W. A 10-percent variation is found which is anticorrelated with sunspot numbers, although the amplitude of the variation is 2-3 times higher than expected in trees grown at lower latitudes. A large dip in the data at about 1875 suggests an anomalously large modulation of cosmic ray intensity during the 1867-1878 AD solar cycle, which was the most active of the 19th century.

  11. Clean Grain Boundary Found in C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc solid-solution, metal hydride (MH alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures. This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system.

  12. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  14. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Oluwaseun Odewole; Taylor Todd

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ...

  15. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  16. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2016-12-20

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  17. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  18. Effect of Acetaminophen Ingestion on Thermoregulation of Normothermic, Non-Febrile Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh eFoster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In non-febrile mouse models, high dose acetaminophen administration causes profound hypothermia. However, this potentially hazardous side-effect has not been confirmed in non-febrile humans. Thus, we sought to ascertain whether an acute therapeutic dose (20 mg·kg lean body mass of acetaminophen would reduce non-febrile human core temperature in a sub-neutral environment. Ten apparently healthy (normal core temperature, no musculoskeletal injury, no evidence of acute illness Caucasian males participated in a preliminary study (Study one to determine plasma acetaminophen concentration following oral ingestion of 20 mg·kg lean body mass acetaminophen. Plasma samples (every 20 minutes up to 2-hours post ingestion were analysed via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Thirteen (eight recruited from Study one apparently healthy Caucasian males participated in Study two, and were passively exposed to 20°C, 40% r.h. for 120 minutes on two occasions in a randomised, repeated measures, crossover design. In a double blind manner, participants ingested acetaminophen (20 mg·kg lean body mass or a placebo (dextrose immediately prior to entering the environmental chamber. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, and thermal sensation were monitored continuously and recorded every ten minutes. In Study one, the peak concentration of acetaminophen (14 ± 4 µg/ml in plasma arose between 80 and 100 minutes following oral ingestion. In Study two, acetaminophen ingestion reduced the core temperature of all participants, whereas there was no significant change in core temperature over time in the placebo trial. Mean core temperature was significantly lower in the acetaminophen trial compared with that of a placebo (p 0.05. The results indicate oral acetaminophen reduces core temperature of humans exposed to an environment beneath the thermal neutral zone. These results suggest that acetaminophen may inhibit the thermogenic mechanisms required to regulate

  19. Estimating time of last oral ingestion of cannabis from plasma THC and THCCOOH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Nebro, Wesenyalsh; Barnes, Allan; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2006-08-01

    Estimating the time of last cannabis use is important in assessing possible impairment of drivers involved in accidents, in verifying accuracy of court testimony and in the future, helpful in therapeutic monitoring of cannabis agonists. In 1992, Huestis et al developed model 1, based on plasma Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations, and model 2, on plasma 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol/THC ratios, that predicted 95% confidence intervals for time of last cannabis use. These models seemed to be valuable when applied to the small amount of data from published studies of oral ingestion, a route of administration more popular with the advent of cannabis therapies. A study was designed to further validate the models after oral ingestion of THC, and to determine whether they could predict last usage after multiple oral doses. Eighteen subjects in IRB-approved studies participated after providing informed consent. Each of 12 subjects in one group received a single 10 mg oral dose of dronabinol (synthetic THC). In another protocol, 6 subjects received 4 different oral daily doses, divided into thirds and administered with meals for 5 consecutive days. There was a 10-day washout period between each dosing regimen. Daily doses were 0.39, 0.47, and 14.8 mg THC in hemp oil and 7.5 mg dronabinol. Blood specimens were collected throughout the study and analyzed for plasma THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Actual times between ingestion of THC and blood collection spanned 0.5 to 16 hours. All plasma specimens with analyte concentrations >LOQ (n=90) were evaluated. Models 1 and 2 correctly predicted time of last THC ingestion for 74.4% and 90.0% of plasma specimens, respectively. 96.7% of predicted times were correct with one overestimate and 2 underestimates using the time interval defined by the lowest and highest 95

  20. Shell Model Description of the C14 Dating β Decay with Brown-Rho-Scaled NN Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J. W.; Brown, G. E.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Holt, J. D.; Machleidt, R.

    2008-02-01

    We present shell model calculations for the beta decay of C14 to the N14 ground state, treating the states of the A=14 multiplet as two 0p holes in an O16 core. We employ low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions derived from the realistic Bonn-B potential and find that the Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix element is too large to describe the known lifetime. By using a modified version of this potential that incorporates the effects of Brown-Rho scaling medium modifications, we find that the GT matrix element vanishes for a nuclear density around 85% that of nuclear matter. We find that the splitting between the (Jπ,T)=(1+,0) and (Jπ,T)=(0+,1) states in N14 is improved using the medium-modified Bonn-B potential and that the transition strengths from excited states of C14 to the N14 ground state are compatible with recent experiments.

  1. Low-Energy Grazing Ion-Scattering From Alkali-Halide Surfaces: A Novel Approach To C-14 Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Galutschek, E.; Hotchkis, M.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon-14 labeled compounds are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., as tracers to determine the fate of these compounds in vivo. Conventional accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one approach that offers sufficiently high sensitivity to avoid radiological waste and contamination issues in such studies, but requires large, expensive facilities that are usually not solely dedicated to this task. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) we are exploring a small size, low cost alternative to AMS for biomedical 14C tracer studies that utilizes ECR-ion-source-generated keV-energy-range multicharged C beams grazingly incident on an alkali halide target, where efficient negative ion production by multiple electron capture takes place. By using C ion charge states of +3 or higher, the molecular isobar interference at mass 14, e.g. 12CH2 and 13CH, is eliminated. The negatively charged ions in the beam scattered from the alkali halide surface are separated from other scattered charge states by two large acceptance (˜15 msr) stages of electrostatic analysis. The N-14 isobar interference is thus removed, since N does not support a stable negative ion. Initial results for C-14 detection obtained using C-14 enriched CO2 from ANSTO will be described.

  2. Mathematical Modelling of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 following Ingestion of Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rikke M; Bagger, Jonatan I; Alskär, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    and GLP-1 is stimulated by glucose in the small intestine, and the release is dependent on the amount. In this work, we developed a semimechanistic model describing the release of GIP and GLP-1 after ingestion of various glucose doses in healthy volunteers and patients with T2D. In the model, the release...

  3. Effect of acute ethanol ingestion on fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquillon, M

    1976-12-01

    A test meal (300 mg casein, 600 mg sucrose, 100 mg corn oil, tracer dose of 9.10(3)H oleic acid) was given to fasting adult rats with intestinal lymph fistulas. One group received an acute oral dose of ethanol (3.2 g/kg body weight) simultaneously with the test meal. Controls received 2.5 ml of water instead of ethanol. Ingestion of ethanol temporarily delayed the removal of lipid radioactivity from the stomachs. More than 25% of radioactivity fed remained 8 hr after feeding whereas with control rats less than 10% of lipid radioactivity fed remained 6 hr after feeding. In controls and ethanol-treated rats, the amounts of exogenous lipids in the intestinal lumen and mucosa were low and similar enough. Quantities of endogenous and exogenous lipids found in the lymph collected during 24 hr after feeding were similar in the two groups, but the fat absorption peak was found after 6 hr in alcoholic rats and before 6 hr in controls. This delay was probably due to the retention of lipids in the stomach. More of the exogenous lipid was always transported by small particles moving in the region of alpha1 globulins in cellulose acetate electrophoresis than by larger particles remaining at the origin. This proportion was enhanced in the ethanol-treated animals. The larger fat particles were richer in endogenous fatty acids in alcohol-treated rats than in controls.

  4. The influence of nocturnal alcohol ingestion on snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Randolf; Volk, Ralf; Müller, Alexander; Herzog, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Nocturnal alcohol ingestion is known to increase obstructive sleep apnea. It is assumed that snoring also increases under the influence of alcohol although only few data are available to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of nocturnal alcohol ingestion on the properties of snoring. Twenty healthy male reported non-snorers (n = 10) and snorers (n = 10) underwent night-time polysomnography at three randomly assigned nights with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.0, 0.5 and 0.8 per thousand, respectively. Snoring events were recorded by a room and body contact microphone simultaneously. Loudness and incidence of snoring were calculated and correlated to the total sleep time (TST), body position and sleep stages. Snorers revealed an increase of the apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) under increasing BAC, whereas no decrease in the nocturnal SAO(2) was detected. Non-snorers had no increase in the AHI but a decrease in SAO(2). Snoring individuals revealed a dose-dependent increase of incidence (TSI) and loudness (LSI) of snoring with regard to the TST. The TSI increased by a factor of 1.6 at 0.5 per thousand BAC and by 4.2 at 0.8 per thousand BAC compared to the 0.0 per thousand- BAC-night. The LSI increased threefold at 0.5 per thousand BAC and 14-fold at 0.8 per thousand BAC. Snoring increased to a bigger extent in a supine position compared to non supine and during REM stage as well as Non REM 3/4 stage. Non-snorers did not present any effect of alcohol on the snoring properties with regard to TST, body position and sleep stage. The results indicate that nocturnal alcohol ingestion affects individuals with a reported history of snoring to a greater extent than non-snorers. Non-snorers did not turn into snorers under increasing alcohol influence. The recommendation, to avoid alcohol intake prior to sleep, gains of special clinical importance for individuals already snoring.

  5. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown.

  6. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.

  7. Estimated fluoride doses from toothpastes should be based on total soluble fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria José L; Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2013-11-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children's toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children's toothpaste is used.

  8. The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion during Evening Exercise on Subsequent Sleep Quality in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; O'Donnell, J M; Starck, C; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J

    2015-06-01

    In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 females taking monophasic oral contraceptives completed 90 min intermittent treadmill-running 45 min after ingestion of 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Water (3 mL∙kg(-1)) was provided every 15 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise, as well as after sleep (~15 h post-ingestion), and levels of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Sleep quality was assessed using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Plasma caffeine concentration peaked 100 min after ingestion. Caffeine clearance was 0.95±0.14 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) while the elimination half-life of caffeine was 17.63±8.06 h. Paraxanthine and theophylline levels were significantly elevated at 15 h with no significant change in theobromine. Sleep latency and subsequent quality of sleep was impaired following caffeine supplementation (Pcaffeine supplementation on sleep quality in female athletes taking a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroid following an intermittent-exercise running protocol. The data shows that female athletes using monophasic oral contraceptive steroids will have impaired sleep quality following evening caffeine ingestion.

  9. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  10. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  11. Hyperzincemia from ingestion of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature that documents the serious adverse systemic effects of prolonged, excessive zinc ingestion from the overuse of denture adhesives. This condition causes elevation of serum zinc levels that result in depression of serum copper. The low serum copper levels cause bone marrow depression and widespread sensory and motor neuropathies. Epidemiologic studies revealed the source of excessive zinc intake to be from overuse of denture adhesives. Denture patients must be advised of the risks of prolonged overuse of denture adhesives.

  12. Brugada Pattern Electrocardiogram Unmasked with Cocaine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chadi Alraies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is considered a leading cause of drug-related deaths. This is usually sudden, unwitnessed, and without prodromal features. It has been reported that in-hospital mortality is close to 2%. Cocaine has powerful central nervous system effects1 and acute cocaine overdose has been associated with hyperthermia, agitation, paranoid ideation, status epilepticus, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and myocardial infarction (MI. The mechanisms of cocaine-related death remain poorly understood. We report a patient who survived massive cocaine ingestion with psychomotor agitation and generalized seizures followed by asystolic cardiac arrest and transient Brugada pattern on electrocardiogram (ECG.

  13. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  14. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-09-23

    The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the present study, we further examined the effects of low-level-contaminated diets on this butterfly. Leaves were collected from two localities in Tohoku (Motomiya (161 Bq/kg) and Koriyama (117 Bq/kg)); two in Kanto (Kashiwa (47.6 Bq/kg) and Musashino (6.4 Bq/kg)); one in Tokai (Atami (2.5 Bq/kg)); and from Okinawa (0.2 Bq/kg). In addition to the effects on the first generation, we examined the possible transgenerational effects of the diets on the next generation. In the first generation, the Tohoku groups showed higher rates of mortality and abnormalities and a smaller forewing size than the Okinawa group. The mortality rates were largely dependent on the ingested dose of caesium. The survival rates of the Kanto-Tokai groups were greater than 80%, but the rates in the Tohoku groups were much lower. In the next generation, the survival rates in the Tohoku groups were below 20%, whereas those of the Okinawa groups were above 70%. The survival rates in the second generation were independent of the locality of the leaves ingested by the first generation, indicating that the diet in the second generation was the determinant of their survival. Moreover, a smaller forewing size was observed in the Tohoku groups in the second generation. However, the forewing size was inversely correlated with the cumulative caesium dose ingested throughout the first and second generations, indicating that the diet in the first generation also influenced the forewing size of the second generation. Biological

  15. Accelerated molecular evolution of insect orthologues of ERG28/C14orf1: a link with ecdysteroid metabolism?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reiner A. Veitia; Laurence D. Hurst

    2001-04-01

    We have analysed the evolution of ERG28/C14orf1, a gene coding for a protein involved in sterol biosynthesis. While primary sequence of the protein is well conserved in all organisms able to synthesize sterols de novo, strong divergence is noticed in insects, which are cholesterol auxotrophs. In spite of this virtual acceleration, our analysis suggests that the insect orthologues are evolving today at rates similar to those of the remaining members of the family. A plausible way to explain this acceleration and subsequent stabilization is that Erg28 plays a role in at least two different pathways. Discontinuation of the cholesterogenesis pathway in insects allowed the protein to evolve as much as the function in the other pathway was not compromised.

  16. PABLM. Accumulated Environment Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E.Jr.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-04-01

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.

  17. Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Traverso, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm(2) of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every...... by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N...

  19. Changes in aminoacidergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats after ayahuasca ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Neto, Eduardo Ferreira; da Cunha, Rafael Henrique; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Yonamine, Mauricio; Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Amado, Débora; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2013-11-26

    To evaluate changes in neurotransmission induced by a psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in the hippocampus and amygdala of naive rats. The level of monoamines, their main metabolites and amino acid neurotransmitters concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four groups of rats were employed: saline-treated and rats receiving 250, 500 and 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca infusion (gavage). Animals were killed 40 min after drug ingestion and the structures stored at -80 °C until HPLC assay. The data from all groups were compared using Analysis of variance and Scheffé as post test and P ayahuasca. Animals that ingested 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca also showed a reduction of GLY level (0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P ayahuasca doses: 250 mg/kg (1.29 ± 0.19 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P ayahuasca administration in doses: 250 mg/kg (noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P ayahuasca ingestion.

  20. An unusual presentation of hydrochloric acid ingestion: a mystery unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vinod Prabhu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional acid ingestion is less commonly encountered than alkali ingestion. The injury develops for hours to days after ingestion and often results in progressively increasing difficulty in airway management. However, gastric perforation is rare. A 3-year-old boy presented to us with an orotonsillopharyngeal membrane and severe upper airway obstruction. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with a case of gastric perforation due to unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion. He was treated with partial gastrectomy and feeding jejunostomy, and the recovery was good. Unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion is rare in children. The manifestations masquerade many other clinical conditions, and the diagnosis is difficult in cases in which history of ingestion is not available. Treatment is symptomatic, and emergency surgery is indicated in case of gastrointestinal perforation.

  1. Ingestion of a Foreign Body in a Preterm Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Rıdvan; İnan, Mustafa; Vatansever, Ülfet; Acunaş, Betül

    2004-01-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is very rare in newborn infants. Ingestion of the endotracheal tube during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in low birth weight preterm infants is even rarer. A preterm male infant who underwent nasal CPAP treatment on the first postnatal day for prematurity and respiratory insufficiency was found to ingest the distal part of the entubation tube. Direct radiography showed the tube residing between the lower end of the esophagus and the ent...

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation,...

  3. Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...considerable proportion maybe  A brief background to the (perceived) “problem” . . . • Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. Avian digestion in a...Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. • Lead particles in the environment (e.g., spent shot, bullet fragments) approximate the size of

  4. Analgesia accompanying food consumption requires ingestion of hedonic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, H; Mason, Peggy

    2009-10-14

    Animals eat rather than react to moderate pain. Here, we examined the behavioral, hedonic, and neural requirements for ingestion analgesia in ad libitum fed rats. Noxious heat-evoked withdrawals were similarly suppressed during self-initiated chocolate eating and ingestion of intraorally infused water, sucrose, or saccharin, demonstrating that ingestion analgesia does not require feeding motivation, self-initiated food procurement, sucrose, or calories. Rather, food hedonics is important because neither salt ingestion nor quinine rejection elicited analgesia. During quinine-induced nausea and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced illness, conditions when chocolate eating was presumably less pleasurable, analgesia accompanying chocolate consumption was attenuated, yet analgesia during water ingestion was preserved in LPS-injected rats who showed enhanced palatability for water within this context. The dependence of ingestion analgesia on the positive hedonics of an ingestate was confirmed in rats with a conditioned taste aversion to sucrose: after paired exposure to sucrose and LPS, rats no longer showed analgesia during sucrose ingestion but continued to show analgesia during chocolate consumption. Eating pauses tended to occur less often and for shorter durations in the presence of ingestion analgesia than in its absence. Therefore, we propose that ingestion analgesia functions to defend eating from ending. Muscimol inactivation of the medullary raphe magnus blocked the analgesia normally observed during water ingestion, showing the involvement of brainstem endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in ingestion analgesia. Brainstem-mediated defense of the consumption of palatable foods may explain, at least in part, why overeating tasty foods is so irresistible even in the face of opposing cognitive and motivational forces.

  5. LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD AFTER LIPASE INGESTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of the enzyme appearing in the blood after oral ingestion of pancreatic lipase has been studied by determining the effect of the presence...bile acid while the enzymic activity of both pancreatic lipase and the enzyme present in the blood after pancreatic lipase ingestion were greatly...enhanced by the presence of cholic acid. Although the rate of fat absorption has been shown to be affected by lipase ingestion , the possibility remains

  6. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Copyright @ 200 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.9 Influence of Sensor Ingestion ... Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 597–602, 2009. Purpose: The validity and the...reliability of using intestinal temperature (Tint) via ingestible temperature sensors (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However

  7. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  8. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  9. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  11. WIND TUNNEL TESTS OF TURBOPROP ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS DURING BIRD INGESTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURBOPROP ENGINES, * INGESTION (ENGINES), BIRDS, BIRDS, DEGRADATION, TEST METHODS, AVIATION SAFETY, TAKEOFF, HAZARDS, JET ENGINE INLETS, DUCT INLETS, TURBINE COMPONENTS, DAMAGE, PHOTOGRAPHS, TURBINE BLADES.

  12. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo M, M.I. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones); Fernandez C, M. (Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1984-04-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms.

  13. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H

    1995-01-01

    tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise......1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...

  14. Localizing ingested coins with a metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, K E; Schunk, J E; Logan, L

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of metal detection in coin localization by inexperienced operators, and determine the rate of spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins. All children who presented to the emergency department of an urban children's hospital with a suspected coin ingestion were eligible. Coin location was predicted from metal detector results, while radiographs confirmed location. Asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins were observed for spontaneous passage. Ninety-one children (ages 9 months to 17 years) were prospectively enrolled. The metal detector had a sensitivity of 98% (53/54) in coin detection and 98% (81/83) in determining coin location as esophageal. Symptoms were poor predictors of coin location. Six of eight asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins spontaneously passed their coins. These results show that metal detection is a good screening test for coin presence and to determine coin location as esophageal. Spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins warrants further study.

  15. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  16. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  17. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Czachor, Jason D.; Westphal, Joslyn A.; Mestre, Miriam A.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research. PMID:28603504

  18. Interações entre ingestão de vitamina K, vitamina K sérica, tempo de protrombina e a dose de varfarina e polimorfismo do gene CYP2C9 em pacientes cardiopatas usuários de anticoagulantes orais de um Instituto de Cardiologia de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Warfarin is a mainstay in the treatment of oral anticoagulation and prophylaxis of thromboembolic illness. It has a narrow therapeutic index, and it’s important to regulate it’s monitoring to avoid serious adverse effects. There is a wide variety of dose applications, which makes the anticoagulant responses unpredictable. The environmental factors discussed in the literature that most affect the response to anticoagulation are: age, height and weight, diet and drug interactions....

  19. Tritium hazard via the ingestion pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model that allows for the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase the total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound to loose ratio of tritium in the diet. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  1. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    submucosal, circumferential oesophageal injuries (P = 0.003). The study suggests that only adults with symptoms or signs following strong alkali or strong acid ingestion are at risk of complications. In adults who are symptomatic following ingestion of strong acid or alkali, oesophagoscopy is important...

  2. THE EFFECT OF LIPASE INGESTION UPON BLOOD LIPID LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested . The total...obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase

  3. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonan...

  4. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  5. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury.

  6. Syntheses and Structures of Two New Coordination Polymers:[Cu(C14H9O4)(C14H10O4)(C12H12N2)2] and [Ag(C14H9O4)(C13H14N2)]·0.5 H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅志勇; 胡胜民; 杜文新; 张建军; 项生昌; 吴新涛

    2004-01-01

    Under hydrothermal conditions, two new ribbon-like structures, [Cu(C14H9O4)-analysis revealed that these structures were constructed by mixed ligands. The coordination polymer forms the basic architecture while the weak interactions extend the framework into a secondary structure. The whole structures of them are governed by collaboration of the strong and weak interactions. Compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 17.0485(3), b =1 1.0558(3), c = 22.7623(4) A, β = 102.465(1)°, V = 4189.2(2) A3, Z = 4, Mr = 915.44, Dc = 1.451g/mL, F(000) = 1900 andμ(MoKα) = 0.587 cm-1. The final R and wR are 0.0030 and 0.1022,respectively for 3037 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P21/c with a = 11.5963(4), b = 11.7004(5), c = 17.1254(5) A,β = 95.620(1)°, V =2312.4(1) A3, Z = 4, Mr = 556.35, Dc = 1.598 g/mL, F(000) = 1132 andμ(MoKα) = 0.912 cm-1The final R and wR are 0.0431 and 0.1050, respectively for 2629 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I).

  7. No Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Subjective Visual Horizontal Determination During Eccentric Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren; Svenson; Olsson; Ödkvist; Ledin

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the function of the vestibular part of the inner ear comprises more than the classic analysis of the lateral semicircular canal function. In healthy subjects, positional alcohol nystagmus may be seen after acute alcohol ingestion. Posturography has shown a deteriorated equilibrium after even moderate doses of alcohol, which speculatively could be an effect of otolith disturbance or a central integrative effect. We tested the possibility of an otolith effect by using linear acceleration in the lateral direction by means of eccentric rotation, stimulating mainly the outermost ear's otolith organ. The subject is seated eccentrically in a rotatory chair facing the direction of rotation. Thus, the otolith organs are stimulated in steady-state rotation. The subject experiences a lateral tilt and, in darkness, is instructed to put a short light bar in the position thought to be that of a water surface, which is identical to the perceived tilt. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 20-29 years were tested before and approximately 1 hour after ingestion of alcohol, the amounts consumed corresponding to an approximate blood alcohol level of 0.05%, well above the maximum permissible level for driving in Sweden. No significant effects of alcohol were found. The otolith function probably is not affected by moderate alcohol intoxication levels. From this point of view, equilibrium deterioration due to alcohol ingestion in the erect position is caused by a central integrative deficit and not by an otolith effect.

  8. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Cury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80 or children’s toothpaste (n = 78. The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p 0.05. The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used.

  9. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Tenuta, Livia M. A.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children’s toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used. PMID:24189183

  10. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  11. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  12. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (marine biota. Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  13. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 876.1300 Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (a) Identification. An ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system is used for visualization of the small bowel... Special Controls Guidance Document: Ingestible Telemetric Gastrointestinal Capsule Imaging Systems;...

  14. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the...

  15. Arraste via fecal de nutrientes da ingestão produzido por bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupp Dorivaldo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A ingestão de fibras alimentares pode resultar em arraste de outros nutrientes para as fezes. Bagaço de mandioca produzido por polvilheira foi submetido à hidrólise enzimática para obtenção de um produto mais concentrado em fibra alimentar insolúvel denominado de bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado (BMH. O BMH foi avaliado em ensaios biológicos com ratos Wistar quanto a sua habilidade de arrastar os nutrientes da ingestão para as fezes, tendo como padrão de fibra o farelo de trigo (FT. Acréscimo à dieta base, substituindo igual quantidade de amido, de dose de 5%, 15% ou 25% de BMH promoveu arraste significativo de minerais (globalidade ou proteína; dose de 15% ou 25% promoveu arraste significativo de lipídeo; e, dose de 25% promoveu arraste significativo de carboidrato digestível. Dose de 25% de FT produziu arraste significativo de minerais (globalidade, proteína ou carboidrato digestível, mas, o lipídeo não foi arrastado. BMH produziu efeito mais pronunciado que FT em arrastar minerais (globalidade ou proteína para a dose de 5% ou 15%; no entanto, para a dose alta, de 25%, as fontes produziram efeitos semelhantes em arrastar a proteína, mas o FT promoveu maior arraste de minerais (globalidade. Não houve diferença entre fontes, BMH e FT, em arrastar lipídeo ou carboidrato digestível para as fezes. Na dose alta (25% o BMH promoveu efeitos, no máximo, semelhantes ao FT, em arrastar para as fezes os nutrientes da ingestão; assim, é recomendado como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar insolúvel para a formulação de alimentos funcionais-digestivos.

  16. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  17. Ingestion of magnets: innocent in solitude, harmful in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Barbara E; Le Coultre, Claude; Genin, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    Foreign body ingestion is frequent in children and generally associated with little morbidity. However, some foreign bodies are innocent when ingested as a single object, but may have harmful effect if numerous. We report a 9-year-old girl who swallowed 5 magnets, causing acute intestinal obstruction. At laparotomy, 2 magnets were found in the cecum and 3 in the transverse colon, attracting each other and clasping a segment of ileum in between, causing a complete obstruction of the small intestine. If numerous magnets are ingested, particular concern is advised, and if signs of intestinal distress develop, prompt laparotomy to prevent serious gastrointestinal complications should be performed.

  18. Serious respiratory consequences of detergent ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, A; Horton, L; Altieri, M; Ochsenschlager, D; Klein, B

    1989-09-01

    After ingesting or inhaling laundry detergent powder, eight children required hospital admission. The predominant symptoms were stridor, drooling, and respiratory distress. All but one patient underwent endoscopy of the airways and the esophagus, five children were admitted to the intensive care unit, and four children required endotracheal intubation. Laundry detergent ingestions are generally considered to have minor consequences, and there exists a paucity of literature on the subject. Evidence of significant morbidity incurred because of ingestion or inhalation of sodium carbonate-containing laundry detergent powder is presented, together with a review of the existing literature.

  19. Effects of Nd-addition on the structural, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of C14 metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Ng, K.Y.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Nd-addition to the AB{sub 2}-based alloy Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 22.8−x}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 7.0}Ni{sub 32.2}Al{sub 0.4}Nd{sub x} is studied for its effects on the structure, gaseous-phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties. This study follows a series of Cu, Mo, Fe, Y, Si, and La doping studies in similar AB{sub 2}-based alloys. Limited solubility of Nd in the main Laves phase promotes the formation of secondary phases (AB and Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}) to provide catalytic effects and synergies for improved capacity and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) performance. The main C14 storage phase has smaller lattice constants and cell volumes, and these effects reduce the storage capacity at higher Nd levels. Different hydrogen absorption mechanisms can occur in these multi-component, multi-phase alloys depending on the interfaces of the phases, and they have effects on the alloy properties. Higher Nd-levels improve the HRD performance despite having lower bulk diffusion and surface exchange current. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate large percentage of larger metallic nickel clusters are present in the surface oxide of alloys with higher Nd-content, and AC impedance studies show very low charge-transfer resistance with high catalytic capability in the alloys. The −40 °C charge-transfer resistance of 8.9 Ω g in this Nd-series of alloys is the lowest measured out of the studies investigating doped AB{sub 2}-based MH alloys for improved low-temperature characteristics. The improvement in HRD and low-temperature performance appears to be related to the proportion of the highly catalytic NdNi-phase at the surface, which must offset the increased bulk diffusion resistance in the alloy. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of hydrogen flow and corresponding PCT isotherms in funneling mode. - Highlights: • Structural and hydrogen storage properties of Nd-substituted AB{sub 2} metal hydride are reported. • Nd contributes to the lowest

  20. Analgesic Activity of Tramadol and Buprenorphine after Voluntary Ingestion by Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan F; Ramirez, Harvey E; Battles, August H; Andrutis, Karl A; Neubert, John K

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose-response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male rats receiving buprenorphine mixed in nut paste, a significant analgesic response was observed at 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg. None of the doses tested produced a significant analgesic response in female rats. Our results indicate that at the doses tested, tramadol and buprenorphine produced an analgesic response in male rats. In female rats, tramadol shows a higher analgesic effect than buprenorphine. The analgesic effects observed 60 min after administration of the statistically significant oral doses of both drugs were similar to the analgesic effects of 0.03 mg/kg subcutaneous buprenorphine 30 min after administration. The method of voluntary ingestion could be effective, is easy to use, and would minimize stress to the rats during the immediate postoperative period.

  1. Esophageal Rupture After Ghost Pepper Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ann; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Hayashi, Sandra; Smollin, Craig

    2016-12-01

    The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest. A subsequent chest x-ray study showed evidence of a left-sided pleural effusion and patchy infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed pneumomediastinum with air around the distal esophagus, suggestive of a spontaneous esophageal perforation and a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was intubated and taken immediately to the operating room, where he was noted to have a 2.5-cm tear in the distal esophagus, with a mediastinal fluid collection including food debris, as well as a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was extubated on hospital day 14, and was discharged home with a gastric tube in place on hospital day 23. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous esophageal rupture, Boerhaave syndrome, is a rare condition encountered by emergency physicians, with a high mortality rate. This case serves as an important reminder of a potentially life- threatening surgical emergency initially interpreted as discomfort after a large spicy meal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of plastic ingested by Hawaiian seabirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of plastic products and dumping of plastic garbage in the ocean have increased dramatically in the past 25 years. Plastic ingestion has not been reported...

  4. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-02-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

  5. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with isopropanol ingestion in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Michelle E; Golomb, Meredith R

    2009-03-01

    This report describes a 5-week-old female infant who presented with accidental ingestion of rubbing alcohol (which contains about 70% isopropanol), and was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Isopropanol is a clear, volatile 3-carbon alcohol found in varying concentrations in many solvents. Mislabeled rubbing alcohol was mixed with this patient's formula. After ingesting it, she presented with a 1-day history of uncontrolled fussiness and an episode of deviation of the eyes to the right for 30 minutes, followed by rhythmic movements of the arms and legs for 20 minutes. Cerebral imaging demonstrated sinovenous thrombosis. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing cerebral sinovenous thrombosis as a complication of isopropanol ingestion. The possible association of isopropanol ingestion and sinovenous thrombosis is discussed.

  6. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  7. Metallic sewing needle ingestion presenting as acute abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... toothpicks, metallic nails, needles, and dental bridgework. Patients suspected of ... Postoperative adhesions are well‑known clinical entity following ... ingested foreign bodies within the appendix: A case report with review of.

  8. Clinical toxicology of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, N. R.; Macaulay, K. E. C.; Bissett, Ann F.; Crooks, J.; Pelosi, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical features are reported in 27 cases of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion. Mydriasis and hyperreflexia were common as were disorders of perception and affect. Psilocybe semilanceata appears to have been the species of fungus involved. PMID:7199140

  9. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  10. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011–2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years. PMID:26661851

  11. Caffeine ingestion enhances perceptual responses during intermittent exercise in female team-game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Von Hurst, Pamela; Foskett, Andrew; Holland, Sherina; Starck, Carlene; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of caffeine supplementation on cognitive performance and perceptual responses in female team-game players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition. Ten females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg body mass; 2-6 training sessions per week) took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. A 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol was completed 60 min following ingestion of a capsule containing either 6 mg • kg(-1) anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Perceptual responses (ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), feeling scale (FS), felt arousal scale (FAS)), mood (profile of mood states (POMS)) and cognitive performance (Stroop test, choice reaction time (CRT)) were completed before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as after ~12 h post exercise. Caffeine ingestion significantly enhanced the ratings of pleasure (P = 0.008) and arousal (P = 0.002) during the exercise protocol, as well as increased vigour (POMS; P = 0.007), while there was a tendency for reduced fatigue (POMS; P = 0.068). Caffeine ingestion showed a tendency to decrease RPE (P = 0.068) and improve reaction times in the Stroop (P = 0.072) and CRT (P = 0.087) tests. Caffeine supplementation showed a positive effect on perceptual parameters by increasing vigour and a tendency to decrease fatigue during intermittent running activity in female games players taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroids (OCS).

  12. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-12-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011-2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years.

  13. DNA Damage of Lung Cells from Immature Cadmium-Ingested Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on DNA damage of lung cells in immature animals. Seventy-two immature mice were randomly divided into twelve cadmium-ingested groups including low dose (1/100 LD50, 1.87 mg/kg BW, middle dose (1/50 LD50, 3.74 mg/kg BW, high dose (1/25 LD50, 7.48 mg/kg BW and control group, and exposed to cadmium chloride for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. Mice were sacrificed after cadmium exposure for different time, and lung cells were collected to investigate DNA damage by comet assay. The results showed that comet tailing ratio, tail length, comet length, tail moment, Olive tail moment and damaged grade of lung cells from immature mice increased along with increasing of cadmium exposure dose and time. In low dose group treated for 30 days, there was significance (P<0.05 in comet length or high significance (P<0.01 in other parameters compared with control group or low dose group treated for 10 days. When mice were exposed to cadmium at high dose for 30 days, DNA of lung cells was damaged most seriously. Our results indicate that cadmium can induce DNA damage of lung cells from immature mice in dose- dependent and time-dependent manners, and DNA will be damaged when immature mice exposed to cadmium for long time even at low dose. Meanwhile, comet assay can be considered as a powerful and sensitive biomarker assay in risk assessment of immature animals exposed to cadmium.

  14. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels.

  15. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  16. Ingestion of microcystins by Daphnia: Intestinal uptake and toxic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrlack, T.; Christoffersen, K.; Dittmann, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the intestinal uptake and adverse effects of microcystins ingested with Microcystis on Daphnia galeata. The gut structure, blood microcystin concentration, appearance, and movements of Daphnia fed Microcystis PCC 7806 or a microcystin-deficient PCC 7806 mutant were monitored over...... suggest that an ingestion of between 10.2 ng and 18.3 ng of microcystin per 1 mg of Daphnia body fresh weight is sufficient to kill D. galeata within 2 d....

  17. Foreign body ingestion: rare cause of cervical abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Larangeiro, João; Pinto Moura, Carla; Santos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a frequent emergency occurrence. Serious complications, although rare, include pharyngooesophageal perforation, aorto-oesophageal fistula and deep neck infection. A retrospective review was performed of all cases of foreign body ingestion requiring hospitalization between 1989 and 2011, in a tertiary Hospital. Cases complicated by deep cervical abscess were selected and their clinical presentation, results of diagnostic exams, therapeutics and clinical evolution are presented. Among a total of 1679 cases, 319 were related to pediatric patients and 1360 to adults. Two cases were reported (0.12%): an adult, 41 years-old, with parapharyngeal abscess subsequent to fishbone ingestion, and a child, 13 months-old, with retropharyngeal abscess consequent to chicken bone ingestion. Complications appeared three and four days after foreign body removal, respectively. In both situations cervical computerized tomography scan with contrast and surgical drainage were accomplished; the child was also submitted to rigid esophagoscopy for residual foreign body removal and closure of the associated pharyngeal laceration. Deep cervical abscesses are an uncommon but possible complication of foreign body ingestion and constitute a diagnostic challenge, particularly in children. Previous oesophageal manipulation by flexible endoscopy may be considered a risk factor for such complication. Imagiological studies proved to be crucial for diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Although a rare complication, given a recent history of foreign body ingestion/removal and the presence of compatible symptoms, cervical abscesses should be taken into account, highlighting their potential morbimortality in the absence of an appropriate therapeutic approach.

  18. Upper aerodigestive injuries from detergent ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Phayvanh P; Skarda, David E; Park, Albert H

    2017-02-01

    To describe the clinical presentations and management of detergent pod ingestion at a tertiary children's hospital. Case series. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with detergent pod ingestion from June 2010 and March 2015. Nine cases of detergent pod ingestion were included over a 5-year period. The average age was 26.3 months (range, 11-43 months). Eight (89%) of the cases were female. The patients had ingested laundry detergent pods (n = 7) and dishwasher detergent pods (n = 2). The majority of patients (67%) had more than one clinical manifestation from ingestion. Presenting symptoms included emesis (78%), respiratory symptoms (56%), throat pain (22%), drooling (33%), and foaming at the mouth (33%). The management of patients depended on the severity of their symptoms and included admission to an overnight observation unit (n = 5), discharge to home directly from the emergency department (n = 2), and admission to the hospital (n = 2). Two (22%) children underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One child (11%) required intubation from bilateral vocal fold immobility. Injuries to the upper aerodigestive tract after detergent ingestion range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to respiratory compromise. The majority of children improve with observation alone; however, clinicians should maintain a low threshold for endoscopic evaluation in cases of severe symptoms and airway involvement. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:509-512, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    satisfying "ABCD" of M.M. completely fell off. Both oral & frequent external application of mixed solution of plum wine & the same combination of anti-M.M. substances can be used as very effective treatment by taking 2-3 times daily. Additional application of special (+) Solar Energy Stored Paper reduced asbestos & accelerated reduction of M.M. positive area rapidly. This method with individualized optimal doses has also been successfully applied to treat several other types of malignancies.

  20. REDIQ: a computer program for estimating health effects from inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    The computer program REDIQ calculates the risk equivalence of dosage from internally deposited radionuclides to dosage from external whole-body irradiation. The calculation gives an estimate of the microcurie intake per nuclide that would result in a risk equivalent to receiving 1 rem of external whole-body irradiation. The program allows for internal deposition resulting from either inhalation of radioactive aerosols or ingestion of contaminated food. The inhalation portion of REDIQ was taken from the computer program DACRIN, which uses the models of the respiratory tract adopted by the Task Group on Lung Dynamics. REDIQ also uses a simple exponential model for retention by an organ of interest, and the gastrointestinal tract model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). For each nuclide specified, the program first calculates the radiation dose per microcurie intake by inhalation or ingestion to any of 23 organs and tissues. A maximum of 10 organs may be specified for any one case. The values for dose per microcurie intake are then coupled with relative risk values for each organ being considered, to arrive at the estimated intake equivalent to 1 rem of external whole-body irradiation.

  1. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  2. A Systematic Review of Fatalities Related to Acute Ingestion of Salt. A Need for Warning Labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Train, Emma J

    2017-06-23

    There are sporadic cases of fatalities from acutely eating salt. Yet, on social media, there are "challenges to" and examples of children and some adults acutely eating salt, and recently a charity advocated eating small amounts of salt to empathize with Syrian refugees. We performed a systematic review of fatalities from ingesting salt to assess if relatively moderate doses of salt could be fatal. In 27 reports, there were 35 fatalities documented (19 in adults and 16 in children). The lethal dose was estimated to be less than 10 g of sodium (<5 teaspoons of salt) in two children, and less than 25 g sodium in four adults (<4 tablespoons of salt). The frequency of fatal ingestion of salt is not able to be discerned from our review. If investigation of the causes of hypernatremia in hospital records indicates salt overdose is relatively common, consideration could be given to placing warning labels on salt containers and shakers. Such warning labels can have the added advantage of reducing dietary salt consumption.

  3. Isoniazid poisoning: Pharmacokinetics and effect of hemodialysis in a massive ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kirsty; Saiao, Ana; Mostafa, Ahmed; Soderstrom, Jessamine; Medley, Gregory; Roberts, Michael S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-10-01

    Isoniazid is a rare overdose that causes seizures and there is limited evidence to guide treatment. We report a 20-year-old female migrant who presented with recurrent seizures after ingesting 25 g of isoniazid. She was treated with activated charcoal, repeated doses of midazolam for the seizures, and given multiple doses of pyridoxine (14 mg), limited by availability. She was admitted to intensive care, and 5.5 hours post-ingestion, she was commenced on continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). She was extubated after 24 hours and CVVHDF was ceased 6 hours later (30 hours post-overdose). Her renal function remained normal and her initial lactate was the highest at 2.3. She made a full recovery. Five plasma samples were collected before, during, and after CVVHDF, and isoniazid was quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A pharmacokinetic analysis of time-isoniazid concentration data was fitted to a two-compartment model with first-order input (with fixed ka ) with the effect of CVVHDF modeled as a time-dependent covariate. This suggested that there was initially good clearance with CVVHDF (4 times endogenous clearance), which rapidly declined within hours.

  4. Life-threatening interaction between complementary medicines: cyanide toxicity following ingestion of amygdalin and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Jonathan; Hughes, Brett G M; Leong, David C S; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2005-09-01

    To describe a case of severe accidental cyanide poisoning following a single ingestion of amygdalin with therapeutic intent. A 68-year-old patient with cancer presented to the emergency department shortly after her first dose (3 g) of amygdalin with a reduced Glasgow Coma Score, seizures, and severe lactic acidosis requiring intubation and ventilation. The patient also ingested 4800 mg of vitamin C per day. She responded rapidly to hydroxocobalamin treatment. The adverse drug reaction was rated probable on the Naranjo probability scale. Amygdalin and laetrile (a synthetic form of amygdalin) are commonly used as complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of cancer. Vitamin C is known to increase the in vitro conversion of amygdalin to cyanide and reduce body stores of cysteine, which is used to detoxify cyanide. Amygdalin has been used for decades by patients with cancer who are seeking alternative therapies, and severe reactions have not been reported with this dose. An interaction with vitamin C is a plausible explanation for this life-threatening response. This case highlights the fact that CAMs can produce life-threatening toxicity. This case also adds a further note of caution, namely, the potential for serious interactions between CAMs, particularly where there is no tradition of concomitant use.

  5. Health Risk Evaluations for Ingestion Exposure of Humans to Polonium-210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2007-01-01

    The incident in London during November 2006 involving a lethal intake by Mr. Alexander Litvinenko of the highly-radioactive, alpha-particles-emitting polonium-210 (Po-210) isotope, presumably via ingestion, sparked renewed interest in the area of Po-210 toxicity to humans. This paper is the result of assembling and interpreting existing Po-210 data within the context of what is considered a reliable risk model (hazard-function [HF] model) for characterizing the risk of death from deterministic effects of high alpha radiation doses and dose rates to body organs. The HF model was developed to address radiation exposure scenarios involving combined exposures to alpha, beta, and gamma radiations and can be used in circumstances where only one type of radiation is involved. Under a plausible but not yet validated set of assumptions and using available megabecquerel (Po-210) to gray dose-conversion factors, acute lethality risk vs. dose curves were developed for circumstances of ingestion exposure to Po-210 by humans. Initial risk calculations were carried out for a reference adult male human (a hypothetical 70-kg person). Results were then modified for application to all ages (except the in utero child) via the use of systemic Po-210 burden. Because of the unavailability of acute lethality data derived from human ingestions of high levels of Po-210, plausibility of risk calculations were evaluated based on data from studies of Po-210 injections in animals. The animal data, although limited, were found to be consistent with the theoretical risk calculations. Key findings are as follows: (1) ingestion (or inhalation) of a few tents of a milligram of Po-210 will likely be fatal to all exposed persons. (2) Lethal intakes are expected to involve fatal damage to the bone marrow which is likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs including the kidneys and liver. (3) Lethal intakes are expected to cause severe damage to the kidney, spleen, stomach

  6. Doses from intakes of radionuclides by adults and young people

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhalgh, J R; Fell, T P

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating doses from ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides by adults, children (aged 10) and infants (aged 1). The calculation scheme follows the procedures and uses the models described in ICRP Publication 30, except in a few instances which are discussed in detail. The methods described in this report have been used to calculate organ doses and effective doses per unit intake for a wide variety of nuclides and compounds. A selection of these doses is given in this report. It is intended that the full dose data base should be made generally available in due course.

  7. Dose assessments for SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Cruz, Idalmis de la (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the safety analysis of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste, SKB has prepared an updated safety analysis, SAR-08. This report presents estimations of annual doses to the most exposed groups from potential radionuclide releases from the SFR 1 repository for a number of calculation cases, selected using a systematic approach for identifying relevant scenarios for the safety analysis. The dose estimates can be used for demonstrating that the long term safety of the repository is in compliance with the regulatory requirements. In particular, the mean values of the annual doses can be used to estimate the expected risks to the most exposed individuals, which can then be compared with the regulatory risk criteria for human health. The conversion from doses to risks is performed in the main report. For one scenario however, where the effects of an earthquake taking place close to the repository are analysed, risk calculations are presented in this report. In addition, prediction of concentrations of radionuclides in environmental media, such as water and soil, are compared with concentration limits suggested by the Erica-project as a base for estimating potential effects on the environment. The assessment of the impact on non-human biota showed that the potential impact is negligible. Committed collective dose for an integration period of 10,000 years for releases occurring during the first thousand years after closure are also calculated. The collective dose commitment was estimated to be 8 manSv. The dose calculations were carried out for a period of 100,000 years, which was sufficient to observe peak doses in all scenarios considered. Releases to the landscape and to a well were considered. The peaks of the mean annual doses from releases to the landscape are associated with C-14 releases to a future lake around year 5,000 AD. In the case of releases to a well, the peak annual doses

  8. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  9. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  10. [Emergency department consultations due to foreign body ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeiras, Ana; Zugazabeitia, Amaia; Uribarri, Nerea; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is an uncommon reason for going to the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of foreign body ingestion and the management of these patients. Retrospective study, including children under 14 years old with suspected foreign body ingestion seen in the PED between 2010 and 2013. An analysis was made of the circumstances of the FB ingestion, its management in the PED, and patient outcomes. Of the 226,666 presentations recorded, 1,608 (0.7%) were for a FB, 970 corresponding to ingestion of mainly fish bones (367, 38.7%) and coins (181, 18.7%), except in children under 1 year (plastic objects). The median age was 4.7 years, with boys being more common in those older than 4 years (58.5%). A total of 557 patients (57.3%) reported some symptom, and complementary tests were performed in 414 (42.7%). Another specialist was called in 315 (32.4%) cases, mainly from Ear, Nose and Throat (fish bones) or Surgery (coins). The FB was removed in 305 (31.4%) cases, which were mostly fish bones or sunflower seeds. Seventy-one patients (7.3%) were admitted, especially ingestion of fish bones or coins. No patient died. Ingestion of fish bones or coins by young children is a relatively common presentation in the PED, and it is associated with frequent medical interventions. Although the overall prognosis is good, and improving the health education of the population should be considered to reduce the frequency of these episodes. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Genes encoding chimeras of Neurospora crassa erg-3 and human TM7SF2 proteins fail to complement Neurospora and yeast sterol C-14 reductase mutants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Prakash; Durgadas P Kasbekar

    2002-03-01

    The human gene TM7SF2 encodes a polypeptide (SR-1) with high sequence similarity to sterol C-14 reductase, a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme in fungi, plants and mammals. In Neurospora and yeast this enzyme is encoded by the erg-3 and erg24 genes respectively. In an effort to demonstrate sterol C-14 reductase activity for SR-1 we constructed six recombinant genes coding for chimeras of the Neurospora erg-3 and SR-1 protein sequences and tested them for complementation of the Neurospora erg-3 mutant. To our surprise, all the chimeras failed to complement erg-3. A few of the chimeric proteins were also tested against the yeast erg24 mutant, but again there was no complementation. We discuss some reasons that might account for these unexpected findings.

  12. Observation of weak ferromagnetism in the C14 Laves phase of the (Fe{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}){sub 2}Nb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduani, C. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP, SC (Brazil); Schaf, J. [IF-UFRGS, Porto Alegre, CEP, RS (Brazil); Persiano, A.I.C. [DF-ICEX-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, CEP, MG (Brazil); Raposo, M.T. [DCNAT-UFSJ, Sao Joao Del Rei, CEP, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, J.D. [CDTN, Belo Horizonte, CEP, MG (Brazil); Takeuchi, A.Y. [DF-UFES, Vitoria, CEP, ES (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    In this work we report the observation of weak ferromagnetism in the hexagonal C14 Laves phase (s.g. P63/mmc) of the (Fe{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}){sub 2}Nb system, which has been reported as nonmagnetic in the literature. A larger unit cell volume is observed as compared to Fe{sub 2}Nb. From low-temperature magnetization measurements it is found that the Ni substitution for Fe indeed leads to the onset of a weak ferromagnetic ordering in the C14 Laves phase of this pseudobinary system. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Structural, elastic and electronic properties of C14-type Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) Laves phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishi, Ma; Yonghua, Duan; Runyue, Li

    2017-02-01

    The structural and mechanical properties, Debye temperatures and anisotropic sound velocities of the Laves phases Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) with C14-type structure were investigated using the first-principles corresponding calculations. The corresponding calculated structural parameters and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the available theoretical values, and Al2Ca has the best phase stability. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson ratio ν, were deduced within the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The brittleness and ductility were estimated by the values of Poisson ratio, B/G and Cauchy pressure. Moreover, the elastic anisotropy was investigated by calculating and discussing several anisotropy indexes. Finally, the electronic structures were used to illustrate the bonding characteristics of C14-Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) phases.

  14. Structural, elastic and electronic properties of C14-type Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) Laves phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishi, Ma; Yonghua, Duan, E-mail: duanyh@kmust.edu.cn; Runyue, Li

    2017-02-15

    The structural and mechanical properties, Debye temperatures and anisotropic sound velocities of the Laves phases Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) with C14-type structure were investigated using the first-principles corresponding calculations. The corresponding calculated structural parameters and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the available theoretical values, and Al{sub 2}Ca has the best phase stability. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E, and Poisson ratio ν, were deduced within the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The brittleness and ductility were estimated by the values of Poisson ratio, B/G and Cauchy pressure. Moreover, the elastic anisotropy was investigated by calculating and discussing several anisotropy indexes. Finally, the electronic structures were used to illustrate the bonding characteristics of C14-Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) phases.

  15. Dose assessments for SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Cruz, Idalmis de la (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the safety analysis of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste, SKB has prepared an updated safety analysis, SAR-08. This report presents estimations of annual doses to the most exposed groups from potential radionuclide releases from the SFR 1 repository for a number of calculation cases, selected using a systematic approach for identifying relevant scenarios for the safety analysis. The dose estimates can be used for demonstrating that the long term safety of the repository is in compliance with the regulatory requirements. In particular, the mean values of the annual doses can be used to estimate the expected risks to the most exposed individuals, which can then be compared with the regulatory risk criteria for human health. The conversion from doses to risks is performed in the main report. For one scenario however, where the effects of an earthquake taking place close to the repository are analysed, risk calculations are presented in this report. In addition, prediction of concentrations of radionuclides in environmental media, such as water and soil, are compared with concentration limits suggested by the Erica-project as a base for estimating potential effects on the environment. The assessment of the impact on non-human biota showed that the potential impact is negligible. Committed collective dose for an integration period of 10,000 years for releases occurring during the first thousand years after closure are also calculated. The collective dose commitment was estimated to be 8 manSv. The dose calculations were carried out for a period of 100,000 years, which was sufficient to observe peak doses in all scenarios considered. Releases to the landscape and to a well were considered. The peaks of the mean annual doses from releases to the landscape are associated with C-14 releases to a future lake around year 5,000 AD. In the case of releases to a well, the peak annual doses

  16. Experimental-study of the interactions between a natural C-14 radiolabeled sediment and a deposit-feeding bivalve : Abra alba

    OpenAIRE

    Amouroux, Jm; Gremare, A.; Cahet, G.

    1991-01-01

    Changes of radioactivity in a natural C-14 labelled sediment were monitored over a 120-hour period in the presence and in the absence of the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba. In both cases, the sediment showed great instability during the first ten hours of the experiment. The consequences of this result on the experimental protocol used for the study of the interactions between natural sediments and deposit-feeders are discussed. In controls, the instability is produced by an initial decrea...

  17. STRUCTURAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FE2(ZR,NB SYSTEM IN C15, C14 AND C36 LAVES PHASES: FIRST-PRINCIPLES STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L RABAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pseudopotential method (PP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT using the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA was applied to investigate the Fe2(Zr, Nb system within the three Laves phases structures: Cubic C15, Hexagonal C14 and C36. The effects of Nb concentration on structural, thermal and stability of the system were studied. The lattice parameters and bulk modulus of the three phases were predicted and showed a good agreement with the available experimental data. The rigidity of the Fe2Nb was higher than the Fe2Zr one for C15, C14 and C36. The energetic phase diagram of the systems was also established by determining the heat formation of the different phases. The obtained results showed that the Laves phases have close formation energies which suggests that the C15, C14 and C36 phases can co-exist at low-temperature. Finally, the temperature effect on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions and discussed accordingly.

  18. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms after human infection with the helminth Trichuris suis have not previously been described. Exposure to helminths has been suggested as immune therapy against allergy and autoimmune diseases. We randomized adults with allergic rhinitis to ingest a dose of 2500 T. suis eggs or placebo every...... by a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Phadia ApS). During 163 days complete follow-up, subjects ingesting T. suis eggs (N = 49) had a three to 19-fold higher rate of events (median duration, 2 days) with gastrointestinal reactions (moderate to severe flatulence, diarrhea, and upper abdominal pain) compared with placebo subjects (N...

  19. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  20. Serious injuries from dishwasher powder ingestions in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinelli, Amy; Hamill, James; Mahadevan, Murali; Miles, Fiona

    2006-03-01

    To describe patterns and severity of caustic injuries sustained from dishwasher powder ingestion and highlight need for national safety standards. Retrospective chart review of admissions for caustic ingestion to Starship Children's Hospital from January 2003 to January 2005 and review of New Zealand National Poisons Centre data. Between January 2003 and January 2005, the National Poisons Centre recorded 610 dishwashing powder ingestions, with 88% of children less than 2 years old. Twenty-three children were admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following caustic ingestion, of whom 11 were identified as having ingested dishwasher powder (9 boys and 2 girls) and were aged 11 to 30 months (mean 17.5). Five children (45%) were admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit over 4 months (October 2004 to January 2005), requiring intubation for airway control. Two children needed tracheostomy. Three of the 11 children (27%) required repeated oesophageal dilatation, and two underwent gastrostomy formation. One brand of dishwasher detergent and container type was implicated in over half of the cases. Dishwasher detergents are highly corrosive substances that cause potentially life-threatening injuries and ongoing morbidity. The recent surge of incidents may be related to change in product constituents or non-compliance with New Zealand safety standards. Efforts to limit product alkalinity, legislative requirement of Child-Resistant Packaging and public education may reduce injuries from these common household substances.

  1. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience w...

  2. Effects of sublethal fenitrothion ingestion on cholinesterase inhibition, standard metabolism, thermal preference, and prey-capture ability in the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, David; Buttemer, William A; Astheimer, Lee; Fildes, Karen; Hooper, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is a medium-sized lizard that is common in semiarid habitats in Australia and that potentially is at risk of fenitrothion exposure from use of the chemical in plague locust control. We examined the effects of single sublethal doses of this organophosphate (OP; low dose = 2.0 mg/kg; high dose = 20 mg/kg; control = vehicle alone) on lizard thermal preference, standard metabolic rate, and prey-capture ability. We also measured activities of plasma total cholinesterase (ChE) and acetylcholinesterase before and at 0, 2, 8, 24, 120, and 504 h after OP dosing. Predose plasma total ChE activity differed significantly between sexes and averaged 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.06 micromol/min/ml for males and females, respectively. Approximately 75% of total ChE activity was attributable to butyrylcholinesterase. Peak ChE inhibition reached 19% 2 h after OP ingestion in the low-dose group, and 68% 8 h after ingestion in high-dose animals. Neither OP doses significantly affected diurnal body temperature, standard metabolic rate, or feeding rate. Plasma total ChE levels remained substantially depressed up to 21 d after dosing in the high-dose group, making this species a useful long-term biomonitor of OP exposure in its habitat.

  3. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  4. A case of argyria following colloidal silver ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-08-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be increasing among patients using alternative health practices. We report this case to bring people's attention to the problems associated with the ingestion of colloidal silver.

  5. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...... to fatigue at 70% of P(max) approximately 14% and approximately 30%, respectively. CS and beta-HAD activity increased and glycogen content was greater after training, but there were no differences between Glc and Plc. After training the rate of oxidation of palmitate (R(ox)) and the % of rate...... of disappearance that was oxidized (%R(dox)) changed. %R(dox) was on average 16.4% greater during exercise after training whereas, after exercise %R(dox) was 30.4% lower. R(ox) followed the same pattern. However, none of these parameters were different between Glc and Plc. We conclude that glucose ingestion during...

  6. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs...... tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise......) or (3) a high dose of BCAA (18 g l-1). 2. These treatments greatly increased the plasma concentration of the respective amino acids. Using the kinetic parameters of transport of human brain capillaries, BCAA supplements were estimated to reduce brain tryptophan uptake at exhaustion by 8-12%, while...

  7. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics.

  8. Factors influencing fluoride ingestion from dentifrice by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Belini, Melina Rodrigues; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Pauleto, Adriana Regina Colombo; Araújo, Juliana Julianelli de; Tessarolli, Vanessa; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the percentage of the amount of dentifrice loaded onto the toothbrush that is ingested by children, taking into account age, the amount of dentifrice used during toothbrushing, and the dentifrice flavor. The sample consisted of 155 children of both genders attending public kindergartens and schools in Bauru, Brazil, divided into 5 groups (n = 30-32) of children aged 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years old. The dentifrices used were Sorriso™ (1219 ppm F, peppermint-flavored) and Tandy™ (959 ppm F, tutti-frutti-flavored). The assessment of fluoride intake from dentifrices was carried out six times for each child, using 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g of each dentifrice, following a random, crossover distribution. Brushing was performed by the children or their parents/caregivers according to the home habits and under the observation of the examiner. Fluoride present in the expectorant and on toothbrush was analyzed with an ion-specific electrode after HMDS-facilitated diffusion. Fluoride ingestion was indirectly derived. Results were analyzed by 3-way repeated-measures anova and Tukey's tests (P dentifrice ingested as response variable. Age and percent dentifrice ingested for both dentifrices, and the three amounts used were inversely related (P dentifrice ingested was significantly higher after the use of Tandy™ under all conditions of the study when compared with Sorriso™ (P dentifrices tested (P < 0.05). The results indicate that all variables tested must be considered in preventive measures aiming to reduce the amount of fluoride ingested by young children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  10. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  11. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......: Oral amino acid mixture ingestion elicits a stronger insulin secretory response than iv amino acid at matching amino acid levels and this is associated with increased GIP level, suggesting that an incretin effect exists also after oral amino acids, possibly mediated by GIP....

  13. Unusual liver abscess secondary to ingested foreign body: laparoscopic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    PANEBIANCO, A.; LOZITO, R.C.; PRESTERA, A.; IALONGO, P.; VOLPI, A.; CARBOTTA, G.; PALASCIANO, N.

    2015-01-01

    Liver abscess is a cause of febrile abdominal pain and usually the origin of a liver abscess is ascending cholangitis, hemathological diffusion, via the portal vein or the hepatic artery, or superinfection of necrotic tissue. Solitary pyogenic abscess with no obvious systemic cause may be secondary to a local event such as the migration of an ingested foreign body. We report the case of a solitary liver abscess caused by an ingested foreign body, a fish bone, migrated through the gastric wall into the left lobe. PMID:26017106

  14. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  15. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  16. Assessing multiple endpoints of atrazine ingestion on gravid Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Gaines, Karen F; Baumgartner, Kyle A; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Novak, James M; Mullin, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Ecotoxicological studies that focus on a single endpoint might not accurately and completely represent the true ecological effects of a contaminant. Exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide, disrupts endocrine function and sexual development in amphibians, but studies involving live-bearing reptiles are lacking. This study tracks several effects of atrazine ingestion from female Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) to their offspring exposed in utero. Twenty-five gravid N. sipedon were fed fish dosed with one of the four levels of atrazine (0, 2, 20, or 200 ppb) twice weekly for the entirety of their gestation period. Endpoints for the mothers included blood estradiol levels measured weekly and survival more than 3 months. Endpoints for the offspring included morphometrics, clutch sex ratio, stillbirth, and asymmetry of dorsal scales and jaw length. Through these multiple endpoints, we show that atrazine ingestion can disrupt estradiol production in mothers, increase the likelihood of mortality from infection, alter clutch sex ratio, cause a higher proportion of stillborn offspring, and affect scale symmetry. We emphasize the need for additional research involving other reptile species using multiple endpoints to determine the full range of impacts of contaminant exposure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide on terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Remskar, Maja; Sepcić, Kristina; Tisler, Tatjana

    2008-09-01

    The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2; anatase, 15 nm) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3-d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod endpoints, including weight change, feeding rate, food assimilation efficiency, and survival, were not affected up to the highest tested concentration of TiO2 in food (3,000 microg/g). Exposure concentrations of 0.5, 2,000, and 3,000 microg nonsonicated TiO2/g food decreased CAT and GST activities, but intermediate concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 microg/g food) did not result in significant changes of enzyme activities. When the dispersion of TiO2 was sonicated, no effects on enzyme activities or higher-level biomarkers were observed. The experimental setup with terrestrial isopods designed for dissolved chemicals also is suitable for testing the effects of ingested nanoparticles, but the presentation of toxicity data needs to be adapted according to the mode of action of the nanoparticles and their specific characteristics.

  18. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus......, and 18 +/- 6 for the first 1.5 h of recovery and decreased to 30 +/- 6, 36 +/- 3, and 8 +/- 6 mmol. kg dry muscle(-1). h(-1) between 1.5 and 4 h for CHO/protein, CHO, and water ingestion, respectively. No differences could be observed between CHO/protein and CHO ingestion ingestion. It is concluded...... concentration compared with water ingestion during 4 h of recovery. With CHO ingestion, glucose concentration was 1-1.5 mmol/l higher during the first hour of recovery compared with CHO/protein ingestion. Leg glucose uptake was initially 0.7 mmol/min with water ingestion and decreased gradually...

  19. New experiences on the time required for the appearance of fluoric cachexia in the guinea pig following ingestion of various fluorine salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H.; Chausse, P.

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the time it took guinea pigs to develop cachexia after being given sodium fluosilicate or sodium fluoride. Results indicate that a dose-response relationship existed following the ingestion of the fluorine salts in relation to the time it took to produce cachexia. In addition, sodium fluosilicate was found to be more toxic than sodium fluoride. In guinea pigs which were given approximately 1/30 to 1/36 of the lethal dose, cachexia was produced from 44 to 70 days later. In guinea pigs given even smaller doses, cachexia did not appear for one to two years.

  20. The Effects of Novel Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate on Repeated Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Robinson, Amy L; Sparks, S Andy; Bridge, Craig A; Bentley, David J; McNaughton, Lars R

    2016-02-01

    This work examined the influence of an acute dose of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on buffering capacity and performance during a repeated sprint ability (RSA) protocol. Eleven (mean ± SD: age 24.6 ± 6.1 years; mass 74.9 ± 5.7 kg; height 177.2 ± 6.7 cm) participated in the study, undertaking 4 test sessions. On the first visit to the laboratory, each participant ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3 (in 450 ml of flavored water) and blood samples were obtained at regular intervals to determine the individual times peak pH and HCO3. In subsequent visits, participants ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3, 270 mg · kg(-1) body mass (BM) of NaCI, or no drink followed by a RSA cycling protocol (10 × 6 seconds sprints with 60 seconds recovery), which commenced at each individuals predetermined ingestion peak pH response time. Blood samples were obtained before exercise and after the first, fifth, and 10th sprint to determine the blood pH, HCO3, and lactate (La) responses. Total work completed during the repeated sprint protocol was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the NaHCO3 condition (69.8 ± 11.7 kJ) compared with both the control (59.6 ± 12.2 kJ) and placebo (63.0 ± 8.3 kJ) conditions. Peak power output was similar (p > 0.05) between the 3 conditions. Relative to the control and placebo conditions, NaHCO3 ingestion induced higher (p ≤ 0.05) blood pH and HCO3 concentrations before exercise and during the bouts, and higher lactate concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) after the final sprint. Results suggest that NaHCO3 improves the total amount of work completed during RSA through enhanced buffering capacity.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock secondary to "gripe water" ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, David; Enrione, Maria A; Schwartz, Richard H

    2004-02-01

    We report the case of a 9-month-old girl who presented in septic shock after ingestion of a contaminated herbal supplement commonly used to treat colic. Herbal supplements are widely used by well-meaning parents for many common conditions. Pediatricians should be aware that the variable manufacturing and packaging conditions of herbal supplements can lead to contamination with infectious agents.

  2. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...

  3. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities.

  4. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incid

  5. Severe hypokalaemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); J.M. van der Klooster; D.M. Zuidgeest; R.J.T. Ouwendijk (Rob); A. Dees

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChronic ingestion of liquorice induces a syndrome with findings similar to those in primary hyperaldosteronism. We describe a patient who, with a plasma K+ of 1.8 mmol/l, showed a paralysis and severe rhabdomyolysis after the habitual consumption of natural liquorice. L

  6. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  7. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  8. Boric acid ingestion clinically mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David V; Stowman, Anne M; Patterson, James W

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, delirium, acute renal failure and prolonged ileus. A 56-year-old male with a history of multiple previous suicide attempts was witnessed ingesting household roach killer and 4 days later presented to the hospital with lethargy, stiffness and a diffuse erythematous and desquamative eruption with bullous formation. He subsequently developed erythema of both palms as well as alopecia totalis. Histopathology from a right arm shave biopsy revealed a mostly intact epidermis with subtle vacuolar alteration of the basal layer, scattered intraepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, parakeratosis with alternating layers of orthokeratosis and considerable superficial exfoliation; accompanying dermal changes included vasodilatation and mild perivascular inflammation. This report describes the cutaneous and systemic complications in a rare case of boric acid ingestion. There is little published material on the symptoms and histopathology following boric acid ingestion, but knowledge of this entity is important, both to differentiate it from other causes of desquamative skin rashes and to allow the initiation of appropriate clinical care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  10. Estimating Children's Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/du

  11. Transient ischaemic attack caused by an ingested stingray barb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Desmond C C; Huilgol, Ravi L; Westcott, Mark J

    A 76-year-old woman reported a fishbone stuck in her throat, but no foreign body was identified. Eight weeks later, she experienced a transient ischaemic attack, and a stingray barb was subsequently removed from the right common carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the migration of an ingested stingray barb.

  12. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  13. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  15. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  16. Compatibility of technologies with regulations in the waste management of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Part I. Initial information base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kolba, V.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the information base that was collected and reviewed in preparation for carrying out an analysis of the compatibility with regulations of waste management technologies for disposal of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Based on the review of this literature, summaries are presented here of waste-form characteristics, packaging, transportation, and disposal methods. Also discussed are regulations that might apply to all operations involved in disposal of the four nuclides, including the processing of irradiated fuel in a fuel reprocessing plant, packaging, storage, transport, and final disposal. The compliance assessment derived from this information is reported in a separate document. 309 references.

  17. Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, A; Schwartz, R H; Kaplan, P

    1997-10-01

    A hemp oil product (Hemp Liquid Gold) was purchased from a specialty food store. Fifteen milliliters was consumed by seven adult volunteers. Urine samples were taken from the subjects before ingestion and at 8, 24, and 48 h after the dose was taken. All specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay with SYVA EMIT II THC 20, THC 50, and THC 100 kits. The tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) concentration was determined on all samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (5). A total of 18 postingestion samples were submitted. Fourteen of the samples screened above the 20-ng cutoff, seven were above the 50-ng cutoff, and two screened greater than the 100-ng cutoff. All of the postingestion samples showed the presence of THCA by GC-MS.

  18. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  19. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) catheter placementfor intragastric dosing studies in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik; Lorentsen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Oral dosing is widely used to test compounds in minipigs. The procedure of oral dosing by gavage is stressful for the animals and may require up to 3-4 technicians to perform it. In humans, PEG catheters are commonly used to feed patients who are not able to ingest food, and where the placement...

  20. Ingestion into the upstream wheelspace of an axial turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T.; Turner, A. B.

    1994-04-01

    The upstream wheelspace of an axial air turbine stage complete with nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and rotor blades (430 mm mean diameter) has been tested with the objective of examining the combined effect of NGVs and rotor blades on the level of mainstream ingestion for different seal flow rates. A simple axial clearance seal was used with the rotor spun up to 6650 rpm by drawing air through it from atmospheric pressure with a large centrifugal compressor. The effect of rotational speed was examined for several constant mainstream flow rates by controlling the rotor speed with an air brake. The circumferential variation in hub static pressure was measured at the trailing edge of the NGVs upstream of the seal gap and was found to affect ingestion significantly. The hub static pressure distribution on the rotor blade leading edges was rotor speed dependent and could not be measured in the experiments. The Denton three-dimensional CFD computer code was used to predict the smoothed time-dependent pressure field for the rotor together with the pressure distribution downstream of the NGVs. The level and distribution of mainstream ingestion, and thus, the seal effectiveness, was determined from nitrous oxide gas concentration measurements and related to static pressure measurements made throughout the wheelspace. With the axial clearance rim seal close to the rotor the presence of the blades had a complex effect. Rotor blades in connection with NGVs were found to reduce mainstream ingestion seal flow rates significantly, but a small level of ingestion existed even for very high levels of seal flow rate.

  1. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  2. GNSS derived TEC data ingestion into IRI 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoya-Orué, Yenca; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro; Alazo-Cuartas, Katy

    2015-04-01

    Experimental vertical total electron content (VTEC) data given by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) has been ingested into the IRI version 2012, aiming to obtain grids of effective input parameter values that allow to minimize the difference between the experimental and modeled vertical TEC. Making use of the experience gained with the technique of model adaptation applied to NeQuick (Nava et al., 2005), it has been found possible to compute IRI world grids of effective ionosphere index parameters (IG). The IG grids thus obtained can be interpolated in space and time to calculate with IRI the 3D electron density at any location and also the TEC along any ground-to-satellite ray-path for a given epoch. In this study, the ingestion technique is presented and a posteriori validation, along with an assessment of the capability of the 'ingested' IRI to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day foF2 variability during disturbed and quiet periods. The foF2 values retrieved are compared with data from about 20 worldwide ionosondes for selected periods of high (year 2000) and moderate to low solar activity (year 2006). It was found that the use of the ingestion scheme enhances the performance of the model when compared with its standard use based on solar activity drivers (R12 and F10.7), especially for high solar activity. As an example, the mean and standard deviation of the differences between experimental and reconstructed F2-peak values for April of year 2000 is 0.09 and 1.28 MHz for ingested IRI, compared to -0.81 and 1.27 MHz (IRI with R12 input) and -0.02 and 1.46 MHz (IRI with F10.7 input).

  3. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-12-15

    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  4. Ingestion of phosphorus-32 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, identified on August 19, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    On Monday, October 16, 1995, the Massachussetts Institue of Technology (MIT, the licensee) notified the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of an incident involving ingestion of phosphorus-32 by a researcher at the MIT Center for Cancer Research. The licensee informed the NRC that a researcher had reported the incident on August 19. The licensee initially estimated the intake as 500 microcuries (19 MBq) and the dose as 4000 millirem (40 mSv) to the individual. On October 12, the licensee informed the researcher that its final intake estimate was 579 microcuries (21 MBq), just under the 600 microcuries (22 MBq) which would represent an overexposure. On October 17, the NRC established an Incident Investigation Team to investigate the case. NRC also contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education to do independent dose assessments of the urine sample data and the whole-body data. The Team concluded that the licensee`s final intake and dose estimates were in accordance with accepted scientific references and NRC guidance. However, recognizing the uncertainties involved in the use of models to simulate human characteristics, the Team determined the intake would be better characterized as likely falling within a range of 500 to 750 microcuries (19--28 NMq). An NRC medical consultant concluded that no symptoms or acute effects should be observed from an intake of this level.

  5. Behavioral responses of high and low active male rats to the chronic ingestion of desipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1985-06-01

    Male rats arbitrarily selected for high and low motor activity (HA and LA-rats) were submitted to the chronic ingestion (30 days) of desipramine (DSP) in doses of about 1.5, 3 and 6 mg/kg/24 hr. Their motor activity was assessed in an animal activity monitor providing a measure of total horizontal movements and vertical movements and in a hole-board providing a measure of locomotion, head-dipping and grooming. There were significant differences between HA and LA-rats in their behavioral response to DSP treatment. At the doses used DSP did not affect horizontal and vertical movements and hole-board locomotion or exploration in HA-rats (Experiment 1). In LA-rats, however (Experiment 2), these motor activities were significantly stimulated by DSP. Such effect was dose dependent; 1.5 mg/kg/24 hr was ineffective while 6 mg/kg/24 hr produced a clear cut reversion of hypoactivity. It is speculated that DSP treatment increased resistance of LA-rats to the mild stress caused by testing.

  6. Correlation factors for C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Mo-93, Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135. In operational waste for SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria; Pettersson, Michael; Wiborgh, Marie (Kemakta AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The use of correlation factors is one possibility to estimate a reference radionuclide inventory for the purpose of safety assessment studies, when waste-type specific information is not at hand. The correlation factor approach requires that there is a correlation between the activity content of the difficult-to-measure nuclide and the key nuclide. A safety assessment of a future deep repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFL 3-5) was conducted during the second half of the 1990's. Within that project, correlation factors for estimating the inventory of radionuclides which are difficult to measure experimentally were developed. These factors have also partly been used to estimate a reference inventory for SFR 1. Based on a literature survey and recent reports published by SKB, it is concluded that new information is available making an update of some correlation factors relevant. For these radionuclides, reported data from estimations and measurements of radionuclide content and correlation factors in different types of radioactive wastes are summarised. The data is evaluated and updated correlation factors representative for fresh waste for eight radionuclides (C-14, Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Mo-93, Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135) are suggested. New information from measurements in Swedish NPP has made it possible to define factors that are BWR and PWR specific for C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. The uncertainties in suggested data and the applicability of the correlation factors for estimates of the radionuclide content in operational waste are commented upon

  7. First-principles calculations of the stability and hydrogen storage behavior of C14 Laves phase compound TiCrMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Zhi-Sheng; Zhu, Jing-Chuan; Yang, Xia-Wei; Cao, Yong; Lai, Zhong-Hong; Liu, Yong; Sun, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The structural, elastic properties, electronic structure and hydrogen storage behavior of TiCrMn with a hexagonal C14 structure were investigated by the first-principles calculations within the frame work of DFT. The calculated lattice constants were consistent with the experimental values, and obtained cohesive energy and formation enthalpy showed TiCrMn is of the structural stability. These results also indicated that Mn atoms would optionally substitute on the Cr sites of TiCr2 phase to form the ternary intermetallic TiCrMn. The five independent elastic constants as well as polycrystalline elastic parameters (bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio ν and anisotropy value A) were calculated, and then the ductility and elastic anisotropy of TiCrMn were discussed in details. Furthermore, the electronic DOS and charge density distribution of TiCrMn were also calculated, which revealed the underlying mechanism of structural stability and chemical bonding. Finally, the binding energy of hydrogen in hydride TiCrMn(H3) was investigated, confirming the better hydrogen storage behavior of C14 Laves phase TiCrMn.

  8. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise training is linked to reduced plasma C14:0 ceramide in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P J; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 14) or diabetes (n = 10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 80-85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m(2) /min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Plasma ceramides were similar for the subjects with obesity and NGT and the subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. The comparative performance of PMI estimation in skeletal remains by three methods (C-14, luminol test and OHI): analysis of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Muccino, Enrico; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cerutti, Elisa; Caruso, Valentina; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-27

    When estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic anthropology, the only method able to give an unambiguous result is the analysis of C-14, although the procedure is expensive. Other methods, such as luminol tests and histological analysis, can be performed as preliminary investigations and may allow the operators to gain a preliminary indication concerning PMI, but they lack scientific verification, although luminol testing has been somewhat more accredited in the past few years. Such methods in fact may provide some help as they are inexpensive and can give a fast response, especially in the phase of preliminary investigations. In this study, 20 court cases of human skeletonized remains were dated by the C-14 method. For two cases, results were chronologically set after the 1950s; for one case, the analysis was not possible technically. The remaining 17 cases showed an archaeological or historical collocation. The same bone samples were also screened with histological examination and with the luminol test. Results showed that only four cases gave a positivity to luminol and a high Oxford Histology Index (OHI) score at the same time: among these, two cases were dated as recent by the radiocarbon analysis. Thus, only two false-positive results were given by the combination of these methods and no false negatives. Thus, the combination of two qualitative methods (luminol test and microscopic analysis) may represent a promising solution to cases where many fragments need to be quickly tested.

  10. Foraging preferences influence microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Thomas, Peyton A; Rieper, Kaitlyn B; Bratton, Susan P

    2017-07-11

    This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences. Cluster analysis of O. chrysoptera most closely classified microplastic with the ingestion of benthic invertebrates, whereas the ingestion of microplastic by all other species most closely classified with the ingestion of vegetation and shrimp. O. chrysoptera, as selective invertebrate foragers, are less likely to ingest microplastics than species exhibiting generalist foraging preferences and methods of prey capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide case due to phosphoric acid ingestion: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Serra, Arianna; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-11-01

    Ingesting caustic substances represents a common event which may result in serious injuries of the gastrointestinal system. Severity of injury depends on the type of ingested substance: Caustic burns are more frequently associated with acid ingestion and their severity depends on type, concentration, time of exposure, and amount of the ingested substance. We report a case of phosphoric acid ingestion leading to death in a patient with depressive disorder. While reports ingestion of other acids and organophosphates can be found in the literature, there are no reports detailing a death due to phosphoric acid ingestion. We hope that presenting the findings in this case can aid death investigators in future cases that may involve ingestion of such a substance. After autopsy pH, phosphate and calcium ions concentration in the blood were analyzed. The cause of death was due to systemic effects: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

  12. STUDIES ON THE INGESTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, CHINESE PRAWN AND GIANT TIGER PRAWN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  13. Button battery ingestion with different outcome : two case reports from a Tertiary care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Suman; Roy, Amrita; Chatterjee, Anirban; Roy, Bidhan Ch; Mondal, Sandip; Pramanik, Koushik

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion is a distinct type of foreign body ingestion in children because of their potential to cause major injury or life threatening consequences. According to National Poison Data System, United States of America, there is a 6.7 fold increase in the percentage of button battery ingestion with major or fatal outcomes from 1985-2009.  We are reporting two cases with history of accidental ingestion of button battery with different outcome. 

  14. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  15. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  16. Status quo of the storage of C-14 containing waste from German high-temperature and research reactors and the strategy for their future storage; Status quo der Lagerung C-14-haltiger Abfaelle aus deutschen Hochtemperatur- und Forschungsreaktoren und Strategie zu deren kuenftigen Endlagerung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, S.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.

    2014-12-15

    The German research reactors and the high-temperature reactors (AVR, THTR 300) used graphite as reflector and/or moderator materials. Due to the activation of these materials there exists a significant amount of C-14, H-3 and Co-60.The project included the assessment of the respective amount of materials from all facilities, the legal framework for interim storage, transport and final disposal.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION INTERFACE STABILITY AND ITS RELATION TO GAS INGESTION IN VISCOSEALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    purpose of seeking factors which have a significant role in the process of gas ingestion , or gas entrainment, in viscoseals. The simplified model of...by employing stroboscopic photography and high-speed motion picture photography. A phenomenological mechanism of gas ingestion was established...indicate that surface tension tends to stabilize the interface and prevent or delay gas ingestion . (Author)

  18. The Effect of Alcohol Ingestion on Short Term Memory and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    sequence of four different symbols before alcohol ingestion , after alcohol ingestion and again after alcohol with motivation. The purpose of the experiment...modes, while motivation had no effect in overcoming this Short Term Memory degradation due to alcohol ingestion . (Author)

  19. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion... possibility of accidental ingestion of drugs, it is not only suggested but is recommended that one of these...

  20. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  1. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  5. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  6. Ingestion of microcystins by Daphnia: Intestinal uptake and toxic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrlack, T.; Christoffersen, K.; Dittmann, E.;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the intestinal uptake and adverse effects of microcystins ingested with Microcystis on Daphnia galeata. The gut structure, blood microcystin concentration, appearance, and movements of Daphnia fed Microcystis PCC 7806 or a microcystin-deficient PCC 7806 mutant were monitored over...... time. Microcystins were rapidly taken up from the digestive cavity into the blood. This process apparently required a preceding disruption of the gut epithelium by an as-yet-unknown Microcystis factor. Once microcystins entered the blood, they affected the neuromuscular communication or another life...... suggest that an ingestion of between 10.2 ng and 18.3 ng of microcystin per 1 mg of Daphnia body fresh weight is sufficient to kill D. galeata within 2 d....

  7. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  8. Fatal hypernatremia in a dog from salt ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, C; Boermans, H J; Wilcock, B

    1997-01-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Airedale terrier was presented for the evaluation of a 45-minute episode of continuous seizure activity after ingesting a salt-flour mixture used as clay for the sculpting of small figurines. Levels of serum sodium (211 mEq/L; reference range, 145 to 158 mEq/L) and chloride (180 mEq/L; reference range, 105 to 122 mEq/L) were elevated. The dog died despite aggressive therapy directed at the hypernatremia. Tissue levels of sodium and chloride were elevated. Brain sodium level (108 mEq/L; reference range, has less than 80 mEq/L) was diagnostic for salt toxicosis. All necropsy findings, except severe hepatocellular necrosis, were consistent with reports of salt poisoning in humans and other species. Hypernatremia from ingestion of salt has not been described previously in the dog.

  9. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  10. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  11. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  12. Corrosive tracheo-esophageal fistula following button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, M M; Ramalingam, Wvbs; Chitkara, G; Katiyar, A

    2012-02-01

    We describe a case of corrosive tracheo-esophageal fistula following button battery ingestion in a 1-year old nonverbal pediatric patient. The delay in diagnosis was caused by failure to obtain correct history and failure to detect opacity of the battery in the neck at the first visit. The large fistula was successfully treated with division and repair with non absorbable sutures, with interposition of strap muscles between separated trachea and esophagus.

  13. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  14. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  15. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Afzal Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was p...

  16. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  17. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and...

  18. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  19. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African treePausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required inse...

  20. Insulin binding to erythrocytes after acute 16-methyleneprednisolone ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, A; Holle, W; Zick, R; Trautschold, I

    1982-10-01

    The binding of [125I]insulin to erythrocytes, glucose and insulin were determined before and 1, 7 and 35 days after ingestion of 2 X 60-methyleneprednisolone. None of two groups of volunteers (7 males, 4 females showed clear alterations of the insulin binding parameters (Ka and R0), or of the fasting cortisol, glucose and insulin concentrations. These results exclude the possibility that the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides is accompanied by an alteration of the insulin receptor characteristics of erythrocytes.

  1. Orienteering performance and ingestion of glucose and glucose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Heinonen, O J; Kvist, M; Kärkkäinen, O P; Marniemi, J; Niittymäki, K; Havas, E

    1989-06-01

    The benefit of glucose polymer ingestion in addition to 2.5 per cent glucose before and during a prolonged orienteering competition was studied. The final time in the competition in the group ingesting 2.5 per cent glucose (group G, n = 10) was 113 min 37 s +/- 8 min 11 s, and in the group which had additionally ingested glucose polymer (group G + GP, n = 8) 107 min 18s +/- 4 min 41 s (NS). One fifth (21 per cent) of the time difference between the two groups was due to difference in orienteering errors. Group G + GP orienteered the last third of the competition faster than group G (p less than 0.05). The time ratio between the last third of the competition and the first third of the competition was lower in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). After the competition, there was statistically insignificant tendency to higher serum glucose and lower serum free fatty acid concentrations in group G + GP, and serum insulin concentration was higher in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). Three subjects reported that they exhausted during the competition. These same three subjects had the lowest serum glucose concentrations after the competition (2.9 mmol.1(-1), 2.9 mmol.1(-1), 3.5 mmol.1(-1] and all of them were from group G. It is concluded that glucose polymer syrup ingestion is beneficial for prolonged psychophysical performance.

  2. Perforation of the duodenum by an ingested toothbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by an ingested 12-cm long toothbrush handle. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent epigas- tric pain for 6 d after swallowing a broken toothbrush. The swallowed toothbrush could not be removed from the second portion of the duodenum by endoscopy. Laparotomy revealed a perforation in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. The toothbrush was removed via the perforation which was debrided and closed. There were no postoperative complications.

  3. Perforation of the duodenum by an ingested toothbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Hsiao-Hsiang; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by an ingested 12-cm long toothbrush handle. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent epigastric pain for 6 d after swallowing a broken toothbrush. The swallowed toothbrush could not be removed from the second portion of the duodenum by endoscopy. Laparotomy revealed a perforation in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. The toothbrush was removed via the perforation which was debrided and closed. There were no postoperative compl...

  4. Late evolution retropharyngeal abscess after ingestion of foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imamura, Rui

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The complications relating to the ingestion of foreign bodies, such as retropharyngeal abscess, are of low prevalence, but potentially severe. Objective: To present one case of late evolution retropharyngeal abscess after ingestion of foreign body. Case Report: Female patient presenting with dysphagia, pain upon cervical motion and sensation of foreign body in the pharynx, about one month after removal of foreign body from the level of the cricopharyngeal muscle. In spite of not having fever or leukocytosis, due to the slight difficulty for cervical move and loss of the laryngeal crepitation, simple radiography and computed tomography were carried out in the neck, which showed signs of retropharyngeal abscess. Surgical draining of the abscess and antibiotic therapy led to good evolution of the case and symptoms reversion. Conclusion: The retropharyngeal abscess may occur during several weeks after ingestion of a foreign body. The absence of fever and leukocytosis does not exclude the diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients. A high degree of suspicion leads to the performance of diagnostic exams and suitable procedures.

  5. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  6. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  7. Measurement of bacterial ingestion and killing by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P A; Canono, B P; Drevets, D A

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents fairly simple assays for measuring the binding of bacteria to macrophages, internalization of bacteria (also called ingestion or phagocytosis), and bacterial killing by macrophages. The first basic protocol describes how to measure the ability of macrophages to ingest bacteria. Because it is critical to remove residual extracellular organisms, the protocol presents two alternative steps to accomplish this: a washing procedure and a more stringent method in which cells are sedimented through sucrose. In addition, it is important to distinguish those bacteria truly ingested by a macrophage from those that are bound to, but not internalized by, the cell. A simple but effective way to do this is described in an alternate protocol. The unit also presents two ways to measure the ability of a macrophage to kill bacteria it has internalized. The first is a straightforward assay in which bacterial colonies are enumerated before and after a killing period; a subsequent colony count will indicate whether the bacteria grew within or were killed by the macrophage. The second protocol describes a way to measure bacterial viability based on bacterial metabolism, in which the ability of bacterial dehydrogenases to mediate the reduction of a tetrazolium salt to purple formazan is monitored by measuring absorbance spectrophotometrically.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

  9. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David C Evans; Thomas R Wojda; Christian D Jones; Andrew J Otey; Stanislaw P Stawicki

    2015-01-01

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO)is described more commonly in prison populationsthan in the general population, with an estimatedannual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our statecorrectional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestionof small metal objects (e.g. , paperclips, razor blades)or other commonly available items like pens or eatingutensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects,most episodes can be clinically managed with eitherobservation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reservedfor those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinalperforation or obstruction. For those with a history ofIIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrenceas subsequent episodes are associated with highermorbidity, significant healthcare and security costs.The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalationboth in frequency of ingestions and in number of itemsingested. Little is known about successful preventionstrategies, but efforts to monitor patients and providepsychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies.This article aims to provide state-of-the art review onthe topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations.

  10. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.

  11. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in the C14 Laves phase (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}Nb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduani, C. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: paduani@fisica.ufsc.br; Schaf, J. [IF-UFRGS, Porto Alegre, CEP 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Persiano, A.I.C. [DF-ICEX-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, CP 702, 30161-970 MG (Brazil); Ardisson, J.D. [CDTN, Belo Horizonte, CEP 30123-970, MG (Brazil); Takeuchi, A.Y. [DF-UFES, Vitoria, CEP 29075-910, ES (Brazil); Raposo, M.T. [DCNAT-UFSJ, Sao Joao Del Rei, CEP 36300-000, MG (Brazil)

    2009-04-17

    In this work are studied the structure and magnetic properties of the (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}Nb alloys with X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The results confirm the formation of the C14 Laves phase in the Co concentration range 0{<=}x{<=}0.55. The unit cell volume decreases with the increase of the cobalt concentration and is larger than in Fe{sub 2}Nb. Magnetization measurements indicate that this system is weakly ferromagnetic at low temperatures for x{<=}0.55. From the behavior of the M(T) curves a cluster-glass-like mechanism is predicted for this system below 50 K.

  12. Paleo-Environment and C-14 Dating: The Key to the Depositional Age of the Tha Chang and Related Sand Pits, Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthapiban, P.; Zolensky, M.; Jull, T.; Demartino, M.; Salyapongse, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tha Chang sand pits, Nakhon Ratchasima Province and many other sand pits in the area adjacent to the Mun River are characterized by their fluviatile environment in association with mass wasting deposits, along the paleo-river channel and the flood plain of the Mun River. Sediments of these deposits are characterized by clasts of various rock types especially the resistant ones with frequent big tree trunks, logs and wood fragments in different sizes and various stages of transformation from moldering stage to lignification and petrification. Widespread pyritization of the lower horizon suggests strongly reducing environment during burial. The Tha Chang deposits have been received much attention from geoscientists especially paleontologist communities, as they contain fragments of some distinct vertebrate species such as Stegadon sp., hominoid primate, rhinoceros Aceratherium and others. Based on the associated mammal fauna and hominoid fossils, the late Miocene ( 9 - 6 Ma) was given for the time of deposition of this sand and gravel unit. Some other reports believed that sediments and materials of these sand and gravel quarries (pits) were deposited by high-energy flood pulses contemporaneous with the tektites forming event during mid-Pleistocene at c. 0.8 Ma. Interpretation from Palynostratigraphical study suggested that the lower horizon of Tha Chang sand pit was deposited during Pliocene/Pleistocene period and the upper horizons are Pleistoncene/Holocene. It is crystal clear that all the fluviatile sediments including tektites and almost all fossil fragments being deposited in these sand pits were, likely a multiple times reworked materials. Only some old bamboo trees, some old crowling trees and fossils grasses observed on the old river bank are considered in situ. C-14 dating of 5 old wood specimens from Tha Chang Sand Pits, 15 old wood specimens from Chumpuang Sand Pits and one sample of old pottery from a Chumpuang Sand Pit were carried out in the NSF

  13. Microstructural Evolution and Compressive Properties of Two-Phase Nb-Fe Alloys Containing the C14 Laves Phase NbFe2 Intermetallic Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. W.; Wang, X. B.; Wang, W. X.; Li, S. M.; Gong, D. Q.; Fu, H. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and compressive properties of two-phase Nb-Fe binary alloys based on the C14 Laves phase NbFe2 were characterized at both the hypo- and hypereutectic compositions. The experimental results indicated that the microstructures of the two alloys consisted of fully eutectics containing Fe and NbFe2 phases at the bottom of the ingots corresponding to the largest solidification rates. With the decrease of solidification rate, the microstructures developed into primary Fe (NbFe2) dendrites plus eutectics in the middle and top parts of the ingots. The microstructural evolutions along the axis of the ingots were analyzed by considering the competitive growth between the primary phase and eutectic as well as using microstructure selection models based on the maximum interface temperature criterion. Furthermore, the compressive properties of the two alloys were measured and the enhancements were explained in terms of the second Fe phase and halo toughening mechanisms.

  14. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hoseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided.

  15. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided.

  16. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  17. Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulla [Swepro Project Management AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report describes methods and data for calculation of doses to man to be used in safety assessments of repositories for nuclear fuel. The methods are based on the latest recommendations from the ICRP; the EU and the national radiation protection authorities. Equations are given for calculation of doses from ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and external exposure from radionuclides in the ground. With the exception of the exposure from food ingestion, the equations are the same used in previous safety assessments. A general equation is suggested for estimation of the exposure from food ingestion, in which the annual demand of carbon is used instead of the annual ingestion of different food-stuffs, which was earlier applied. The report contains tables with recommended values for physiological characteristics such as water intake, food intake and inhalation rates, based on information summarised in an Appendix. Furthermore, tables are given with recommended age dependent dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation for a number of nuclides of interest for safety assessments. The most recently published dose conversion factors for external exposure from contaminated ground are also given. An overview of the implementation of the methodology in Pandora, which is the tool that SKB and Posiva currently use for biosphere modelling, is also provided. The work presented in the report is a result from a joint project commissioned by SKB and Posiva.

  18. Curcuma longa ingestion protects in vitro hepatocyte membrane peroxidation Ingestão de Curcuma longa protege contra peroxidação de membrana de hepatócito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Torquato Paolinelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of turmeric ingestion on lipid peroxidation and GSH content, promoted by in vitro acetaminophen, on hepatocytes primary culture from well-nourished and malnourished rats. Four groups of Holtzman male rats were used: 1 WNG, well-nourished, fed lab chow diet ad libitum; 2 MNG, malnourished, fed 60% of the diet consumed by WNG; 3 WNG+T fed the same diet of WNG, but containing 1% of turmeric; 4 MNG+T fed 60% of the diet consumed by WNG+T. The animals were sacrificed at 90 days of age, the livers excised and hepatocytes primary cultures were prepared. Half of the plates of hepatocytes culture were treated with acetaminophen. Dose-response curve showed that 6 mM acetaminophen increased peroxidation around 54% and decreased GSH content around 63%. The model of malnutrition used, by restricting food ingestion (40%, decreased body weight in 33% and peroxidation index around 42% and increased GSH content around 43%. Turmeric ingestion decreased hepatocyte peroxidation in both well-nourished (42% and malnourished rats (33% and was able to avoid the acetaminophen pro-oxidant effect in both well-nourished and malnourished animals. Turmeric ingestion played a beneficial role to the organism and, therefore, can be considered a functional food.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da ingestão de cúrcuma sobre a peroxidação lipídica e conteúdo de GSH, por ação tóxica in vitro de paracetamol, utilizando cultura primária de hepatócitos. Quatro grupos de ratos Holtzman foram usados: 1 GNN, normonutrido, alimentado ad libitum com ração de laboratório; 2 GDN, desnutrido, alimentado com 60% da quantidade de ração consumida por GNN; 3 GNN+C, alimentado como GNN, mas contendo 1% de cúrcuma na dieta; 4 GDN+C, alimentado como GDN, mas contendo 1% de cúrcuma na dieta. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 90 dias de vida, e cultura de hepatócitos preparada. Metade das placas de cultura foi

  19. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result...... of strong alkali ingestion (sensitivity = 1.0). Among the 102 incident patients, 36.8% of lye ingestions resulted in complications, whereas only 2.7% (one) of automatic dishwasher detergent (ADD) ingestions caused any complications (p ... or identifying complications in all types of strong alkali ingestions. In lye ingestions, endoscopy was not superior to the test, "one or more signs or symptoms" in predicting complications (predictivity = 1.0). Endoscopy is recommended to establish or confirm a prognosis, or to identify acute respiratory...

  20. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  1. The outcome of North American pediatric unintentional mushroom ingestions with various decontamination treatments: an analysis of 14 years of TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, M C; Sasser, H C; Watson, W A

    2009-03-15

    The optimum empiric decontamination therapy for unintentional pediatric mushroom ingestion is not known. We sought to determine case outcomes for unintentional mushroom ingestions in children by decontamination therapies utilized. The 1992-2005 American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System was queried for cases of unintentional acute mushroom ingestions in children age <6 years. Cases were excluded if outcome was unknown, if exposure was coded as unrelated to the symptoms, or if there was co-ingestion of a non-mycoid substance. The treatment subgroups analyzed were ipecac, single-dose activated charcoal, and no gastric decontamination. 82,330 cases met the inclusion criteria with 22,454 cases excluded. There were 16 cases with major effects and no deaths. There were 57,531 cases in the three treatment subgroups. There was a significantly smaller percentage of cases with moderate or major outcomes in the ipecac subgroup compared to the no decontamination subgroup. There was a significantly greater percentage of cases with moderate or major outcomes in the activated charcoal compared to the no decontamination subgroup. If decontamination therapy is being performed, and this data suggests it may not be necessary, syrup of ipecac could still be considered an effective option.

  2. Tetrabromobisphenol A and heavy metal exposure via dust ingestion in an e-waste recycling region in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yanyan; Kang, Duan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Dongli; Pan, Bishu; Lin, Zhenkun; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate a prevalent brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and four heavy metals of Pb, Cr, As, Cd in dust samples (52 indoor and 52 outdoor) collected from residential houses in an e-waste recycling area in Southeast China. For TBBPA, the mean concentration in indoor dust (3435 ng/g, dw) was higher than that in outdoor dust (1998 ng/g, dw). For heavy metals, the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, As, Cd were 399, 151, 48.13, and 5.85 mg/kg in indoor dust, respectively, and were 328, 191, 17.59, and 4.07 mg/kg in outdoor dust, respectively. Except for As, concentrations of TBBPA and other metals decreased with the increased distance away from the e-waste recycling center, suggesting significant contribution of e-waste activities. The daily exposure doses of TBBPA ranged from 0.04 to 7.50 ng/kg-bw/day for adults and from 0.31 to 58.54 ng/kg-bw/day for children, representing the highest values reported to date for TBBPA exposure via dust ingestion. Daily exposure doses of Cr, As, and Cd were all below the reference doses. However, daily exposure dose of Pb for children in areas near the e-waste processing center was above the reference dose, posing significant health concern for children in that region.

  3. Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyka, P A; Seger, D; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2005-01-01

    Single-dose activated charcoal therapy involves the oral administration or instillation by nasogastric tube of an aqueous preparation of activated charcoal after the ingestion of a poison. Volunteer studies demonstrate that the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases with time. Data using at least 50 g of activated charcoal, showed a mean reduction in absorption of 47.3%, 40.07%, 16.5% and 21.13%, when activated charcoal was administered at 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 120 minutes and 180 minutes, respectively, after dosing. There are no satisfactorily designed clinical studies assessing benefit from single-dose activated charcoal to guide the use of this therapy. Single-dose activated charcoal should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. Based on volunteer studies, the administration of activated charcoal may be considered if a patient has ingested a potentially toxic amount of a poison (which is known to be adsorbed to charcoal) up to one hour previously. Although volunteer studies demonstrate that the reduction of drug absorption decreases to values of questionable clinical importance when charcoal is administered at times greater than one hour, the potential for benefit after one hour cannot be excluded. There is no evidence that the administration of activated charcoal improves clinical outcome. Unless a patient has an intact or protected airway, the administration of charcoal is contraindicated. A review of the literature since the preparation of the 1997 Single-dose Activated Charcoal Position Statement revealed no new evidence that would require a revision of the conclusions of the Statement.

  4. [Long QRS tachycardia secondary to Aconitum napellus alkaloid ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Gelmini, Gian Paolo; Montresor, Graziano; Canel, Daniela; Comini, Teresa; Fracalossi, Claudio; Martinetti, Claudio; Poeta, Maria Luisa; Ziacchi, Vigilio

    2002-08-01

    The roots and seeds of the aconite (Aconitum napellus) contain alkaloids with modulatory activity on the sodium voltage-dependent channels; most fatal cases have been determined by ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis. The only established treatment is supportive. We report a case of poisoning from Aconitum napellus, ingested by a husband and wife who thought the plant was "mountain chicory". They both had tachyarrhythmias, but the husband had more malignant episodes of hemodynamically unstable wide QRS tachycardia and respiratory paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation.

  5. Colovesical fistula caused by an ingested chicken bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Matthew B; Hedrick, Traci L; Colen, David L; Schenkman, Noah S

    2013-12-01

    Colovesical fistula involving the sigmoid colon is the most common fistulous communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder. These tracts are most commonly associated with diverticulitis but might arise secondary to a neoplasm, inflammatory bowel disease, iatrogenic injuries, radiation therapy, trauma, or foreign bodies. We describe a patient who developed a fistula between the sigmoid colon and bladder secondary to an ingested chicken bone that lodged in a colonic diverticulum. A portion of the foreign body was removed by direct visualization on colonoscopy; the remaining fragment passed spontaneously per urethra after hospital discharge.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction and renal failure following naphtha ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, R J; Crippen, D R; Jayadevappa, D; Kosek, T L

    2001-10-01

    We present a case of a non-Q wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure following an ingestion of naphtha, a petroleum distillate composed primarily of hydrocarbons. The patient's renal, metabolic, and cardiac status improved over several days with aggressive volume replacement and bicarbonate therapy. Acute cardiotoxic effects of hydrocarbon exposure generally manifest as dysrhythmias, secondary to myocardial sensitization to circulating catecholamines, or, possibly, coronary vasospasm. Ischemia from associated hypotension or direct myocardial toxicity are other potential causes of naphtha-related cardiac injury.

  7. Variable angle of strabismus related to timing of opiate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jonathan J; Brown, Valerie; Fern, Alasdair I

    2009-04-01

    Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opiate with potential for misuse. A small number of reports have linked the commencement of heroin misuse to acute exotropia with diplopia and subsequent withdrawal to esotropia in individuals without previous symptoms.(1-5) We describe a young adult who sought strabismus surgery to correct a large-angle exotropia. Detailed patient history and orthoptic measurements at different times of the day revealed a fluctuating angle of divergence relating to the timing of opiate ingestion, rendering surgery inappropriate. We suggest that opiate misuse, which may not willingly be disclosed by patients, should be specifically asked about before acquired-strabismus surgery is undertaken in adults.

  8. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  9. A Case of Argyria Following Colloidal Silver Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-01-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. Th...

  10. Health risks following ingestion of mercury and zinc air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M; Tucker, I

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a study set up to assess the corrosive behaviour of mercury and zinc air batteries in the gastric juice environment of the stomach. The results show a relatively rapid rate of corrosion for charged mercury batteries. In contrast, the zinc air battery showed no visible corrosion under the same conditions. In view of the toxic dangers from leakage of mercury batteries, it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure that such batteries do not remain in the acidic environment of the stomach, should ingestion occur.

  11. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  12. Ingestive behavior and thermoregulatory responses of equine in grazing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverton José Lima Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to evaluate the main physiological responses, as well as the main patterns of ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of equines in activities grazing. Animal behavior is influenced by several factors, such as, climate, temperature, power supply, etc., thus becoming indispensable good management practices, for the animal can play to their best possible performance. The loss of heat in equines that give several ways (conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation, this occurs so that the animal can enter in their zone of thermal comfort (37.5ºC to 38.5ºC.

  13. Pathophysiology of esophageal impairment due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Johannes; Völker, Christine; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Schraven, Sebastian P; Radeloff, Andreas; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf; Rak, Kristen

    2017-09-01

    The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi. The lithium button battery type CR2032, used most frequently in daily life, was exposed in preparations of porcine esophagi and incubated under the addition of artificial saliva at 37 °C. A total of eight esophagi were analysed by different methods. Measurements of the pH value around the battery electrodes and histological studies of the tissue damage were carried out after 0.5-24 h exposure time. In addition, macroscopic time-lapse images were recorded. Measurements of the battery voltage and the course of the electric current supplemented the experiments. The investigations showed that the batteries caused an electrolysis reaction in the moist environment. The positive electrode formed an acidic and the negative electrode a basic medium. Consequently, a coagulation necrosis at the positive pole, and a deep colliquation necrosis at the minus pole occurred. After an exposure time of 12 h, tissue damage caused by the lye corrosion was observed on the side of the negative electrode up to the lamina muscularis. The corrosion progressed up to the final exposure time of 24 h, but the batteries still had sufficient residual voltage, such that further advancing damage would be expected. Button battery ingestion in humans poses an acute life-threatening danger and immediate endoscopic removal of the foreign body is essential. After only 2

  14. Physician Beware: Severe Cyanide Toxicity from Amygdalin Tablets Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tam; Nguyen, Cham; Tran, Phu N

    2017-01-01

    Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity. Rapid clinical diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity can rapidly improve patients' clinical outcome and survival. Inquiries for any forms of ingestion should be attempted in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of poisoning.

  15. Test of the suitability of ECOPATH/ECOSIM modelling software as a compliment to estimate flows of carbon, C-14 and radionuclides in the Oeregrundsgrepen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Johannes [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-04-01

    In this study it was evaluated whether the ECOPATH with ECOSIM software could be used as a standard platform to facilitate for radioecologists to construct and study transport and accumulation of radionuclides in aquatic food webs. The evaluation was based upon: 1) a previously published food web model of carbon/carbon-14 flow for the Oeregrundsgrepen area, Baltic Sea, 2) a generic model, 3) an ECOSIM model and 4) an ECOTRACE model. The results presented clearly shows that there is great potential for a successful development of this scientific approach in the future. The original carbon flows and assumptions was easily incorporated into the ECOPATH with ECOSIM modelling environment. The carbon flows differed only negligible between the two models, except for the benthic flows, which was more accurately described in this study. Further, by using ECOPATH it was easily discovered that the growth efficiencies used in the original model was quite high, being 47% for most of the heterotrophs, which are high from an ecological point of view. However, that is probably due to differences in how the carbon flows have been estimated in the original versus the present study. It is likely, however that the carbon demand has been underestimated in the original model. The generic model was parameterised from data available through the software as well from the diets and assumptions used in the original carbon model. The use of these parameters resulted in carbon flows, which was between 0.7 to 11 times the flows estimated by the ECOPATH model. The difference was greatest for primary producers being 3.7 to 11 times the original flows. Thus, depending on the question one is addressing it was suggested that the use of generic parameters is best for making test models of carbon and radionuclide flows in ecosystems, where the data set for validation is limited. Finally, the ECOPATH and ECOSIM model was well suited to drive a C-14 flow model, such as ECOTRACER for each of the

  16. A consensus protocol for the determination of the threshold doses for allergenic foods: how much is too much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, S. L.; Hefle, S. L.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Background While the ingestion of small amounts of an offending food can elicit adverse reactions in individuals with IgE-mediated food allergies, little information is known regarding these threshold doses for specific allergenic foods. While low-dose challenge trials have been conducted on an a...

  17. Changes in aminoacidergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats after ayahuasca ingestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo; Ferreira; de; Castro-Neto; Rafael; Henrique; da; Cunha; Dartiu; Xavier; da; Silveira; Mauricio; Yonamine; Telma; Luciana; Furtado; Gouveia; Esper; Abro; Cavalheiro; Débora; Amado; Maria; da; Graa; Naffah-Mazzacoratti

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate changes in neurotransmission induced by a psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in the hippocampus and amygdala of naive rats. METHODS: The level of monoamines, their main metabolites and amino acid neurotransmitters concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Four groups of rats were employed: saline-treated and rats receiving 250, 500 and 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca infusion(gavage). Animals were killed 40 min after drug ingestion and the structures stored at-80 ℃ until HPLC assay. The data from all groups were compared using Analysis of variance and Scheffé as post test and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. RESULTS: The results showed decreased concentrations of glycine(GLY)(0.13 ± 0.03 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P < 0.001) and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)(1.07 ± 0.14 vs 1.73 ± 0.25, P < 0.001) in the amygdala of rats that received 500 of ayahuasca. Animals that ingested 800 mg/kg of ayahuasca also showed a reduction of GLY level(0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.29 ± 0.07, P < 0.001) and GABA(0.98 ± 0.06 vs 1.73 ± 0.25, P < 0.001). In the hippocampus, increased GABA levels were found in rats that received all ayahuasca doses: 250 mg/kg(1.29 ± 0.19 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P < 0.05); 500 mg/kg(2.23 ± 038 vs 084 ± 0.21, P < 0.05) and 800 mg/kg(1.98 ± 0.92 vs 0.84 ± 0.21, P < 0.05). In addition, an increased utilization rate of all monoamines was found in the amygdala after ayahuasca administration in doses: 250 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.01; dopamine: 0.39 ± 0.012 vs 2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.001; serotonin: 1.02 ± 0.22 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001), 500 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.08 ± 0.02 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.001; dopamine: 0.33 ± 0.19 vs 2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.001; serotonin: 0.59 ± 0.08 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001) and 800 mg/kg(noradrenaline: 0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.001; dopamine: 0.84 ± 0.65 vs2.39 ± 0.84, P < 0.05; serotonin: 0.36 ± 0.02 vs 4.04 ± 0.91, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest

  18. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged ingested magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P ingestion (P ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12TPB, C14TPB and C16TPB) in aqueous medium: their interfacial, bulk and fluorescence quenching behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gargi Basu Ray; Soumen Ghosh; Satya P Moulik

    2010-03-01

    The self-aggregation behaviour of ternary mixtures of alkyl (C$_{12}^{-}$, C$_{14}^{-}$ and C$_{16}^{-}$) triphenylphosphonium bromides was studied by conductometry and tensiometry. The pure surfactants showed two Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single CMC both by conductometry and tensiometry. The CMC values determined were found to be lower than that obtained from Clint equation suggesting synergistic interaction among the monomers within the micelles. Their bulk properties, like fraction of counterions bound to the micelles and free energy of micellization were evaluated. Interfacial parameters, like surface excess, minimum head group area of monomer and free energy of adsorption were also assessed. Interfacial adsorption was found to be more spontaneous than micellization. The head group area per monomer in ternary systems was larger than pure systems due to stronger electrostatic repulsion among the charged head groups. The values of the packing parameters supported the pure as well as ternary micelles to be spherical. The TPB surfactants efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed.

  20. Rapid responses of C14 clone of Eucalyptus globulus to root drought stress: Time-course of hormonal and physiological signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Cuesta, Candela; Alvarez, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo; Centeno, María Luz; Rodríguez, Ana; Majada, Juan Pedro; Fernández, Belén; Feito, Isabel

    2011-05-01

    The responses of juvenile plants of forest crops to drought stress are a key stage in the survival of forest populations. In this work, a suitable experimental system to study the early drought resistance mechanisms and signaling in a drought-tolerant clone (C14) of Eucalyptus globulus Labill is proposed. This system, using hydroponic culture and an osmotic agent, polyethylene glycol 8000, was demonstrated to induce severe stress in the root area, affecting the responses of the plantlets at the aerial level. These responses were very fast, beginning only 3h after the induction of stress, and the results highlight the roles of xylematic abscisic acid (ABA) and pH changes over other signals, such as cytokinins, as early chemical signals in rapid water stress. The relationship between these chemical factors, ABA and pH, and the physiological and water parameters observed were significant, supporting their proposed principal role. This work aids our understanding of underlying responses to hydrological limitations of forest crops, and provides valuable information for further physiological and molecular studies of water stress in this and other tree species.

  1. Titanium carbide, nitride and carbonitrides: a 13C, 14N, 15N and 47,49Ti solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, K J; Meinhold, R H; McGavin, D G; Ripmeester, J A; Moudrakovski, I

    1995-05-01

    The first 47,49Ti, 13C, 14N and 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of titanium carbide, nitride and a series of cubic carbonitrides have been obtained under both static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The 15N samples were isotopically enriched by gas-solid exchange at 1000 degrees C in a closed system. The Ti spectra of the carbide and nitride are sharp, reflecting the well defined cubic symmetry of these compounds, but become considerably broadened in the carbonitride series, with the spectra being approximately the sum of TiC and TiN together with some small electric field gradient (EFG) effects. The resonance positions and widths of all the NMR spectra change as carbon is progressively replaced by nitrogen. A relationship is observed between the 13C chemical shift and the nitrogen content of the carbonitrides, suggesting a possible NMR method for estimating the composition of these compounds. Although electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of all these compounds show typically metallic behaviour, the NMR spectra show few effects attributable to conduction electrons, probably due to the lack of s-orbital contributions to the conduction band.

  2. There is no mass spectrometry evidence that the C14 sample from the Shroud of Turin comes from a “medieval invisible mending”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Bella@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Garlaschelli, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Samperi, Roberto [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-10

    Highlights: • This editorial regards a paper published on Thermochimica Acta, 425 (2005) 189. • The author hypothesized a “medieval invisible mending” on the Shroud of Turin. • There is no evidence of such a “medieval invisible mending”. • The two mass spectra presented differ only by the presence of a contaminant. • When the peaks due to the contaminant are removed, the two mass spectra look alike. - Abstract: This is an editorial regarding a paper published on Thermochimica Acta (R.N. Rogers, Thermochimca Acta, 425 (2005) 189–194). A close-up analysis of the pyrolysis-mass spectra reported in the original paper reveals that the differences found between the samples coming from different parts of the Shroud are just due to the presence of a contaminant with a long aliphatic chain. Except for the presence of the contaminant, the two pyrolysis-mass spectra look alike rather than different. Therefore, the pseudoscientific theory stating that the C14 sample might come from a “medieval invisible mending” remains unsupported by evidences.

  3. Ingestion of Caustic Substances in Adults: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Chibishev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingestion of caustic agents can cause serious damages of the upper gastrointestinal tract and in some cases this kind of poisoning may have fatal outcomes. Acute caustic intoxications are one of the main problems in the modern clinical toxicology since they mainly affect young people with psychic disorders, suicidal intent, and alcohol addiction. Text: In diagnostic evaluation of this kind of poisoning, different procedures are used. Today’s golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. In some patients, some late complications, such as esophageal stenosis and gastric stenosis, which are the most common, as well as carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract, which is rarely seen, can be detected. Acute caustic poisonings are treated with specific kinds of protocols. According to them, first, an attempt is made to neutralize the poison. Combinations of antibiotics, anti-secretory drugs, and collagen synthesis inhibitors are used. As a support therapy, nutritional liquids can be utilized, and in the most unmanageable cases, esophageal dilatation, stent placement and surgery are used. Conclusion: In the future, caustic poisonings will remain a serious socio-medical issue, due to the difficult clinical presentation, expensive diagnostic protocol, extended hospitalization, and possible permanent disability.

  4. HINCOF-1: a Code for Hail Ingestion in Engine Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, N.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major concerns during hail ingestion into an engine is the resulting amount and space- and time-wise distribution of hail at the engine face for a given geometry of inlet and set of atmospheric and flight conditions. The appearance of hail in the capture streamtube is invariably random in space and time, with respect to size and momentum. During the motion of a hailstone through an inlet, a hailstone undergoes several processes, namely impact with other hailstones and material surfaces of the inlet and spinner, rolling and rebound following impact; heat and mass transfer; phase change; and shattering, the latter three due to friction and impact. Taking all of these factors into account, a numerical code, designated HINCOF-I, has been developed for determining the motion hailstones from the atmosphere, through an inlet, and up to the engine face. The numerical procedure is based on the Monte-Carlo method. The report presents a description of the code, along with several illustrative cases. The code can be utilized to relate the spinner geometry - conical or, more effective, elliptical - to the possible diversion of hail at the engine face into the bypass stream. The code is also useful for assessing the influence of various hail characteristics on the ingestion and distribution of hailstones over the engine face.

  5. Extensive Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum after Ecstasy Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gungadeen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present a rare case of extensive subcutaneous emphysema and spontaneous pneumomediastinum following ingestion of Ecstasy in a young adult. We also review the relevant literature and discuss how this case supplements it. Case Report. We report a case of a 19-year-old man with a history of painless neck and chest swelling, and no chest pain or breathlessness, after consuming Ecstasy tablets. Radiological imaging showed evidence of pneumomediastinum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema. The patient remained well under observation and his symptoms improved with conservative management. Conclusions. Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum after Ecstasy ingestion is uncommon. Cases are often referred to the otolaryngologist as they can present with neck and throat symptoms. Our case showed that the severity of symptoms may not correlate with severity of the anatomical abnormality and that pneumomediastinum should be suspected in Ecstasy users who present with neck swelling despite the absence of chest symptoms. Although all cases reported so far resolved with conservative management, it is important to perform simple investigations to exclude coexisting serious pathology.

  6. Changes in mouse gastrointestinal microbial ecology with ingestion of kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, Y; Katayama, S; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-01

    Kale, a cultivar of Brassica oleracea, has attracted a great deal of attention because of its health-promoting effects, which are thought to be exerted through modulation of the intestinal microbiota. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of kale ingestion on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of mice. 21 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or experimental diets supplemented with different commercial kale products for 12 weeks. Contents of the caecum and colon of the mice were processed for the determination of active bacterial populations by a bacterial rRNA-based quantification method and short-chain fatty acids by HPLC. rRNAs of Bacteroides-Prevotella, the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, and Clostridium leptum subgroup constituted the major fraction of microbiota regardless of the composition of the diet. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was higher in the colon samples of one of the kale diet groups than in the control. The colonic butyrate level was also higher with the kale-supplemented diet. Overall, the ingestion of kale tended to either increase or decrease the activity of specific bacterial groups in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, however, the effect might vary depending on the nutritional composition.

  7. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  9. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Two Molybdenum—phosphate Cluster Compounds:(C14N14H63)Na(H2Mo6P4O31)2·8H2O and (C14N14H63)Na(H2Mo6P4O31)2·5H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温福山; 陈伟; 等

    2002-01-01

    (C14N14H63)Na(H2Mo6P4O31)2·8H2O with amine-separatecd sodium molybdenumphosphate clusters and (C14N14H63)Na(H2Mo6P4O31)2·5H2O (2) with H-bonded cluster layers were synthesized from hydrothermal systems.Compound 1 crystal-lizes in the triclinic space group P-↑1 with a=1.27445(2) nm,b=1.37183(3)nm,c=1.41515(3) nm,α=100.497(1)°,β=109.064(1)° and γ=115.498(1)°,Whereas compound 2 has a monoclinic space group P21/n with a=1.3418(5)nm,b=2.7787(12)nm,c=2.0314(10)nm and β=96.571(14)° There exist protonated ethylenediamine cations and H2O molecules between adjacent clusters,connecting the clusters through H-bonds.

  10. Whey Protein Ingestion Activates mTOR-dependent Signalling after Resistance Exercise in Young Men: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a single dose of whey protein isolate (WPI or placebo supplement, on the activation of mTOR signalling was analyzed. Young untrained men completed a maximal single-legged knee extension exercise bout and were randomized to ingest either WPI supplement (n = 7 or the placebo (n = 7. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and 2, 4 and 24 hr post-exercise. WPI or placebo ingestion consumed immediately post-exercise had no impact on the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473. However, WPI significantly enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448, 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46 and p70S6K (Thr389 at 2 hr post-exercise. This study demonstrates that a single dose of WPI, when consumed in modest quantities, taken immediately after resistance exercise elicits an acute and transient activation of translation initiation within the exercised skeletal muscle.

  11. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.S

    1998-08-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these `ores` contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another `parent` radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures. 15 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry and substrate oxidation (via respiratory exchange ratio were measured at baseline (pre-ingestion and at the end of each hour for 3 hours post-ingestion. Results Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p ® ingestion. No differences in respiratory exchange ratio were noted between trials. Conclusion These preliminary findings indicate Celsius™ has thermogenic properties when ingested acutely. The effects of repeated, chronic ingestion of Celsius™ on body composition are unknown at this time.

  13. Soy peptide ingestion augments the synthesis and metabolism of noradrenaline in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Haruka; Moriyasu, Kazuki; Nakahata, Akane; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Ichinose, Takashi; Furuya, Shigeki

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether edible peptide intake affects neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain, we evaluated the effect of peptides derived from soy proteins or fish collagen on free amino acids and monoamines in the mouse brain. Ingestion of soy peptides led to markedly higher levels of tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, in the serum, and cerebral cortex compared to those following ingestion of vehicle alone or collagen peptides. Soy peptide ingestion also effectively increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and normetanephrine, the principal metabolites of noradrenaline, in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, whereas collagen peptides did not exert such effects. Further, soy peptide ingestion led to a significant increase in noradrenaline itself in the brainstem, where noradrenergic neurons are present. Noradrenergic turnover was also markedly stimulated in these regions after soy peptide ingestion. These in vivo observations suggest that soy peptide ingestion can maintain and promote the synthesis and metabolism of noradrenaline in the brain.

  14. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic Fate of Fructose Ingested with and without Glucose in a Mixed Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Fanny Theytaz; Sara de Giorgi; Leanne Hodson; Nathalie Stefanoni; Valentine Rey; Philippe Schneiter; Vittorio Giusti; Luc Tappy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr...

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungavkar, S A; Joshi, V; Shah-Mehta, N; Patkar, D P; Lawande, M; Gadani, S

    2006-02-01

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Model of Steam Ingestion into a Transonic Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    DYNAMIC MODEL OF STEAM INGESTION INTO A TRANSONIC COMPRESSOR by Collin R. Hedges June 2009 Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Gannon Second...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Computational Fluid Dynamic Model of Steam Ingestion into a Transonic Compressor 6...flight deck. When ingested into jet engines, this steam may increase the engines’ susceptibility to stall. The serpentine air inlet ducts and single

  18. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  19. Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Peptides after Collagen Tripeptide Ingestion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shoko; Deguchi, Kisaburo; Onuma, Masamichi; Numata, Noriaki; Sakai, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Collagen tripeptide (CTP) is a collagen hydrolysate containing a high concentration of tripeptides with a Gly-X-Y sequence, such as Gly-Pro-Hyp. To test the effects of this preparation, we compared the absorption of peptides in humans after ingestion of a tripeptide fraction of CTP (CTP-100), a CTP preparation containing ca. 50% Gly-X-Y tripeptides (CTP-50), and a collagen peptide that did not contain tripeptides (CP). The postprandial levels of Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp in the plasma increased in those subjects who ingested CTP-100 and CTP-50, and were higher with greater Gly-Pro-Hyp ingestion. This demonstrated that collagen hydrolysates were efficiently absorbed when the collagen was ingested in the tripeptide form. Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp were also found in the urine after ingestion of CTP-100 or CTP-50. Similar to the results for the plasma concentration, the urinary excretion of Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp was also dependent on the amount of Gly-Pro-Hyp ingested. This indicates that ingested Gly-Pro-Hyp and generated Pro-Hyp were relatively stable in the body and were transported to the urine in the peptide form. The concentration of Hyp-Gly in the plasma was low after the ingestion of CP and CTP-100 but higher after the ingestion of CTP-50. Overall, our results suggest that tripeptides derived from collagen are absorbed efficiently by the body.

  20. Ingestion of computer circuit boards causing esophageal impaction and small bowel obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in patients with psychiatric diagnoses. Ingested objects can become impacted in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, causing serious complications. We report a case of a schizophrenic who ingested large pieces of computer circuit boards, which impacted at the mid-esophagus, in the stomach, and in the cecum. Endoscopic removal of the esophageal object was unsuccessful, and the foreign objects were removed by esophagotomy and laparotomy. Expeditious removal through endoscopic or surgical means is extremely important, as complications can be life-threatening. This is the first report of ingestion of a computer printed circuit board. PMID:28127146

  1. Dose assessment for sheep exposed to fallout from nuclear test Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L.B.; Soldat, J.K.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Murphy, D.W.

    1982-10-01

    Radiation doses were estimated for sheep wintering on Nevada ranges during the testing at the Nevada Test Site of the nuclear weapon Nancy on March 24, 1953. Exposure pathways considered were inhalation of radionuclides from both cloud passage and resuspension, external exposure of the total body and skin, and ingestion of contaminated forage and soil. Physiological, metabolic, and dosimetric data needed for these calculations were obtained from data appropriate for the sheep. Dose rate and radionuclide deposition values for shot Nancy were used. Radionuclide deposition and retention on the desert vegetation were obtained from data collected during several nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Existing dosimetric computer programs, whose libraries were modified to include the sheep data, and specially developed models were used to estimate the dose commitment for the sheep. The total-body dose for reference sheep located within the 40-mR/hr (H+12) isopleth from all modes of exposure was estimated to be 2.6 rad. Ingestion of fallout on edible vegetation contributed the majority of the dose, whereas inhalation of radionuclides and consumption of contaminated soil from the ground contributed little to the internal doses. The dose to the thyroid of ewes from radioiodine and other radionuclides reaching the thyroid was approximately 400 rad. The calculated uniform dose to the reticulo-rumen was 4 rad; however, if fallout particles were assumed to concentrate in the ventral rumen, a localized dose of 200 rad could have been received by the rumen wall. Estimated dose to the bare skin of ewes was 120 rad. The dose to the fetal thyroid from radioiodine ingested by a pregnant ewe grazing at a location where the dose rate was 40 mR/hr (H+12) was estimated to be 700 rad, or approximately twice the dose to the maternal thyroid.

  2. hCLE/C14orf166 associates with DDX1-HSPC117-FAM98B in a novel transcription-dependent shuttling RNA-transporting complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Pérez-González

    Full Text Available hCLE/C14orf166 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that interacts with the RNAP II, modulates nuclear RNA metabolism and is present in cytoplasmic RNA granules involved in localized translation. Here we have studied whether hCLE shares common interactors in the nucleus and the cytosol, which could shed light on its participation in the sequential phases of RNA metabolism. Nuclear and cytoplasmic purified hCLE-associated factors were identified and proteins involved in mRNA metabolism, motor-related proteins, cytoskeletal and translation-related factors were found. Purified hCLE complexes also contain RNAs and as expected some hCLE-interacting proteins (DDX1, HSPC117, FAM98B were found both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Moreover, endogenous hCLE fractionates in protein complexes together with DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B and silencing of hCLE down-regulates their nuclear and cytosolic accumulation levels. Using a photoactivatable hCLE-GFP protein, nuclear import and export of hCLE was observed indicating that hCLE is a shuttling protein. Interestingly, hCLE nuclear import required active transcription, as did the import of DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B proteins. The data indicate that hCLE probably as a complex with DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm transporting RNAs suggesting that this complex has a prominent role on nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fate.

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  4. Coordinated FA-MS and SIFT-MS analyses of breath following ingestion of D2O and ethanol: total body water, dispersal kinetics and ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanel, Patrik; Wang, Tianshu; Smith, David

    2005-08-01

    A coordinated study of the dispersal of water between the various body compartments (stomach and gut, blood stream and tissue) and the similar dispersal kinetics of ethanol and its metabolism has been carried out involving two healthy volunteers using flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. Thus, using these techniques, the variations of HDO and ethanol in breath, measured in successive single exhalations, were followed in real time after the ingestion of measured quantities of D2O and ethanol in proportion to the body weights of the subjects at the dose rates D2O approximately 0.283 g kg-1, ethanol approximately 0.067 g kg-1. During the FA-MS experimental periods (about 2 h), the dispersion of HDO into the body water and finally its equilibration in the total body water is observed from which total body water for each subject was determined. In the SIFT-MS measurements, the dispersion of ethanol into the body water and its loss via metabolism was observed until the physiological (pre-dose) breath level of ethanol for each individual was restored. A simple linear transformation is used to derive the time variations of the blood levels of HDO and ethanol. This has allowed a comparison of the fractions of the ingested ethanol that are metabolized during first-pass metabolism for the two subjects. Thus, in one subject 30% and in the other subject 40% of the ingested alcohol is metabolized in the first 20 min following ingestion. The good time resolution allowed by non-invasive breath analysis ensures that the rates of processes such as ethanol metabolism can be accurately measured. Simultaneous measurements of breath acetaldehyde (largely formed via the ethanol metabolism) and acetone were also performed during the SIFT-MS single breath exhalations.

  5. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Dada, Z. E-mail: zitouni.ould-dada@foodstandards.gsi.gov.uk; Tucker, S.; Webbe-Wood, D.; Mondon, K.; Hunt, J

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible.

  6. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  7. Hydroxocobalamin for severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion or inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frédéric J; Mégarbane, Bruno; Bismuth, Chantal

    2007-06-01

    This chart review was undertaken to assess efficacy and safety of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning. Hospital records of the Fernand Widal and Lariboisière Hospitals were reviewed for intensive care unit admissions with cyanide poisoning for which hydroxocobalamin was used as first-line treatment from 1988 to 2003. Smoke inhalation cases were excluded. Hydroxocobalamin (5-20 g) was administered to 14 consecutive patients beginning a median 2.1 hours after cyanide ingestion or inhalation. Ten patients (71%) survived and were discharged. Of the 11 patients with blood cyanide exceeding the typically lethal threshold of 100 micromol/L, 7 survived. The most common hydroxocobalamin-attributed adverse events were chromaturia and pink skin discoloration. Severe cyanide poisoning of the nature observed in most patients in this study is frequently fatal. That 71% of patients survived after treatment with hydroxocobalamin suggests that hydroxocobalamin as first-line antidotal therapy is effective and safe in acute cyanide poisoning.

  8. Gastric perforation due to foreign body ingestion mimicking acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Daniel; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; van den Bremer, Jephta

    2015-03-04

    An 82-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms that were suggestive of acute cholecystitis. He underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the intervention, a wooden foreign body was removed from the infiltrated omentum, probably after it had perforated the gastric antrum. The gastric perforation had led to a secondary infection of the gallbladder. The presumed gastric perforation was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. Secondary inflamed gallbladders are rare; the current case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reporting a secondary infection of the gallbladder due to a gastric perforation. Clinicians should be aware of possible ingestion of foreign bodies in elderly patients wearing dental prosthetic devices.

  9. Acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following henna ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala E. A. Qurashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The powder of henna plant (Lawsonia inermis Linn. is extensively used as a decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a hair dye. Most reports of henna toxicity have been attributed to adding a synthetic dye para-phenylenediamine (PPD. PPD is marketed as black henna added to natural henna to accentuate the dark color and shorten the application time. PPD toxicity is well known and extensively reported in medical literature. We report a case of a young Saudi male who presented with characteristic features of acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following ingestion of henna mixture. Management of PPD poisoning is only suppor-tive and helpful only if instituted early. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, as the clinical features are quite distinctive.

  10. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Sprint Performance Following Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahkohian, M.; Farhadi, H.; Naghizadeh Baghi, A.; Valizadeh, A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5% carbohydrate ingestion on the sprint performance immediately following 90 min of running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate reserve. Thirty young active men were selected as subjects and allocated randomly to two carbohydrate (CHO, N = 15) and placebo (PL, N = 15) groups. Pre-test 200 m dash, 90 min running and post-test 200 m dash took place, respectively. Exercise heart rate monitored during 90 min running by a cardio frequency meter. Significant differences were found between the CHO and PL post-test 200 m dash records (pBlood glucose was found to be significantly higher at the end of the 90 min running for the CHO group than for the PL group (pexercise inhibits failing of Sprint performance of young active men.

  11. Epidemiology of coronial deaths from pesticide ingestion in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nicholas J; Cairns, Rose; Dawson, Andrew H; Chitty, Kate M; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides in Australia are tightly regulated but it is unknown how this may affect the distribution of misuse and self-harm across Australia, both spatially and within subgroups in the population. We performed an observational study to examine spatial differences in suicide/deliberate poisonings with pesticides in Australia. We examined Coronial inquest cases of self-harm by pesticide ingestion for the years 2001-2013 (n=209). Coronial cases were older, more likely to be male, have lower SES status and live in outer regional areas as opposed to cities when compared to the general population. Case densities (cases/100,000 population) were lower in large capital cities and higher in agricultural areas: despite this half the cases occurred in major cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. [Benzodiazepine drug ingestion and evaluation of after care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandelot, D; Bertholon, F; Pascalis, J G

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary drug ingestion with benzodiazepine represent today the most frequent method of attempt of autolysis. One must note the difficulties the doctor may find in front such problems to judge the reliability of interviews made in such difficult conditions. Residual disturbances of superior functions, more precisely of vigilance during the period with follow the suicidal action must not be overlooked. Thanks to a clinical scale easily used the residual disturbances have been put in evidence on a sample of 20 subjects who had been admitted with this aim in view in a university ward specialized in psychiatric emergencies. The possibility of continuity within middle range care must allow an improvement of minimum care of such pathologies.

  13. [Systemic reaction after pine processionary caterpillar ingestion. Conservative management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Verrier, Esther; Carro Rodríguez, Miguel A; de la Parte Cancho, María; Piñeiro Pérez, Roi

    2016-06-01

    The larval form of the moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, known as pine processionary caterpillar, is one of the main forest pests in southern Europe. Often, these caterpillars cause local reactions in humans, due to their microscopic stinging hairs. Most symptoms affect skin, in form of acute urticaria. Systemic reactions are rare. An eleven month old infant with a systemic reaction after ingestion of a pine processionary caterpillar is presented. The boy reached the Emergency Room with orofacial edema, drooling and urticaria. Drug treatment was enough to resolve the symptoms. The patient did not present airway commitment, nor anaphylaxis data at any moment, so more aggressive actions, such as endotracheal intubation, endoscopy or laryngoscopy, were rejected.

  14. Rhinocerebral Mucor circinelloides infection in immunocompromised patient following yogurt ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Stephen P; Lukaszewicz, Jennifer M; Persad, Kamleish A; Reinhardt, John F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the cause of this patient's headache and sinus pain in the setting of a unique environmental exposure: the patient ingested yogurt only days before presentation. This particular brand of yogurt caused controversy in early September 2013 when the manufacturer voluntarily recalled all flavors. The yogurt was found to be contaminated with Mucor circinelloides. The recall was triggered by the FDA, after receiving many complaints from consumers affected by temporary gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and nausea. This patient was diagnosed with Rhinocerebral mucormycosis through fungal culture of the affected area. He was specifically colonized with Mucor circinelloides, a variant that rarely causes disease in humans. According to a literature review, only eight cases of mucormycosis in adults caused by this strain were documented before 2009.

  15. Effects of dehydration and fluid ingestion on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, P D; Beasman, K; Ganio, M S; Cureton, K

    2007-10-01

    The effects of exercise-induced dehydration and fluid ingestion on men's cognitive performance were assessed. Eleven young men attended separate sessions in which each individual cycled in a controlled environment at 60 % of V.O (2max) for periods of 15, 60, or 120 min without fluid replacement or 120 min with fluid replacement. Immediately following the assigned submaximal exercise period, the participant completed a graded exercise test to voluntary exhaustion. An executive processing test and a short-term memory test were performed prior to and immediately following exercise. Choice-response times during the executive processing test decreased following exercise, regardless of the level of dehydration. Choice-response errors increased following exercise, but only on trials requiring set shifting. Short-term memory performance improved following exercise, regardless of the level of dehydration. Changes in cognitive performance following exercise are hypothesized to be related to metabolic arousal following strenuous physical activity.

  16. Stone ingestion causing obstructed inguinal hernia with perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Sookpotarom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of obstructed right inguinal hernia caused by ingested stones. A 2 year-old boy from Northern Thailand was transferred to our hospital with low-grade fever, vomiting, and acute painful swelling at his right hemiscrotum for one day. The physical examination revealed marked enlargement with inflammation in his right hemiscrotum. The radiological findings showed huge number of stones in the right hemiscrotum. At surgery, the content of hernia sac was ascending colon, which was full of hard masses. With the help of additional lower transverse abdominal incision, the obstructed segment was successfully reduced and revealed a perforation. Most of the stones were removed through the perforation. The colonic wound was primarily repaired and both incisions were primarily closed. Although he developed post-operative wound infection, the boy had uneventfully recovered. The psychological exploration in this "stone pica" revealed no other psychological disorders.

  17. Physician Beware: Severe Cyanide Toxicity from Amygdalin Tablets Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity. Rapid clinical diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity can rapidly improve patients’ clinical outcome and survival. Inquiries for any forms of ingestion should be attempted in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of poisoning.

  18. Gastro-duodenal ulcers with perforation caused by short-term acetylsalicylic acid ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćulafić Đorđe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetylsalicylic acid ingestion may cause serious gastrointestinal toxicity, in particular bleeding or perforated peptic ulcer. Case Outline. A 72-year-old male patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain, malaise, and dark stools. Several days before hospitalization, he had cerebrovascular insult and began to use acetylsalicylic acid of 100 mg per day. In physical findings a diffusely painful sensitivity of the abdomen was detected on palpation. Laboratory findings revealed hyposideremic anaemia with inflammatory syndrome. Native abdominal x-ray did not show the presence of pneumoperitoneum. Upper endoscopy of the gastric corpus and antrum revealed several ulcerations 10-11 mm in diameter covered with fibrin, with bleeding ulceration in the angulus region of the lesser gastric curvature. The bulbus was oedematous and hyperaemic with a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall. Upper central laparotomy showed a perforated duodenal bulbus. The posterior wall of the bulbus was normal, while the anterior wall was without scarring. Given the general condition of the patient and local findings, interrupted suture of the ulcer was performed with omentoplasty. Postoperative course was uneventful. A peroral diet was initiated on the 4th postoperative day, and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day. Conclusion. Elderly people who use acetylsalicylic acid in prophylaxis should take it in lower doses, with proton pump inhibitors, especially during the first two months.

  19. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  20. Importance of gastrointestinal ingestion and macromolecular antigens in the vein for oral tolerance induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Watari, Eiji; Shimizu, Masumi; Utsuyama, Masanori; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2006-01-01

    Oral administration of a certain dose of antigen can generally induce immunological tolerance against the same antigen. In this study, we showed the temporal appearance of ovalbumin (OVA) antigens in both portal and peripheral blood of mice after the oral administration of OVA. Furthermore, we detected 45 000 MW OVA in mouse serum 30 min after the oral administration of OVA. Based on this observation, we examined whether the injection of intact OVA into the portal or peripheral vein induces immunological tolerance against OVA. We found that the intravenous injection of intact OVA did not induce immunological tolerance but rather enhanced OVA-specific antibody production in some subclasses, suggesting that OVA antigens via the gastrointestinal tract but not intact OVA may contribute to establish immunological tolerance against OVA. Therefore, we examined the effects of digesting intact OVA in the gastrointestinal tract on the induction of oral tolerance. When mice were orally administered or injected into various gastrointestinal organs, such as the stomach, duodenum, ileum, or colon and boosted with intact OVA, OVA-specific antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were significantly enhanced in mice injected into the ileum or colon, compared with orally administered mice. These results suggest that although macromolecular OVA antigens are detected after oral administration of OVA in tolerant-mouse serum, injection of intact OVA cannot contribute to tolerance induction. Therefore, some modification of macromolecular OVA in the gastrointestinal tract and ingestion may be essential for oral tolerance induction. PMID:16796692

  1. Ibuprofen ingestion does not affect markers of post-exercise muscle inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eVella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise. Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200 mg d-1 or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 h and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO and macrophages (CD68. Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.

  2. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  3. PABLM; accumulated environment radiation dose. [UNIVAC1100; FORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.B.; Tobias, M.L.; Fox, J.N.; Lawler, B.E.; Koppel, J.U.; Triplett, J.R.; Lynn, L.L.; Waldman, L.A.; Goldberg, I.; Greebler, P.; Kelley, M.D.; Davis, R.A.; Keck, C.E.; Redfield, J.A.; Murphy,; Soldat, J.K.

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.UNIVAC1100; FORTRAN; EXEC8; 80,000 words of memory are required to execute the PABLM program.

  4. Lethality and developmental delay in Drosophila melanogaster larvae after ingestion of selected Pseudomonas fluorescens strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika H Olcott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well-established model organism for probing the molecular and cellular basis of physiological and immune system responses of adults or late stage larvae to bacterial challenge. However, very little is known about the consequences of bacterial infections that occur in earlier stages of development. We have infected mid-second instar larvae with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens to determine how infection alters the ability of larvae to survive and complete development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mimicked natural routes of infection using a non-invasive feeding procedure to study the toxicity of the three sequenced P. fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae fed with the three strains of P. fluorescens showed distinct differences in developmental trajectory and survival. Treatment with SBW25 caused a subset of insects to die concomitant with a systemic melanization reaction at larval, pupal or adult stages. Larvae fed with Pf-5 died in a dose-dependent manner with adult survivors showing eye and wing morphological defects. In addition, larvae in the Pf-5 treatment groups showed a dose-dependent delay in the onset of metamorphosis relative to control-, Pf0-1-, and SBW25-treated larvae. A functional gacA gene is required for the toxic properties of wild-type Pf-5 bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments are the first to demonstrate that ingestion of P. fluorescens bacteria by D. melanogaster larvae causes both lethal and non-lethal phenotypes, including delay in the onset of metamorphosis and morphological defects in surviving adult flies, which can be decoupled.

  5. Profile of select hepatic insulin signaling pathway genes in response to 2-aminoanthracene dietary ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, N D; Jay, J W; Barnett, G W; Rosaldo, J J; Howerth, E W; Means, J C; Gato, W E

    2014-01-01

    Some genes that regulate various processes such as insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, fatty acid, and lipid biosynthesis were profiled. The objective of the current investigation is to examine the mRNA expression of some genes that mediate insulin signaling due to 2AA toxicity. 2AA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that has been detected in broiled food and tobacco smoke. Twenty-four post-weaning 3-4-week-old F344 male rats were exposed to 0 mg/kg-diet, 50 mg/kg-diet, 75 mg/kg-diet, and 100 mg/kgdiet 2AA for 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The mRNA expression of AKT1, G6PC, GCK, GLUT4, INSR, IRS1, PP1R3C, PAMPK, SOCS 2, and SREBF1 was determined by qRTPCR followed by the quantification of G6PC and AMPK via ELISA. The results suggest that 2AA modulates these genes depending on the length of exposure. Up-regulation of AMPK and SOCS2 genes in animals treated with 100 mg/kg-diet and 50 mg/kg-diet, respectively, during 14 days of feeding was noted. G6PC expression was inhibited in the 2-week group while being dose-dependently increased in the 4-week group. Hepatic activity of G6PC was enhanced significantly in the livers of rats that ingested 2AA. It appears that 2AA intoxication leads to the activation of irs1 and akt1 genes in the liver. Quantified AMPK amounts increased significantly in the short-term treatment group. Dose-dependent rise of AMPK in animals treated to 2AA showed an increased production of hepatic AMPK in response to the toxicity of 2AA in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. In contrast, the reduction in AMPK concentration in treated animals within the 4-week set indicated an adaptive recovery.

  6. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Heijden OG van der; Giessen JWB van der; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Published data on infection of human hosts with various protozoa, bacteria, and viruses causing gastro-enteritis are used to establish a quantitative relationship between ingested dose and the risk of infection. For all data sets analysed, this relationship is determined by fitting either an exponen

  7. Poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia in lambs by the ingestion of milk from ewes that ingest the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Lucena, Kleber F; Rodrigues, Jussara M N; Campos, Édipo M; Dantas, Antônio F M; Pfister, James A; Cook, Daniel; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    Two experiments, each with 10 pregnant ewes (8 treated and 2 controls) were performed to determine if nursing lambs of lactating ewes become intoxicated when the ewes ingest Ipomoea asarifolia but do not show clinical signs themselves. In the first experiment the sheep grazed I. asarifolia in the field while in the second, sheep were maintained in individual bays consuming dry I. asarifolia at 10% and 20% into their ration. In both experiments the lambs remained confined, consuming only their mother's milk. Four of 8 lambs in the grazing experiment and the 4 nursing lambs from the ewes given 20% I. asarifolia showed signs of I. asarifolia poisoning. These results confirm that the tremorgenic compound of I. asarifolia or its toxic metabolites are eliminated in milk and can intoxicate nursing lambs.

  8. Prioritization of the Oral (Ingestive) Hazard of Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Sodium cyanide #(T3) 143-33-9 LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill Oral Rodent - rat 4.7 mg/kg Behavioral - tetany Behavioral - ataxia Lungs, Thorax...rat 1173 mg/kg Behavioral - tetany Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - cyanosis Gastrointestinal - hypermotility, diarrhea GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i...Toxaphene #(T3 based on Keplinger 1963 study) 8001-35-2 LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill Oral Rodent - rat 40 mg/kg Behavioral - tetany Lungs, Thorax

  9. Acute fatal pericardial effusion induced by accidental ingestion of cigarette butts in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    A dog was referred for collapse and tachypnea after ingesting cigarette butts. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated pericardial effusion, and an electrocardiogram showed tachycardia, variable QRS complexes, and ventricular premature complexes. This is the first description of fatal pericardial effusion associated with cigarette butt ingestion in a veterinary patient.

  10. TESTS OF PRATT AND WHITNEY MODEL YTF33-P-1 TURBOFAN ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS DURING BIRD INGESTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingestion run regardless of the bird-impact point(s) relative to the engine horizontal axis. This action was attributed to the centrifuging action of...a bird- ingestion incident. Substantial damage was incurred by the first-stage fan rotor blades in the course of the program. Although this damage

  11. Meta-analysis of mass-balance studies of soil ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Calabrese, Edward J; Xu, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Ingestion of soil by young children may be an important source of exposure to environmental contaminants. Estimates of soil ingestion have been made by several studies using trace elements in a mass-balance approach, but differ substantially between studies and trace elements. We conduct a meta-analysis of four major mass-balance soil ingestion studies conducted on children between one and seven in the summer/fall in the northern United States. The analysis takes advantage of primary data from all studies, and provides a more complete description of soil ingestion among children. The meta-analysis uses data based on the two most reliable trace elements, Al and Si, that have passed a screening to identify and exclude measures with a high likelihood of bias. Details are described in a companion paper. The best linear unbiased predictor is used in a mixed model to estimate soil ingestion for study subjects. Overall, 11% of subject-periods are identified as outliers and excluded from the analysis. An analysis on 216 children based on Al and Si as tracer elements indicates that the mean (median) soil ingestion is 26 mg/day (33 mg/day), with the 95th percentile estimated as 79 mg/day. This systematic approach provides more reliable estimates than individual study results. There is some evidence that soil ingestion increases with a child's age, but insufficient data to distinguish soil ingestion by gender. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Soil ingestion rate determination in a rural population of Alberta, Canada practicing a wilderness lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, G; Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2014-02-01

    The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be a major pathway for chemical exposure to humans. Few studies to date have quantified soil ingestion rates to develop exposure estimates for human health risk assessments (HHRA), and almost all of those were for children in suburban/urban environments. Here we employed a quantitative mass balance tracer approach on a rural population practicing outdoor activities to estimate inadvertent soil ingestion. This study followed 9 subjects over a 13 day period in Cold Lake, Alberta, near the largest in situ thermal heavy oil (bitumen) extraction operation in the world. The mean soil ingestion rate in this study using Al Ce, La, and Si tracers was 32 mg d(-1), with a 90th percentile of 152 mg d(-1) and median soil ingestion rate of 18 mg d(-1). These soil ingestion values are greater than the standard recommended soil ingestion rates for HHRA from Health Canada, and are similar to soil ingestion estimates found in the only other study on a rural population. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE CONSEQUENCES OF INGESTION BY MAN OF REAL AND SIMULATED FALLOUT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingested radioactivity was measured by whole body counting using the gamma-ray spectrometer at the Argonne Cancer Research Hospital. An average of 3 per...strontium, cesium and barium following ingestion of fallout, and retention of the radionuclides of these elements. (Author)

  14. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  15. Glucose ingestion during endurance training in men attenuates expression of myokine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther

    2009-01-01

    -leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha density...

  16. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Cury,Jaime A.; Saul M Paiva; Tenuta,Livia M.A; Oliveira,Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The esti...

  17. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  18. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments.

  19. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible.

  20. Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Winzell, Maria Sörhede;

    2008-01-01

    integrated incretin and islet hormone responses to ingestion of pure fat (oleic acid; 0.88 g/kg) or protein (milk and egg protein; 2 g/kg) over 5 h in healthy men, aged 20-25 yr (n=12); plain water ingestion served as control. Both intact (active) and total GLP-1 and GIP levels were determined as was plasma...... activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Following water ingestion, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels and DPP-4 activity were stable during the 5-h study period. Both fat and protein ingestion increased insulin, glucagon, GIP, and GLP-1 levels without affecting glucose levels or DPP-4...... after protein ingestion may be of primary importance to islet hormone secretion....