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Sample records for c region

  1. C$_{60}$ in Photodissociation Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos, Pablo; Sheffer, Yaron; Wolfire, Mark G; Tielens, Alexander G G M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the presence of buckminsterfullerene (C$_{60}$) in different interstellar and circumstellar environments. However, several aspects regarding C$_{60}$ in space are not well understood yet, such as the formation and excitation processes, and the connection between C$_{60}$ and other carbonaceous compounds in the interstellar medium, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper we study several photodissociation regions (PDRs) where C$_{60}$ and PAHs are detected and the local physical conditions are reasonably well constrained, to provide observational insights into these questions. C$_{60}$ is found to emit in PDRs where the dust is cool ($T_d = 20-40$ K) and even in PDRs with cool stars. These results exclude the possibility for C$_{60}$ to be locked in grains at thermal equilibrium in these environments. We observe that PAH and C$_{60}$ emission are spatially uncorrelated and that C$_{60}$ is present in PDRs where the physical conditions (in terms of radi...

  2. C{sub 60} in photodissociation regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, Pablo; Tielens, Alexander G.G.M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Berné, Olivier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Sheffer, Yaron; Wolfire, Mark G., E-mail: pablo@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies have confirmed the presence of buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) in different interstellar and circumstellar environments. However, several aspects regarding C{sub 60} in space are not yet well understood, such as the formation and excitation processes, and the connection between C{sub 60} and other carbonaceous compounds in the interstellar medium, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper, we study several photodissociation regions (PDRs) where C{sub 60} and PAHs are detected and the local physical conditions are reasonably well constrained to provide observational insights into these questions. C{sub 60} is found to emit in PDRs where the dust is cool (T{sub d} = 20-40 K) and even in PDRs with cool stars. These results exclude the possibility for C{sub 60} to be locked in grains at thermal equilibrium in these environments. We observe that PAH and C{sub 60} emission are spatially uncorrelated and that C{sub 60} is present in PDRs where the physical conditions (in terms of radiation field and hydrogen density) allow for full dehydrogenation of PAHs, with the exception of Ced 201. We also find trends indicative of an increase in C{sub 60} abundance within individual PDRs, but these trends are not universal. These results support models where the dehydrogenation of carbonaceous species is the first step toward C{sub 60} formation. However, this is not the only parameter involved and C{sub 60} formation is likely affected by shocks and PDR age.

  3. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Epidemiology of hepetitis C infection, ERHA/HSE Eastern region.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meara, M O

    2007-02-01

    Hepatitis C became statutorily notifiable in Ireland on 1 January 2004. Prior to 2004, only hepatitis A and hepatitis B were notifiable as distinct types of hepatitis. A third category notifiable under the Infectious Diseases Regulations 1981 was "viral hepatitis unspecified". The majority of cases notified under this heading were thought to be due to infection with hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Between January 1 2004 and December 31 2005, the Department of Public Health HSE Eastern Region, received notification of 2,014 cases of HCV infection (2004, 941 cases, 2005 1,073 cases). This report outlines basic demographic details on cases notified and comments on missing data. Peak age band at notification for males and females is in the 25-29 year old age group where 538 (26.7%) were notified. Thirty cases notified (1.5%) were under 15 years of age. Drug misuse has been confirmed as a risk factor for 1247 (61.9%) of cases notified, and may be a risk factor in a large percentage of the reminder where risk factor data are unknown. Problems with completeness of notification have been identified. Enhanced surveillance of all hepatitis C infections is a prerequisite for future service planning.

  5. The Extended Line Region of 3C 299

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, C; Martel, A R; Sparks, W B; McCarthy, P J; Feinstein, Carlos; Martel, Andre R.; Sparks, William B.; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc

    1999-01-01

    We present results of HST observations of the radio galaxy 3C 299. The broad-band F702W (R) and F555W (V) images (WFPC2/PC) show an elliptical galaxy, with a comet-like structure extending to the NE in the radio jet direction. The [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line map, shows a bi-conical structure centered on the nucleus, that overlaps the structure found in the broad-band filters. The radio core coincides with the center of the bi-conical structure and the radio axes are aligned with the direction of the cones. These data show clear evidence of a strong interaction between the radio jet and the NE morphology of the galaxy. We show evidence that this NE region is an ENLR; the line-ratio diagnostics show that models involving gas shocked by the radio-jet plus ionization from a precursor HII region, produced itself by the ionizing photons of the postshocked gas on the preshocked gas provide a good match to the observations. We investigate the spatial behavior of the ionizing parameter $U$, by determining the [O...

  6. Function of C-terminal hydrophobic region in fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzes oxidation of D-fructose into 2-keto-D-fructose and is one of the enzymes allowing a direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis. FDH is a heterotrimeric membrane-bound enzyme (subunit I, II, and III) and subunit II has a C terminal hydrophobic region (CHR), which was expected to play a role in anchoring to membranes from the amino acid sequence. We have constructed a mutated FDH lacking of CHR (ΔchrFDH). Contrary to the expected function of CHR, ΔchrFDH is expressed in the membrane fraction, and subunit I/III subcomplex (ΔcFDH) is also expressed in a similar activity level but in the soluble fraction. In addition, the enzyme activity of the purified ΔchrFDH is about one twentieth of the native FDH. These results indicate that CHR is concerned with the binding between subunit I(/III) and subunit II and then with the enzyme activity. ΔchrFDH has clear DET activity that is larger than that expected from the solution activity, and the characteristics of the catalytic wave of ΔchrFDH are very similar to those of FDH. The deletion of CHR seems to increase the amounts of the enzyme with the proper orientation for the DET reaction at electrode surfaces. Gel filtration chromatography coupled with urea treatment shows that the binding in ΔchrFDH is stronger than that in FDH. It can be considered that the rigid binding between subunit I(/III) and II without CHR results in a conformation different from the native one, which leads to the decrease in the enzyme activity in solution

  7. Resonant Structure Described by a Deep Folded Potential for the 12C+12C Scattering at Lower-Energy Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-Xu; LI Qing-Run; ZHAO Wei-Qin

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analyses of the elastic angular distributions,an energy-dependent folding potential for the 12C+12C system is established.This potential has a deep real part,and can reasonably well describe the resonant structure in the 12C+12C elastic scattering in the low-energy region of 10 ~ 70 MeV.

  8. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. Abundance Anomaly of the $^{13}$C Isotopic Species of c-C$_3$H$_2$ in the Low-Mass Star Formation Region L1527

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Kento; Tokudome, Tomoya; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Takano, Shuro; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bachiller, Rafael; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The rotational spectral lines of c-C$_3$H$_2$ and two kinds of the $^{13}$C isotopic species, c-$^{13}$CCCH$_2$ ($C_{2v}$ symmetry) and c-CC$^{13}$CH$_2$ ($C_s$ symmetry) have been observed in the 1-3 mm band toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527. We have detected 7, 3, and 6 lines of c-C$_3$H$_2$, c-$^{13}$CCCH$_2$ , and c-CC$^{13}$CH$_2$, respectively, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope, and 34, 6, and 13 lines, respectively, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, where 7, 2, and 2 transitions, respectively, are observed with the both telescopes. With these data, we have evaluated the column densities of the normal and $^{13}$C isotopic species. The [c-C$_3$H$_2$]/[c-$^{13}$CCCH$_2$] ratio is determined to be $310\\pm80$, while the [c-C$_3$H$_2$]/[c-CC$^{13}$CH$_2$] ratio is determined to be $61\\pm11$. The [c-C$_3$H$_2$]/[c-$^{13}$CCCH$_2$] and [c-C$_3$H$_2$]/[c-CC$^{13}$CH$_2$] ratios expected from the elemental $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratio are 60-70 and 30-35, respectively, where the latter takes into account the ...

  17. Internal genomic regions mobilized for telomere maintenance in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chuna; Sung, Sanghyun; Lee, Junho

    2016-01-01

    Because DNA polymerase cannot replicate telomeric DNA at linear chromosomal ends, eukaryotes have developed specific telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). A major TMM involves specialized reverse transcriptase, telomerase. However, there also exist various telomerase-independent TMMs (TI-TMMs), which can arise both in pathological conditions (such as cancers) and during evolution. The TI-TMM in cancer cells is called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), whose mechanism is not fully understood. We generated stably maintained telomerase-independent survivors from C. elegans telomerase mutants and found that, unlike previously described survivors in worms, these survivors "mobilize" specific internal sequence blocks for telomere lengthening, which we named TALTs (templates for ALT). The cis-duplication of internal genomic TALTs produces "reservoirs" of TALTs, whose trans-duplication occurs at all chromosome ends in the ALT survivors. Our discovery that different TALTs are utilized in different wild isolates provides insight into the molecular events leading to telomere evolution. PMID:27073737

  18. High Velocity Compact Clouds in the Sagittarius C Region

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Nagai, Makoto; Kamegai, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of extremely broad emission toward two molecular clumps in the Galactic central molecular zone. We have mapped the Sagittarius C complex ($-0^\\circ.61 < l < -0^\\circ.27$, $-0^\\circ.29 < b < 0^\\circ.04$) in the HCN $J$ = 4--3, $\\mathrm{^{13}CO}$ $J$ = 3--2, and $\\mathrm{H^{13}CN}$ $J$ = 1--0 lines with the ASTE 10 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, detecting bright emission with $80\\mbox{--}120$\\ $\\mathrm{km\\,s^{-1}}$ velocity width (in full-width at zero intensity) toward CO$-0.30$$-0.07$ and CO$-0.40$$-0.22$, which are high velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) identified with our previous CO $J$ = 3--2 survey. Our data reveal an interesting internal structure of CO$-0.30$$-0.07$ comprising a pair of high velocity lobes. The spatial-velocity structure of CO$-0.40$$-0.22$ can be also understood as multiple velocity component, or a velocity gradient across the cloud. They are both located on the rims of two molecular shells of about 10 pc in radius. Kinetic energies of CO$-0.30$$-0.07$ an...

  19. High velocity compact clouds in the sagittarius C region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of extremely broad emission toward two molecular clumps in the Galactic central molecular zone. We have mapped the Sagittarius C complex (–0.°61 < l < –0.°27, –0.°29 < b < 0.°04) in the HCN J = 4-3, 13CO J = 3-2, and H13CN J = 1-0 lines with the ASTE 10 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, detecting bright emission with 80-120 km s–1 velocity width (in full-width at zero intensity) toward CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22, which are high velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) identified with our previous CO J = 3-2 survey. Our data reveal an interesting internal structure of CO–0.30–0.07 comprising a pair of high velocity lobes. The spatial-velocity structure of CO–0.40–0.22 can be also understood as a multiple velocity component, or a velocity gradient across the cloud. They are both located on the rims of two molecular shells of about 10 pc in radius. Kinetic energies of CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22 are (0.8-2) × 1049 erg and (1-4) × 1049 erg, respectively. We propose several interpretations of their broad emission: collision between clouds associated with the shells, bipolar outflow, expansion driven by supernovae (SNe), and rotation around a dark massive object. These scenarios cannot be discriminated because of the insufficient angular resolution of our data, though the absence of a visible energy source associated with the HVCCs seems to favor the cloud-cloud collision scenario. Kinetic energies of the two molecular shells are 1 × 1051 erg and 0.7 × 1051 erg, which can be furnished by multiple SN or hypernova explosions in 2 × 105 yr. These shells are candidates of molecular superbubbles created after past active star formation.

  20. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); National Laser Centre, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-02-01

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: {yields} An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. {yields} The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. {yields} The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. {yields} Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  1. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: → An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. → The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. → The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. → Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  2. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo El Khouri; Quirino Cordeiro; Diogo Arantes Behling Pereira da Luz; Leandro Savoy Duarte; Mônica Elinor Alves Gama; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for th...

  3. High frequency of Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus) infection in piglets from different geographic regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Aichivirus C infection in the three major industrial pig-producing regions of Brazil. This retrospective study evaluated 63 faecal samples that were collected between 2004 and 2011 from suckling piglets (1 to 3 weeks old) belonging to 46 pig herds located in the South, Southeast and Central-west regions of Brazil. The presence of Aichivirus C in the samples was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A 216-bp fragment of the aichivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene was amplified from 48 out of 63 (76.2 %) faecal samples. Aichivirus C was identified in all the evaluated regions, and variations in the frequency of virus detection among the different Brazilian regions were observed. Aichivirus C was detected at significantly higher rates in 2-week-old (18/20; 90.0 %) and 3-week-old (19/22; 86.4 %) piglets than in 1-week-old piglets (11/21; 52.4 %) (P Aichivirus C by region or age. This study demonstrated that Aichivirus C has been present in Brazilian pig herds for years and has spread to the major pig-producing regions of the country. PMID:23765550

  4. C-banding pattern and nucleolar organizer regions of Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther, 1873

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; ZHANG Shicui; ZHUANG Zhimeng; PANG Qiuxiang; WANG Changliu; WAN Ruijing

    2006-01-01

    The C-banding pattern and nucleolar organizer regions of the metaphase chromosomes of Cynoglossus semilaevis are reported. The interstitial regions in all chromosomes including the pair of sex chromosomes had positive C-bands, and the 6th and 12th pairs of chromosomes were entirely stained in most cases. Some chromosomes such as the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th pairs showed C-bands at centromeric or distal ends. The C-banding heretochromatin occupies 30.03% of the total chromosome surface in C. semilaevis,which is similar to that of amphibians such as Mixophyes fasciolatus (30.2%) and M. schevilli (20.7%), but is rather lower than that of cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri (54.3%). Silver staining revealed a single pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) located in the telomeric regions of Chromosome 2. The association of NORs with heterochromatin observed in vertebrates also occurs in C. semilaevis as the telomeric regions of Chromosome 2 are always stained positively with C-banding.

  5. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  6. Physical mapping of the E/C and grc regions of the rat major histocompatibility complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiu-Juan; Salgar, S.K.; Cortese Hassett, A.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Alignment of class I-hybridizing cosmids from an R21 genomic DNA library gave two contigs: one [150 kilobases (kb)] encompassed the E/C region, or a large part thereof, and the other (110 kb) contained the grc region which has genes influencing resistance to chemical carcinogens (rcc), fertility (ft), and growth (dw-3). Amplification of gene sequences in the four cosmids in the E/C region using E{sup u}-specific and LW2 (RT1.C)-specific primers showed that each cosmid contained both E{sup u}-like and C-like genes. They are clearly different but closely associated, and they show some variation from the prototypic E (E{sup u}) and C (LW2) genes, respectively. Comparison of DNA from grc{sup +} and grc{sup {minus}} strains of rats showed that the deletion in the grc{sup {minus}} strains was approximately 50 kb, and that it was located on two of the three cosmids in the grc-region contig. The use of specific class I probes showed that the grc region contained tandemly duplicated RT1.O-RT1.N genes and that the RT.BM1 loci lay outside of the grc region. Neither contig reacted with probes specific for class II, TNFA, Hsp70, or RT1.M genes. The data presented here and the previous data in the literature suggest that the gene order in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC-linked region of the rat is: A-E/C-grc-M. 56 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss.

  8. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss. PMID:475707

  9. Molecular characterization of HIV-1 subtype C gp-120 regions potentially involved in virus adaptive mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cenci

    Full Text Available The role of variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 in immune escape of HIV has been investigated. However, there is scant information on how conserved gp120 regions contribute to virus escaping. Here we have studied how molecular sequence characteristics of conserved C3, C4 and V3 regions of clade C HIV-1 gp120 that are involved in HIV entry and are target of the immune response, are modulated during the disease course. We found an increase of "shifting" putative N-glycosylation sites (PNGSs in the α2 helix (in C3 and in C4 and an increase of sites under positive selection pressure in the α2 helix during the chronic stage of disease. These sites are close to CD4 and to co-receptor binding sites. We also found a negative correlation between electric charges of C3 and V4 during the late stage of disease counteracted by a positive correlation of electric charges of α2 helix and V5 during the same stage. These data allow us to hypothesize possible mechanisms of virus escape involving constant and variable regions of gp120. In particular, new mutations, including new PNGSs occurring near the CD4 and CCR5 binding sites could potentially affect receptor binding affinity and shield the virus from the immune response.

  10. Measurements of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carbonyls at forested regions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron Breton, J.B.; Padilla, H.; Belmont, R.; Torres, M.C.; Moya, M.; Baez, A.P. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    Measurements of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde concentrations were made at five different forested regions in Mexico. One set of two simultaneous samplings was performed at two sites located in the Mexico State, one semi rural area (Temascaltepec), and the other, a forested area (Rancho Viejo). A second set of two simultaneous samplings were made in southern Veracruz State, in one rural area (Monte Pio) and inside a tropical rainforest (at the Biology Station of the University of Mexico). Finally, one sampling was performed in the Sierra of Puebla State (Cuetzalan). Propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde were nor reported because their concentrations were always below or near the detection limit of the technique. The highest concentrations were found from 7:00 to 11:00 and from 11:00 to 19:00 h in all the sampling sites. Arithmetic mean concentrations of acetone were the highest observed among the detected carbonyl compounds in almost all sites, ranging from 0.5 to 8.4 {mu}g m{sup -}3. Arithmetic mean concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde ranged from 0.83 to 6 {mu}g m{sup -}3 and 0.53 to 4.7 {mu}g m{sup -}3, respectively. The Spearman's correlations between formaldehyde and acetone, and between acetaldehyde and acetone were statistically significant at p<0.05 in almost all sites. A significant correlation (p<0.05) between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was observed in Mexico State at Rancho Viejo and Temascaltepec. The mean ratio HCHO/CH{sub 3}CHO of concentrations was 1.83 and 1.31 in the forested area of Rancho Viejo, first and second sampling periods, respectively; 1.71 and 1.62 in the semi rural area of Temascaltepec, first and second sampling periods respectively; 1.70 in Cuetzalan; 2.90 in the rural area of Monte Pio; and 1.61 in the Biology Station tropical rainforest. These values show a greater influence of atmospheric pollutants transported from sites with anthropogenic activities, because HCHO/CH{sub 3}CHO

  11. Regional increases in [{sup 11}C]flumazenil binding after epilepsy surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, I. [Huddinge Hospital, Dept. of Neurology (Sweden); Blomqvist, G. [Karolinska Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Halldin, C. [Karolinska Hospital, Dept. of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden); Litton, J.E. [Karolinska Hospital, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gulyas, B. [Karolinska Institute, Div. of Human Brain Research (Sweden)

    1998-05-01

    Introduction - Animal experiments suggest that epileptic seizures alter the expression of mRNA for neuro-receptors. PET measurements with [{sup 11}C]flumazenil show that patients with partial seizures have a reduced density of benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors in the epileptogenic regions (ER) and some of the target areas for seizure activity, the so called projection areas. Recent data suggest that the degree of BZ receptor reduction in ER is correlated to seizure frequency. We therefore hypothesized that seizure activity can alter the BZ receptor binding, and that some of these changes could normalize when the seizures disappeared. Methods - In 4 patients whose seizures were generated by mesial temporal lobe structures, BZ receptor density was measured with [{sup 11}C]flumazenil PET before, and 1 year after the epilepsy surgery and cessation of seizures. By use of a computerized anatomical brain atlas the same regions were analyzed in both PET scans, and the results related to data from 7 healthy controls. Results - Presurgical PET scans showed reductions in BZ receptor density in the epileptogenic regions and some of its primary projection areas. Other cortical regions had normal values. Postsurgically, the calculated BZ receptor density normalized (29{+-}17% increase) in several of the affected projection areas, whereas the values in other cortical regions remained unaltered. Conclusion - Regional reductions in BZ receptor density may be dynamic and related to seizures. The present preliminary observations encourage further studies on seizure-related changes in regional receptor binding in humans. (au) 41 refs.

  12. The origin of a peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Henry, A.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Olivier, E.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    A peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC is analyzed in order to establish the origin of this peak. The peak can be associated with a thin damaged layer on the SiC wafers, and a relation is found between surface roughness and the height of this peak, by modeling the damaged layer as an additional layer when simulating the reflectivity from the wafers.

  13. The origin of a peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC is analyzed in order to establish the origin of this peak. The peak can be associated with a thin damaged layer on the SiC wafers, and a relation is found between surface roughness and the height of this peak, by modeling the damaged layer as an additional layer when simulating the reflectivity from the wafers.

  14. [Effects of human disturbance on soil aggregates content and their organic C stability in Karst regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-wei; Su, Yi-rong; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang; Qin, Wen-geng; Wei, Guo-fu

    2011-04-01

    Taking the primary forest land (PF), natural restoration land (NR), grazing grassland burned annually in winter (GB), and maize-sweet potato cropland (MS) in Karst regions of Northwest Guangxi as test objects, this paper studied the soil aggregates content and their organic C stability in the four ecosystems under different human disturbance patterns. The soil water-stable aggregates (>0.25 mm) content in PF, NR, and GB accounted for more than 70%, while that in MS was only 37%. The destruction rate of soil aggregates structure in the four ecosystems decreased in the sequence of MS (54.9%) > GB (23.2%) > NR (9.8%) and PF (9.6%), with significant differences among them (Psoil aggregate organic C decreased after an initial increase and kept stable after 20 days, and increased with decreasing aggregate size. In the same size aggregates, the mineralization rate of organic C in the four ecosystems increased in the sequence of MS soil organic C was 1.7% - 3.8%, being significantly higher than that in NR, GB, and MS. The cumulative mineralization amount of soil organic C had the same change trend with the mineralization rate. The contents of soil organic C and aggregate organic C were significantly positively correlated with the mineralization rate and cumulative mineralization amount of organic C, respectively, and significantly negatively correlated with the mineralization ratio of organic C.

  15. In vivo analysis of the 3′ untranslated region of the hepatitis C virus after in vitro mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone

    OpenAIRE

    YANAGI, MASAYUKI; St. Claire, Marisa; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.; Bukh, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Large sections of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were deleted from an infectious cDNA clone, and the RNA transcripts from seven deletion mutants were tested sequentially for infectivity in a chimpanzee. Mutants lacking all or part of the 3′ terminal conserved region or the poly(U–UC) region were unable to infect the chimpanzee, indicating that both regions are critical for infectivity in vivo. However, the third region, the variable region, was able to tolerate a ...

  16. The LMC HII region N 214C and its peculiar nebular blob

    CERN Document Server

    Meynadier, F; Walborn, N; Meynadier, Frederic; Heydari-Malayeri, Mohammad; Walborn, Nolan

    2005-01-01

    We study the Large Magellanic Cloud HII region N 214C using imaging and spectroscopy obtained at the ESO New Technology Telescope. On the basis of the highest resolution images so far obtained of the OB association LH 110, we show that the main exciting source of the HII region, Sk -71 51, is in fact a tight cluster of massive stars consisting of at least 6 components in an area ~ 4" wide. Spectroscopic observations allow us to revise the spectral type of the main component (# 17) to O2 V ((f*)) + OB, a very rare, hot type. We also classify several other stars associated with N 214C and study the extinction and excitation characteristics of the HII region. Moreover, we obtain BVR photometry and astrometry of 2365 stars and from the corresponding color-magnitude diagram study the stellar content of N 214C and the surrounding LH 110. Furthermore, we discover a striking compact blob of ionized gas in the outer northern part of N 214C. A spherical structure of ~ 5" in radius (~ 1.3 pc), it is split into two lobes...

  17. Regional pulmonary function assessed by C15O2 and 11CO inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusion were measured using positron imaging of C15O2 and 11CO. Blood flow was estimated from the monoexponential clearance rate of C15O2. The alveolar transfer rate (diffusion) was calculated by the clearance curve of 11CO and the clearance rate of C15O2 using a non-linear least-aquares fitting method. Six normal volunteers and nineteen patients with various pulmonary disorders underwent C15O2 and 11CO inhalation. In normal subjects, the alveolar transfer rates and blood flow in the lower lung field were significantly greater than those in the upper lung field. Pulmonary emboli were demonstrated as ''hot spots'' on serial positron images. In patients with interstitial fibrosis, the alveolar transfer rate was not different from that in normal subjects. However, blood flow was significantly lower than in the normals. In patients with pulmonary emphysema, the alveolar transfer rate was lower suggesting the decreased alveolar capillary beds. Thus, dynamic study using C15O2 and 11CO inhalation provides regional blood flow and diffusion, which may permit the differentiation of various pulmonary disorders. (author)

  18. The C-terminal region of E1A: a molecular tool for cellular cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Ahmed F; Fonseca, Gregory J; Cohen, Michael J; Mymryk, Joe S

    2012-04-01

    The adenovirus E1A proteins function via protein-protein interactions. By making many connections with the cellular protein network, individual modules of this virally encoded hub reprogram numerous aspects of cell function and behavior. Although many of these interactions have been thoroughly studied, those mediated by the C-terminal region of E1A are less well understood. This review focuses on how this region of E1A affects cell cycle progression, apoptosis, senescence, transformation, and conversion of cells to an epithelial state through interactions with CTBP1/2, DYRK1A/B, FOXK1/2, and importin-α. Furthermore, novel potential pathways that the C-terminus of E1A influences through these connections with the cellular interaction network are discussed.

  19. The coding region of the human c-mos pseudogene contains Alu repeat insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarovsky, E R; Chumakov, I M; Prassolov, V S; Kisselev, L L

    1984-10-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of an 841-bp fragment derived from a segment of the human genome previously cloned by Chumakov et al. [Gene 17 (1982) 19-26] and Zabarovsky et al. [Gene 23 (1983) 379-384] and containing regions homologous to the viral mos gene probe. This sequence displays homology with part of the coding region of the human and murine c-mos genes, contains several termination codons, and is interrupted by two Alu-family elements flanked by short direct repeats. Probably, the progenitor of the human c-mos gene was duplicated approximately at the time of mammalian divergence, was converted to a pseudogene, and acquired insertions of two Alu elements.

  20. Stoichiometry and heterogeneity of the pro-region chain in tetrameric human cathepsin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigić, B; Krizaj, I; Kralj, B; Turk, V; Pain, R H

    1998-01-15

    The subunit structure and composition of mature human cathepsin C, an oligomeric cysteine proteinase, has been characterised in detail. The heavy chain, light chain and pro-region peptides are shown to be held together solely by non-covalent interactions, and to be present in equimolar ratio, suggesting an important structural role for the residual pro-region chain which is strongly bound to the enzyme. The mass of the light chain, as determined by mass spectrometry, combined with its N-terminal sequence, determines the position of cleavage from the heavy chain. Amino-acid sequencing has led to definition of the 13.5 kDa N-terminal part of the pro-region which remains in the mature enzyme, the C-terminal moiety of 10 kDa being cleaved out and lost from the pro-peptide on activation. The residual pro-region is heterogeneous, a proportion being intact and the remainder being cleaved at alternative positions 58 or 61, yielding two smaller peptides joined by disulphide bond. The proportion of cleaved form was found to vary with tissue and enzyme preparation but did not affect enzyme activity. The molecular masses of the constituent chains after deglycosylation lead to a protein mass of 158 kDa. All four potential glycosylation sites are glycosylated.

  1. Location of gamma-ray flaring region in quasar 4C +21.35

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Maichang

    2015-01-01

    4C +21.35 is a flat-spectrum-radio-quasar-type blazar, in which the rapid variability of very high energy (VHE, $E_{\\gamma}\\gtrsim 100$\\,GeV) emission as short as $\\sim$ 10 minutes was observed by MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes, and the VHE spectrum extends up to at least 400\\,GeV. In this paper, by using a flat broad-line region (BLR) structure, we study the location and properties of $\\gamma$-ray emitting region of 4C +21.35 under the constraints of multiwavelength data. We fit three quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using homogeneous one-zone leptonic model, in which the flat BLR with the aperture angle of $\\alpha=25^{\\circ}$ and a spherically symmetric hot dusty torus with the temperature of $T_{\\rm sub}=1200$\\,K, are assumed. The results show that the jet structure of 4C +21.35 is nearly conical with a half-opening angle of $\\theta_{\\rm j}\\simeq 0.29^{\\circ}-0.6^{\\circ}$. Furthermore, the emitting region is located within the BLR clouds and approaches to outer radius of the BLR during t...

  2. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, B; Han, L; Soriano-Úbeda, C; Avilés, M; Coy, P; Jovine, L; Jiménez-Movilla, M

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2005 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2015/2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and land change information for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1985 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  6. Hi-C Observations of an Active Region Corona, and Investigation of the Underlying Magnetic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The solar corona is much hotter (>=10(exp 6) K) than its surface (approx 6000 K), puzzling astrophysicists for several decades. Active region (AR) corona is again hotter than the quiet Sun (QS) corona by a factor of 4-10. The most widely accepted mechanism that could heat the active region corona is the energy release by current dissipation via reconnection of braided magnetic field structure, first proposed by E. N. Parker three decades ago. The first observational evidence for this mechanism has only recently been presented by Cirtain et al. by using High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an AR corona at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, which is required to resolve the coronal loops, and was not available before the rocket flight of Hi-C in July 2012. The Hi-C project is led by NASA/MSFC. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. We are currently investigating the changes taking place in photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. For this purpose, we are also using SDO/AIA data of +/- 2 hours around the 5 minutes Hi-C flight. In the present talk, I will first summarize some of the results of the Hi-C observations and then present some results from our recent analysis on what photospheric processes feed the magnetic energy that dissipates into heat in coronal loops.

  7. Broad-line region structure and kinematics in the radio galaxy 3C 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollatschny, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Zetzl, M.; Kaspi, S.; Haas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Broad emission lines originate in the surroundings of supermassive black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGN). These broad-line emitting regions are spatially unresolved even for the nearest AGN. The origin and geometry of broad-line region (BLR) gas and their connection with geometrically thin or thick accretion disks is of fundamental importance for the understanding of AGN activity. Aims: One method to investigate the extent, structure, and kinematics of the BLR is to study the continuum and line profile variability in AGN. We selected the radio-loud Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 as a target for this study. Methods: We took spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 3C 120 with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between Sept. 2008 and March 2009. In parallel, we photometrically monitored the continuum flux at the Wise observatory. We analyzed the continuum and line profile variations in detail (1D and 2D reverberation mapping) and modeled the geometry of the line-emitting regions based on the line profiles. Results: We show that the BLR in 3C 120 is stratified with respect to the distance of the line-emitting regions from the center with respect to the line widths (FWHM) of the rms profiles and with respect to the variability amplitude of the emission lines. The emission line wings of Hα and Hβ respond much faster than their central region. This is explained by accretion disk models. In addition, these lines show a stronger response in the red wings. However, the velocity-delay maps of the helium lines show a stronger response in the blue wing. Furthermore, the He ii λ4686 line responds faster in the blue wing in contradiction to observations made one and a half years later when the galaxy was in a lower state. The faster response in the blue wing is an indication for central outflow motions when this galaxy was in a bright state during our observations. The vertical BLR structure in 3C 120 coincides with that of other AGN. We confirm the

  8. Isolation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase cDNA and Basal Regulatory Region from Metroxylon sagu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Ching Ching; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is a versatile enzyme involved in many biochemical pathways in plants such as in germination and stress tolerance. Sago palm is plant with much importance to the state of Sarawak as one of the most important crops that bring revenue with the advantage of being able to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses such as heat, pathogens, and water logging. Here we report the isolation of sago palm Adh cDNA and its putative promoter region via the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and genomic walking. The isolated cDNA was characterized and determined to be 1464 bp long encoding for 380 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that the Adh is similar to the Adh1 group with 91% and 85% homology with Elaeis guineensis and Washingtonia robusta, respectively. The putative basal msAdh1 regulatory region was further determined to contain promoter signals of TATA and AGGA boxes and predicted amino acids analyses showed several Adh-specific motifs such as the two zinc-binding domains that bind to the adenosine ribose of the coenzyme and binding to alcohol substrate. A phylogenetic tree was also constructed using the predicted amino acid showed clear separation of Adh from bacteria and clustered within the plant Adh group.

  9. Compact star clusters of the LMC HII region N11C

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Rauw, G; Walborn, N R

    2000-01-01

    Based on imaging and spectroscopy obtained at the ESO NTT telescope and using an efficient image analysis algorithm, we study the core of the LMC OB association LH13, particularly the two compact stellar clusters Sk-6641 and HNT in the HII, region N11C. We resolve Sk-6641 into 15 components and for the first time the HNT cluster into 70 stars, and derive photometry for the members. Moreover, from medium resolution spectroscopy we determine the spectral types for sixteen stars in N11C. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams of the clusters with that of the field stars and discuss the cluster ages. With an age of ~100 Myr, the HNT cluster appears significantly older than the very young (< 5 Myr) Sk-6641 starburst. We suggest that most of the `field' O-stars in the core of N11C have actually been ejected from Sk-6641 through dynamical interactions in the compact cluster. The properties of the Sk-6641 and HNT clusters suggest that we are viewing different star formation regions lying at different distances al...

  10. Region-of-interest reconstruction on medical C-arms with the ATRACT algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, Frank; Maier, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, the business volume of the top 20 orthopedic manufacturers increased by 30% to about 35 Billion. Similar growth rates could be observed in the market of neurological devices, which went up in 2009 by 10.9% to a volume of 2.2 Billion in the US and by 7.0% to 500 Million in Europe.* These remarkable increases are closely connected to the fact that nowadays, many medical procedures, such as implantations in osteosynthesis or the placement of stents in neuroradiology can be performed using minimally-invasive approaches. Such approaches require elaborate interoperative imaging technology. C-arm based tomographic X-ray region-of-interest (ROI) tomography can deliver suitable imaging guidance in these circumstances: it can offer 3D information in desired patient regions at reasonably low X-ray dose. Tomographic ROI reconstruction, however, is in general challenging since projection images might be severely truncated. Recently, a novel, truncation-robust algorithm (ATRACT) has been suggested for 3D C-arm ROI imaging. In this paper, we report for the first time on the performance of ATRACT for reconstruction from real, angiographic C-arm data. Our results indicate that the resulting ROI image quality is suitable for intraoperative imaging. We observe only little differences to the images from a non-truncated acquisition, which would necessarily require significantly more X-ray dose.

  11. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  12. 75 FR 38019 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700 & 701...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-123-AD; Amendment 39-16336; AD 2010-13-05] Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700 & 701) Airplanes, Model CL-600-2D15 (Regional Jet Series 705) Airplanes, and Model CL-600-2D24 (Regional Jet Series 900) Airplanes Correction In rule document...

  13. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, W D; Pineda, J L

    2016-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Here we determine the properties of the highly ionized and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N II], and ionized carbon, [C II]. To analyze the ionized ISM we utilize [C II] 158 micron and [N II] 205 micron lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy. [N II] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C II] emission and separate the highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. We find that [N II] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C II] emission. The [N II] arises from moderate density extended HII regions ...

  14. Analysis of the body composition of the abdominal region by means of C.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C.T. photographic figures of the horizontal cross sectional planes at the five levels in the abdominal region (Xiphoid level-E6, Upper abdomen level-E7, Umbilicus level-E8, Lower abdomen level-E10, Public symphisis level-E12) were analyzed. The subcutaneous fatty layer, the muscular layer, the bony layer and the body cavity were recognized on the figure and measured, then the body composition at each planes and factors affecting to it were investigated. Subjects included 10 adult males and 16 adult females. They were divided into following three groups on the basis of the Rohrer index: A-type (129 and below), C-type (from 130 to 149) and D-type (150 and above). Among the differences of the body composition in each plane caused by the sex and somatotype, the most dominant component constituting the total cross sectional area was observed and the following results were obtained : 1. At the E6 and E7 planes : the dominant component was the body cavity redardless of the sexual and type defferences. 2. At the E8 and E10 planes : the dominant component was, in males, the muscular layer in A-type, the body cavity in C-type and the fatty layer in D-type, whereas, in females, the body cavity in A and C-type, and the fatty layer in D-type. 3. At the E12 planes : the dominant component was, in males, the muscular layer in A and C-type, and the fatty layer in D-type, whereas, in females, the muscular layer in A-type and the fatty layer in C and D-type. (author)

  15. The C-terminal regions of YidC from Rhodopirellula baltica and Oceanicaulis alexandrii bind to ribosomes and partially substitute for SRP receptor function in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitl, Ines; Wickles, Stephan; Beckmann, Roland; Kuhn, Andreas; Kiefer, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    The marine Gram-negative bacteria Rhodopirellula baltica and Oceanicaulis alexandrii have, in contrast to Escherichia coli, membrane insertases with extended positively charged C-terminal regions similar to the YidC homologues in mitochondria and Gram-positive bacteria. We have found that chimeric forms of E. coli YidC fused to the C-terminal YidC regions from the marine bacteria mediate binding of YidC to ribosomes and therefore may have a functional role for targeting a nascent protein to the membrane. Here, we show in E. coli that an extended C-terminal region of YidC can compensate for a loss of SRP-receptor function in vivo. Furthermore, the enhanced affinity of the ribosome to the chimeric YidC allows the isolation of a ribosome nascent chain complex together with the C-terminally elongated YidC chimera. This complex was visualized at 8.6 Å by cryo-electron microscopy and shows a close contact of the ribosome and a YidC monomer. PMID:24261830

  16. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1? Implications for immune responses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mario U Mondelli; Antonella Cerino; Annalisa Meola; Alfredo Nicosia

    2003-04-01

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly heterogeneous in its primary sequence and is responsible for significant inter- and intra-individual variation of the infecting virus, which may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism leading to immune escape and persistent infection. A binding site for neutralizing antibodies (Ab) has also been allegedly identified in this region. Prospective studies of serological responses to synthetic oligopeptides derived from naturally-occurring HVR1 sequences showed promiscuous recognition of HVR1 variants in most patients via binding to C-terminal amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. Monoclonal antibodies generated by immunization of mice with peptides derived from natural HVR1 sequences were shown to recognize several HVR1 variants in line with evidence gathered from studies using human sera. In addition, selected mAbs were able to bind HVR1 in the context of a complete soluble form of the E2 glycoprotein, indicating recognition of correctly folded sequences, and were shown to specifically capture circulating and recombinant HCV particles, suggesting that HVR1 is expressed on intact virus particles and therefore potentially able to interact with cellular receptor(s). These findings suggest that it is possible to induce a broadly reactive clonal immune response to multiple HCV variants and that this mechanism could be used in principle to induce protective immunity for a large repertoire of HCV variants.

  17. Sequence variations of the hypervariable region of hepatitis C virus and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical significance of sequence variations in the hypervariable region (HVR) of hepatitis C virus during infection. Methods Eight patients with acute hepatitis C and 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C were followed up for two years. Blood samples were taken at intervals of six months for analysis of HCV-HVR sequences by reverse transcription-pelymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing methods. Results HCV-HVR sequences of the 28 patients changed in various degrees. 92% of these nuclentide substitutions led to changes of corresponding amino acid sequence. Only 8% of changed nucleotide were synonymous substitutions. Of 27 amino acids variation of amino acid ranged from 1 to 20 (mean 8, 30%). The most common nucleotide substitution (62%) occurred in the first position of codon, 31% in the second and the rest in the third. HVR variation rate wes 0.89×10-1 per genome site per year in acute hepatitis C, compared with 2.31×10-1 per genome site per year in chronic hepatitis C (P<0.05), but had no relafian to HCV subtype. Variation of HVR in the flare up type (ALT>150 μ/L) was much more than that in the quiescent type (ALT<100 μ/L). Conclusion Our results suggested that sequence variation of HVR during HCV chronic infection seems to be an adaptive response to HCV to evade the host immune pressure and might play a major role in the establishment of persistent infection as well as in the flare-up of hepatitis.

  18. Expression of I-A and I-E,C region-coded Ia antigens on functional B cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, J A; Hibbler, F J; Hill, S W

    1978-12-01

    Ia antigens from specific subregions have been examined on functional B cell populations. Expression of both I-A and I-E,C region antigens was demonstrated on cells required for both lipopolysaccharide mitogenesis and polyclonal activation. Similar I-A and I-E,C subregion expression was found on cells required for response to the T-independent antigen, polyvinylpyrrolidone. TNP-specific IgM and hen egg lysozyme-specific IgG plaque-forming cells also express I-A and I-E,C region antigens. No evidence was found for an Ia- population responsive in the systems tested. Further, no evidence of preferential expression of I-A or I-E,C region antigens was observed in any system examined. Therefore, it appears that B cells express both I-A and I-E,C region-coded Ia antigens.

  19. Transcription map of the early region of the Streptomyces bacteriophage phi C31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, C J; Smith, M C

    1992-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), lysogenised by the temperature-sensitive cts1 mutant of phi C31, can be synchronously induced into the lytic cycle by heat treatment. A transcription map of 10 kb of the phi C31 early gene cluster was deduced using low-resolution S1 nuclease mapping of RNA prepared 10 min after induction. At least nine early transcripts, early (e)RNAs 1-9, were localised reading exclusively rightwards with respect to the standard physical map of phi C31. The mRNAs were extensively overlapping, frequently initiating at the same place but terminating at different sites, and vice versa. Gene expression during the lytic cycle was tightly regulated; no transcription was observed before induction. Transcription was maximal at 10 min post-induction, and at 20 min, eRNAs 5 and 6 persisted whilst eRNAs 7-9 were severely reduced or absent. The pattern of transcription of the early region is consistent with the simultaneous activation of a large number of promoters and differential termination efficiency.

  20. C-Banded Karyotype and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) of Wild Boar, Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Atilla; İrfan ALBAYRAK

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the karyotype, C-banding, and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of 6 Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) males from Anatolia. The karyotype of S. scrofa comprised (2n) 38 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 64, and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 60. C-positive regions appeared to be restricted to the centromeric regions of autosomes 1, and 13-18, and the entire long arm of the Y chromosome. Some autosomes had very slight C-bands. The X chromosome ap...

  1. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario. Executive summary for Federal Region IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. In this report, which is part of DOE's Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory examines how a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This scenario, to be called the Series C Scenario, assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of the Series C Scenario.

  2. Zooming into the broad line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 ≡ the Einstein Cross. III. Determination of the size and structure of the C iv and C iii] emitting regions using microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluse, D.; Schmidt, R.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.; Meylan, G.; Eigenbrod, A.; Anguita, T.; Agol, E.; Wambsganss, J.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We aim to use microlensing taking place in the lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 to study the structure of the broad line region (BLR) and measure the size of the region emitting the C iv and C iii] lines. Methods: Based on 39 spectrophotometric monitoring data points obtained between Oct. 2004 and Dec. 2007, we derived lightcurves for the C iv and C iii] emission lines. We used three different techniques to analyse the microlensing signal. Different components of the lines (narrow, broad, and very broad) were identified and studied. We built a library of the simulated microlensing lightcurves that reproduce the signal observed in the continuum and in the lines provided only the source size is changed. A Bayesian analysis scheme is then developed to derive the size of the various components of the BLR. Results: 1. The half-light radius of the region emitting the C iv line is found to be RC IV} ˜ 66+110-46} light-days = 0.06+0.09-0.04 pc = 1.7+2.8-1.1 × 1017 cm (at 68.3% CI). Similar values are obtained for C iii]. Relative sizes of the carbon-line and V-band continuum emitting-regions are also derived with median values of Rline/Rcont in the range 4 to 29, depending on the FWHM of the line component. 2. The size of the C iv emitting region agrees with the radius-luminosity relationship derived from reverberation mapping. Using the virial theorem, we derive the mass of the black hole in QSO 2237 + 0305 to be MBH ~ 108.3 ± 0.3 M⊙. 3. We find that the C iv and C iii] lines are produced in at least 2 spatially distinct regions, the most compact one giving rise to the broadest component of the line. The broad and narrow line profiles are slightly different for C iv and C iii]. 4. Our analysis suggests a different structure for the C iv and Fe ii+iii emitting regions, with the latter produced in the inner part of the BLR or in a less extended emitting region than C iv. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT Unit Telescope # 2 Kueyen (Cerro Paranal, Chile

  3. Anti-parallel EUV flows observed along active region filament threads with Hi-C

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Caroline E; Regnier, Stephane; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy R; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Platt, Simon; Mitchell, Nick; Korreck, Kelly; DePontieu, Bart; DeForest, Craig; Weber, Mark; Title, Alan; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Previous observations of these flows primarily come from H-alpha and cool EUV lines (e.g., 304A) where estimates of the size of the prominence threads has been limited by the resolution of the available instrumentation. Evidence of `counter-steaming' flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193A). In this work we present observations of an active region filament observed with Hi-C that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. Complementary data from SDO/AIA and HMI are presented. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70-80 km/s) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the ind...

  4. 75 FR 35613 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700 & 701...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 55493). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have.... Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700 & 701) Airplanes, Model CL-600-2D15 (Regional Jet Series...

  5. 76 FR 20498 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700, 701 & 702...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2011 (76 FR 1556). That supplemental NPRM proposed to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant.... Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700, 701 & 702) Airplanes, Model CL-600-2D15 (Regional Jet...

  6. Association of HLA-C and HCP5 gene regions with the clinical course of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Manen; N.A. Kootstra; B. Boeser-Nunnink; M.A. Handulle; A.B. van 't Wout; H. Schuitemaker

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, a genome-wide association analysis revealed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene regions of HLA-C and HCP5 to be associated with viral load at set point and SNPs in the RNF39/ZNRD1 gene region to be associated with HIV-1 disease course. Methods: We Studied whether

  7. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in -174G/C and-634C/G Promoter Region of Interleukin-6 and Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixin BAO; Weimin YANG; Siwei ZHOU; Zhangqun YE

    2008-01-01

    The association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in -174G/C and -634C/G of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter region and prostate cancer was examined in the population of Han people in Hubei region. TaqMan PCR was employed for the gene-typing of -174G/C and -634C/G in promoter region of IL-6 gene to compare the prostate cancer patients and normal controls in terms of genotype frequency, allele frequency and risk of prostate cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of IL-6 concentration in peripheral blood of the patients with prostate cancer and the relationship between the IL-6 level and the genotype was studied.Our results showed that in all the subjects, the genotype of genetic locus -174G/C was found to be GG and no CG and CC were observed. There was a significant difference in gene frequency of GG,CG and CC of-634C/G and allele frequency of G and C between prostate cancer patients and normal controls (P<0.05) and the gene frequency of GG+CG increased with the clinical stages and pathological grades of prostate cancer. The IL-6 level in GG+CG group was significantly higher than that in CC group. It was.concluded that no SNP in-174G/C IL-6 promoter region was found in the population of Han people in Hubei region. The SNP in -634C/G was, to some extent, associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer. The population with GG+CG genetype has higher risk for prostate cancer.

  8. Transmission of hepatitis C virus among intravenous drug users in the Uppsala region of Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Danielsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiology and transmission patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV are important subjects as we enter a new era of treatment with directly acting antivirals (DAAs. The highest prevalence of HCV in developed countries is found among intravenous drug users (IDUs, where unsafe needle sharing practices provide the main route of infection. Efforts to prohibit the continuous spread of HCV among these groups have been initiated by the community services and health care providers. Our goal was to understand how HCV was transmitted among IDUs within a limited population group. We provide a retrospective study (2005–2007 of the HCV transmission patterns in a population of IDUs in the Uppsala region of Sweden. Method: Eighty-two serum samples were collected from IDUs in Uppsala County. Our reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR and sequencing method enabled a comprehensive genetic analysis for a broad spectrum of genotypes of two relatively conserved regions, NS5B and NS3, that encodes for the viral polymerase and protease, respectively. HCV RNA in serum samples was amplified and sequenced with in-house primers. Sequence similarities between individuals and subgroups were analyzed with maximum likelihood (ML phylogenetic trees. Published HCV reference sequences from other geographic regions and countries were also included for clarity. Results: Phylogenetic analysis was possible for 59 NS5B (72% and 29 NS3 (35% sequences from Uppsala patients. Additionally, we also included 15 NS3 sequences from Örebro patients, making a total of 44 NS3 sequences for the analysis. By analyzing the NS3 sequences, two transmission sets were found between the IDUs (>98% sequence identity, with one set consisting of two individuals and another set consisting of three individuals. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis done with our serum samples displayed clusters that distinguished them from the reference sequences. Conclusion: Our

  9. Evolutionary and Structural Features of the C2, V3 and C3 Envelope Regions Underlying the Differences in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Biology and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártolo, Inês; Marcelino, José Maria; Família, Carlos; Quintas, Alexandre; Taveira, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Background Unlike in HIV-1 infection, the majority of HIV-2 patients produce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, control viral replication and survive as elite controllers. The identification of the molecular, structural and evolutionary footprints underlying these very distinct immunological and clinical outcomes may lead to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a side-by-side molecular, evolutionary and structural comparison of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions from HIV-1 and HIV-2. These regions contain major antigenic targets and are important for receptor binding. In HIV-2, these regions also have immune modulatory properties. We found that these regions are significantly more variable in HIV-1 than in HIV-2. Within each virus, C3 is the most entropic region followed by either C2 (HIV-2) or V3 (HIV-1). The C3 region is well exposed in the HIV-2 envelope and is under strong diversifying selection suggesting that, like in HIV-1, it may harbour neutralizing epitopes. Notably, however, extreme diversification of C2 and C3 seems to be deleterious for HIV-2 and prevent its transmission. Computer modelling simulations showed that in HIV-2 the V3 loop is much less exposed than C2 and C3 and has a retractile conformation due to a physical interaction with both C2 and C3. The concealed and conserved nature of V3 in the HIV-2 is consistent with its lack of immunodominancy in vivo and with its role in preventing immune activation. In contrast, HIV-1 had an extended and accessible V3 loop that is consistent with its immunodominant and neutralizing nature. Conclusions/Significance We identify significant structural and functional constrains to the diversification and evolution of C2, V3 and C3 in the HIV-2 envelope but not in HIV-1. These studies highlight fundamental differences in the biology and infection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and in their mode of interaction with the human

  10. Evolutionary and structural features of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions underlying the differences in HIV-1 and HIV-2 biology and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Barroso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike in HIV-1 infection, the majority of HIV-2 patients produce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, control viral replication and survive as elite controllers. The identification of the molecular, structural and evolutionary footprints underlying these very distinct immunological and clinical outcomes may lead to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a side-by-side molecular, evolutionary and structural comparison of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions from HIV-1 and HIV-2. These regions contain major antigenic targets and are important for receptor binding. In HIV-2, these regions also have immune modulatory properties. We found that these regions are significantly more variable in HIV-1 than in HIV-2. Within each virus, C3 is the most entropic region followed by either C2 (HIV-2 or V3 (HIV-1. The C3 region is well exposed in the HIV-2 envelope and is under strong diversifying selection suggesting that, like in HIV-1, it may harbour neutralizing epitopes. Notably, however, extreme diversification of C2 and C3 seems to be deleterious for HIV-2 and prevent its transmission. Computer modelling simulations showed that in HIV-2 the V3 loop is much less exposed than C2 and C3 and has a retractile conformation due to a physical interaction with both C2 and C3. The concealed and conserved nature of V3 in the HIV-2 is consistent with its lack of immunodominancy in vivo and with its role in preventing immune activation. In contrast, HIV-1 had an extended and accessible V3 loop that is consistent with its immunodominant and neutralizing nature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identify significant structural and functional constrains to the diversification and evolution of C2, V3 and C3 in the HIV-2 envelope but not in HIV-1. These studies highlight fundamental differences in the biology and infection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and in their mode of

  11. A new cAMP response element in the transcribed region of the human c-fos gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, E; Loncarević, I F; Büscher, M.; Herrlich, P; Rahmsdorf, H J

    1991-01-01

    In NIH 3T3 cells the c-fos gene is induced rapidly and transiently by cAMP. As shown by the analysis of 3T3 cells stably transfected with promoter mutants of the human c-fos gene this induction does not depend on the dyad symmetry element (position -320 to -300), but involves at least two other non-related sites: an element located around position -60 resembling the cAMP response element of the fibronectin and somatostatin genes (which has been described before), and an element located betwee...

  12. COEXISTENCE OF GRAVITATIONALLY-BOUND AND RADIATION-DRIVEN C IV EMISSION LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are mutually contradictory views in the literature of the kinematics and structure of high-ionization line (e.g., C IV) emitting regions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two kinds of broad emission line region (BELR) models have been proposed, outflow and gravitationally-bound BELR, which are supported, respectively, by blueshift of the C IV line and reverberation mapping observations. To reconcile these two apparently different models, we present a detailed comparison study between the C IV and Mg II lines using a sample of AGNs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the kinematics of the C IV region is different from that of Mg II, which is thought to be controlled by gravity. A strong correlation is found between the blueshift and asymmetry of the C IV profile and the Eddington ratio. This provides strong observational support for the postulation that the outflow is driven by radiation pressure. In particular, we find robust evidence that the C IV line region is largely dominated by outflow at high Eddington ratios, while it is primarily gravitationally-bounded at low Eddington ratios. Our results indicate that these two emitting regions coexist in most AGNs. The emission strength from these two gases varies smoothly with Eddington ratio in opposite ways. This explanation naturally reconciles the apparently contradictory views proposed in previous studies. Finally, candidate models are discussed which can account for both the enhancement of outflow emission and suppression of normal BEL in AGNs with high Eddington ratios.

  13. 5' coding region of the follicular epithelium yolk polypeptide 2 cDNA in the moth, Plodia interpunctella, contains an extended coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, P D; Perera, O P

    1998-01-01

    The 5' region of YP2 cDNA, a follicular epithelium yolk protein subunit in the moth, Plodia interpunctella, shows that the polypeptide contains an extended internal coding region. Partial cDNA clones for YP2 were isolated from a pharate adult female ovarian cDNA expression library in Lambda Zap II by screening with antigen selected YP2 antiserum. The 5' sequence of the YP2 transcript was determined by 5' RACE PCR of ovarian mRNA using YP2 sequence-specific nested primers. The combined cDNA and 5' RACE sequencing showed the YP2 transcript to be 1971 bp in length up to the poly(A) tail with a single open reading frame for a predicted polypeptide of 616 amino acids. Northern analysis showed a single YP2 transcript to be present in ovarian RNA that was approximately 2 kb in length. The predicted amino acid sequence for YP2 from P. interpunctella is most closely related to egg specific protein (ESP) from Bombyx mori and the partial YP2 sequence from Galleria mellonella. YP2 from P. interpunctella also is similar to vertebrate lipases and contains a conserved lipid binding region. However, the 5' coding region of YP2 from P. interpunctella contains an in-frame insert of approximately 438 bp that had replaced an approximately 270-bp region as compared with ESP from B. mori and YP2 of G. mellonella. This suggests that the insert occurred by a recombinational event internal to the YP2 structural gene of P. interpunctella.

  14. Hepatitis B and C prevalences among blood donors in the south region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. F. F. Vasconcelos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection has been determined in a seroepidemiological survey among blood donors from the south of Brazil (Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina. These markers has also been correlated with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, a surrogate marker to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Sera from 5000 donors were randomly collected in the period of April to November 1991. The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were respectively 0.78, 7.02 and 13.98. The anti-HCV prevalence after confirmation testing with line immunoassay (LIA, was 1.14. Normal values of ALT ( = 70 U/ml in 2.48. The positivity of anti-HCV antibodies increased with the elevation of ALT levels. This correlation was not observed in relation to HBsAg. There exists a diversity in the recognition of HCV epitopes among HCV positive donors. Via the confirmation test used, we could observe that 94.7 of donors recognize the structural core antigen. Besides that, we observed that 5.26 of the HCV reactive sera recognized only epitopes located in the NS4 and/or NS5 region, indicating the importance of these epitopes for the improvement of assays.

  15. Fine tuning in small and large tan beta regions in the cE6SSM

    CERN Document Server

    Binjonaid, Maien Y

    2014-01-01

    The Electroweak sector in E6 supersymmetric models is subject to a degree of fine tuning in the percent to permil level. This can be attributed to the experimental limits on both the mass of the Z' boson associated with the extra U(1)' symmetry in the model, as well as the masses of naturalness-related sparticles (which is a general source of tuning in supersymmetric models). The degree of tuning can be smaller than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with universal fundamental parameters (the constrained MSSM). We show this by quantifying the fine tuning in regions of the parameter space of the constrained exceptional supersymmetric standard model (cE6SSM) corresponding to values of tan beta below and above 10. It is found that, a Higgs mass m_h ~ 125 GeV, a gluino mass ~ 1.5 TeV, and a Z' boson mass m_Z' ~ 3.8 TeV correspond to fine tuning in the 0.2% (0.1%) level for tan beta = 30 (5).

  16. Estimation of transient deformation on cGPS measurements at Taiwan region: Implications for tectonic and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. H.; Chan, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Transient deformation on geodetic time series is usually caused by the tectonic or surface processes. Surface processes include multiple durations that could be trapped or ignored using general time series analysis. We first recognize overall transient signals in Taiwan region recorded by continuous GPS (cGPS) networks. Sparse estimation techniques and Bi-splines function are used to detect the signals on cGPS time series then estimate the parameters. Our study analyzes the transient deformation by using a multi-dataset of the cGPS, seismogram, digital terrain model (DTM), and rainfall gauges. We establish a systematic classification by weighting both the empirical trigger factors and regional criterion to classify the signals into seven types. Spatial and temporal characteristics of transient deformation show three major contributions in Taiwan region including the seismic-related, landslides-related, and slow-slip transients. The cGPS networks in Taiwan region show long-term transient deformation at rates 2-68 mm/yr, ~14%-75% of their tectonic interseismic velocities. Tectonic and surface processes involve ~38%-85% and ~15%-62%, respectively, in the transient deformation under different geological units of Taiwan region. The lack of consideration for the transient deformation in surface processes would underestimate their biases on tectonic interseismic velocity. Statistical linking between cGPS transient deformation, tectonic and surface processes of Taiwan indicate that earthquake, typhoon, and topography play important roles in the occurrence of transient deformation.

  17. Photon-dominated region modeling of the [C I], [C II], and CO Line Emission From A Boundary In The Taurus molecular cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Matthew E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We present [C I] and [C II] observations of a linear edge region in the Taurus molecular cloud, and model this region as a cylindrically symmetric photon-dominated region (PDR) exposed to a low-intensity UV radiation field. The sharp, long profile of the linear edge makes it an ideal case to test PDR models and determine cloud parameters. We compare observations of the [C I], {sup 3} P {sub 1} → {sup 3} P {sub 0} (492 GHz), [C I] {sup 3} P {sub 2} → {sup 3} P {sub 1} (809 GHz), and [C II] {sup 2} P {sub 3/2} → {sup 2} P {sub 1/2} (1900 GHz) transitions, as well as the lowest rotational transitions of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO, with line intensities produced by the RATRAN radiative transfer code from the results of the Meudon PDR code. We constrain the density structure of the cloud by fitting a cylindrical density function to visual extinction data. We study the effects of variation of the FUV field, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotopic abundance ratio, sulfur depletion, cosmic ray ionization rate, and inclination of the filament relative to the sky-plane on the chemical network of the PDR model and resulting line emission. We also consider the role of suprathermal chemistry and density inhomogeneities. We find good agreement between the model and observations, and that the integrated line intensities can be explained by a PDR model with an external FUV field of 0.05 G {sub 0}, a low ratio of {sup 12}C to {sup 13}C ∼43, a highly depleted sulfur abundance (by a factor of at least 50), a cosmic ray ionization rate (3-6) × 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, and without significant effects from inclination, clumping or suprathermal chemistry.

  18. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize organic chemical components of decomposing coarse woody debris from different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hishinuma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to coarse woody debris (CWD in different stages of decomposition and collected from forest floor of a subtropical, a cool temperate, and a subalpine forest in Japan. The purpose was to test its applicability to characterize organic chemical composition of CWD of broad-leaved and coniferous trees from different climatic conditions. O-alkyl-C, mainly representing carbohydrates, was the predominant component of CWD at the three sites, accounting for 43.5-58.1% of the NMR spectra. Generally, the relative area under the signals for aromatic-C and phenolic-C, mainly representing lignin, increased, whereas the relative area for O-alkyl-C decreased, as the decay class advanced. The relative area under NMR chemical shift regions was significantly correlated with the chemical properties examined with proximate analyses. That is, O-alkyl-C and di-O-alkyl-C NMR signal areas were positively correlated with the volumetric density of CWD and the content of total carbohydrates. Methoxyl-C, aromatic-C, phenolic-C, carboxyl-C, and carbonyl-C were positively correlated with the contents of acid-unhydrolyzable residues (lignin, tannins, and cutin and nitrogen. Lignin-C calculated from NMR signals increased, and polysaccharide-C decreased, with the decay class of CWD at the three study sites. A review of previous studies on 13C NMR spectroscopy for decomposing CWD suggested further needs of its application to broad-leaved trees from tropical and subtropical regions.

  19. The proline-histidine-rich CDK2/CDK4 interaction region of C/EBPalpha is dispensable for C/EBPalpha-mediated growth regulation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Bo Torben; Pedersen, Thomas Askov; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd;

    2006-01-01

    a short, centrally located, 15-amino-acid proline-histidine-rich region (PHR) of C/EBPalpha is responsible for the growth-inhibitory function of the protein through its ability to interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting their activities. Homozygous Cebpa(DeltaPHR/DeltaPHR) (DeltaPHR) mice...

  20. Long-range oncogenic activation of Igh-c-myc translocations by the Igh 3' regulatory region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostissa, Monica; Yan, Catherine T; Bianco, Julia M; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric; Alt, Frederick W

    2009-12-10

    B-cell malignancies, such as human Burkitt's lymphoma, often contain translocations that link c-myc or other proto-oncogenes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH, encoded by Igh). The nature of elements that activate oncogenes within such translocations has been a long-standing question. Translocations within Igh involve DNA double-strand breaks initiated either by the RAG1/2 endonuclease during variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination, or by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) during class switch recombination (CSR). V(D)J recombination in progenitor B (pro-B) cells assembles Igh variable region exons upstream of mu constant region (Cmu) exons, which are the first of several sets of C(H) exons ('C(H) genes') within a C(H) locus that span several hundred kilobases (kb). In mature B cells, CSR deletes Cmu and replaces it with a downstream C(H) gene. An intronic enhancer (iEmu) between the variable region exons and Cmu promotes V(D)J recombination in developing B cells. Furthermore, the Igh 3' regulatory region (Igh3'RR) lies downstream of the C(H) locus and modulates CSR by long-range transcriptional enhancement of C(H) genes. Transgenic mice bearing iEmu or Igh3'RR sequences fused to c-myc are predisposed to B lymphomas, demonstrating that such elements can confer oncogenic c-myc expression. However, in many B-cell lymphomas, Igh-c-myc translocations delete iEmu and place c-myc up to 200 kb upstream of the Igh3'RR. Here we address the oncogenic role of the Igh3'RR by inactivating it in two distinct mouse models for B-cell lymphoma with Igh-c-myc translocations. We show that the Igh3'RR is dispensable for pro-B-cell lymphomas with V(D)J recombination-initiated translocations, but is required for peripheral B-cell lymphomas with CSR-associated translocations. As the Igh3'RR is not required for CSR-associated Igh breaks or Igh-c-myc translocations in peripheral B-cell lymphoma progenitors, we conclude that

  1. A constitutive effector region on the C-terminal side of switch I of the Ras protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, J; Shirouzu, M; Ito, Y; Hattori, S; Furuyama, S; Nishimura, S; Yokoyama, S

    1995-03-01

    The "switch I" region (Asp30-Asp38) of the Ras protein takes remarkably different conformations between the GDP- and GTP-bound forms and coincides with the so-called "effector region." As for a region on the C-terminal side of switch I, the V45E and G48C mutants of Ras failed to promote neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells (Fujita-Yoshigaki, J., Shirouzu, M., Koide, H., Nishimura, S., and Yokoyama, S. (1991) FEBS Lett. 294, 187-190). In the present study, we performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis within the region Lys42-Ile55 of Ras and found that the K42A, I46A, G48A, E49A, and L53A mutations significantly reduced the neurite-inducing activity. This is an effector region by definition, but its conformation is known to be unaffected by GDP-->GTP exchange. So, this region is referred to as a "constitutive" effector (Ec) region, distinguished from switch I, a "switch" effector (Es) region. The Ec region mutants exhibiting no neurite-inducing activity were found to be correlatably unable to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in PC12 cells. Therefore, the Ec region is essential for the MAP kinase activation in PC12 cells, whereas mutations in this region only negligibly affect the binding of Ras to Raf-1 (Shirouzu, M., Koide, H., Fujita-Yoshigaki, J., Oshio, H., Toyama, Y., Yamasaki, K., Fuhrman, S. A., Villafranca, E., Kaziro, Y., and Yokoyama, S. (1994) Oncogene 9, 2153-2157).

  2. Chick homeobox gene cDlx expression demarcates the forebrain anlage, indicating the onset of forebrain regional specification at gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghjid, S; Siddiqui, M A

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a chick homeobox-containing gene, cDlx, which shows greater than 85% homology to the homeodomain of other vertebrate Distal-less genes. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies reveal that cDlx expression is developmentally regulated and is tissue specific. In particular, the developmental expression pattern is characterized by an early appearance of cDlx transcript in the prospective forebrain region of gastrulating embryos. During neurulation, cDlx is consistently expressed in a spatially restricted domain in the presumptive ventral forebrain region of the neural plate that will give rise to the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis. Our data support the notion that members of the Dlx gene family are part of a homeobox gene code in forebrain pattern formation and suggest that regional specification of the forebrain occurs at much earlier stages than previously thought. The homeobox gene cDlx may thus play a role in defining forebrain regional identity as early as gastrulation.

  3. Critical regions with central charge c=1/2,7/10,4/5 in the spin-1 quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagramm of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1-quantum chain is calculated by finite-size scaling with respect to all four parameters. We locate the three-dimensional critical manifold and determine a two-dimensional tricritical surface where the spectra exhibit conformal invariance corresponding to the central charges c=7/10 and 4/5. Choosing one parameter to be zero, we can treat the model analytically and from this the spectrum on a large part of the Ising-like critical region can be understood: there the spectrum consists of conformal c=1/2-levels on which a massive spectrum is superimposed. Calculating three-point functions we study which perturbations by primary fields lead from c=4/5 or c=7/10-critical points to Ising-type regions. (orig.)

  4. Large regional-scale variation in C3/C4 distribution pattern of Inner Mongolia steppe is revealed by grazer wool carbon isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Auerswald

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work explored the spatial variation of C3/C4 distribution in the Inner Mongolia, P. R. China, steppe by geostatistical analysis of carbon isotope data of vegetation and sheep wool. Standing community biomass (n=118 and sheep wool (n=146 were sampled in a ~0.2 Mio km2 area. Samples from ten consecutive years (1998–2007 were obtained. Community biomass samples represented the carbon isotopic composition of standing vegetation on about 1000 m2 ("community-scale", whereas the spatio-temporal scale of wool reflected the isotope composition of the entire area grazed by the herd during a 1-yr period (~5–10 km2, "farm-scale". Pair wise sampling of wool and vegetation revealed a 13C-enrichment of 2.7±0.7‰ (95% confidence interval in wool relative to vegetation, but this shift exhibited no apparent relationships with environmental parameters or stocking rate. The proportion of C4 plants in above-ground biomass (PC4, % was estimated with a two-member mixing model of 13C discrimination by C3 and C4 vegetation (13Δ3 and 13Δ4, respectively, in accounting for the effects of changing 13C in atmospheric CO2 on sample isotope composition, and of altitude and aridity on 13Δ3. PC4 averaged 19%, but the variation was enormous: full-scale (0% to 100% at community-scale, and 0% to 85% at farm-scale. The farm-scale variation of PC4 exhibited a clear regional pattern over a range of ~250 km. Importantly PC4 was significantly higher above the 22°C isotherm of the warmest month, which was obtained from annual high-resolution maps and averaged over the different sampling years. This is consistent with predictions from C3/C4 crossover temperature of quantum yield or light use efficiency in C3 and C4 plants. Still, temperature gradients accounted for only 10% of

  5. New Observations of Regional Variability in Delta-14C of Background CO2 from the Scripps CO2 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Keeling, R. F.

    2007-12-01

    We present new records of Δ14C in CO2 from a set of 7 sites in the Scripps CO2 flask sampling program. The monthly records span 2 years at Palmer Station, 5 years at Mauna Loa, Kumukahi and Samoa, 7 years at Pt Barrow and South Pole, and 15 years at La Jolla. The long time series were made possible by the archiving of extracted CO2 samples. The samples were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where an initiative to support high precision Δ14C analysis in CO2 with improved analytical methodology has been ongoing since 2003. The new records build on previous work by I. Levin, M. Manning, R. Nydal and others to characterize atmospheric Δ14C levels following nuclear weapons testing. Our time series reveal changes in the latitudinal profile of Δ14C that reflect shifting regional 14C fluxes. As 14C fluxes depend on the source of CO2 to the atmosphere, atmospheric 14C measurements improve our understanding of regional oceanic, biospheric and industrial CO2 exchanges and provide important constraints on carbon cycle models. The new records will additionally serve as a background definition for studies utilizing Δ14C measurements to identify local fossil fuel-derived CO2.

  6. Scale dependence of open $c\\bar{c}$ and $b\\bar{b}$ production in the low $x$ region

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, E G; Ryskin, M G

    2016-01-01

    The `optimal' factorization scale $\\mu_0$ is calculated for open heavy quark production. We find that the optimal value is $\\mu_F=\\mu_0\\simeq 0.85\\sqrt{p^2_T+m_Q^2} $; a choice which allows us to resum the double-logarithmic, $(\\alpha_s\\ln\\mu^2_F\\ln(1/x))^n$ corrections (enhanced at LHC energies by large values of $\\ln(1/x)$) and to move them into the incoming parton distributions, PDF$(x,\\mu_0^2)$. Besides this result for the single inclusive cross section (corresponding to an observed heavy quark of transverse momentum $p_T$), we also determined the scale for processes where the acoplanarity can be measured; that is, events where the azimuthal angle between the quark and the antiquark may be determined experimentally. Moreover, we discuss the important role played by the $2\\to 2$ subprocesses, $gg\\to Q\\bar{Q}$ at NLO and higher orders. In summary, we achieve a better stability of the QCD calculations, so that the data on $c\\bar{c}$ and $b\\bar{b}$ production can be used to further constrain the gluons in the...

  7. Line Intensities of (12)C(16)O(2) in the 1.2-1.4 µm Spectral Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffo; Claveau; Kou; Guelachvili; Ubelmann; Perevalov; Tashkun

    2000-06-01

    The 7000-8500 cm(-1) spectral region of (12)C(16)O(2) has been investigated using the high-resolution FT spectrometer of LPPM in Orsay. The two strongest bands in this region are the 10031 <-- 00001 and 10032 <-- 00001 bands centered at 8294 and 8192 cm(-1). Line intensities in these two bands and in the 40013 <-- 00001 and 40014 <-- 00001 bands have been measured. Using the method of effective operators, these line intensities have been included in a new fit of effective dipole-moment parameters to all available experimental data in the same spectral region of (12)C(16)O(2). The corresponding calculated line intensities of the 10031 <-- 00001 and 10032 <-- 00001 bands are compared with the experimental ones. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Line Intensities of 12C 16O 2 in the 1.2-1.4 μm Spectral Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffo, J.-L.; Claveau, C.; Kou, Q.; Guelachvili, G.; Ubelmann, A.; Perevalov, V. I.; Tashkun, S. A.

    2000-06-01

    The 7000-8500 cm-1 spectral region of 12C16O2 has been investigated using the high-resolution FT spectrometer of LPPM in Orsay. The two strongest bands in this region are the 10031 ← 00001 and 10032 ← 00001 bands centered at 8294 and 8192 cm-1. Line intensities in these two bands and in the 40013 ← 00001 and 40014 ← 00001 bands have been measured. Using the method of effective operators, these line intensities have been included in a new fit of effective dipole-moment parameters to all available experimental data in the same spectral region of 12C16O2. The corresponding calculated line intensities of the 10031 ← 00001 and 10032 ← 00001 bands are compared with the experimental ones.

  9. Structural features of the human C3 gene: Intron/exon organization, transcriptional start site, and promoter region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third component of human complement (C3) is a key molecule in the activation of the complement cascade. C3 cDNA fragments were used to identify seven cosmid clones that covered all but 1 kilobase pair (kb) of the C3 gene. The remainder of the gene was cloned by using the polymerase chain reaction. These clones were used to identify the interon/exon boundaries and to map the gene. The C3 gene is 42 kb in length and comprises 41 exons ranging in size from 52 to 213 base pairs (bp). The transcription start site was identified by primer extension, and approximately 1 kb of DNA upstream of this site was sequenced. Putative TATA and CAAT boxes were identified along with a number of regions that shared homology with known regulatory sequences. These include responsive elements for interferon-γ, interleukin-6, nuclear factor kB, estrogen, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone. Several of these agents have been shown to affect C3 synthesis and mRNA levels. The sizes of the exons in C3 were compared to those of C4 and α2-macroglobulin (α2M). Thirty-nine of 41 exons in C4 were found to be of similar size to the analogous ones in C3, and two-thirds of those in α2M were also similarly sized, supporting the hypothesis that these genes arose from a common ancestor

  10. Design of a Low-Power Universal Gm-C Filter in Sub-Threshold Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aghaei Jeshvaghani; Mehdi Dolatshahi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a second order universal filter with the ability of electronically tuning central frequency (ω0) and quality factor (Q), based on the inverter as transconductance block which realizes multi-mode responses (voltage, current, transconductance, transresistance) in sub-threshold region, is presented. Biasing transistors in sub-threshold region, reduces the power consumption of the proposed filter and the grounded capacitors are used to reduce the parasitic effects which is another ...

  11. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  12. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako; Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21-24 and 110-139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60-75 and 72-75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm.

  13. NQO1 C609T polymorphism correlated to colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Lan Su; Mei-Rong Yan; Ling Yang; Qimuge-Suyila

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism and colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to analyze NQO1 C609T polymorphism from 160 healthy controls and 76 colon cancer patients.Results:Among the colon cancer patients,the incidence of NQO1 T allele (53.29%) was significantly higher than it in control group (33.75%,P<0.001).The individuals with NQO1 T allele had higher risk [2.239 (95% CI:1.510-3.321) times] to develop colon cancer than individuals with NQO1 C allele.The incidence of NQO1 (T/T) (34.21%) in colon cancer patients was higher than that in control group (15.62%,P<0.001).Odds ratios (OR) analysis suggested that NQO1 (T/T) and NQO1 (T/C) genotype carriers had 3.813 (95% CI:1.836-7.920) times and 2.080 (1.026-4.219) times risk compared with wild-type NQO1 (C/C) gene carriers in developing colon cancer.Individuals with NQO1 (T/T)genotype had 2.541 (95% CI:0.990-6.552)times,3.713 (95% CI:1.542-8.935)times,and 3.471 (95% CI:1.356-8.886) times risk than individuals with NQO1 (T/C) or NQO1 (C/C) genotype in well-differentiated,moderately-differentiated,and poorly-differentiated colon cancer patients,respectively.Conclusions:NQO1 gene C609T could be one of risk factors of colon cancer in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.

  14. Acetylene C2H 2 retrievals from MIPAS data and regions of enhanced upper tropospheric concentrations in August 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs have been successfully retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS Level 1B radiances during August 2003, providing the first global map of such data and ratios to CO in the literature. The data presented here contain most information between 300 hPa and 100 hPa with systematic errors less than 10% at the upper levels. Random errors per point are less than 15% at lower levels and are closer to 30% at 100 hPa. Global distributions of the C2H2 and C2H2/CO ratio confirm significant features associated with both the Asian monsoon anticyclone and biomass burning for this important hydrocarbon in a characteristic summer month (August 2003, showing tight correlations regionally, particularly at lower to medium values, but globally emphasising the differences between sources and lifetimes of CO and C2H2. The correlations are seen to be particularly disturbed in the regions of highest C2H2 concentrations, indicating variability in the surface emissions or fast processing. A strong isolation of C2H2 within the Asian monsoon anticyclone is observed, evidencing convective transport into the upper troposphere, horizontal advection within the anticyclone at 200 hPa, distinct gradients at the westward edge of the vortex and formation of a secondary dynamical feature from the eastward extension of the anticyclone outflow over the Asian Pacific. Ratios of C2H2/CO are consistent with the evidence from the cross-sections that the C2H2 is uplifted rapidly in convection. Observations are presented of enhanced C2H2 associated with the injection from biomass burning into the upper troposphere and the outflow from Africa at 200 hPa into both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the biomass burning regions, C2H2 and CO are well correlated, but the uplift is less marked and peaks at lower altitudes compared to the strong effects observed in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Ratios of C2H2/CO

  15. Phylogenetic, virological, and clinical characteristics of genotype C hepatitis B virus with TCC at codon 15 of the precore region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Tse, Chi-Hang; Ng, Eddie Yuen-Tok; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Lee, Kin-Hong; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Sung, Joseph Jao-Yiu

    2006-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) with T-1856 of the precore region is always associated with C-1858 (i.e., TCC at nucleotides 1856 to 1858), and it is reported only in genotype C HBV isolates. We aimed to investigate the phylogenetic, virological, and clinical characteristics of HBV isolates bearing TCC at nucleotides 1856 to 1858. We have previously reported on the presence of two major subgroups in genotype C HBV, namely, HBV genotype Cs (Southeast Asia) and HBV genotype Ce (Far East). We have designed a novel 5' nuclease technology based on the nucleotide polymorphism (C or A) at nucleotide 2733 to differentiate the two genotype C HBV subgroups. The mutations at the basal core promoter and precore regions were analyzed by direct sequencing. Among 214 genotype C HBV-infected patients, 31% had TCC, 37% had CCC, 3% had CTC, and 29% had CCT at nucleotides 1856 to 1858. All except one HBV strain with TCC at nucleotides 1856 to 1858 belonged to subgroup Cs, which has been reported only in Hong Kong; Guangzhou, China; and Vietnam. HBV with TCC at nucleotides 1856 to 1858 was associated with the G1898A mutation (64%). Patients infected with HBV harboring TCC had more liver cirrhosis than those infected with HBV harboring CCC (18% versus 5%; P = 0.008), and more of the patients infected with HBV harboring TCC were positive for HBeAg (58% versus 36%; P = 0.01) and had higher median alanine aminotransferase levels (65 IU/liter versus 49 IU/liter; P = 0.006); but similar proportions of patients infected with HBV harboring TCC and those infected with HBV harboring CCT had liver cirrhosis (18% versus 13%; P = 0.43). In summary, we report that HBV with TCC at nucleotides 1856 to 1858 of the precore region might represent a specific HBV strain associated with more aggressive liver disease than other genotype C HBV strains.

  16. Photon-Dominated Region Modeling of the [C I],[C II], and CO Line Emission from a Boundary in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Matthew; Goldsmith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present [Ci] and [Cii] observations of a linear edge region in the Taurus molecular cloud, and model this region as a cylindrically symmetric PDR exposed to a low-intensity UV radiation field. The sharp, long profile of the linear edge makes it an ideal case to test PDR models and determine cloud parameters. We compare observations of the [C i], 3P1 -> 3P0 (492 GHz), [C i] 3P2 -> 3P1 (809 GHz), and [Cii] 2P3/2 -> 2P1/2 (1900 GHz) transitions, as well as the lowest rotational transitions of 12CO and 13CO, with line intensities produced by the RATRAN radiative transfer code from the results of the Meudon PDR code. We constrain the density structure of the cloud by fitting a cylindrical density function to visual extinction data. We study the effects of variation of the FUV field, 12C/13C isotopic abundance ratio, sulfur depletion, cosmic ray ionization rate, and inclination of the filament relative to the sky-plane on the chemical network of the PDR model and resulting line emission. We also consider the rol...

  17. Molecular characterization and sequence analysis of the 2B region of Aichivirus C strains in Japan and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okitsu, Shoko; Khamrin, Pattara; Thongprachum, Aksara; Kalesaran, Angela F C; Takanashi, Sayaka; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Maneekarn, Niwat; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Aichivirus C is the third species in the genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae, and the virus is circulating in pigs worldwide. Aichivirus A in humans and Aichivirus B in cows have been shown to associate with diarrheal diseases, however, the pathogenesis of Aichivirus C has not been demonstrated clearly. In this study, the full genome nucleotide sequence of the Thai strain, CMP06/2007/THA collected from stool sample of a diarrheal piglet was analyzed and identified as a variant type with a 90-nt deletion in the 2B-coding region. In addition, molecular characterization of nucleotide sequences of the 2B-coding region of Aichivirus C strains from six diarrheal and six healthy piglets in Thailand, and four strains from healthy pigs in Japan revealed that all of the strains in this study were variant types. These findings indicate that variant strains of Aichivirus C are circulating in Asian countries such as China, Thailand and Japan, and deletion of tandem repeat of 2B-region is unlikely to associate with the pathogenesis of the virus. PMID:24837671

  18. Precise observations of the 12C/13C ratios of HC3N in the low-mass star-forming region L1527

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Mitsunori; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Using the Green Bank 100 m telescope and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope, we have observed the rotational emission lines of the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N in the 3 and 7 mm bands toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527 in order to explore their anomalous 12C/13C ratios. The column densities of the 13C isotopic species are derived from the intensities of the J = 5-4 lines observed at high signal-to-noise ratios. The abundance ratios are determined to be 1.00:1.01 +- 0.02:1.35 +- 0.03:86.4 +- 1.6 for [H13CCCN]:[HC13CCN]:[HCC13CN]:[HCCCN], where the errors represent one standard deviation. The ratios are very similar to those reported for the starless cloud, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 Cyanopolyyne Peak (TMC-1 CP). These ratios cannot be explained by thermal equilibrium, but likely reflect the production pathways of this molecule. We have shown the equality of the abundances of H13CCCN and HC13CCN at a high-confidence level, which supports the production pathways of HC3N via C2H2 and C2H2+. The average 12...

  19. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the expression of c-myb in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Young Lee

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results show that a lethal transient ischemia significantly decreased c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region and that IPC well preserved c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region. We suggest that the maintenance of c-myb might be related with IPC-mediated neuroprotection after a lethal ischemic insult.

  20. Developmental Genetics of the 2c-D Region of the Drosophila X Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Perrimon, Norbert; Engstrom, Lee; Mahowald, Anthony P.

    1985-01-01

    We have conducted a genetic and developmental analysis of genes within the 2C-D area of the X chromosome. Phenotypes of 33 mutations representing nine adjacent complementation groups including eight recessive lethals and one visible homeotic mutation (polyhomeotic) are described. Germline clonal analysis of the eight zygotic lethals has revealed three types of gene requirements: (1) normal activity at two pupal lethal loci (corkscrew and C204) and one larval lethal locus (ultraspiracle) is r...

  1. Temporal changes and regional differences in treatment uptake of hepatitis C therapy in EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Schwarze-Zander, C;

    2013-01-01

    All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe.......All HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with chronic HCV infection and ≥ F2 fibrosis should be considered for HCV therapy. This study aimed to determine the rate of HCV treatment uptake among coinfected patients in Europe....

  2. Variability in 14C contents of soil organic matter at the plot and regional scale across climatic and geologic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Zell, Claudia; Walthert, Lorenz; Schleppi, Patrick; Feng, Xiaojuan; Eglinton, Timothy Ian

    2016-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) forms the largest terrestrial pool of carbon outside of sedimentary rocks. Radiocarbon is a powerful tool for assessing soil organic matter dynamics. However, due to the nature of the measurement, extensive 14C studies of soil systems remain relatively rare. In particular, information on the extent of spatial and temporal variability in 14C contents of soils is limited, yet this information is crucial for establishing the range of baseline properties and for detecting potential modifications to the SOM pool. This study describes a comprehensive approach to explore heterogeneity in bulk SOM 14C in Swiss forest soils that encompass diverse landscapes and climates. We examine spatial variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) 14C, SOC content and C : N ratios over both regional climatic and geologic gradients, on the watershed- and plot-scale and within soil profiles. Results reveal (1) a relatively uniform radiocarbon signal across climatic and geologic gradients in Swiss forest topsoils (0-5 cm, Δ14C = 130 ± 28.6, n = 12 sites), (2) similar radiocarbon trends with soil depth despite dissimilar environmental conditions, and (3) micro-topography dependent, plot-scale variability that is similar in magnitude to regional-scale variability (e.g., Gleysol, 0-5 cm, Δ14C 126 ± 35.2, n = 8 adjacent plots of 10 × 10 m). Statistical analyses have additionally shown that Δ14C signature in the topsoil is not significantly correlated to climatic parameters (precipitation, elevation, primary production) except mean annual temperature at 0-5 cm. These observations have important consequences for SOM carbon stability modelling assumptions, as well as for the understanding of controls on past and current soil carbon dynamics.

  3. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) based on retrievals from...

  4. Regional pulmonary function assessed by C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro; Senda, Michio

    1984-08-01

    Regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusion were measured using positron imaging of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO. Blood flow was estimated from the monoexponential clearance rate of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/. The alveolar transfer rate (diffusion) was calculated by the clearance curve of /sup 11/CO and the clearance rate of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ using a non-linear least-aquares fitting method. Six normal volunteers and nineteen patients with various pulmonary disorders underwent C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation. In normal subjects, the alveolar transfer rates and blood flow in the lower lung field were significantly greater than those in the upper lung field. Pulmonary emboli were demonstrated as hot spots on serial positron images. In patients with interstitial fibrosis, the alveolar transfer rate was not different from that in normal subjects. However, blood flow was significantly lower than in the normals. In patients with pulmonary emphysema, the alveolar transfer rate was lower suggesting the decreased alveolar capillary beds. Thus, dynamic study using C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation provides regional blood flow and diffusion, which may permit the differentiation of various pulmonary disorders.

  5. Comparison of X-Band, L-Band and C-Band Radar Images in Monitoring Subsidence in Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Haghshenas Haghighi, Mahmud; Shamshiri, Roghaye; Esmaeili, Mustapha

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing pattern of groundwater induced land subsidence in major valleys and agricultural regions of Iran has been recently documented by several studies (e.g. [1-4]) using C-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. In this article we present the results of our research in which we evaluated the performance of C-band, L-band and X-band SAR data, using time-series method of small baseline subset (SBAS), to retrieve long time series of ground subsidence in agricultural regions in the country. Two major groundwater basins have been selected for this purpose: (1) Rafsanjan Valley in the Kerman province of central Iran and (2) Tehran Plain (capital of Iran). We also report on our experience using dualpolarimetry (HH/VV) X-band SAR data for Persistent Scatterer (PS) deformation analysis in natural terrains subject to high rate of deformation.

  6. A regional estimate of soil organic carbon content linking the RothC model to spatialised climate and soil database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, Costantino; Salis, Michele; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents the largest pool of organic carbon in the biosphere, and plays a vital role in ecosystem function determining soil fertility, water holding capacity, and susceptibility to land degradation. The SOC amount is mainly led by soil type, land use, and climate. In this work an assessment of SOC pools in Mediterranean soils is presented. The SOC content was estimated at regional scale in Sardinia, the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, linking the RothC model (Rothamsted Carbon model) to a high detailed spatialised climate, land use and soil database. More than 300 soil analysis data, covering different land use typologies, were used for the calibration and validation of the model. A good agreement between soil C estimated from the model and ground data was found. The methodology allowed to obtain the current SOC pools estimation for the different land use categories at regional scale.

  7. Technologies to Improve the Performance of A/C Systems in Hot Climate Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman, Ammar M.; Eckhard A. Groll; Horton, W. Travis; Braun, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Air conditioning contributes significantly to building energy consumption in hot climate regions. In addition to greater cooling requirements in hot climates, cooling equipment efficiency decreases with increasing outdoor temperature. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop improved technologies that can achieve higher efficiency at high ambient conditions. In this paper, two novel compression technologies are investigated for application in high ambient temperature air conditioning via simu...

  8. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  9. Structural effects of methionine oxidation on isolated subdomains of human fibrin D and αC regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Patrick R; White, Nathan; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of key methionine residues on fibrin leads to altered fibrin polymerization producing severely altered fibrin gel structure and function. This is important because fibrinogen and its modification by oxidative stress have been implicated as key contributors to both pathological thrombotic and hemorrhagic diseases ranging from cardiovascular thrombosis to the acute coagulopathy of trauma. However, how oxidation leads to altered fibrin polymerization remains poorly understood at the molecular level. We have applied a powerful and novel well-tempered ensemble parallel tempering (PT-WTE) technique along with conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the molecular-level consequences of selective methionine oxidation of fibrinogen. We offer new insights into molecular mechanisms of oxidation-induced changes in fibrin polymerization, while focusing on the D region knob 'B' and hole 'b' interaction and αC-domain interactions, both of which are hypothesized to contribute to the lateral aggregation mechanism of fibrin fibrils. Methionine oxidation did not alter the native state or the stability of a bound knob 'B' surrogate when interacting with hole 'b' in the D region. However, applying PT-WTE simulation to a human homology model of the bovine N-terminal subdomain fragment from the αC-domain revealed that methionine oxidation altered the conformation of the hairpin-linking region to favor open rather than closed hairpin structures. We attribute this alteration to the disruption of the hairpin-linking region's conformation, with oxidation increasing the radius of gyration for this segment. This result is in agreement with experimental data demonstrating decreased fibrin protofibril lateral aggregation when methionine oxidation is present in the same αC-domain fragment. Therefore, single methionine oxidation within the αC-domain is a likely molecular mechanism. PMID:24475207

  10. Structural effects of methionine oxidation on isolated subdomains of human fibrin D and αC regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Burney

    Full Text Available Oxidation of key methionine residues on fibrin leads to altered fibrin polymerization producing severely altered fibrin gel structure and function. This is important because fibrinogen and its modification by oxidative stress have been implicated as key contributors to both pathological thrombotic and hemorrhagic diseases ranging from cardiovascular thrombosis to the acute coagulopathy of trauma. However, how oxidation leads to altered fibrin polymerization remains poorly understood at the molecular level. We have applied a powerful and novel well-tempered ensemble parallel tempering (PT-WTE technique along with conventional molecular dynamics (MD simulation to investigate the molecular-level consequences of selective methionine oxidation of fibrinogen. We offer new insights into molecular mechanisms of oxidation-induced changes in fibrin polymerization, while focusing on the D region knob 'B' and hole 'b' interaction and αC-domain interactions, both of which are hypothesized to contribute to the lateral aggregation mechanism of fibrin fibrils. Methionine oxidation did not alter the native state or the stability of a bound knob 'B' surrogate when interacting with hole 'b' in the D region. However, applying PT-WTE simulation to a human homology model of the bovine N-terminal subdomain fragment from the αC-domain revealed that methionine oxidation altered the conformation of the hairpin-linking region to favor open rather than closed hairpin structures. We attribute this alteration to the disruption of the hairpin-linking region's conformation, with oxidation increasing the radius of gyration for this segment. This result is in agreement with experimental data demonstrating decreased fibrin protofibril lateral aggregation when methionine oxidation is present in the same αC-domain fragment. Therefore, single methionine oxidation within the αC-domain is a likely molecular mechanism.

  11. Using regional-scale atmospheric δ13C of CO2 as an indicator of ecosystem health and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. B.; Miller, J. B.; White, J. W.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Year to year terrestrial CO2 uptake and release is highly variable and is a result of, among other factors, weather and climate variability. One of the key ecosystem parameters that links surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy, water and carbon is stomatal conductance. By measuring and analyzing atmospheric patterns of CO2 and its 13C content over North America, we can begin to identify regional scale changes in stomatal conductance, because conductance is closely related to plant isotopic discrimination. Furthermore, 13C is a useful tracer of the differential responses of C3 and C4 plants to climate and weather anomalies, because C3 and C4 plants have very different isotopic discrimination. Both aspects of the terrestrial carbon cycle are of great interest to those seeking to understand the potential effects of global climate change on cropland and forest productivity, natural CO2 sinks, continental runoff, and continental water and energy exchange with the atmosphere. Our findings may be particularly important for parameterization of process-based models, in light of recent results suggesting that stomatal conductance models driven by vapor pressure deficit (Leuning Model) better predict atmospheric δ13C than do models driven by relative humidity (Ball-Berry Model). For the first time, spatial and temporal density of δ13C of CO2 atmospheric observations may be high enough to allow for regional inversions of δ13CO2 to optimize prior estimates of plant discrimination (and disequilibrium flux -- an isoflux resulting from the combination of a finite residence time of carbon in terrestrial biosphere pools and a changing atmospheric signature due to human burning of fossil fuels with a plant-derived δ13C signature). We perform a Bayesian synthesis inversion for 1) CO2 fluxes and 2) δ13CO2 isofluxes, over the North American region: 145-25°W longitude and 10-80°N latitude. Inversion resolution, in order to avoid aggregation errors, is 1°x1° and 3-hourly, but

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. A Region Near the C-Terminal End of Escherichia coli DNA Helicase II Is Required for Single-Stranded DNA Binding

    OpenAIRE

    MECHANIC, LEAH E.; Latta, Marcy E.; Matson, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the C terminus of Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (UvrD), a region outside the conserved helicase motifs, was investigated by using three mutants: UvrDΔ107C (deletion of the last 107 C-terminal amino acids), UvrDΔ102C, and UvrDΔ40C. This region, which lacks sequence similarity with other helicases, may function to tailor UvrD for its specific in vivo roles. Genetic complementation assays demonstrated that mutant proteins UvrDΔ107C and UvrDΔ102C failed to substitute for the wild-t...

  14. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  15. Brainstem Regions Involved in the Expiration Reflex. A c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Jakus, Jan; Murin, Peter; Barani, Helena; Stransky, Albert; Bolser, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was employed to localize brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to the expiration reflex (ER). Twelve spontaneously breathing, non-decerebrate, pentobarbital anesthetized cats were used. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive ERs mechanically induced from the glottis (296±9 ERs) was compared to FLI in 6 control non-stimulated cats. Respiratory rate, arterial blood pre...

  16. The C-terminal region controls correct folding of genus Trametes pyranose 2-oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresová, Helena; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslík, Pavel

    2007-06-30

    The pyranose 2-oxidases from Trametes ochracea and Trametes pubescens share markedly similar amino acid sequences with identity of 93.4%. When expressed from the recombinant plasmids based on the same vector in the Escherichia coli host strain BL21(DE3) at higher growth temperatures, they differ strikingly in the formation of the inclusion bodies. Upon overexpression in the cultures performed at 28 degrees C, the specific activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens was eight times higher than that from T. ochracea: 93% of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. ochracea and only 15% of that from T. pubescens was present in the form of inclusion bodies. To ascertain the cause of this difference, both cloned genes were shuffled. Site-directed recombination of p2o cDNAs revealed that DNA constructs ending with 3' end of p2o cDNA from T. pubescens code for proteins that are folded into an active form to the greater extent, regardless of the gene expression level. "In silicio" analysis of physico-chemical properties of the protein sequences of pyranose 2-oxidases revealed that the sequence of amino acid residues 368-430, constituting the small, head domain of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens, affects positively the enzyme folding at higher cultivation temperatures. The domain differs in six amino acid residues from that of T. ochracea.

  17. Design of a Low-Power Universal Gm-C Filter in Sub-Threshold Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei Jeshvaghani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a second order universal filter with the ability of electronically tuning central frequency (ω0 and quality factor (Q, based on the inverter as transconductance block which realizes multi-mode responses (voltage, current, transconductance, transresistance in sub-threshold region, is presented. Biasing transistors in sub-threshold region, reduces the power consumption of the proposed filter and the grounded capacitors are used to reduce the parasitic effects which is another advantage of the proposed filter circuit. Furthermore, low sensitivity of the performance of the proposed filter to the values of gmi , Ci is considered as another advantage of the proposed circuit. In addition, realizing the proposed filter based on the inverter circuit leads to a reduced value of layout area as well as power consumption. Finally, the proposed filter performance is simulated in HSPICE using 0.18 µm (LEVEL49 CMOS technology parameters. As it is shown in the paper, the proposed filter consumes only 64.69 nW power in a ±0.3V supply voltage.

  18. C-terminus of progranulin interacts with the beta-propeller region of sortilin to regulate progranulin trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqiu Zheng

    Full Text Available Progranulin haplo-insufficiency is a main cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD with TDP-43 aggregates. Previous studies have shown that sortilin regulates progranulin trafficking and is a main determinant of progranulin level in the brain. In this study, we mapped the binding site between progranulin and sortilin. Progranulin binds to the beta-propeller region of sortilin through its C-terminal tail. The C-terminal progranulin fragment is fully sufficient for sortilin binding and progranulin C-terminal peptide displaces progranulin binding to sortilin. Deletion of the last 3 residues of progranulin (QLL abolishes its binding to sortilin and also sortilin dependent regulation of progranulin trafficking. Since progranulin haplo-insufficiency results in FTLD, these results may provide important insights into future studies of progranulin trafficking and signaling and progranulin based therapy for FTLD.

  19. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C RESISTANCE AND FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Mehrez M. Jadaon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL. FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East.  This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  1. Epidemiology of Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden Mutation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaon, Mehrez M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE) are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE. The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL). FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East. This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:22224194

  2. Ultramafic rocks in the Namurian C series in the Zebrzydowice area (Rybnik coal region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochemczyk, L.

    1984-08-01

    The chemical and physical properties as well as origin of ultramafic rock samples from the Zebrzydowice area in the Rybnik coal region are evaluated. The ultramafic rocks detected by drilling were situated at depths of 1035 m in the top of dacite-andesite system and thermally alterated claystones. Chemical analyses and X-ray examination show that the ultramafic rock consists of secondarily alterated peridotite. The peridotite consists of chlorite-serpentite, phlogopite, bastite, nepheline and opaque minerals. Its chemical composition is characterized by reduced content of silica and a high content of ferric oxide. The ultramafic rock in the Zebrzydowice area differs from mineral and chemical composition of igneous rocks which occur in Carboniferous strata in the west and the southwest of the Upper Silesia basin. Rock of this type has been recorded in the Upper Silesia basin for the first time. 12 references.

  3. Evolution of naturally occurring 5'non-coding region variants of Hepatitis C virus in human populations of the South American region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Aguirre Laura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. Previous and recent studies have suggested a diversification of type 1 HCV in the South American region. The degree of genetic variation among HCV strains circulating in Bolivia and Colombia is currently unknown. In order to get insight into these matters, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5' non-coding region (5'NCR sequences from strains isolated in Bolivia, Colombia and Uruguay, as well as available comparable sequences of HCV strains isolated in South America. Methods Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method under a matrix of genetic distances established under the Kimura-two parameter model. Signature pattern analysis, which identifies particular sites in nucleic acid alignments of variable sequences that are distinctly representative relative to a background set, was performed using the method of Korber & Myers, as implemented in the VESPA program. Prediction of RNA secondary structures was done by the method of Zuker & Turner, as implemented in the mfold program. Results Phylogenetic tree analysis of HCV strains isolated in the South American region revealed the presence of a distinct genetic lineage inside genotype 1. Signature pattern analysis revealed that the presence of this lineage is consistent with the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of HCV strains isolated in South America. Comparisons of these results with the ones found for Europe or North America revealed that this sequence signature is characteristic of the South American region. Conclusion Phylogentic analysis revealed the presence of a sequence signature in the 5'NCR of type 1 HCV strains isolated in South America. This signature is frequent enough in type 1 HCV populations circulating South America to be detected in a phylogenetic tree analysis as a distinct

  4. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4N326L) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4N326L in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4N326L. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4N326L might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the nuclear localization of N

  5. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  6. Identificación de regiones isofuncionales en el citocromo c6 y en la plastocianina

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Heredia, Fernando Publio

    2001-01-01

    Una de las líneas de investigación mas intereses de la bioquímica contemporánea es el estudio de la relación entre la estructura y la función de las macromoléculas biológicas, o reconocimiento molecular. Como sistema objeto de este estudio, se ha escogido el citocromo c6(Cit) y la plastocianina (Pc), dos proteínas con estructuras diferentes pero con idéntica función, cual es transportar electrones entre los complejos de membrana citocromo b6-f y fotosistema I(PSI). La conexión entre ambos ...

  7. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I' band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D₂O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  8. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  9. Anti-parallel EUV Flows Observed along Active Region Filament Threads with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline E.; Walsh, Robert W.; Régnier, Stéphane; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy R.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Platt, Simon; Mitchell, Nick; Korreck, Kelly; DePontieu, Bart; DeForest, Craig; Weber, Mark; Title, Alan; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Previous observations of these flows primarily come from Hα and cool extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lines (e.g., 304 Å) where estimates of the size of the prominence threads has been limited by the resolution of the available instrumentation. Evidence of "counter-steaming" flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations, but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193 Å). In this work, we present observations of an AR filament observed with the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. Complementary data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager are presented. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70-80 km s-1) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the individual strands (0.''8 ± 0.''1). The temperature of the plasma flows was estimated to be log T (K) = 5.45 ± 0.10 using Emission Measure loci analysis. We find that SDO/AIA cannot clearly observe these anti-parallel flows or measure their velocity or thread width due to its larger pixel size. We suggest that anti-parallel/counter-streaming flows are likely commonplace within all filaments and are currently not observed in EUV due to current instrument spatial resolution.

  10. Cross-reactivity of hypervariable region 1 chimera of hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Shui Xiu; Shi-Gan Ling; Xiao-Guo Song; He-Qiu Zhang; Kun Chen; Cui-Xia Zhu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the amino acid sequences of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of HCV isolates in China and to construct a combinatorial chimeric HVR1 protein having a very broad high cross-reactivity. METHODS: All of the published HVR1 sequences from China were collected and processed with a computer program.Several representative HVR1's sequences were formulated based on a consensus profile and homology within certain subdivision. A few reported HVR1 mimotope sequences were also included for a broader representation. All of them were cloned and expressed in E.coli. The cross-reactivity of the purified recombinant HVR1 antigens was tested by ELISA with a panel of sera from HCV infected patients in China.Some of them were further ligated together to form a combinatorial HVR1 chimera. RESULTS: Altogether 12 HVR1s were selected and expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. All of these purified antigens showed some cross-reactivity with sera in a 27 HCV positive panel. Recombinant HVR1s of No. 1, 2, 4, and 8# showing broad cross-reactivities and complementarity with each other, were selected for the ligation elements. The chimera containing these 4 HVR1s was highly expressed in E. coli. The purified chimeric antigen could react not only with all the HCV antibody positive sera in the panel but also with 90/91 sera of HCV -infected patients. CONCLUSION: The chimeric antigen was shown to have a broad cross-reactivity. It may be helpful for solving the problem caused by high variability of HCV, and in the efforts for a novel vaccine against the virus.

  11. 13C Isotopic Fractionation of HC3N in Star-Forming Regions -Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527 and High-Mass Star Forming Region G28.28-0.36-

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We observed the J=9-8 and 10-9 rotational lines of three13C isotopologues of HC3N in L1527 and G28.28-0.36 with the 45-m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in order to constrain the main formation mechanisms of HC3N in each source. The abundance ratios of the three 13C isotopologues of HC3N are found to be 0.9 (0.2) : 1.00 : 1.29 (0.19) (1sigma) and 1.0 (0.2) : 1.00 : 1.47 (0.17) (1sigma) for [H13CCCN]: [HC13CCN]: [HCC13CN] in L1527 and G28.28-0.36, respectively. We recognize a similar 13C isotopic fractionation pattern that the abundances of H13CCCN and HC13CCN are comparable, and HCC13CN is more abundant than the others. Based on the results, we discuss the main formation pathway of HC3N. The 13C isotopic fractionation pattern derived from our observations can be explained by the neutral-neutral reaction between C2H2 and CN in both the low-mass (L1527) and high-mass (28.28-0.36) star forming regions.

  12. Measurements of the high confinement mode pedestal region on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, A.E.; Boivin, R.L.; Granetz, R.S.; Greenwald, M.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.H.; In, Y.; Kesner, J.; LaBombard, B.; Lin, Y.; Rice, J.E.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Snipes, J.A.; Stek, P.C.; Takase, Y.; Wolfe, S.M.; Wukitch, S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of the steep transport barrier at the edge of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 1}, 1511 (1994)] are presented. The parameters at the top of this barrier are in the range T{sub e}=150{endash}750 eV and n{sub e}=0.5{minus}3.3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}, depending on the confinement regime. Type III edge localized modes (ELMs) have an upper temperature limit. T{sub e} pedestal profiles show a barrier width {Delta}{sub T}{approx_equal}8 mm. Soft x-ray emissivity profiles are narrower, with {Delta}=2{endash}4 mm. Edge currents are calculated to alter the ideal stability boundary favorably, leading to ideally stable pedestal profiles. High frequency, broadband, edge density fluctuations are sometimes observed in H-mode (high-confinement mode) and are associated with enhanced particle transport. Coherent magnetic fluctuations localized near the pedestal are also seen. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. TMAO promotes fibrillization and microtubule assembly activity in the C-terminal repeat region of tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Francesca; Peterson, Dylan W; Farmer, Patrick; Gerig, J T; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2006-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease most closely correlates with the appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intracellular fibrous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Under native conditions, tau is an unstructured protein, and its physical characterization has revealed no clues about the three-dimensional structural determinants essential for aggregation or microtubule binding. We have found that the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) induces secondary structure in a C-terminal fragment of tau (tau(187)) and greatly promotes both self-aggregation and microtubule (MT) assembly activity. These processes could be distinguished, however, by a single-amino acid substitution (Tyr(310) --> Ala), which severely inhibited aggregation but had no effect on MT assembly activity. The inability of this mutant to aggregate could be completely reversed by TMAO. We propose a model in which TMAO induces partial order in tau(187), resulting in conformers that may correspond to on-pathway intermediates of either aggregation or tau-dependent MT assembly or both. These studies set the stage for future high-resolution structural characterization of these intermediates and the basis by which Tyr(310) may direct pathologic versus normal tau function. PMID:16533051

  14. Computational Analysis of Cysteine Proteases(Clan CA, Family C1)of Leishmania major to Find Potential Epitopic Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babak Saffari; Hassan Mohabatkar

    2009-01-01

    Leishmania is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple cutaneous to invasive visceral leishmaniasis. Here, the sequences of ten cysteine proteases of types A, B and C of Leishmania major were obtained from GeneDB database. Prediction of MHC class I epitopes of these cysteine proteases was per-formed by NetCTL program version 1.2. In addition, by using BcePred server, different structural properties of the proteins were predicted to find out their po-tential B cell epitopes. According to this computational analysis, nine regions were predicted as B cell epitopes. The results provide useful information for designing peptide-based vaccines.

  15. 2-Sulfonamidopyridine C-region analogs of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Jihyae; Ki, Yooran; Yoon, Suyoung; Kim, Myeong Seop; Lee, Jung-Un; Kim, Changhoon; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Baek, Jisoo; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun; Pearce, Larry V; Esch, Timothy E; Turcios, Noe A; Lewin, Nancy E; Ogunjirin, Adebowale E; Herold, Brienna K A; McCall, Anna K; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

    2016-03-15

    A series of 2-sulfonamidopyridine C-region derivatives of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamide were investigated as hTRPV1 ligands. Systematic modification on the 2-sulfonamido group provided highly potent TRPV1 antagonists. The N-benzyl phenylsulfonamide derivatives 12 and 23 in particular showed higher affinities than that of lead compound 1. Compound 12 exhibited strong analgesic activity in the formalin pain model. Docking analysis of its chiral S-form 12S in our hTRPV1 homology model indicated that its high affinity might arise from additional hydrophobic interactions not present in lead compound 1S. PMID:26860926

  16. PROBING THE SOLAR WIND ACCELERATION REGION WITH THE SUN-GRAZING COMET C/2002 S2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Raymond, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lamy, P. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Uzzo, M. [Computer Science Corporation, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dobrzycka, D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Comet C/2002 S2, a member of the Kreutz family of sungrazing comets, was discovered in white-light images of the Large Angle and Spectromeric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) on 2002 September 18 and observed in H I Lyα emission by the SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instrument at four different heights as it approached the Sun. The H I Lyα line profiles detected by UVCS are analyzed to determine the spectral parameters: line intensity, width, and Doppler shift with respect to the coronal background. Two-dimensional comet images of these parameters are reconstructed at the different heights. A novel aspect of the observations of this sungrazing comet data is that, whereas the emission from most of the tail is blueshifted, that along one edge of the tail is redshifted. We attribute these shifts to a combination of solar wind speed and interaction with the magnetic field. In order to use the comet to probe the density, temperature, and speed of the corona and solar wind through which it passes, as well as to determine the outgassing rate of the comet, we develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the H I Lyα emission of a comet moving through a coronal plasma. From the outgassing rate, we estimate a nucleus diameter of about 9 m. This rate steadily increases as the comet approaches the Sun, while the optical brightness decreases by more than a factor of 10 and suddenly recovers. This indicates that the optical brightness is determined by the lifetimes of the grains, sodium atoms, and molecules produced by the comet.

  17. High reflectance Cr/V multilayer with B(4)C barrier layer for water window wavelength region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Fei, Jiani; Liu, Yang; Li, Pin; Wen, Mingwu; Xie, Chun; Jonnard, Philippe; Giglia, Angelo; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-02-15

    To develop the high reflectance mirror for the short wavelength range of the water window region (λ=2.42-2.73  nm), Cr/V multilayers with B4C barrier layers are studied. The grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry results show that the multilayer interface widths are significantly reduced down to 0.21-0.31 nm, after the introduction of 0.1 nm B4C barrier layers at both interfaces. The [B4C/Cr/B4C/V] multilayer with a large number of bilayers of N=300 maintains the same small interface widths while the surface roughness is only 0.2 nm. According to the transmission electron microscope measurements, the layer structure improvement with barrier layers can be attributed to the suppression of the crystallization of vanadium inside the structure. Using the interface engineered multilayer, a maximum soft x-ray reflectance of 24.3% is achieved at λ=2.441  nm, under the grazing incidence of 42°. PMID:26872167

  18. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  19. Construction of infectious cDNA clones of PRRSV: Separation of coding regions for nonstructural and structural proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of the ongoing "porcine high fever syndrome" in China, is capable of genetic and antigenic mutations at high fre- quency. How to design vaccine rationally to keep up with the ever-changing prevalent PRRSV variant is of great interest. We developed an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated strain of Type II PRRSV, and further manipulated the infectious cDNA clone by inserting polylinker between ORF1 and ORF2, en- coding for nonstructural- or structural-protein, respectively. The cDNA was generated from the cell-attenuated virus strain, APRRS, via RT-PCR, and followed by nucleotide sequencing and molecular cloning. The full-length of the APRRS genomic RNA was determined as 15521 nucleotides in length excluding poly(A) tail, which has a 99.7% nucleotide identity with that of PRRSV Nsp strain, also a vac- cine strain. Based on the nucleotide sequencing results, the full-length cDNA clone was assembled in pBlueScript vector, under the control of T7 promoter at the immediate 5′ terminus of genome. To dis- cern the rescued viruses from that of parental virus, a Mlu I restriction site was engineered into ORF5 coding region. Upon transfection of the in vitro transcripts of both the original and Mlu I-tagged cDNAs into MA-104 cells, typical PRRSV cytopathic effects were observed. The rescued viruses from the full-length cDNA clones displayed the same virological and molecular properties. Subsequently, PCR-based mutagenesis was conducted to separate the coding regions between PRRSV nonstructural genes, ORF1, and structural proteins, ORF2-ORF7. The synthetic RNA of such mutant clone, pCSA, was infectious and the rescued virus shared similar properties with that of the parental virus. This study provided a valuable tool for development of chimeric PRRSV as vaccine candidate offering cross-protection to various genetically diversified PRRSV strains, and a platform for further develop- ment of

  20. Construction of infectious cDNA clones of PRRSV:Separation of coding regions for nonstructural and structural proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN ShiShan; WEI ZuZhang

    2008-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of the ongoing"porcine high fever syndrome" in China, is capable of genetic and antigenic mutations at high frequency. How to design vaccine rationally to keep up with the ever-changing prevalent PRRSV variant is of great Interest. We developed an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated strain of Type Ⅱ PRRSV, and further manipulated the infectious cDNA clone by inserting polylinker between ORF1 and ORF2, encoding for nonstructural- or structural-protein, respectively. The cDNA was generated from the cell-attenuated virus strain, APRRS, via RT-PCR, and followed by nucleotide sequencing and molecular cloning. The full-length of the APRRS genomic RNA was determined as 15521 nucleotides in length excluding poly(A) tail, which has a 99.7% nucleotide identity with that of PRRSV Nsp strain, also a vaccine strain. Based on the nucleotide sequencing results, the full-length cDNA clone was assembled in pBlueScript vector, under the control of T7 promoter at the immediate 5' terminus of genome. To discern the rescued viruses from that of parental virus, a Mlu I restriction site was engineered into ORF5 coding region. Upon trensfection of the in vitro transcripts of both the original and MIu I-tagged cDNAs into MA-104 cells, typical PRRSV cytopathic effects were observed. The rescued viruses from the full-length cDNA clones displayed the same virological and molecular properties. Subsequently,PCR-based mutagenesis was conducted to separate the coding regions between PRRSV nonstructural genes, ORF1, and structural proteins, ORF2-ORF7. The synthetic RNA of such mutant clone, pCSA,was infectious and the rescued virus shared similar properties with that of the parental virus. This study provided a valuable tool for development of chimeric PRRSV as vaccine candidate offering crose-protection to various genetically diversified PRRSV strains, and a platform for further development of PRRSV as a gene

  1. Predicted Coverage and Immuno-Safety of a Recombinant C-Repeat Region Based Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Celia; Cosh, Samantha; Vu, Therese; Nichols, Jemma; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Fane, Anne; Smeesters, Pierre R; Rush, Catherine M; Hafner, Louise M; Ketheesan, Natkuman; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the M-protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major target for vaccine development. The major feature is the C-repeat region, consisting of 35-42 amino acid repeat units that display high but not perfect identity. SV1 is a S. pyogenes vaccine candidate that incorporates five 14mer amino acid sequences (called J14i variants) from differing C-repeat units in a single recombinant construct. Here we show that the J14i variants chosen for inclusion in SV1 are the most common variants in a dataset of 176 unique M-proteins. Murine antibodies raised against SV1 were shown to bind to each of the J14i variants present in SV1, as well as variants not present in the vaccine. Antibodies raised to the individual J14i variants were also shown to bind to multiple but different combinations of J14i variants, supporting the underlying rationale for the design of SV1. A Lewis Rat Model of valvulitis was then used to assess the capacity of SV1 to induce deleterious immune response associated with rheumatic heart disease. In this model, both SV1 and the M5 positive control protein were immunogenic. Neither of these antibodies were cross-reactive with cardiac myosin or collagen. Splenic T cells from SV1/CFA and SV1/alum immunized rats did not proliferate in response to cardiac myosin or collagen. Subsequent histological examination of heart tissue showed that 4 of 5 mice from the M5/CFA group had valvulitis and inflammatory cell infiltration into valvular tissue, whereas mice immunised with SV1/CFA, SV1/alum showed no sign of valvulitis. These results suggest that SV1 is a safe vaccine candidate that will elicit antibodies that recognise the vast majority of circulating GAS M-types. PMID:27310707

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C RESISTANCE AND FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Mehrez M. Jadaon

    2011-01-01

    also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East.  This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  3. Stable isotopes (C, N, O, H) of feathers collected in an Italian alpine region, during postbreeding migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Luana; Ceppa, Florencia; Pedrini, Paolo; Tenan, Simone; Camin, Federica

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the analysis of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulphur have gradually become a formidable tool for the animal ecologists (Hobson and Wassenaar, 1997; Marra et al., 1998; Inger and Bearhop, 2008). In particular many studies have been developed on tracking the movement and the diet of birds in time and space, fundamental to understanding their ecology, but also inherently difficult to determine. The aim of this study was to deepen the origin and behaviour of migratory bird species crossing the Trentino area, an Italian alpine region, during the post-nuptial migration period, and monitored by a long term study by ringing activities (Progetto Alpi, Pedrini et al. 2008). About 800 samples of feathers from 48 local bird species were collected during 2010 - 2012 years. Analysis of d13C, d15N, d18O and dD were performed on these samples using an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) interfaced with an Elemental Analyser or a pyrolyser after a pre-treatment of the feathers (cleaning with diethyl ether:methanol 2:1, equilibration to ambient humitity for 4 days and, for d18O and dD a final drying step wth P2O5 for another 4 days). A first survey of the obtained data is presented in this work. As expected, the first statistical elaboration/'look' of them confirmed that 13C can be used to trace the importance of different carbon pools to a consumer (e.g. C3, C4 or CAM plants, marine algae) whereas d15N vary as a function of a variety of biological, geochemical and anthropogenic processes and is a very effective tracer of trophic level. In particular, it was interesting to note that the specie Loxia curvirostra showed particularly high d13C and low d15N values probably due to the eating of conifer seeds and whereas the specie Motacilla flava, that bases its diet primarily on worms and insects, presented high d15N values. On the other hand d18O values mainly depends by geographical/diet factors whereas dD values are

  4. C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Volkman, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    A limited suite of C-27, C-29 and C-30 rearranged hopenes identified as neohop-13(18)-enes have been reported in immature Recent and ancient marine/lacustrine sediments and their presence has been explained by dehydration and isomerisation of ubiquitous hopanols or hopenes. Here we investigated the

  5. Paleogeography of the Austro-Hungarian Lake Neusiedl - Hansag region in historic times, based on 14C-dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Based on calibrated 14C-dating of several peat sections intercalating with fine-grained beds in the Hansag southeast of Lake Neusiedl we present a first approach of the paleogeography of the Austro-Hungarian border region during a time span when first settlements already existed and before the first detailed topographic maps of this region were drawn. About one hundred pits down to one metre were digged out in the Hansag region near Osli in 2003 for studying the recultivation of this regularly flooded area in an environmental geo-information system (GIS). Several sections clearly show an alternation of peat layers intersected by fine-grained fluvio-lacustrine sediments. 15 age determinations of samples from several sections underlying and overlying silty to clayey sediments allow for reconstructing the succession of longer stillwater deposits alternating with peat successions. Comparing the Hansag succession with historic records of the vicinity of Lake Neusiedl allows for a new insight in this unique development of the Lake Neusiedl - Hansag region, at present situated within the Austro-Hungarian national park. It should be recalled, that Lake Neusiedl is Central Europe's largest step lake and Austria's youngest UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site. The paleo-environment of the Lake Neusiedl - Hansag region basically can be designed in four steps by comparing the archaeological findings around Lake Neusiedl with our 14C-dating of peat layers in the Hansag region: 1: the oldest settlements in the Lake Neusiedl region date about 3600 BC, and 1700 BC respectively. During this periods the lake probably was quite smaller than today. Our 14C-dating of peat sections in the Hansag region corresponds with these findings, indicating that during a time span of approximately 2000 years until 30 Anno Domini (AD) no bigger lake existed in the Neusiedl- Hansag region. Small pieces of charcoal dating around 2300 BC can have been caused by bush fire and therefore be

  6. Association of the C8orf13-BLK Region with Systemic Sclerosis in North-American and European Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourh, Pravitt; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Martin, Ezequiel; Divecha, Dipal; Rueda, Blanca; Bunting, Haley; Assassi, Shervin; Paz, Gene; Shete, Sanjay; McNearney, Terry; Draeger, Hilda; Reveille, John D; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Simeon, Carmen P.; Rodriguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Tann, Filemon K.; Martin, Javier; Arnett, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies in the systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease that clinically manifests with dermal and internal organ fibrosis and small vessel vasculopathy, have identified multiple susceptibility genes including HLA-class II, PTPN22, IRF5, and STAT4 which have also been associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These data suggest that there are common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. The current report sought to determine if polymorphisms in the C8orf13-BLK region (chromosome 8p23.1-B lymphoid tyrosine kinase), which is associated with SLE, are associated also with SSc. Methods Two variants in the C8orf13-BLK region (rs13277113 & rs2736340) were tested for association with 1050 SSc cases and 694 controls of North Americans of European descent and replicated in a second series 589 SSc cases and 722 controls from Spain. Results The “T” allele at rs2736340 variant was associated with SSc in both the U.S. and Spanish case-control series (P=6.8×10−5, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). The “A” allele at rs13277113 variant was associated with SSc in the U.S. series only (P=3.6×10−4, OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.1–1.6) and was significant in the combined analyses of the two series (P=2.0×10−3; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.1–1.3). Both variants demonstrated an association with the anti-centromere antibody (P=2.2×10−6 and P=5.5×10−4, respectively) and limited SSc (P=3.3×10−5 and P=2.9×10−3, respectively) in the combined analysis. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles suggest that B-cell receptor and NFκB signaling are dysregulated based on the risk haplotype of these variants. Conclusion We identify and replicate the association of the C8orf13-BLK region as a novel susceptibility factor for SSc, placing it in the category of common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. PMID:19796918

  7. 14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-01-01

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  8. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazuddin Sheikh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in Pakistan and various risk factors for their transmission are not known well. The specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency of various HCV genotypes present in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates and their possible routes of transmission. Methods A total of 3351 serum samples were tested by type-specific genotyping assay. Out of 3351 HCV RNA positive patients, 2039 were males and 1312 were females. As regard as genotyped samples, 2165 belonged to Punjab region, 823 belonged to N.W.F.P., 239 to Sindh and 124 patients were from Balochistan. Results Out of the total 3351 tested serum samples, type-specific PCR fragments were observed in 3150 (94.00% serum samples. The distribution of genotypes of the typeable samples as determined by this assay, was as follows: 1664 (49.05% genotype 3a; 592 (17.66% genotype 3b; 280 (8.35% genotype 1a; 252 (7.52% genotype 2a; 101 (3.01% genotype 1b; 50 (1.49% with genotype 4; 25 (0.75% with 3c; 27 (0.80% genotype 2b; 6 (0.18% with subtype 5a; 5 (0.15% genotype 1c; 4 (0.12% with subtype 6a; 3 (0.09% genotype 2c; and 161 (4.80% patients were infected with mixed infection. Two hundred and one (5.99% serum samples were found untypeable by the present genotyping system. More than 86% and 72% patients with genotypes 3a and 3b respectively had received multiple injections in past. For genotypes 1a and 1b the route of transmission was major/minor surgery along with unknown reasons. Majority of the cases with type 2a, 2b and indeterminate genotypes were sporadic. Mixed infections were common in thalassaemic patients. Conclusion The most common HCV genotype in Pakistan is type 3a. Regional difference in genotypes was observed only in Balochistan province of Pakistan. More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery that is very common in this

  9. High resolution analysis of C2D4 in the region of 600-1150 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, Fangce; Sydow, C.; Maul, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2016-10-01

    High-accurate Fourier-transform infrared spectra of C2D4 were recorded and analyzed in the region of 600-1150 cm-1 where the bands ν7(B1u), ν10(B2u), ν12(B3u) are located as well as the ν4(Au) band which is forbidden by the symmetry of the molecule. The ground state rotational structure was re-analyzed by the use of ground state combination differences obtained on the basis of infrared transitions of the ν12 and ν7 absorption bands. This gave us the possibility to considerably improve the rotational and centrifugal parameters of the ground vibrational state. The analysis of the experimental data and the subsequent weighted-fit procedure of the Hamiltonian parameters allowed us to reproduce the initial 4405 "experimental" ro-vibrational energy values with the drms = 2.1 ×10-4cm-1.

  10. Phylogeny of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes: structure of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum upsilon chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Wiles, M V; Schwager, J; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    An RNA polymerase chain reaction strategy was used to amplify and clone a cDNA segment encoding for the complete constant part of the axolotl IgY heavy (C upsilon) chain. C upsilon is 433 amino acids long and organized into four domains (C upsilon 1-C upsilon 4); each has the typical internal disulfide bond and invariant tryptophane residues. Axolotl C upsilon is most closely related to Xenopus C upsilon (40% identical amino acid residues) and C upsilon 1 shares 46.4% amino acid residues among these species. The presence of additional cysteines in C upsilon 1 and C upsilon 2 domains is consistent with an additional intradomain S-S bond similar to that suggested for Xenopus C upsilon and C chi, and for the avian C upsilon and the human C epsilon. C upsilon 4 ends with the Gly-Lys dipeptide characteristic of secreted mammalian C gamma 3, human C epsilon 4, and avian and anuran C upsilon 4, and contains the consensus [G/GT(AA)] nucleotide splice signal sequence for joining C upsilon 4 to the transmembrane region. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an ancestral structural relationship between amphibian, avian upsilon chains, and mammalian epsilon chains. However, these molecules have different biological properties: axolotl IgY is secretory Ig, anuran and avian IgY behave like mammalian IgG, and mammalian IgE is implicated in anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8344718

  11. Comparison of four methods of measurement on [11C]Raclopride  binding potential using regional specificity in the striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Ericka; Gjedde, Albert; Møller, Arne;

    . Methods: Dynamic emission recordings were obtained for  60 minutes after i.v. [11C] raclopride (190-366 MBq) using the ECAT HR tomography for 14 subjects during baseline (no decision  making, no possibility to win money). Spatial normalization to a stereotactic atlas was performed using a combination...... of linear and  nonlinear registrations. Regions were extracted using model-based segmentation. Maps of pB were calculated by the Lammertsma  Simplified Reference Tissue Method, the Logan method with the slope calculated between 20 and 60 min. post injection and the  ERLiBiRD method, using the cerebellum...... as reference for all three methods. Mean pB were calculated for left and right putamen,  caudate and VST. Correlations between the left and right pB were examined for each striatal region. The results of the three  methods were also compared. Results: For all three methods, there was a highly significant...

  12. Comparison of four methods of measurement on [11C]Raclopride  binding potential using regional specificity in the striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Ericka; Gjedde, Albert; Møller, Arne;

    . Methods: Dynamic emission recordings were obtained for 60 minutes after i.v. [11C] raclopride (190-366 MBq) using the ECAT HR tomography for 14 subjects during baseline (no decision making, no possibility to win money). Spatial normalization to a stereotactic atlas was performed using a combination...... of linear and nonlinear registrations. Regions were extracted using model-based segmentation. Maps of pB were calculated by the Lammertsma Simplified Reference Tissue Method, the Logan method with the slope calculated between 20 and 60 min. post injection and the ERLiBiRD method, using the cerebellum...... as reference for all three methods. Mean pB were calculated for left and right putamen, caudate and VST. Correlations between the left and right pB were examined for each striatal region. The results of the three methods were also compared. Results: For all three methods, there was a highly significant...

  13. Characterization of T-cell responses to conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondondo, Beatrice; Abdul-Jawad, Sultan; Bridgeman, Anne; Hanke, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    A likely requirement for a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/AIDS is, in addition to eliciting antibody responses, induction of effective T cells. To tackle HIV-1 diversity by T-cell vaccines, we designed an immunogen, HIVconsv, derived from the most functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and demonstrated its high immunogenicity in humans and rhesus macaques when delivered by regimens combining plasmid DNA, nonreplicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus ChAdV-63, and nonreplicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as vectors. Here, we aimed to increase the decision power for iterative improvements of this vaccine strategy in the BALB/c mouse model. First, we found that prolonging the period after the ChAdV63.HIVconsv prime up to 6 weeks increased the frequencies of HIV-1-specific, gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing T cells induced by the MVA.HIVconsv boost. Induction of strong responses allowed us to map comprehensively the H-2(d)-restricted T-cell responses to these regions and identified 8 HIVconsv peptides, of which three did not contain a previously described epitope and were therefore considered novel. Induced effector T cells were oligofunctional and lysed sensitized targets in vitro. Our study therefore provides additional tools for studying and optimizing vaccine regimens in this commonly used small animal model, which will in turn guide vaccine improvements in more expensive nonhuman primate and human clinical trials. PMID:25230940

  14. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mandour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis (HD and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  15. (π±, π±' N) reactions on 12C and 208Pb near the giant resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions for the 12C(π±, π±' p) and 208Pb(π±, π±' p or n) reactions near the giant resonance region have been measured at Tπ = 180 MeV, and found different between π+ and π- data. This observation is interpreted as evidence for different excitation mechanisms dominating the π--nucleus and π+-nucleus interactions in the giant resonance region of these targets. A comparison with the single-nucleon knock-out distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations shows, even though these calculations underestimate (π±, π±' N) data for both targets, the dominance of direct process for (π+, π+' p) or (π-, π-' n) in contrast to (π-, π-' p) or (π+, π+' n). In the (π+, π+' p) reaction proton-proton hole states are excited directly and appear to have a large probability for direct decay with escape width, whereas in (π-, π-' p) the preferentially excited neutron-neutron hole doorway states couple to resonance states and decay with spreading width. This interpretation led us to suggest that the ratio of cross-sections for inelastic scattering to the giant resonance region should be written in terms of an incoherent sum of cross-sections to neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb, neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb, neutron and proton doorway states contribute incoherently because the different decay processes do not populate the same final states of the residual nucleus

  16. The capsid-coding region hairpin element (cHP) is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Karen; Barrera, Julio; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Flavivirus genus of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA sequences and structures, primarily in the untranslated regions, have been shown to modulate flaviviral gene expression and genome replication. Previously, we demonstrated that a structure in the DENV coding region (cHP) enhances translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication. Here we further characterize the role of the cHP in the DENV life cycle. We ...

  17. The C-terminal region of thermophilic tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) stabilizes the dimer structure and enhances fidelity of methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, Chie; Ochi, Anna; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-15

    Transfer RNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase catalyzes methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N(7) atom of the semi-conserved G46 base in tRNA. Aquifex aeolicus is a hyper thermophilic eubacterium that grows at close to 95 degrees C. A. aeolicus tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase [TrmB] has an elongated C-terminal region as compared with mesophilic counterparts. In this study, the authors focused on the functions of this C-terminal region. Analytic gel filtration chromatography and amino acid sequencing reveled that the start point (Glu202) of the C-terminal region is often cleaved by proteases during purification steps and the C-terminal region tightly binds to another subunit even in the presence of 6M urea. Because the C-terminal region contains abundant basic amino acid residues, the authors assumed that some of these residues might be involved in tRNA binding. To address this idea, the authors prepared eight alanine substitution mutant proteins. However, measurements of initial velocities of these mutant proteins suggested that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal region are not involved in tRNA binding. The authors investigated effects of the deletion of the C-terminal region. Deletion mutant protein of the C-terminal region (the core protein) was precipitated by incubation at 85 degrees C, while the wild type protein was soluble at that temperature, demonstrating that the C-terminal region contributes to the protein stability at high temperatures. The core protein had a methyl-transfer activity to yeast tRNA(Phe) transcript. Furthermore, the core protein slowly methylated tRNA transcripts, which did not contain G46 base. Moreover, the modified base was identified as m(7)G by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Thus, the deletion of the C-terminal region causes nonspecific methylation of N(7) atom of guanine base(s) in tRNA transcripts.

  18. Towards integrating the influence of erosion on within field variability of C input, stock and stability in regional SOC estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, J.; Quine, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Improved management of the SOC pool has become an important issue for policymakers in order to maintain soil quality and reduce climate change. Hence, there exists an increased interest in accurate mapping of SOC at the regional scale. Most of these studies are limited to topsoil, consider only factors present at the landscape scale (e.g. climate, land use, soil type) and are at rather coarse resolution. Consequently, the variability of SOC at smaller scales in complex terrain driven by soil erosion, such as stable subsoil carbon buried in depositional areas, is still rather understudied and is not (well) presented in these estimates. Nevertheless, incorporating this smaller level of spatial detail will most probably have a major influence on regional SOC stock dynamics' calculations and mapping. In the present study we aim to unravel the variation in quantity and quality of SOC depth distributions along typical hillslope transects under cropland (Devon, UK) and relate these to soil redistribution rates and variations in C input, i.e. below and above ground biomass productivity. The radionuclide isotope Caesium-137 (137Cs) was used as proxy for erosion. The results show contrasting vertical patterns in SOC stock and stability depending on the rate and type of erosion. For example, sites characterized by deposition due to water erosion (i.e. foot slope) have much higher SOC values near the surface, but show a fast decline with depth, while sites characterized by deposition due to tillage erosion (i.e. most concave position) have moderated SOC surface values that stay constant until a depth of 50 cm, but with increasing stability with depth. The above ground biomass productivity is most linked to water erosion, since we found lowest above ground biomass at the steepest slope position and the highest above ground biomass at the foot slopes. Furthermore, root biomass in the most concave section is significantly higher as compared to any other topo-position. The present

  19. Identification of a key recombinant narrows the CADASIL gene region to 8 cM and argues against allelism of CADASIL and familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichgans, M.; Mayer, M.; Straube, A. [Univ. of Munich (Germany)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on new information regarding the genetic mapping of the human CADASIL gene region. Previously, the gene had been mapped to human chromosome 19q12. Using the identification of a chromosomal crossover, the region has been refined to an 8-cM interval. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Compromiso cívico y participación ciudadana en México: una perspectiva nacional y regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alejandro ESPINOZA VALLE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La transición a la democracia en México no conoció rupturas ni pactos fundacionales, siendo conducida por una serie de reformas electorales. El sistema de partido hegemónico privilegió el intercambio corporativo entre gobierno y sociedad, lo que se tradujo en un histórico retraimiento de la participación ciudadana. La cultura política nacional evidencia un déficit en el compromiso cívico y en la participación electoral. En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de tres encuestas de cultura política aplicadas en 2001, 2003 y 2005 y que nos permiten avanzar en el entendimiento de las formas de participación y pertenencia ciudadana. La información posibilita desarrollar un análisis nacional y regional que muestra que la cultura cívica no sigue patrones homogéneos. Para lograr valorar en su justa dimensión el compromiso cívico y su traducción en participación plural, elementos básicos para avanzar en la dirección de la consolidación de la democracia mexicana, se requiere estudiar lo que sucede en las diferentes realidades estatales o locales.ABSTRACT: Mexico's transition to democracy did not experience a political crisis or was not a result of founding compromises. Its path was paved by a series of electoral reforms. The dominant party system gave preference to a corporativist exchange between government and society, a practice which explains the historical aloofness of citizen political participation. The national political culture reflects a deficit of civic responsibility and electoral participation. This study analyzes the results of three political culture surveys undertaken in the years 2001, 2003 and 2005. These surveys give us a better understanding of the various ways in which citizens belong to and participate in community and political organizations. The data facilitates a regional and national analysis which shows that the civic culture does not have homogeneous patterns throughout Mexico. In order to

  1. Compromiso cívico y participación ciudadana en México: una perspectiva nacional y regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alejandro ESPINOZA VALLE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La transición a la democracia en México no conoció rupturas ni pactos fundacionales, siendo conducida por una serie de reformas electorales. El sistema de partido hegemónico privilegió el intercambio corporativo entre gobierno y sociedad, lo que se tradujo en un histórico retraimiento de la participación ciudadana. La cultura política nacional evidencia un déficit en el compromiso cívico y en la participación electoral. En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de tres encuestas de cultura política aplicadas en 2001, 2003 y 2005 y que nos permiten avanzar en el entendimiento de las formas de participación y pertenencia ciudadana. La información posibilita desarrollar un análisis nacional y regional que muestra que la cultura cívica no sigue patrones homogéneos. Para lograr valorar en su justa dimensión el compromiso cívico y su traducción en participación plural, elementos básicos para avanzar en la dirección de la consolidación de la democracia mexicana, se requiere estudiar lo que sucede en las diferentes realidades estatales o locales.ABSTRACT: Mexico's transition to democracy did not experience a political crisis or was not a result of founding compromises. Its path was paved by a series of electoral reforms. The dominant party system gave preference to a corporativist exchange between government and society, a practice which explains the historical aloofness of citizen political participation. The national political culture reflects a deficit of civic responsibility and electoral participation. This study analyzes the results of three political culture surveys undertaken in the years 2001, 2003 and 2005. These surveys give us a better understanding of the various ways in which citizens belong to and participate in community and political organizations. The data facilitates a regional and national analysis which shows that the civic culture does not have homogeneous patterns throughout Mexico. In order to

  2. Brain Regional α-[11C]Methyl-L-Tryptophan Trapping in Medication-Free Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Alexandre; Leyton, Marco; Gravel, Paul; Sibon, Igor; Sookman, Debbie; Neto, Pedro Rosa; Diksic, Mirko; Nakai, Akio; Pinard, Gilbert; Todorov, Christo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Blier, Pierre; Nordahl, Thomas Edward; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2013-01-01

    Context The hypothesis of a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stems largely from the clinical efficacy of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. Serotonergic abnormalities in the unmedicated symptomatic state, however, remain to be fully characterized. Objective To investigate brain regional 5-HT synthesis, as indexed by positron emission tomography and the α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping constant (K*), in treatment-free adults meeting criteria for OCD. Design Between-group comparison. Setting Department of Psychiatry and Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, and Department of Psychology, McGill University Health Centre, Quebec, Canada. Participants Twenty-one medication-free patients with OCD (15 men with a mean [SD] age of 33.2 [9.3] years and 6 women with a mean [SD] age of 35.8 [7.1] years) and 21 healthy controls matched for age and sex (15 men with a mean [SD] age of 32.9 [10.1] years and 6 women with a mean [SD] age of 36.5.5 [8.6] years). Main Outcome Measure The α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan brain trapping constant K*, which was analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) and with proportional normalization (extent threshold of 100 voxels with a peak threshold of P≤.005). Results Compared with healthy controls, the patients with OCD exhibited significantly greater α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping in the right hippocampus and left temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 20). In the larger sub-sample of all men, these same differences were also evident, as well as higher K* values in the caudate nucleus. Individual differences in symptom severity correlated positively with K* values sampled from the caudate and temporal lobe of the patients with OCD, respectively. There were no regions where the patients exhibited abnormally low K* values. Volumetric analyses found no morphometric alterations that would account for the group differences. Conclusion The results support previous reports of greater

  3. Remote plasma-assisted oxidation of SiC: a low temperature process for SiC-SiO2 interface formation that eliminates interfacial Si oxycarbide transition regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote plasma-assisted oxidation of SiC is a low temperature process, 300 deg. C, for the formation of device quality interfaces on SiC. This paper discusses two aspects of the process: (i) the motivation for eliminating high temperature oxidation processes that can generate silicon oxycarbide, Si-O-C, interfacial regions which can be a source of interfacial defects and (ii) the kinetics of the remote plasma-assisted oxidation process that effectively eliminates interfacial Si oxycarbide transition regions. The differences between interfacial relaxation at Si-SiO2 and SiC-SiO2 are based on the relative stabilities of the suboxides of Si and SiC, SiOx and (Si,C)Ox, respectively

  4. BENZO[A]PYRENE AND ITS K-REGION DIOL INDUCE DNA DAMAGE IN C3H10T1/2C18 CELLS AS MEASURED BY THE ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL (COMET) ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    160. Benzo[a]pyrene and its K-region diol induce DNA damage in C3HlOTl/2Cl8 cells as measured by the alkaline single cell gel (Comet) assay In a continuing series of studies on the genotoxicity ofK-region dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have repo...

  5. c-Myc quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 induces extensive damage in both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ashraful; Thomas, Shelia D; Murty, Vundavalli V; Sedoris, Kara J; Miller, Donald M

    2014-03-21

    Quadruplex-forming DNA sequences are present throughout the eukaryotic genome, including in telomeric DNA. We have shown that the c-Myc promoter quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 selectively kills transformed cells (Sedoris, K. C., Thomas, S. D., Clarkson, C. R., Muench, D., Islam, A., Singh, R., and Miller, D. M. (2012) Genomic c-Myc quadruplex DNA selectively kills leukemia. Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 66-76). In this study, we show that Pu-27 induces profound DNA damage, resulting in striking chromosomal abnormalities in the form of chromatid or chromosomal breaks, radial formation, and telomeric DNA loss, which induces γ-H2AX in U937 cells. Pu-27 down-regulates telomeric shelterin proteins, DNA damage response mediators (RAD17 and RAD50), double-stranded break repair molecule 53BP1, G2 checkpoint regulators (CHK1 and CHK2), and anti-apoptosis gene survivin. Interestingly, there are no changes of DNA repair molecules H2AX, BRCA1, and the telomere maintenance gene, hTERT. ΔB-U937, where U937 cells stably transfected with deleted basic domain of TRF2 is partially sensitive to Pu-27 but exhibits no changes in expression of shelterin proteins. However, there is an up-regulation of CHK1, CHK2, H2AX, BRCA1, and survivin. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci assay revealed co-association of TRF1with γ-H2AX in ATM deficient cells, which are differentially sensitive to Pu-27 than ATM proficient cells. Alt (alternating lengthening of telomere) cells are relatively resistant to Pu-27, but there are no significant changes of telomerase activity in both Alt and non-Alt cells. Lastly, we show that this Pu-27-mediated sensitivity is p53-independent. The data therefore support two conclusions. First, Pu-27 induces DNA damage within both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of the genome. Second, Pu-27-mediated telomeric damage is due, at least in part, to compromise of the telomeric shelterin protein complex.

  6. A time-resolved study of the broad-line region in blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isler, Jedidah C.; Urry, C. M.; Coppi, P.; Bailyn, C.; Buxton, M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Chatterjee, R. [Department of Physics, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata 700073, WB (India); Fossati, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Bonning, E. W. [Quest University Canada, 3200 University Boulevard, Squamish, BC, V8B 0N8 (Canada); Maraschi, L., E-mail: jedidah.isler@yale.edu [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, V. Brera 28, I-20100 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present multi-epoch optical observations of the blazar 3C 454.3 (z = 0.859) from 2008 August through 2011 December, using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System Consortium 1.5 m + RCSpectrograph and 1.3 m + ANDICAM in Cerro Tololo, Chile. The spectra reveal that the broad emission lines Mg II, Hβ, and Hγ are far less variable than the optical or γ-ray continuum. Although the γ-rays varied by a factor of 100 above the EGRET era flux, the lines generally vary by a factor of two or less. Smaller variations in the γ-ray flux did not produce significant variation in any of the observed emission lines. Therefore, to first order, the ionizing flux from the disk changes only slowly during large variations of the jet. However, two exceptions in the response of the broad emission lines are reported during the largest γ-ray flares in 2009 December and 2010 November, when significant deviations from the mean line flux in Hγ and Mg II were observed. Hγ showed a maximum 3σ and 4σ deviation in each flare, respectively, corresponding to a factor of 1.7 and 2.5 increase in flux. Mg II showed a 2σ deviation in both flares; no variation was detected in Hβ during either flare. These significant deviations from the mean line flux also coincide with 7 mm core ejections reported previously (Jorstad et al.). The correlation of the increased emission line flux with millimeter core ejections and γ-ray, optical, and ultraviolet flares suggests that the broad-line region extends beyond the γ-emitting region during the 2009 and 2010 flares.

  7. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature.

  8. Art State of Radioprotection Laboratory of Centro Regional de Referencia para la Dosimetria, C.N.E.A, C.A.E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External radiation quantity can be measured in terms of, for example exposure, air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and personal dose equivalent by using radiation measuring instruments. Radiation survey instruments and dosimeters are usually used to determine the amount of radiation from exposure to ionizing radiation and they need to be calibrated to ensure that they give accurate reading with a certain uncertainties. Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories have to be able to fulfil the requirements for traceable and reliable calibrations. A way to demonstrate it is through comparisons with primary or accredited laboratories and the establishment of a quality system following the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide 17025. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Argentina 'Centro Regional de Referencia para la Dosimetria (CRRD)', C.N.E.A, is the national centre for the calibration of measuring instruments used in radiation protection and radiotherapy. The main facilities related to radioprotection include a constant potential x-ray system with a 300 kV tube and a new Hopewell Designs, Inc. Irradiator gamma Model G10-2-2600 (lead attenuator of 2, 4 and 6cm). Reference standard dosimeters traceable to the BIPM Dosimetry Laboratory and the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Dosimetry Laboratory are used in the calibration procedures by comparison with points calibrated. In this work a compilation of data obtained from instruments calibration and dosimeters irradiation that were carried on in CRRD during the last years is presented. Reported data are: amount of instruments calibrated per month, per kind, manufacturer and model. At the end of the year is planning to do the first internal audit to could accredit the Radioprotection procedures next year. (author)

  9. (. pi. sup +- ,. pi. sup +- prime N) reactions on sup 12 C and sup 208 Pb near the giant resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Sung Hoon.

    1990-05-01

    Angular distributions for the {sup 12}C({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} p) and {sup 208}Pb({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} p or n) reactions near the giant resonance region have been measured at T{sub {pi}} = 180 MeV, and found different between {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} data. This observation is interpreted as evidence for different excitation mechanisms dominating the {pi}{sup {minus}}-nucleus and {pi}{sup +}-nucleus interactions in the giant resonance region of these targets. A comparison with the single-nucleon knock-out distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations shows, even though these calculations underestimate ({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime} N) data for both targets, the dominance of direct process for ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {plus}}{prime} p) or ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} n) in contrast to ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} p) or ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}{prime} n). In the ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}{prime} p) reaction proton-proton hole states are excited directly and appear to have a large probability for direct decay with escape width, whereas in ({pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}{prime} p) the preferentially excited neutron-neutron hole doorway states couple to resonance states and decay with spreading width. This interpretation led us to suggest that the ratio of cross-sections for inelastic scattering to the giant resonance region should be written in terms of an incoherent sum of cross-sections to neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as {sup 208}Pb, neutron and proton doorway states. In a heavy nucleus such as {sup 208}Pb, neutron and proton doorway states contribute incoherently because the different decay processes do not populate the same final states of the residual nucleus.

  10. T-cell responsiveness to LCMV segregates as a single locus in crosses between BALB/cA and C.B-17 mice. Evidence for regulation by a gene outside the Igh region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, Ole; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1993-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was studied in BALB/cA and C.B-17 mouse strains differing in the immunoglobulin heavy chain region (Igh). Susceptibility to intracerebral infection and the ability to clear the virus differed significantly between...

  11. Identification of distinct nisin leader peptide regions that determine interactions with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusainov, Rustem; Moll, Gert N; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is the most prominent and applied bacteriocin that serves as a model for class I lantibiotics. The nisin leader peptide importantly determines interactions between precursor nisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC that mature nisin posttranslationally. NisB dehydrates serines and threonines, while NisC catalyzes the subsequent coupling of the formed dehydroamino acids to form lanthionines. Currently, little is known about how the nisin leader interacts with NisB and even less is known about its interactions with NisC. To investigate the nisin leader peptide requirements for functional interaction with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC, we systematically replaced six regions, of 2-4 amino acids each, with all-alanine regions. By performing NisB and NisC co-purification studies with these mutant leader peptides, we demonstrate that the nisin leader regions STKD(-22-19), FNLD(-18-15) and PR(-2-1) importantly contribute to the interactions of precursor nisin with both NisB and NisC, whereas the nisin leader region LVSV(-14-11) additionally contributes to the interaction of precursor nisin with NisC.

  12. Stable isotope (C, O, H) characteristics and genesis of the Tazheran brucite marbles and skarns, Olkhon region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, Anna; Sklyarov, Eugene; Starikova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Vladimir; Ripp, German; Izbrodin, Ivan; Posokhov, Viktor

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope compositions are examined for brucite marble and Mg-skarn that occur in the southern part of the Tazheran massif, Olkhon region, Russia. Brucite marble exhibits a narrow range in δ18O of +23.3 to +26.2 ‰ and shows carbon isotope depletion of -1.9 to -4.4 ‰) as compared with the country dolomite isotope compositions (+2.0 to +2.4 ‰) which is explained by both decarbonation processes and participation of fluids depleted in 13C. The emplacement of brucite marble was accompanied by the formation of endo- and exoskarn at the contact between syenite and brucite marble. δ18O profiles across the contact show a typical decrease towards the syenite side interpreted as the result of fluid/rock interaction and influx of magmatic fluids. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms of brucite marble emplacement and consider three possible ways of producing these rocks: (1) injection of dolomite with subsequent transformation to periclase marble and then to brucite marble; (2) injection of periclase marble with a following replacement of periclase by brucite or injection of brucite marble; (3) crustal water-rich carbonate melt. We favor models 2 and 3 and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  13. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, Jannick Cornelius; Jensen, Tanja Bertelsen; Meuleman, Philip;

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... Huh7.5 cells. The 2a(¿HVR1), 5a(¿HVR1), and 6a(¿HVR1) Core-NS2 recombinants retained viability in Huh7.5 cells, whereas 1a(¿HVR1), 1b(¿HVR1), 2b(¿HVR1), 3a(¿HVR1), and 4a(¿HVR1) recombinants were severely attenuated. However, except for recombinant 4a(¿HVR1), viruses eventually spread, and reverse...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(¿HVR1), 1b(¿HVR1), 2b(¿HVR1), and 3a(¿HVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...

  14. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Jensen, Tanja B; Meuleman, Philip;

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... Huh7.5 cells. The 2a(ΔHVR1), 5a(ΔHVR1), and 6a(ΔHVR1) Core-NS2 recombinants retained viability in Huh7.5 cells, whereas 1a(ΔHVR1), 1b(ΔHVR1), 2b(ΔHVR1), 3a(ΔHVR1), and 4a(ΔHVR1) recombinants were severely attenuated. However, except for recombinant 4a(ΔHVR1), viruses eventually spread, and reverse...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(ΔHVR1), 1b(ΔHVR1), 2b(ΔHVR1), and 3a(ΔHVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...

  15. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  16. The Host Galaxy and the Extended Emission-Line Region of the Radio Galaxy 3C 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2008-04-01

    We present extensive ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of 3C 79, an FR II radio galaxy associated with a luminous extended emission-line region (EELR). Surface brightness modeling of an emission-line-free HST R-band image reveals that the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with a compact companion 0.8'' away and 4 mag fainter. The host galaxy spectrum is best described by an intermediate-age (1.3 Gyr) stellar population (4% by mass), superimposed on a 10 Gyr old population and a power law (αλ = - 1.8); the stellar populations are consistent with supersolar metallicities, with the best fit given by the 2.5 Z⊙ models. We derive a dynamical mass of 4 × 1011 M⊙ within the effective radius from the velocity dispersion. The EELR spectra clearly indicate that the EELR is photoionized by the hidden central engine. Photoionization modeling shows evidence that the gas metallicity in both the EELR and the nuclear narrow-line region is mildly subsolar (0.3-0.7 Z⊙), significantly lower than the supersolar metallicities deduced from typical active galactic nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The more luminous filaments in the EELR exhibit a velocity field consistent with a common disk rotation. Fainter clouds, however, show high approaching velocities that are uncoupled from this apparent disk rotation. The striking similarities between this EELR and the EELRs around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars provide further evidence for the orientation-dependent unification schemes. The metal-poor gas is almost certainly not native to the massive host galaxy. We suggest that the close companion galaxy could be the tidally stripped bulge of a late-type galaxy that is merging with the host galaxy. The interstellar medium of such a galaxy is probably the source for the low-metallicity gas in 3C 79. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  17. Comparative analysis of hepatitis C virus phylogenies from coding and non-coding regions: the 5' untranslated region (UTR fails to classify subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The duration of treatment for HCV infection is partly indicated by the genotype of the virus. For studies of disease transmission, vaccine design, and surveillance for novel variants, subtype-level classification is also needed. This study used the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test and related statistical techniques to compare phylogenetic trees obtained from coding and non-coding regions of a whole-genome alignment for the reliability of subtyping in different regions. Results Different regions of the HCV genome yield inconsistent phylogenies, which can lead to erroneous conclusions about classification of a given infection. In particular, the highly conserved 5' untranslated region (UTR yields phylogenetic trees with topologies that differ from the HCV polyprotein and complete genome phylogenies. Phylogenetic trees from the NS5B gene reliably cluster related subtypes, and yield topologies consistent with those of the whole genome and polyprotein. Conclusion These results extend those from previous studies and indicate that, unlike the NS5B gene, the 5' UTR contains insufficient variation to resolve HCV classifications to the level of viral subtype, and fails to distinguish genotypes reliably. Use of the 5' UTR for clinical tests to characterize HCV infection should be replaced by a subtype-informative test.

  18. NODC Standard Product: C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Project - St. Croix estuary region (1985 - 1992) (NODC Accession 0090142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Project St. Croix Estuary Region CD-ROM data set uses Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1985 to 1992 to provide a regional...

  19. Contributions for repositioning a regional strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): results of a pan-American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Honduras answered voluntarily and were included in this analysis. The discussion of the results of the Survey provides insight into the current status of HM&C in the Region and suggests key topics for repositioning the Regional strategy relative to: (1) the conceptual identity and tools for HM&C; (2) challenging areas in the implementation process (scale, legal framework, and development of capacities); (3) related strategies and participatory processes such as the ways citizen empowerment in governance is supported; (4) the need to monitor and assess the impact of the HM&C strategy on the health and quality of life of the populations involved; and (5) the need for developing a strategic research and training agenda. The analysis and discussion of these results aims to provide useful input for repositioning the strategy in the Region and contributing to the emergence of a second generation of concepts and tools capable of meeting the developing priorities and needs currently faced by the HM&C strategy. PMID:20532989

  20. Peptides Derived from a Distinct Region of GB Virus C Glycoprotein E2 Mediate Strain-Specific HIV-1 Entry Inhibition ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Koedel, Yvonne; Eissmann, Kristin; Wend, Holger; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Reil, Heide

    2011-01-01

    The nonpathogenic human GB virus C (GBV-C), a member of the Flaviviridae, is highly prevalent in individuals with HIV-1 infections or with parenteral and sexual risk factors. Long-term GBV-C viremia has been associated with better survival or improved diagnosis in several epidemiological studies. In a previous study we reported that the E2 glycoprotein of GBV-C interferes with HIV-1 entry in vitro. To address the question what region of the E2 protein is involved in suppression of HIV-1 repli...

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of the promoter region of the mouse LDH/C gene: enhancer-assisted, Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J; THOMAS, K.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular and functional studies of the LDH/C 5' upstream promoter elements were undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in temporal activation of LDH/C gene expression in differentiating germ cells. Ligation mediated-PCR (LM-PCR) gene walking techniques were exploited to isolate a 2.1 kb fragment of the mouse LDH/C 5' promoter region. DNA sequence analysis of this isolated genomic fragment indicated that the mouse LDH/C promoter contained TATA and CCAT boxes as well as a GC...

  2. The influence of magnetic field on the stability region of the bipolaron in high-T{sub c} superconductors with the Van Hove scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayad, M. [Faculte des Sciences et Technique, Fes-Saiss, Route d' Immouzar, BP 2202, Fes (Morocco); El Amrani, B.; Fliyou, M. [Equipe de Physique du Solide, ENS, BP 5206 Bensouda, Fes (Morocco); Chaouch, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Dhar el Mahrez, Fes Atlas (Morocco)

    2006-09-15

    The properties of polarons and bipolarons are studied by the variational method taking into account the density of state for Van Hove singularity (V.H.S) in two-dimension (2D) in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It should be noticed that the bipolaron stability region is relatively sensitive to the application of a magnetic field. In 2D, for {omega}{sub c}=0.8 the value of {alpha}{sub c}=1 is compared to {alpha}{sub c}=1.6 for {omega}{sub c}=0. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Variety of genotypes of a HCV virus and outcomes of chronic hepatitis C: results 5 summer supervision in the territory of the Kirov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Baramzina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the epidemiological situation in respect of chronic hepatitis C in the Russian Federation and the Kirov region for the period 1998–2012 yy. The data on the characteristics and frequency of outcomes of chronic hepatitis C, according to the 5-year observation of patients Kirov branch of viral hepatitis infectious diseases hospital. The results of genotyping HCV-virus in 730 patients with chronic hepatitis C in the dynamics from 2006–2010, and in comparison with other regions of Russia. Dominant in the region are the genotypes 1b and 3a, minor – 2 and 1a. During the analyzed period, there was a trend to a decrease in the proportion of genotypes 1b and 1a, and increase the proportion of subtype 3a and 2.

  4. C-N-P interactions control climate driven changes in regional patterns of C storage on the North Slope of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rocha, Adrian; Rastetter, Edward; Shaver, Gaius; Mishra, U.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    As climate warms, changes in the carbon (C) balance of arctic tundra will play an important role in the global C balance. The C balance of tundra is tightly coupled to the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles because soil organic matter is the principal source of plant-available nutrients and determines the spatial variation of vegetation biomass across the North Slope of Alaska. Warming will accelerate these nutrient cycles, which should stimulate plant growth.

  5. Contributions for Repositioning a Regional Strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): Results of a Pan-American Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Hondur...

  6. Measurement of the analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the CNI region with a 22 GeV/c polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out the experiment BNL-AGS E950 to measure the analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference (CNI) region with a 22 GeV/c polarized proton beam. Recoil carbons from 300 keV to a few MeV in the CNI region, were detected inside the AGS ring to identify proton-carbon elastic scattering. The preliminary results of the analyzing power measurement are presented

  7. Estimation of power dissipation of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode with a linearly graded doping profile in the drift region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Talwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish the importance of a linearly graded profile in the drift region of a 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD. The power dissipation of the device is found to be considerably lower at any given current density as compared to its value obtained for a uniformly doped drift region. The corresponding values of breakdown voltages obtained are similar to those obtained with uniformly doped wafers of 4H-SiC.

  8. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo, E-mail: nobuhisa.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Yamasaki, Shoutarou [Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Ramadan, Ahmed [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Taga, Tetsuya, E-mail: taga.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  9. Release of 14C from the gap and grain-boundary regions of used CANDU fuels to aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP), to measure 14C inventories of used CANDU fuel. Other objectives were to measure the fraction of the total 14C inventory that would be instantly released to solution from used CANDU fuels upon sheath failure and to determine if the assumptions made in safety assessment calculations of used fuel waste disposal regarding instant release of 14C were correct. Results showed that the measured 14C inventories were a factor of 11.5 ± 3.9 lower than the estimated 14C inventory values used in safety assessment calculations. Measured instant release values for 14C ranged from 0.06 to 5.04% (of total 14C inventories) with an average of 2.7 ± 1.6%, indicating that instant release fractions for 14C used in safety assessment calculations (1.2--25%) were overestimated

  10. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  11. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Circulation of multiple serotypes of highly divergent enterovirus C in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Fan, Qin; Song, Yang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiaolei; Huang, Guohong; Ji, Tianjiao; Hu, Lan; Wang, Dongyan; Yang, Qian; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Xinjiang EV-C strains had larger variation compared to the prototype and other modern strains. Additionally, the results showed unique characteristics of Xinjiang EV-Cs, such as the cytopathicity of CV-A1 strains to RD cells; the high divergence in CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, and CV-A20 strains; the divergence of Xinjiang CV-A24 from AHC-related CV-A24 variant stains distributed worldwide; and the circulation of two novel EV-C serotypes (EV-C96 and EV-C99). Evaluations of this dense and diverse EV-C ecosystem will help elucidate the processes shaping enteroviral biodiversity. This study will improve our understanding of the evolution of enteroviruses and the recombination potential between polioviruses and other EV-Cs. PMID:27642136

  13. CBF mediates adenovirus Ela trans-activation by interaction at the C-terminal promoter targeting domain of conserved region 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoff, S N; Wu, B

    1994-12-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that conserved region 3 (CR3) of the adenovirus Ela polypeptide can provide two distinct and separable functions: an N-terminal transcriptional activation region and a C-terminal promoter targeting region. It is thought that the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 interacts with promoter-specific transcription factors, thereby bringing the activation region of Ela CR3 in proximity of the promoter. Here we report that CBF, a CCAAT-box-binding factor that regulates hsp70 gene expression and mediates Ela trans-activation in vivo, interacts with the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 in vitro. Point mutations in Ela CR3 that are defective in stimulating transcription from the hsp70 promoter are also defective in stimulating transcription directed by a synthetic activator, GAL-CBF, composed of the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4 fused to CBF. These mutations fall into two classes with respect to their abilities to interact with CBF in vitro. Mutations in the transcriptional activation region of Ela CR3 do not affect binding to CBF, but mutation of the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 prevents association with CBF in vitro.

  14. Non-genotype-specific role of the hepatitis C virus 5' untranslated region in virus production and in inhibition by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith M;

    2011-01-01

    The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is structured into four domains (I-IV) with numerous genotype-specific nucleotides. It is unknown whether the polymorphisms confer genotype-specific functions to the 5'UTR. Using viable JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinants, we developed an...

  15. Emission Certificate Trade and Costs under Regional Burden-Sharing Regimes for a 2˚C Climate Change Control Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kober; B.C.C. van der Zwaan; H. Rösler

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore regional burden-sharing regimes for the allocation of greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations needed to reach a 2°C long-term global climate change control target by performing an integrated energy-economy-climate assessment with the bottom-up TIAM-ECN model. Our mai

  16. Importance of Reelin C-terminal region in the development and maintenance of the postnatal cerebral cortex and its regulation by specific proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Takao; Honda, Takao; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro;

    2015-01-01

    During brain development, Reelin exerts a variety of effects in a context-dependent manner, whereas its underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is required for efficient induction of phosphorylation of Dab1, an esse...

  17. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    OpenAIRE

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; WOERNER, STEPHANIE; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Attanda, Wikayatou; Kondé, Emilie; Tellier-Lebègue, Carine; Craescu, Constantin T.; Gombault, Aurélie; Roussel, Pascal; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Östlund, Cecilia; Howard J Worman; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Buendia, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, s...

  18. Unraveling the mystery of enhanced cell-killing effect around the Bragg peak region of a double irradiation source 9C-ion beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; Y. Furusawa; M. Kanazawa; A. Kitagawa

    2005-01-01

    An enhanced cell-killing effect at the penetration depths around the Bragg peak of a β-delayed particle decay 9C-ion beam has been observed in our preceding radiobiological experiments in comparison with a therapeutic 12C beam under the same conditions, and RBE values of the 9C beam were revealed to be higher than those of the comparative 12C beam by a factor of up to 2. This study is aimed at investigating the biophysical mechanisms underlying the important experimental phenomenon. First of all, a model for calculating the stopping probability density of the experimentally applied 9C beam is worked out, where all determinants such as the initial momentum spread of the 9C beam, the fluence attenuation with penetration depth due to the projectile-target nuclear reaction and the energy straggling effect are taken into account. On the basis of the calculated 9C-ion stopping distribution, it has been found that the area corresponding to the enhanced cell-killing effect of the 9C beam appears at the stopping region of the incident 9C ions. The stopping 9C-ion density in depth, then, is derived from the calculated probability density. Moreover, taking entrance dose 1 Gy for the 9C beam as an example, the average stopping 9C-ion numbers per cell at various depths are deduced. Meanwhile, the mean lethal damage events induced by the 9C and comparative 12C beams at the depths with almost equal dose-averaged LETs are derived from the measured cell surviving fractions at these depths for the 9C and 12C beams. Under the condition of the same absorbed doses, there are indeed good agreements between the average stopping 9C-ion number pre cell and the difference of the mean lethal damage events between the 9C and 12C beams at the depths of similar dose-averaged LETs. It can be inferred that if a 9C ion comes to rest in a cell, the cell would undergo dying. In view of the decay property of 9C nuclide, clustered damage would be caused in the cell by the emitted low-energy particles

  19. CARD15 Gene 3020insC Mutation with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Patients in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhami Gok

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: This study is to investigate a relation between CARD15/NOD2 3020insC frameshift mutation and in patients with IBD in the Turkish Population. C-insertion frameshift mutation is a major contributor to the susceptibility to both CD and UC, but it is not specific to patients with CD in Turkish population.

  20. Cloning and characterization of a novel gene (C17orf25) from the deletion region on chromosome 17p13.3 in hepatocelular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of hybridization of PAC to a cDNA library and RACE technique, we isolated a novel cDNA, designated as C17orf25 (Chromosome 17 open reading frame 25, previously named it HC71A), from the deletion region on chromosome 17p13.3. The cDNA encodes a protein of 313 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 34.8 kDa. C17orf25 is divided into 10 exons and 9 introns, spanning 23 kb of genomic DNA. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA expression of C17orf25 was decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma samples as compared to adjacent noncancerous liver tissues from the same patients. The transfection of C17orf25 into the hepatocellular carcinoma cell SMMC7721 and overexpression could inhibit the cell growth. The above results indicate that C17orf25 is a novel human gene, and the cloning and preliminary characterization of C17orf25 is a prerequisite for further functional analysis of this novel gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Comparison of autoantibodies to the collagen-like region of C1q in hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, J J; Jones, S M

    1992-03-01

    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is an apparent autoimmune disorder that resembles SLE. We previously showed that C1q precipitins in HUVS sera are IgG autoantibody to human C1q. We have compared HUVS anti-C1q autoantibody to a similar autoantibody in the serum of some patients with SLE. As with anti-C1q autoantibody in SLE sera, the HUVS autoantibody binds only to the collagen-like region (CLR) of C1q. In both HUVS and SLE, IgG2 is the predominant subclass of IgG autoantibody and IgM autoantibody to C1q is uncommon. In both diseases, anti-C1q autoantibodies bind preferentially to surface-adsorbed C1q or CLR fragments compared to these antigens in solution. Finally, when HUVS or SLE autoantibodies were added to CLR-coated wells already bound, respectively, by SLE or HUVS autoantibodies, no increases in CLR binding were observed, suggesting that HUVS and SLE autoantibodies to C1q bind to the same CLR epitope(s). PMID:1538123

  2. SPATIALLY RESOLVED l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} EMISSION IN THE HORSEHEAD PHOTODISSOCIATION REGION: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A TOP-DOWN HYDROCARBON CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, V. V.; Öberg, K. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pety, J. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Gerin, M. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, École Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR8112, F-75014 Paris (France); Roueff, E. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR8112, LERMA, F-75005 Paris (France); Gratier, P., E-mail: vguzman@cfa.harvard.edu [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France)

    2015-02-20

    Small hydrocarbons, such as C{sub 2}H, C{sub 3}H, and C{sub 3}H{sub 2} are more abundant in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) than expected based on gas-phase chemical models. To explore the hydrocarbon chemistry further, we observed a key intermediate species, the hydrocarbon ion l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}, in the Horsehead PDR with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at high-angular resolution (6″). We compare with previous observations of C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} at similar angular resolution and new gas-phase chemical model predictions to constrain the dominant formation mechanisms of small hydrocarbons in low-UV flux PDRs. We find that at the peak of the HCO emission (PDR position), the measured l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} abundances are consistent with current gas-phase model predictions. However, in the first PDR layers, at the 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon band emission peak, which are more exposed to the radiation field and where the density is lower, the C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} abundances are underestimated by an order of magnitude. At this position, the l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} abundance is also underpredicted by the model but only by a factor of a few. In addition, contrary to the model predictions, l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} peaks further out in the PDR than the other hydrocarbons, C{sub 2}H and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}. This cannot be explained by an excitation effect. Current gas-phase photochemical models thus cannot explain the observed abundances of hydrocarbons, in particular, in the first PDR layers. Our observations are consistent with a top-down hydrocarbon chemistry, in which large polyatomic molecules or small carbonaceous grains are photo-destroyed into smaller hydrocarbon molecules/precursors.

  3. Isolation of an insulin-like growth factor II cDNA with a unique 5' untranslated region from human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) cDNA from a placental library was isolated and sequenced. The 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequence of this cDNA differs completely from that of adult human liver and has considerable base sequence identity to the same region of an IGF-II cDNA of a rat liver cell line, BRL-3A. Human placental poly(A)+ RNA was probed with either the 5'-UTR of the isolated human placental IGF-II cDNA or the 5'-UTR of the IGF-II cDNA obtained from adult human liver. No transcripts were detected by using the 5'-UTR of the adult liver IGF-II as the probe. In contrast, three transcripts of 6.0, 3.2, and 2.2 kilobases were detected by using the 5'-UTR of the placental IGF-II cDNA as the probe or the probe from the coding sequence. A fourth IGF-II transcript of 4.9 kilobases presumably containing a 5'-UTR consisting of a base sequence dissimilar to that of either IGF-II 5'-UTR was apparent. Therefore, IGF-II transcripts detected may be products of alternative splicing as their 5'-UTR sequence is contained within the human IGF-II gene or they may be a consequence of alternative promoter utilization in placenta

  4. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  5. Settlement Pattern Transformation in the region of Sütlüce-Halıcıoğlu, İstanbul

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSERVET, Yasemin ÇAKIRER

    2014-01-01

    The settlement in the region covering Sütlüce and Halıcıoğlu districts in Beyoğlu dates back to very old times and the districts assumed different identities and missions in each period. Hosting summer palaces of the sultans and used by the public as summer resort in early Ottoman time, while the region used to open itself out to different ethnic and religious identities, embrace both Muslim and non-Muslim people and their graves and be considered a quite non-urban space, from early 20th cent...

  6. Structural analysis of the C-terminal region (modules 18-20 of complement regulator factor H (FH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh P Morgan

    Full Text Available Factor H (FH is a soluble regulator of the human complement system affording protection to host tissues. It selectively inhibits amplification of C3b, the activation-specific fragment of the abundant complement component C3, in fluid phase and on self-surfaces and accelerates the decay of the alternative pathway C3 convertase, C3bBb. We have determined the crystal structure of the three carboxyl-terminal complement control protein (CCP modules of FH (FH18-20 that bind to C3b, and which additionally recognize polyanionic markers specific to self-surfaces. These CCPs harbour nearly 30 disease-linked missense mutations. We have also deployed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS to investigate FH18-20 flexibility in solution using FH18-20 and FH19-20 constructs. In the crystal lattice FH18-20 adopts a "J"-shape: A ~122-degree tilt between the structurally highly similar modules 18 and 19 precedes an extended, linear arrangement of modules 19 and 20 as observed in previously determined structures of these two modules alone. However, under solution conditions FH18-20 adopts multiple conformations mediated by flexibility between CCPs 18 and 19. We also pinpoint the locations of disease-associated missense mutations on the module 18 surface and discuss our data in the context of the C3b:FH interaction.

  7. Epidemiology of Enteric Disease in C-EnterNet’s Pilot Site – Waterloo Region, Ontario, 1990 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to describe the epidemiology of reportable enteric illness in Ontario’s Waterloo region, including comparing calculated incidence rates with published rates, and adjusting for under-reporting to determine the number of community cases, where published data were available.

  8. A survey of the 5C2 region with the Westerbork synthesis radio telescope at 1415 MHz (the third Westerbork survey), ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5C2 region, observed originally with the Cambridge One-Mile Telescope at 408 MHz, has been reobserved at l4l5 MHz. The resulting source list contains 238 sources with attenuated flux densities exceeding the catalogue limit of 6.25 m.f.u. Out of a total of 190 5C2 sources (i.e. all 5C2 sources within the 10 dB attenuation contour of the present survey), 128 were detected with flux densities above the catalogue limit. Another 22 5C2 sources were detected with flux densities below the catalogue limit. A discussion is given of the procedures used for determining source parameters. Special attention has been given to the determination of flux density and angular size as well as to the question of completeness of the source list as a function of flux density and angular size

  9. Sequences near both termini of the C/EBPβ mRNA 3' untranslated region are important for its tumor suppression activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haizhen Wang; Ying Wang; Li Sun; Dinggan Liu

    2009-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of eukaryotic mRNA is an important regulation element that affects not only mRNA translation, but also cell growth. We had found that the 3' UTR of CCAAT-enhancerbinding protein 13 (C/EBPβ) mRNA had tumor suppression activity. Herein, we reported that deletion of two short sequences at both termini of the C/EBPβ 3'UTR reduced the tumor suppression activity of this 3' UTR, as demonstrated by reduced cell growth, colony formation ability, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. It is noteworthy that the only deletion of a single such sequence was enough for the reduction of tumor suppression effect, and the reducing effect of deletion of the sequence near 3' terminus was stronger. Therefore,specific short sequences in the C/EBPβ 3' UTR are crucial for the tumor suppression activity of C/EBPβ.

  10. The impact of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms on methotrexate therapeutic response in East Bohemian region rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Tomas; Dosedel, Martin; Pavek, Petr; Nekvindova, Jana; Barvik, Ivan; Bubancova, Iva; Bradna, Petr; Kubena, Ales Antonin; Carazo, Alejandro Fernández; Veleta, Tomas; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-07-01

    Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might be predictive of methotrexate (MTX) therapeutic outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are predictive of MTX response. Comparison was made using EULAR response criteria and according to the change of DAS28 (∆DAS28) after a 6-month MTX treatment in RA patient cohort. The two SNPs C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been genotyped. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study, and all of them fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology 1987 RA criteria and are currently or previously taking MTX oral treatment, either as a monotherapy (n = 65) or in a combination with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (n = 55). Genotyping was performed using qPCR allelic discrimination. We did not found any association of C677T and A1298C genotypes with MTX treatment inefficacy in dominant model (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.57-2.65, P = 0.697; and OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.47-2.14, P = 1.0, respectively), or in recessive and codominant models. However, when ∆DAS28 after a 6-month therapy was used as a measure of treatment efficacy, the 677CT and 1298AC genotypes were found to be significantly associated with less favorable response to MTX (P = 0.025 and P = 0.043, respectively). In addition, even lower ∆DAS28 was determined for double-mutated 677CT-1298AC heterozygotes. It means that a synergistic effect of 677CT and 1298AC genotypes was observed. Nevertheless, the DAS28 baseline was lower here comparing to other genotypes. Unexpectedly, quite the opposite trend-i.e., better response to MTX-was found in genotypes 677CC-1298CC and 677TT-1298AA. It is an intriguing finding, because these double-mutated homozygotes are known for their low MTHFR-specific activity. Global significance was P = 0.013, η (2) = 0.160-i.e., large-size effect. Thus, our data show greater ability of 677CC-1298CC and 677TT

  11. In vitro interaction of uterine estrogen receptor with the estrogen response element present in the 3'-flanking region of the murine c-fos protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S M; Stancel, G M

    1994-01-01

    Estradiol treatment rapidly stimulates transcription of the c-fos protooncogene in the rodent uterus, and transfection analysis previously identified an estrogen response element (ERE) in the 3'-flanking region of the murine gene with the sequence GGTCAnnnCAGCC. We now report that endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) obtained from either mouse or rat uterus binds to this 3'-ERE. Unoccupied receptor, receptor occupied with estradiol and receptor occupied with the antiestrogen tamoxifen all bind to this element, and the binding of receptor exhibits strict sequence specificity. By using a competition binding assay, the affinity of the ER for the c-fos-ERE is estimated to be approximately an order of magnitude less than the affinity for the consensus ERE (GGTCAnnnTGACC) found in the Xenopus and chicken vitellogenin genes. Differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the c-fos and vitellogenin EREs bound to the ER in band-shift assays also suggest subtle structural differences in the two complexes. Mutations in either half-site of the c-fos-ERE destroy ER binding, suggesting that the receptor binds to this sequence as either a homo- or heterodimer. The 3'-fos-ERE region exhibits some homologies to both AP1 and AP2 consensus sites, but neither AP1-like proteins present in uterine extracts nor recombinant AP2 bind this protooncogene sequence. The finding that the ERE present in the 3'-region of the murine c-fos gene interacts with receptors present in the mouse and rat uterus supports a role for this element in the physiological regulation of c-fos expression in the uterus by estrogens. PMID:8136308

  12. The Association between Newborn Regional Body Composition and Cord Blood Concentrations of C-Peptide and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Carlsen

    Full Text Available Third trimester fetal growth is partially regulated by C-peptide and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. Prenatal exposures including maternal obesity and high gestational weight gain as well as high birth weight have been linked to subsequent metabolic disease. We evaluated the associations between newborn regional body composition and cord blood levels of C-peptide and IGF-I.We prospectively included obese and normal-weight mothers and their newborns; cord blood was collected and frozen. Analyses of C-peptide and IGF-I were performed simultaneously, after recruitment was completed. Newborn regional body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA within 48 hours of birth.Three hundred thirty-six term infants were eligible to participate in the study; of whom 174 (52% infants had cord blood taken. Total, abdominal and arm and leg fat mass were positively associated with C-peptide (p < 0.001. Arm and leg fat mass was associated with IGF-I concentration: 28 g [95% confidence interval: 4, 53] per doubling of IGF-I. There was no association between total or abdominal fat mass and IGF-I. Fat-free mass was positively associated with both C-peptide (p < 0.001 and IGF-I (p = 0.004.Peripheral fat tissue accumulation was associated with cord blood C-peptide and IGF-I. Total and abdominal fat masses were related to C-peptide but not to IGF-I. Thus, newborn adiposity is partially mediated through C-peptide and early linear growth is associated with IGF-I.

  13. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genge, Christine E; Stevens, Charles M; Davidson, William S; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  14. The Hsp60C gene in the 25F cytogenetic region in Drosophila melanogaster is essential for tracheal development and fertility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surajit Sarkar; Subhash C. Lakhotia

    2005-12-01

    Earlier studies have shown that of the four genes (Hsp60A, Hsp60B, Hsp60C, Hsp60D genes) predicted to encode the conserved Hsp60 family chaperones in Drosophila melanogaster, the Hsp60A gene (at the 10A polytene region) is expressed in all cell types of the organism and is essential from early embryonic stages, while the Hsp60B gene (at 21D region) is expressed only in testis, being essential for sperm individualization. In the present study, we characterized the Hsp60C gene (at 25F region), which shows high sequence homology with the other three Hsp60 genes of D. melanogaster. In situ hybridization of Hsp60C-specific riboprobe shows that expression of this gene begins in late embryonic stages (stage 14 onwards), particularly in the developing tracheal system and salivary glands; during larval and adult stages, it is widely expressed in many cell types but much more strongly in tracheae and in developing and differentiating germ cells. A P-insertion mutant (Hsp60C1) allele with the P transposon inserted at $-251$ position of the Hsp60C gene promoter was generated. This early larval recessive lethal mutation significantly reduces levels of Hsp60C transcripts in developing tracheae and this is associated with a variety of defects in the tracheal system, including lack of liquid clearance. About 10% of the homozygotes survive as weak, shortlived and completely sterile adults. Testes of the surviving mutant males are significantly smaller, with fewer spermatocytes, most of which do not develop beyond the round spermatid stage. In situ and Northern hybridizations show significantly reduced levels of the Hsp60C transcripts in Hsp60C1 homozygous adult males. The absence of early meiotic stages in the Hsp60C1 homozygous testes contrasts with the effect of testis-specific Hsp60B (21D) gene, whose mutation affects individualization of sperm bundles later in spermiogenesis. In view of the specific effects in tracheal development and in early stages of spermatogenesis, it is

  15. Impact of dielectric parameters on the reflectivity of 3C–SiC wafers with a rough surface morphology in the reststrahlen region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Janzén, E.; Henry, A. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Rooyen, I.J. van [Fuel Performance and Design Department, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C–SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C–SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

  16. Impact of dielectric parameters on the reflectivity of 3C–SiC wafers with a rough surface morphology in the reststrahlen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C–SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C–SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

  17. Measurement of analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the coulomb-nuclear interference region with a 22-GeV/c polarized proton beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, J; Alekseev, I; Bai, M; Bassalleck, B; Bunce, G; Deshpande, A; Doskow, J; Eilerts, S; Fields, D E; Goto, Y; Huang, H; Hughes, V; Imai, K; Ishihara, M; Kanavets, V; Kurita, K; Kwiatkowski, K; Lewis, B; Lozowski, W; Makdisi, Y; Meyer, H-O; Morozov, B V; Nakamura, M; Przewoski, B; Rinckel, T; Roser, T; Rusek, A; Saito, N; Smith, B; Svirida, D; Syphers, M; Taketani, A; Thomas, T L; Underwood, D; Wolfe, D; Yamamoto, K; Zhu, L

    2002-07-29

    The analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region of momentum transfer, 9.0x10(-3)<-t<4.1x10(-2) (GeV/c)(2), was measured with a 21.7 GeV/c polarized proton beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ratio of hadronic spin-flip to nonflip amplitude, r(5), was obtained from the analyzing power to be Rer(5)=0.088+/-0.058 and Imr(5)=-0.161+/-0.226. PMID:12144435

  18. Measurement of analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region with a 22-GeV/c polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region of momentum transfer, 9.0x10-3-2 (GeV/c)2, was measured with a 21.7 GeV/c polarized proton beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ratio of hadronic spin-flip to nonflip amplitude, r5, was obtained from the analyzing power to be Rer5=0.088±0.058 and Imr5=-0.161±0.226

  19. (/sup 11/C )-DMO for evaluation of regional tissue pH in patients with hemispheric infarction using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaing, M.; Syrota, A.; Rougemont, D.; Berridge, M.; Chretien, L.; Baron, J.C.; Bousser, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Changes in brain intracellular pH resulting from cerebral infarction were evaluated using the /sup 11/C-DMO (dimethyloxazolidine-dione) method, in 9 patients. A /sup 15/O/sub 2/-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ study was performed the day following the DMO examination in order to obtain the values of cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen metabolic rate in the same regions-of-interest. The results emphasized the relationship between tissue alkalosis and luxury perfusion during recent infarction.

  20. Competitividad y políticas de seguridad alimentaria de las regiones españolas: el caso de la industria cárnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ruiz Chico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es analizar la competitividad de la industria agroalimentaria y, dentro de ella, el sector cárnico de las regiones españolas a partir de elementos que, sin duda, influyen en esta como: la productividad, los costes salariales y la seguridad alimentaria. Las principales conclusiones obtenidas permiten identificar la enorme potencialidad económica del sector agroalimentario español, y del subsector cárnico en particular. Aspectos como el tipo de carne o el nivel de internacionalización nos ayudan identificar aquellas regiones españolas que requieren un esfuerzo adicional en las políticas alimentarias para evitar que su competitividad sea perjudicada.

  1. The C-terminal region of the transcriptional regulator THAP11 forms a parallel coiled-coil domain involved in protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Cyprian D; Maveyraud, Laurent; Saurel, Olivier; Guillet, Valérie; Milon, Alain; Gervais, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Thanatos associated protein 11 (THAP11) is a cell cycle and cell growth regulator differentially expressed in cancer cells. THAP11 belongs to a distinct family of transcription factors recognizing specific DNA sequences via an atypical zinc finger motif and regulating diverse cellular processes. Outside the extensively characterized DNA-binding domain, THAP proteins vary in size and predicted domains, for which structural data are still lacking. We report here the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of human THAP11 protein, providing the first 3D structure of a coiled-coil motif from a THAP family member. We further investigate the stability, dynamics and oligomeric properties of the determined structure combining molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments. Our results show that the C-ter region of THAP11 forms a left-handed parallel homo-dimeric coiled-coil structure possessing several unusual features. PMID:26975212

  2. 3-D modelling and analysis of Dst C-responses in the North Pacific Ocean region, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Utada, H.; Avdeev, D.;

    2005-01-01

    was detected. The reason for this shift is still unclear. Even if a very detailed grid of 0.3 x 0.3 is used, the 3-D simulations using a model of the inhomogeneous surface has no notable ocean effect to C-responses at this site. An attempt has been made to reduce the misfit between observed and modelled C......-responses by incorporating a 3-D model with inhomogeneous lithosphere and upper mantle. However, this has resulted only in a slight change in responses. The main conclusion drawn from our 3-D model studies is that there exists a significant disagreement between observed and 3-D modelled C-responses if the published 1-D...

  3. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay foundations to further explore the links among obesity, behaviors, and brain iron alteration. PMID:27493939

  4. The conserved upstream region of lscB/C determines expression of different levansucrase genes in plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    OpenAIRE

    Khandekar, Shaunak; Srivastava, Abhishek; Pletzer, Daniel; Stahl, Antje; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 is an opportunistic plant pathogen which causes bacterial blight of soybean plants. It produces the exopolysaccharide levan by the enzyme levansucrase. Levansucrase has three gene copies in PG4180, two of which, lscB and lscC, are expressed while the third, lscA, is cryptic. Previously, nucleotide sequence alignments of lscB/C variants in various P. syringae showed that a ~450-bp phage-associated promoter element (PAPE) including the first 4...

  5. Delineation of a 6 cM commonly deleted region in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 6q chromosomal arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, B; Cavé, H; Guidal, C; Dastugue, N; Vilmer, E; Grandchamp, B

    1997-02-01

    Deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 6 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been shown by cytogenetic studies in 4-11% of cases. To characterize further the region of deletion and to precisely establish its frequency, we studied loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 120 children with ALL using polymorphic markers located from the 6q14-15 chromosomal band to the telomere. LOH was detected in eight patients. A single region of LOH, flanked distally by D6S1594 and proximally by D6S301 was detected. These DNA markers are separated by 6 cM and are approximately located at the 6q21-22 band. Our present results delineate a region that is likely to contain a tumor-suppressor gene involved in a subset of childhood ALLs.

  6. A disordered region in the EvpP protein from the type VI secretion system of Edwardsiella tarda is essential for EvpC binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS of pathogenic bacteria plays important roles in both virulence and inter-bacterial competitions. The effectors of T6SS are presumed to be transported either by attaching to the tip protein or by interacting with HcpI (haemolysin corregulated protein 1. In Edwardsiella tarda PPD130/91, the T6SS secreted protein EvpP (E. tarda virulent protein P is found to be essential for virulence and directly interacts with EvpC (Hcp-like, suggesting that it could be a potential effector. Using limited protease digestion, nuclear magnetic resonance heteronuclear Nuclear Overhauser Effects, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we confirmed that the dimeric EvpP (40 kDa contains a substantial proportion (40% of disordered regions but still maintains an ordered and folded core domain. We show that an N-terminal, 10-kDa, protease-resistant fragment in EvpP connects to a shorter, 4-kDa protease-resistant fragment through a highly flexible region, which is followed by another disordered region at the C-terminus. Within this C-terminal disordered region, residues Pro143 to Ile168 are essential for its interaction with EvpC. Unlike the highly unfolded T3SS effector, which has a lower molecular weight and is maintained in an unfolded conformation with a dedicated chaperone, the T6SS effector seems to be relatively larger, folded but partially disordered and uses HcpI as a chaperone.

  7. Building a Latin American cancer patient advocacy movement: Latin American cancer NGO regional overview Desarrollando un movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer en America Latina: resumen regional - ONGs de cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durstine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer.El objetivo de este artículo es el de identificar y evaluar las fortalezas y debilidades clave de las ONG dedicadas al control del cáncer en Latinoamérica, con el fin de generar recomendaciones sobre el modo de mejorar el impacto del movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer. Los métodos incluyeron una revisión de la literatura, entrevistas a expertos y visitas a hospiptales y ONG dedicados al cáncer en Latinoamérica. Los hallazgos principales permiten concluir que en este momento las ONG no tienen un rol de liderazgo para el control del cáncer en Latinoamérica. La ausencia de un movimiento de sobrevivientes, servicios de información deficientes a los pacientes y el fracaso del gobierno para incluir a las ONG en la creación de políticas se identifican como áreas de trabajo y colaboración en proyectos a futuro. El estigma del cáncer aún subsiste y es factible crear un movimiento que florezca y ayude a desvanecerlo al exponer los mitos que rodean este padecimiento.

  8. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico R Crema

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes.

  9. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes.

  10. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R; Habu, Junko; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Madella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD) of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido) and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes. PMID:27128032

  11. Ral GTPase interacts with the N-terminal in addition to the C-terminal region of PLC-delta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Bhullar, Rajinder P

    2009-06-12

    Previously, we have shown that RalA, a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein, binds to the C2 region in the C-terminal of PLC-delta1, and increases its enzymatic activity. Since PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region in its N-terminus, we have investigated if RalA can also bind to the N-terminus of PLC-delta1. Therefore, we created a GST-PLC-delta1 construct consisting of the first 294 amino acids of PLC-delta1 (GST-PLC-delta1(1-294)). In vitro binding experiments confirmed that PLC-delta1(1-294) was capable of binding directly to RalA. W-7 coupled to polyacrylamide beads bound pure PLC-delta1, demonstrating that PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region. Competition assays with W-7, peptides representing RalA and the newly identified RalB CaM-binding regions, or the IQ peptide from PLC-delta1 were able to inhibit RalA binding to PLC-delta1(1-294). This study demonstrates that there are two binding sites for RalA in PLC-delta1 and provides further insight into the role of Ral GTPase in the regulation of PLC-delta1 function.

  12. OH (1720 MHz) Masers: A Multiwavelength Study of the Interaction between the W51C Supernova Remnant and the W51B Star Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Brogan, C L; Hunter, T R; Richards, A M S; Chandler, C J; Lazendic, J S; Koo, B -C; Hoffman, I M; Claussen, M J

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive view of the W51B HII region complex and the W51C supernova remnant (SNR) using new radio observations from the VLA, VLBA, MERLIN, JCMT, and CSO along with archival data from Spitzer, ROSAT, ASCA, and Chandra. Our VLA data include the first 400 cm (74 MHz) continuum image of W51 at high resolution (88 arcsec). The 400 cm image shows non-thermal emission surrounding the G49.2-0.3 HII region, and a compact source of non-thermal emission (W51B_NT) coincident with the previously-identified OH (1720 MHz) maser spots, non-thermal 21 and 90 cm emission, and a hard X-ray source. W51B_NT falls within the region of high likelihood for the position of TeV gamma-ray emission. Using the VLBA three OH (1720 MHz) maser spots are detected in the vicinity of W51B_NT with sizes of 60 to 300 AU and Zeeman effect magnetic field strengths of 1.5 to 2.2 mG. The multiwavelength data demonstrate that the northern end of the W51B HII region complex has been partly enveloped by the advancing W51C SNR and this...

  13. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-12-10

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

  14. A systematic review of Hepatitis C virus treatment uptake among people who inject drugs in the European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Maticic, Mojca;

    2014-01-01

    in relation to the number of patients who either: (a) tested HCV antibody-positive; (b) tested positive for HCV-RNA; or (c) tested positive for HCV-RNA and met additional treatment criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five articles from 12 countries were included in the review. Among groups of drug-using study...

  15. The C-Terminal Region of Nisin Is Responsible for the Initial Interaction of Nisin with the Target Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, Eefjan; Kraaij, Cindy van; Demel, Rudy A.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kruijff, Ben de

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of nisin Z and a nisin Z mutant carrying a negative charge in the C-terminus ([Glu-32]-nisin Z) with anionic lipids was characterized in model membrane systems, and bacterial membrane systems. We focused on three possible steps in the mode of action of nisin, i.e., binding, insertion

  16. The impact of atmospheric CO2 and N management on simulated yields and tissue C : N in the main wheat regions of Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, S.; Schurgers, G.; Lindeskog, M.; Wårlind, D.; Smith, B.; Bodin, P.; Holmér, J.; Arneth, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key element in terrestrial ecosystems as it influences both plant growth and plant interactions with the atmosphere. Accounting for carbon-nitrogen interactions has been found to alter future projections of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle substantially. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) aim to accurately represent both natural vegetation and managed land, not only from a carbon cycle perspective but increasingly so also for a wider range of processes including crop yields. We present here the extended version of the DVM LPJ-GUESS that accounts for N limitation in crops to account for the effects of N fertilisation on yields and biogeochemical cycling. The performance of this new implementation is evaluated against observations from N fertiliser trials and CO2 enrichment experiments. LPJ-GUESS captures the observed response to both N and CO2 fertilization on wheat biomass production, tissue C to N ratios (C : N) and phenology. To test the model's applicability for larger regions, simulations are subsequently performed that cover the wheat-dominated regions of Western Europe. When compared to regional yield statistics, the inclusion of C-N dynamics in the model substantially increase the model performance compared to an earlier version of the model that does not account for these interactions. For these simulations, we also demonstrate an implementation of N fertilisation timing for areas where this information is not available. This feature is crucial when accounting for processes in managed ecosystems in large-scale models. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for C-N interactions when modelling agricultural ecosystems, and it is an important step towards accounting for the combined impacts of changes in climate, [CO2] and land use on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles.

  17. A comparison between shell-based δ13C values from an extratropical setting (Gulf of Maine, USA) and atmospheric δ13C values for intervals of the last millennium: insights on regional hydrography and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Introne, D.; Beirne, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    To explore past changes in carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Maine, and to further evaluate the utility of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) derived from the aragonitic shells of the marine bivalve Arctica islandica in global change studies, we compared annual shell δ13C values (N = 4; total of 333 years) with published atmospheric δ13C data (derived from ice cores [AD 1006 to AD 1978; N = 58 measurements] and instrumental series (AD 1981 to AD 2008; total of 28 years]) for intervals of the last millennium. Both datasets were modeled using an exponential function to highlight the low frequency trends in the data and to facilitate a relevant comparison. From AD 1000 to AD 1800, the modeled atmospheric δ13C series increased by 0.20 ‰ (change = 0.00025 ‰ per year), while modeled shell δ13C series decreased by 0.24 ‰ (change = -0.00030 ‰ per year). From AD 1800 to present, both modeled δ13C datasets decreased substantially due to the admixture of isotopically negative carbon derived from increased fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the change during this interval in the atmospheric pool was 2.0 ‰ (rate = - 0.0095 ‰ per year), whereas the change in the shell-based values was 1.1 ‰ (rate = - 0.0052 ‰ per year), approximately half of the change noted in the atmosphere. Remarkably, the rate of change in shell δ13C values during the last 200 years was 17 times faster than the previous 800 years. Although the long-term offset (range 8.9 - 8.5 ‰) between atmospheric and shell δ13C data was not constant from AD 1000 to AD 1800, the converging nature of the modeled data suggest that regional hydrographic conditions within the Gulf of Maine during the last millennium have also influenced the δ13C signature in the shells. We will explore some possible hydrographic mechanisms that might explain the divergence between atmospheric and shell-based δ13C values. Despite the noted difference in the atmospheric and shell-based δ13C records, it appears

  18. [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm emission from IC 342. Disentangling the emission from ionized and photo-dissociated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Güsten, R.; Stutzki, J.; Israel, F. P.; Jacobs, K.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Atomic fine-structure line emission is a major cooling process in the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular the [C II] 158 μm line is one of the dominant cooling lines in photon-dominated regions (PDRs). However, it is not confined to PDRs but can also originate from the ionized gas closely surrounding young massive stars. The proportion of the [C II] emission from H II regions relative to that from PDRs can vary significantly. Aims: We investigate the question of how much of the [C II] emission in the nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342 is contributed by PDRs and by the ionized gas. We examine the spatial variations of starburst/PDR activity and study the correlation of the [C II] line with the [N II] 205 μm emission line coming exclusively from the H II regions. Methods: We present small maps of [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines recently observed with the GREAT receiver on board SOFIA. We present different methods to utilize the superior spatial and spectral resolution of our new data to infer information on how the gas kinematics in the nuclear region influence the observed line profiles. In particular we present a super-resolution method to derive how unresolved, kinematically correlated structures in the beam contribute to the observed line shapes. Results: We find that the emission coming from the ionized gas shows a kinematic component in addition to the general Doppler signature of the molecular gas. We interpret this as the signature of two bi-polar lobes of ionized gas expanding out of the galactic plane. We then show how this requires an adaptation of our understanding of the geometrical structure of the nucleus of IC 342. Examining the starburst activity we find ratios I( [C II] ) /I(12CO(1-0)) between 400 and 1800 in energy units. Applying predictions from numerical models of H II and PDR regions to derive the contribution from the ionized phase to the total [C II] emission we find that 35-90% of the observed [C II] intensity

  19. A YAC contig and an EST map in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13 surrounding the loci for neurosensory nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilford, P.; Crozet, F.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Two forms of inherited childhood nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and a Duchenne-like form of progressive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) have been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. To clone the genes responsible for these diseases we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning an 8-cM region between the polymorphic markers D13S221. The contig comprises 24 sequence-tagged sites, among which 15 were newly obtained. This contig allowed us to order the polymorphic markers centromere- D13S175-D13S141-D13S143-D13S115-AFM128yc1-D13S292-D13S283-AFM323vh5-D13S221-telomere. Eight expressed sequence tags, previously assigned to 13q11-q12 (D13S182E, D13S183E, D13S502E, D13S504E, D13S505E, D13S837E, TUBA2, ATP1AL1), were localized on the YAC contig. YAC screening of a cDNA library derived from mouse cochlea allowed us to identify an {alpha}-tubulin gene (TUBA2) that was subsequently precisely mapped within the candidate region. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Bound on the radius of the C-, T-violating electromagnetic interaction from an analysis of the Christ--Lee asymmetry in the second resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuristic arguments are given that the C-, T-violating resonant electroexcitation amplitudes in the second resonance region are approx. (R/subK//R/subJ/) times the C-, T-conserving amplitudes, where R/subK/ (R/subJ/) is a typical interaction radius for the C-, T-violating (conserving) electromagnetic interaction. This result allows the use of an existing amplitude analysis in order to estimate that the expected Christ-Lee asymmetry in this energy region should be about (R/subK//R/subJ/) times (30 to 40 %) for q2 ma -0.5 (GeV/c)2. The experimental upper bound ( ma 2%) then gives a bound R/subK//R/subJ/ 0 decay asymmetries. This result is also in agreement with the bound R/subK//R/subJ/ approximately-less-than 1/20 obtained by previous authors in a dispersive calculation of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Such small radii are shown to have unfavorable implications for the theory, and these are briefly discussed

  1. Estimation of surface roughness in a semiarid region from C-band ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Sano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using the C-band European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR data to estimate surface soil roughness in a semiarid rangeland. Radar backscattering coefficients were extracted from a dry and a wet season SAR image and were compared with 47 in situ soil roughness measurements obtained in the rocky soils of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, southeastern Arizona, USA. Both the dry and the wet season SAR data showed exponential relationships with root mean square (RMS height measurements. The dry C-band ERS-1 SAR data were strongly correlated (R² = 0.80, while the wet season SAR data have somewhat higher secondary variation (R² = 0.59. This lower correlation was probably provoked by the stronger influence of soil moisture, which may not be negligible in the wet season SAR data. We concluded that the single configuration C-band SAR data is useful to estimate surface roughness of rocky soils in a semiarid rangeland.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  3. Tempering/ageing in region 50 – 600 °C of quenched and cold deformed 585 GOLD alloy for jewelry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous gold alloys posses the ability for thermal hardening, and this property is attractive for improving jewels strength, because the most noble alloys are weak. The thermal treating below the recrystallization temperature, is kind of tempering but also age-hardening. In this paper is made an attempt for studying the possibility for thermal hardening of 585 golden alloy. The goal is to increase the mechanical properties. Those demands could be reached by metallurgical controlling of phase transformations аnd proper thermal treating. Here is studied behavior of quenched and cold deformed gold alloy 585 after tempering/ageing in temperature region 50 - 600 °C, in intervals of 50 °C. The highest hardness values are obtained at temperatures about 200 °C for both initial states.

  4. C2C电子商务模式下的网络店铺区域分布特征%Characteristics of Regional Distribution of Online Shops under C2C E-business Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周章伟; 张虹鸥; 陈伟莲

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis of the data of online shop regional distribution under Taobao customer to customer e-business models, eight largest merchandise industries which are patronaged most frequently by Internet users are taken as examples, the distribution models for different industries in different regions and assemblage models of online shops in different industries are studied by using Advantage Degree Index, Concentration Ratio Index and Gini coefficient. It is found that: 1) The number of online shops in different provinces decreases from the coastal to inland areas, and the three coastal areas are the major gathering places. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and some other megacities attract the largest number of online vendors. 2) The number of online shops in the eight merchandise industries has an apparent disparity, each area owns its characteristic category of online shops. 3) The online vendors in the eight largest industries are quite concentrated, those in the four provinces or municipalities, namely, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang, and Beijing, account for 65.2% of the total. IT and fast consumer good industry have a higher gathering degree, while the gathering degree of digital "Soft" product industry presents a little lower.%通过对淘宝网C2C模式下网络店铺所在地的相关数据分析,以网民最常购买的八大商品行业为例,通过行业优势系数、基尼系数、集中度指数分别分析不同区域内的行业分布模式和不同行业下的网络店铺集聚模式,揭示网络店铺区域分布特征.研究发现:①不同省区的网络店铺数量基本呈现由沿海向内陆递减,并集中于三大沿海地区,北京、上海、广州等特大城市是网络卖家的主要集聚地;②八大行业在各区域的网络店铺数量差距明显,各大区域均有各自对应的倾向性网络店铺类别;③八大行业网络卖家的总体集聚程度非常高,仅上海、广东、浙江、北京4省市就占据了65

  5. Deep Soil C, N, and P Stocks and Stoichiometry in Response to Land Use Patterns in the Loess Hilly Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhen; Zhao, Luhong; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Kang, Di; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2016-01-01

    In the Loess Hilly Region of China, the widespread conversion of cropland to forestland and grassland has resulted in great increased in organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stocks in the shallow soil layers. However, knowledge regarding changes in C, N, and P in deep soil is still limited. To elucidate the responses of deep soil C, N, and P stocks and stoichiometry in response to changes in land use, the soil from a 0–200 cm soil profile was collected from the following three typical land use patterns in the heartland of the region: forestland, grassland, and cropland. Compared with cropland, forestland and grassland had improved soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and stocks at most soil depths but decreased total phosphorus (TP) contents and stocks. At soil depths of 0–200 cm in the forestland and grassland, the cumulative SOC stocks were improved by 34.97% and 7.61%, respectively, and the TN stocks were improved by 54.54% and 12.47%, respectively. The forestland had higher SOC, TN and TP contents and stocks compared to the grassland in almost all soil layers. The soil depths of 100–200 cm contained the highest percentages of SOC, TN and TP stocks (47.80%–49.93%, 46.08%–50.05% and 49.09%–52.98%, respectively). Additionally, the forestland and grassland showed enhanced soil C:P, N:P and C:N:P ratios, and the forestland had higher C:P, N:P and C:N:P ratios compared to the grassland. Furthermore, the SOC and TN stocks had significant impacts on the soil C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. It was concluded that afforestation was the best choice for soil nutrient restoration of degraded land, and deep soil provided an extremely important resource for evaluating soil C, N and P pools and cycling. PMID:27415785

  6. Ancient Haplotypes at the 15q24.2 Microdeletion Region Are Linked to Brain Expression of MAN2C1 and Children's Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Esko, Tõnu; Pappa, Irene; Gutiérrez, Armand; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Llop, Sabrina; Bustamante, Mariona; Tiemeier, Henning; Metspalu, Andres; Wilsonx, James F.; Reina-Castillón, Judith; Shin, Jean; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Sunyer, Jordi; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; González, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The chromosome bands 15q24.1-15q24.3 contain a complex region with numerous segmental duplications that predispose to regional microduplications and microdeletions, both of which have been linked to intellectual disability, speech delay and autistic features. The region may also harbour common inversion polymorphisms whose functional and phenotypic manifestations are unknown. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we detected four large contiguous haplotype-genotypes at 15q24 with Mendelian inheritance in 2,562 trios, African origin, high population stratification and reduced recombination rates. Although the haplotype-genotypes have been most likely generated by decreased or absent recombination among them, we could not confirm that they were the product of inversion polymorphisms in the region. One of the blocks was composed of three haplotype-genotypes (N1a, N1b and N2), which significantly correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in 2,735 children of European ancestry from three independent population cohorts. Homozygosity for N2 was associated with lower verbal IQ (2.4-point loss, p-value = 0.01), while homozygosity for N1b was associated with 3.2-point loss in non-verbal IQ (p-value = 0.0006). The three alleles strongly correlated with expression levels of MAN2C1 and SNUPN in blood and brain. Homozygosity for N2 correlated with over-expression of MAN2C1 over many brain areas but the occipital cortex where N1b homozygous highly under-expressed. Our population-based analyses suggest that MAN2C1 may contribute to the verbal difficulties observed in microduplications and to the intellectual disability of microdeletion syndromes, whose characteristic dosage increment and removal may affect different brain areas. PMID:27355585

  7. Region-specific alterations of A-to-I RNA editing of serotonin 2c receptor in the cortex of suicides with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, D; van der Laan, S; Underwood, M D; Salvetat, N; Cavarec, L; Vincent, L; Molina, F; Mann, J J; Arango, V; Pujol, J F

    2016-01-01

    Brain region-specific abnormalities in serotonergic transmission appear to underlie suicidal behavior. Alterations of RNA editing on the serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) pre-mRNA in the brain of suicides produce transcripts that attenuate 5-HT2CR signaling by impairing intracellular G-protein coupling and subsequent intracellular signal transduction. In brain, the distribution of RNA-editing enzymes catalyzing deamination (A-to-I modification) shows regional variation, including within the cerebral cortex. We tested the hypothesis that altered pre-mRNA 5-HT2CR receptor editing in suicide is region-specific. To this end, we investigated the complete 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile in two architectonically distinct cortical areas involved in mood regulation and decision-making in a clinically well-characterized cohort of age- and sex-matched non-psychiatric drug-free controls and depressed suicides. By using an original biochemical detection method, that is, capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP), we corroborated the 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile previously described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9 (BA9)). Editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA displayed clear regional difference when comparing dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24). Compared with non-psychiatric control individuals, alterations of editing levels of 5-HT2CR mRNA were detected in both cortical areas of depressed suicides. A marked increase in editing on 5-HT2CR was especially observed in the anterior cingulate cortex in suicides, implicating this cortical area in suicide risk. The results suggest that region-specific changes in RNA editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA and deficient receptor function likely contribute to the etiology of major depressive disorder or suicide. PMID:27576167

  8. The C-Terminal Region of Nisin Is Responsible for the Initial Interaction of Nisin with the Target Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Breukink, Eefjan; Kraaij, Cindy van; Demel, Rudy A.; Siezen, Roland J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de Kruijff, Ben

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of nisin Z and a nisin Z mutant carrying a negative charge in the C-terminus ([Glu-32]-nisin Z) with anionic lipids was characterized in model membrane systems, and bacterial membrane systems. We focused on three possible steps in the mode of action of nisin, i.e., binding, insertion, and pore formation of nisin Z. Increasing amounts of anionic lipids in both model and natural membranes were found to strongly enhance the interaction of nisin Z with the membranes at all stages....

  9. Compromiso cívico y participación ciudadana en México: una perspectiva nacional y regional

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Alejandro ESPINOZA VALLE

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN: La transición a la democracia en México no conoció rupturas ni pactos fundacionales, siendo conducida por una serie de reformas electorales. El sistema de partido hegemónico privilegió el intercambio corporativo entre gobierno y sociedad, lo que se tradujo en un histórico retraimiento de la participación ciudadana. La cultura política nacional evidencia un déficit en el compromiso cívico y en la participación electoral. En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de tres encuestas de ...

  10. Haemophilus parasuis Encodes Two Functional Cytolethal Distending Toxins: CdtC Contains an Atypical Cholesterol Recognition/Interaction Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mingguang Zhou; Qiang Zhang; Jianping Zhao; Meilin Jin

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease of pigs, a disease associated with fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. We report here H. parasuis encodes two copies of cytolethal distending toxins (Cdts), which these two Cdts showed the uniform toxin activity in vitro. We demonstrate that three Cdt peptides can form an active tripartite holotoxin that exhibits maximum cellular toxicity, and CdtA and CdtB form a more active toxin than CdtB and CdtC. Moreover...

  11. Dynamics and sources of soil organic C following afforestation of croplands with poplar in a semi-arid region in northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Hu

    Full Text Available Afforestation of former croplands has been proposed as a promising way to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in view of the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Central to this C sequestration is the dynamics of soil organic C (SOC storage and stability with the development of afforested plantations. Our previous study showed that SOC storage was not changed after afforestation except for the 0-10 cm layer in a semi-arid region of Keerqin Sandy Lands, northeast China. In this study, soil organic C was further separated into light and heavy fractions using the density fractionation method, and their organic C concentration and (13C signature were analyzed to investigate the turnover of old vs. new SOC in the afforested soils. Surface layer (0-10 cm soil samples were collected from 14 paired plots of poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica W. Y. Hsu & Liang plantations with different stand basal areas (the sum of the cross-sectional area of all live trees in a stand, ranging from 0.2 to 32.6 m(2 ha(-1, and reference maize (Zea mays L. croplands at the same sites as our previous study. Soil ΔC stocks (ΔC refers to the difference in SOC content between a poplar plantation and the paired cropland in bulk soil and light fraction were positively correlated with stand basal area (R (2 = 0.48, p<0.01 and R (2 = 0.40, p = 0.02, respectively, but not for the heavy fraction. SOCcrop (SOC derived from crops contents in the light and heavy fractions in poplar plantations were significantly lower as compared with SOC contents in croplands, but tree-derived C in bulk soil, light and heavy fraction pools increased gradually with increasing stand basal area after afforestation. Our study indicated that cropland afforestation could sequester new C derived from trees into surface mineral soil, but did not enhance the stability of SOC due to a fast turnover of SOC in this semi-arid region.

  12. Final report of APMP.T-S7: APMP regional comparison of Co-C eutectic melting point using Pt/Pd thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.-G.; Wei, Z.; Ogura, H.; Jahan, F.; Singh, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison on the Co-C eutectic point (1324 °C in ITS-90) was carried out in APMP involving five NMIs: KRISS (Korea), NIM (China), NMIJ (Japan), NMIA (Australia) and NPLI (India). The comparison was done through a round robin style with two Pt/Pd thermocouples having greatly different thermoelectric inhomogeneity (± 0.0196 % and ± 0.132 % at 1324 °C), which were made by the pilot laboratory (KRISS). Both were calibrated twice, before and after the circulation by the pilot laboratory. As a reference value, the weighted mean was adopted since the Birge ration criterion was safely satisfied. The participants were asked to supply the temperature profile of the furnace used to realize the Co-C point in order to estimate the uncertainty due to thermoelectric inhomogeneity. Results from all laboratories were consistent with the reference value within the calculated uncertainties. Birge number of 0.2 to 0.3 and En number less than 0.5 were obtained, meaning that the comparison successfully demonstrated the use of Pt/Pd thermocouple to compare the calibration capabilities of participating laboratories at the melting temperature of Co-C eutectic point regardless of the amount of thermoelectric inhomogeneity. It was verified that the calibration uncertainty level of {(0.2 °C ~ 0.3 °C) + ucell} (k = 2) can be obtained at the Co-C eutectic melting point by means of Pt/Pd thermocouple having a small inhomogeneity of about 0.02 %. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. The chemical composition of the Orion star-forming region. III. C, N, Ne, Mg and Fe abundances in B-type stars revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Early B-type stars are invaluable indicators for elemental abundances of their birth environments. In contrast to the surrounding neutral interstellar matter (ISM) and HII regions their chemical composition is unaffected by depletion onto dust grains and by the derivation of different abundances from recombination and collisional lines. In combination with ISM or nebular gas-phase abundances they facilitate the dust-phase composition to be constrained. Precise abundances of C, N, Mg, Ne, Fe in early B-type stars in the Orion star-forming region are determined in order to: a) review previous determinations using a self-consistent quantitative spectral analysis based on modern stellar atmospheres and recently updated model atoms, b) complement results found in Paper I for oxygen and silicon, c) establish an accurate and reliable set of stellar metal abundances to constrain the dust-phase composition of the Orion HII region in Paper II of the series. A detailed, self-consistent spectroscopic study of a sample of...

  14. Sequence determination of cDNA clones of transcripts from the tumor-associated region of the Marek's disease virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, A; Ueda, S; Ishihama, A; Hirai, K

    1992-04-01

    The number of 132-bp tandem direct repeats within the long inverted repeat region of the Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) genome increases concomitantly with the loss of oncogenicity during serial passages in cultured cells. Twelve clones carrying the 132-bp sequence were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the MDV1 Md5 strain. Through sequence analysis of a cDNA clone and primer extension analysis, the corresponding mRNA was found to be a linear transcript which included the two 132-bp tandem direct repeats. Two open reading frames were found in this transcript. One had a week homology with v-fms. The other should increase its size concomitantly with expansion of the 132-bp tandem direct repeat. PCR analysis of both cDNA clones and RNA gave amplified products which were as large as that produced from the genomic clone, indicating that a majority of mRNA from this region is composed of unspliced transcripts.

  15. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Static Normal Mode Analysis: The C-H Region of DMSO as a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sean A.; Ueltschi, Tyler W.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Mifflin, Amanda L.; Hess, Wayne P.; Wang, Hongfei; Cramer, Christopher J.; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-03-03

    Carbon-hydrogen (C-H) vibration modes serve as key probes in the chemical iden- tication of hydrocarbons and in vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spec- *troscopy of hydrocarbons at the liquid/gas interface. Their assignments pose a chal- lenge from a theoretical viewpoint. In this work, we present a detailed study of the C-H stretching region of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using a new Gaussian basis set- based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) module that we have implemented in the NWChem computational chemistry program. By combining AIMD simulations and static normal mode analysis, we interpret experimental infrared and Raman spectra and explore the role of anharmonic effects in this system. Our anharmonic normal mode analysis of the in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric C-H stretching modes chal- lenges the previous experimental assignment of the shoulder in the symmetric C-H stretching peak as an overtone or Fermi resonance. In addition, our AIMD simulations also show signicant broadening of the in-phase symmetric C-H stretching resonance, which suggests that the experimentally observed shoulder is due to thermal broadening of the symmetric stretching resonance.

  16. Shock-ionization in the Extended Emission-Line Region of 3C~305. The last piece of the (optical) puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Reynaldi, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    We present new Gemini spectroscopical data of the Extended Emission-Line Region of 3C~305 radio galaxy in order to achieve the final answer of the long-standing question about the ionizing mechanism. The spectra show strong kinematic disturbances within the most intense line-emitting region. The relative intensities amongst the emission lines agree with the gas being shocked during the interaction of the powerful radio jets with the ambient medium. The emission from the recombination region acts as a very effective cooling mechanism, which is supported by the presence of a neutral outflow. However, the observed intensity is almost an order of magnitude lower than expected in a pure shock model. So auto-ionizing shock models, in low-density and low-abundance regime, are required in order to account for the observed emission within the region. This scenario also supports the hypothesis that the optical emitting gas and the X-ray plasma are in pressure balance.

  17. Localization of the candidate gene d-amino acid oxidase outside the refined 1-cM region of spinocerebellar ataxia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auburger, G.; Gispert, S.; Lunkes, A. [Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is one form of the neurodegenerative autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias and has been linked to chromosome 12q in 25 previously described and 13 new families from a founder collective of {ge}500 patients in Holguin, Cuba. Although SCA2 in most patients cannot be distinguished from other spinocerebellar ataxias by clinical criteria, in some patients it exhibits a particular phenotype with early neuropathy/late slow saccades and late myoclonus. Autopsy in 11 patients demonstrated olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy with a selective sparing of the dentate nucleus. Complete allelic association within the Holguin population was established with the microsatellite D12S105, and the candidate region was determined to be within a 6-cM region distal to the marker D12S84, contrasting previous reports by Pulst and Lopes-Cendes and according to preliminary data between D12S84 and D12S1329. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Hepatitis C Genotype Prevalence in Monastir Region, Tunisia: Correlation between 5' Untranslated Region (5'UTR), Non-structural 5B (NS5B), and Core Sequences in HCV Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souii, Amira; Elargoubi, Aida; Fallecker, Catherine; Mastouri, Maha; Drouet, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It constitutes a major public health around the world. There is no vaccine available against HCV, and current therapies are effective in only small percentage of patients. HCV has wide population-specific genotype variability. Genotype knowledge and viral load assessment are equally important for designing therapeutic strategies. Taking into account that the molecular epidemiology of HCV variants circulating in Tunisia is not yet well elucidated, and that, at present, little is known about the distribution pattern of HCV in Monastir region (Tunisia), we aimed, herein, to evaluate the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Monastir and to identify risk-related factors. For this purpose, 50 anti-HCV antibody-positive cases were diagnosed and subjected to viral RNA extraction, amplification, genotyping, and viral load quantification. Molecular epidemiology was studied by 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequencing as compared with the non-structural 5B (NS5B) and core region sequences. Overall concordance between 5' UTR, core, and NS5B sequencing was 100 %. The highest prevalent genotype was 1b (50 %) followed by genotypes 1a (16 %), 4a (12 %), 2a (10 %), 2c (8 %), and 3a (4 %). Interestingly, the subtype 1b had a statistically significant higher viral load than the other genotypes followed by subtype 1a. Based on these data, this study revealed a high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 (subtypes 1b and 1a) compared to other genotypes. A continued monitoring of HCV and knowledge of circulating genotypes could impact on future vaccine formulations. PMID:27189386

  19. Biodegraded Oil and Its High Molecular Weight (C35+) n-alkanes in the Qianmiqiao Region in the Bohai Bay Basin, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieguan; ZHU Dan; LU Hong; ZHANG Zhihuan; YANG Chiyin

    2004-01-01

    With a production of 208.2 m3/d, heavy oil was produced by drill stem test (DST) from three shallow reservoirs in Sand Group Nos. Ⅰ and Ⅲ of the Neogene Guantao Formation (Ng1 and NgⅢ) and the Eogene Dongying Formation (Ed) in an exploratory well Ban-14-1 within the Qianmiqiao region, Bohai Bay Basin, northern China. Based on the GC and GC-MS data of theNgⅠand NgⅢheavy oil samples, all n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons are lost and the GC baseline appears as an evident "hump", implying a large quantity of unresolved complex mixture (UCM),which typically revealed a result of heavy biodegradation. However, there still is a complete series of C14-C73 n-alkanes in the high-temperature gas chromatograms (HTGC) of the heavy oil, among which, the abundance of C30- n-alkanes are drastically reduced. The C35-C55 high molecular weight (HMW) n-alkanes are at high abundance and show a normal distribution pattern with major peak at C43 and an obvious odd-carbon-number predominance with CPI37-55 and OEP45-49values of 1.17 and 1.16-1.20, respectively. According to GC-MS analysis, the heavy oil is characterized by dual source inputs of aquatic microbes and terrestrial higher plants. Various steranes and tricyclic terpanes indicate an algal origin, and hopane-type triterpanes, C24tetracyclic terpane and drimane series show the bacterial contribution. With the odd-carbonnumber preference, HMW n-alkanes provide significant information not only on higher plant source input and immaturity,but also on the strong resistibility to biodegradation.

  20. Quantitative analyses of regional [11C]PE2I binding to the dopamine transporter in the human brain: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane protein of central interest in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and is known to be a target for psychostimulant drugs. [11C]PE2I is a new radioligand which binds selectively and with moderate affinity to central DAT, as has been demonstrated in vitro by autoradiography and in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The aims of the present PET study were to quantify regional [11C]PE2I binding to DAT in the human brain and to compare quantitative methods with regard to suitability for applied clinical studies. One PET measurement was performed in each of eight healthy male subjects. The binding potential (BP) values were obtained by applying kinetic compartment analysis, which uses the metabolite-corrected arterial plasma curve as an input function. They were compared with the BP values quantified by two reference tissue approaches, using cerebellum as a reference region representing free and non-specific radioligand binding. The radioactivity concentration was highest in the striatum, lower in the midbrain and very low in the cerebellum. The regional [11C]PE2I binding could be interpreted by kinetic compartment models. However, the BP values in the striatum obtained by the compartment analyses were about 30% higher than the BP values obtained using reference tissue methods. We suggest that the difference may be explained by the inaccurate metabolite correction, small amounts of radioactive metabolites that could account for the presence of non-specific binding in the cerebellum and insufficient data acquisition time. (orig.)

  1. The Proline-Rich Region of Pneumococcal Surface Proteins A and C Contains Surface-Accessible Epitopes Common to All Pneumococci and Elicits Antibody-Mediated Protection against Sepsis▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Calvin C; Coan, Patricia; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha; Benton, Kimberly A.; Briles, David E.; Hollingshead, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and PspC of Streptococcus pneumoniae are surface virulence proteins that interfere with complement deposition and elicit protective immune responses. The C-terminal halves of PspA and PspC have some structural similarity and contain highly cross-reactive proline-rich (PR) regions. In many PR regions of PspA and PspC, there exists an almost invariant nonproline block (NPB) of about 33 amino acids. Neither the PR regions nor their NPB exhibit the alpha-heli...

  2. C-Terminal Region of Sulfite Reductase Is Important to Localize to Chloroplast Nucleoids in Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Otani, Takuto; Ishibashi, Kota; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is compacted into cpDNA-protein complexes, called cp nucleoids. An abundant and extensively studied component of cp nucleoids is the bifunctional protein sulfite reductase (SiR). The preconceived role of SiR as the core cp nucleoid protein, however, is becoming less likely because of the recent findings that SiRs do not associate with cp nucleoids in some plant species, such as Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana To address this discrepancy, we have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of SiRs, which shows that cp nucleoid-type SiRs share conserved C-terminally encoded peptides (CEPs). The CEPs are likely to form a bacterial ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif, implying a potential role in attaching SiRs onto cp nucleoids. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted by fusing the nonnucleoid-type SiR from A. thaliana (AtSiR) with the CEP from the cp nucleoid-type SiR of Phaseolus vulgaris The addition of the CEP drastically altered the intra-cp localization of AtSiR to cp nucleoids. Our analysis supports the possible functions of CEPs in determining the localization of SiRs to cp nucleoids and illuminates a possible evolutionary scenario for SiR as a cp nucleoid protein. PMID:27189994

  3. The central region of the Fornax cluster; 3, Dwarf galaxies, globular clusters, and cD halo are there interrelations?

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, M; Richtler, T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the properties of the dwarf galaxy population at the core of the Fornax cluster, as well as the properties of the extraordinary rich globular cluster system and the cD halo around the central galaxy NGC 1399. In turn, the question whether a scenario in which dwarf galaxies have been accreted and dissolved in the cluster center can explain the observed properties is addressed. The possibility of accretion of a certain number of dwarf galaxies, the stripping of their globular clusters and gas, and the formation of new globular clusters from stripped infalling gas are discussed. An increase in the specific frequency of the central globular cluster system is only possible, if the infalling gas from stripped dwarfs formed globulars very efficiently and/or accreted and stripped dwarf galaxies possessed a rich globular cluster system themselves. In conclusion, we argue that although the dwarf galaxy infall is a very attractive scenario to explain a number of properties in the system t...

  4. Familial periodic cerebellar ataxia without myokymia maps to a 19-cM region on 19p13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, B.T.; Lindblad, K.; Betz, R. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Familial periodic cerebellar ataxia (FPCA) is a heterogenous group of rare autosomal dominant disorders characterized by episodic cerebellar disturbance. A potassium-channel gene (KCNA1) has been found to be responsible for one of its subgroups, familial periodic cerebellar ataxia with myokymia (FPCA/+M; MIM 160120). A different subgroup that is not associated with myokymia (FPCA/-M; MIM 108500) was recently mapped to chromosome 19p. Here we have performed linkage analysis in two large families with FPCA/-M that also demonstrated neurodegenerative pathology of the cerebellum. Three markers in 19p13 gave significant lod scores (>3.0), while linkage to KCNA1 and three known loci for spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3) was excluded. The highest lod score was obtained with the marker D19S413 (4.4 at recombination fraction 0), and identification of meiotic recombinants in affected individuals placed the locus between the flanking markers D19S406 and D19S226, narrowing the interval to 19 cM. A CAG trinucleotide-repeat expansion was detected in one family but did not consegregate with the disease. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Human DNA contains sequences homologous to the 5'-non-coding region of hepatitis C virus: characterization with restriction endonucleases reveals individual varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reinhard H Dennin; Jianer Wo

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate a 272 base pair section of the 5'-non-coding region of genomic DNA from the peripheral blood monounuclear cells of healthy hepatitis virus C (HCV)-negative human subjects (not patients). Results The suspected HCV-specific sequence was found in the DNA of each subject tested. The pre-PCR digestion assay reveals individual differences in their pattern of methylation, which may be due to possible epigenetic phenomena.Conclusions The results provide formal proof that these HCV-specific sequences are contained in the genomic or extra chromosomal target DNA, and probably belong to a new class of endogenous sequences.

  6. Pseudorapidity and c.m. energy dependence of multiplicity distributions in hh collisions in the TeV region new possible scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Ugoccioni, R

    2000-01-01

    Continuing previous work on the search for possible scenarios for multiparticle production mechanisms in hh collisions in the TeV energy region, it is assumed that the average charged multiplicity for the semihard component grows quadratically in the logarithm of c.m. energy and that the corresponding pseudorapidity plateau (dn/sub semihard//d eta ) grows logarithmically with c.m. energy. Consequences of these assumptions on the parameters used in order to describe the energy and pseudorapidity dependence of the resulting multiplicity distribution obtained by superimposing soft and semihard events components are explored. The multiplicity distribution of each class of events is chosen to be of Pascal type. (8 refs).

  7. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spina, Alexander; Eramova, Irina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    , with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the region and ensure an adequate response to injection drug use-associated viral hepatitis......BACKGROUND: Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address...... of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge...

  8. Regional Scale Variability in Background and Source δ13C of Methane in the Atlantic, Europe and the Arctic: Cautionary Tales for Isotopic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling studies of methane δ13C, both of modern atmosphere and glacial palaeoclimates have used a global isotopic signature for each of the main source categories, whereas detailed studies of source fluxes, such as boreal wetlands, suggest that on the centimeter to meter scale there is very great variability. In recent years we have been reassessing the usefulness of using a generic source value from source up to regional scale through sampling campaigns in the European Arctic, the UK and onboard ships sailing the Atlantic up to the Arctic Ocean. Currently the boreal wetland source of methane dominates above 60°N. Within Finland this source varies at the wetland scale from -74 to -66‰ depending on wetland type and seasonal variability in temperature and water table. Lapland road trips and ship sampling suggest that these emissions are homogenized to -70 to -67‰ in the well-mixed regional atmosphere. An infrequent boreal forest fire emission adds a -30 to -26‰ component into the mix, and such inputs have been observed in the Mace Head (Ireland) isotopic record of 2002. The story is much more complex once the latitudes of heavily urbanized and agricultural areas of Northern Europe are reached. Isotopic signatures applied to UK and EC inventories suggest that national emissions can vary from -42 to -60‰ depending on source mix, but even this is too simplified. Fugitive emissions from gas distribution systems vary based on the source of the gas, with biogenic-dominated supplies from west Siberia at -50‰ to thermogenic gas of the Southern North Sea fields at -32‰. Coal emissions are also source-dependent and have a similar range to gas, but unlike pipeline-homogenized gas can vary from one mine to the next. Emissions from ruminants vary due to C3 and C4 plant diets, with C4 closer to -50‰ while C3 emissions are in the low -60's. A recent whole barn experiment in the UK recorded -66‰. Landfill signatures also vary. Sites engineered in the last decade

  9. Emergence of DHA-1-producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian region: genetic organization of the ampC and ampR genes originating from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdet, Charlotte; Benzerara, Yahia; Gautier, Valérie; Adam, Olivier; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-02-01

    Eleven Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and one Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate showing various pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types and producing an inducible DHA-1 class C beta-lactamase were isolated in the Parisian region between 1998 and 2003. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic organization of the bla(DHA-1) genes in this collection of clinical isolates. In four isolates, the Morganella morganii-derived genomic region containing bla(DHA-1) was inserted in an entire complex sul1-type integron, including a region common to In6-In7 (CR1), as previously described in a bla(DHA-1)-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis KF92 isolate from Saudi Arabia in 1992. Different gene cassette arrays were characterized in each of these integrons. In two of them, an additional 10-kb fragment was inserted between the CR1 and the M. morganii-derived region and was similar to the sap (ABC transporter family) and psp (phage shock protein) operons originated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The length of the M. morganii region was variable, suggesting that several independent recombination events have occurred and that open reading frame orf513 encodes a recombinase involved in the mobilization of the resistance genes. The genetic organization of bla(DHA-1) was identical in the eight other isolates. This structure is likely derived from a complex integron following the insertion of IS26, leading to the deletion of the first part of integron. The horizontal transfer of one plasmid carrying that truncated integron was shown for seven of these isolates.

  10. Association between polymorphism of interleukin-6 in the region -174G/C and tinnitus in the elderly with a history of occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Yugi Doi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is a symptom usually related to cochlear change that may arise from noise exposure and induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL6. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the polymorphism of the IL6 gene in the region 174G/C and tinnitus in elderly with history of occupational noise exposure. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 179 independent elderly individuals aged >60 years. Information on exposure to occupational noise was obtained by interviews. Audiological evaluation was performed using pure tone audiometry and genotyped through polymerase chain reaction by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and the odds ratio (OR, with the significance level set at 5%. Among the study subjects, 24.6% were homozygous for the G allele, 39.7% were homozygous for the C allele, and 35.8% were heterozygous for IL6 (P > 0.05. Of these, 33.5% reported noise exposure history, with 42.5% having tinnitus. We found significant association between the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL6 −174 gene (rs1800795 and tinnitus among the elderly with history of exposure to occupational noise (P = 0.03. The elderly with the C allele were less likely to have tinnitus associated with history of exposure to occupational noise [OR = 0.167, confidence interval (CI 95% 0.167-0.749; P = 0.004] when compared to those carrying the G allele. This study suggests that there is an association between polymorphisms in the IL6 gene at region - 174G/C and susceptibility to tinnitus.

  11. A novel microtubule de-stabilizing complementarity-determining region C36L1 peptide displays antitumor activity against melanoma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Azevedo, Ricardo A.; Massaoka, Mariana H.; Girola, Natalia; Polonelli, Luciano; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2015-01-01

    Short peptide sequences from complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of different immunoglobulins may exert anti-infective, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities regardless of the specificity of the original monoclonal antibody (mAb). In this sense, they resemble early molecules of innate immunity. C36L1 was identified as a bioactive light-chain CDR1 peptide by screening 19 conserved CDR sequences targeting murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma. The 17-amino acid peptide is readily taken up by melanoma cells and acts on microtubules causing depolymerization, stress of the endoplasmic reticulum and intrinsic apoptosis. At low concentrations, C36L1 inhibited migration, invasion and proliferation of B16F10-Nex2 cells with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling axis involving Rho-GTPase and PTEN mediation. Peritumor injection of the peptide delayed growth of subcutaneously grafted melanoma cells. Intraperitoneal administration of C36L1 induced a significant immune-response dependent anti-tumor protection in a syngeneic metastatic melanoma model. Dendritic cells stimulated ex-vivo by the peptide and transferred to animals challenged with tumor cells were equally effective. The C36 VL CDR1 peptide is a promising microtubule-interacting drug that induces tumor cell death by apoptosis and inhibits metastases of highly aggressive melanoma cells. PMID:26391685

  12. Cloning and characterization of a putative human holocytochrome c-type synthetase gene (HCCS) isolated from the critical region for microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, L.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder associated with X chromosomal rearrangements resulting in monosomy from Xpter to Xp22. Features include microphthalmia, sclerocornea, linear skin defects, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Using a cross-species conservation strategy, an expressed sequence from the 450- to the 550-kb MLS critical region on Xp22 was identified by screening a human embryo cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed a transcript of {approx}2.6 kb in all tissues examined, with weaker expression of {approx}1.2- and {approx}5.2-kb transcripts. The strongest expression was observed in heart and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis of a 3-kb cDNA contig revealed an 807-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 268-amino-acid-protein. Comparison of the sequence with sequences in the databases revealed homology with holocytochrome c-type synthetases, which catalyze the covalent addition of a heme group onto c-type cytochromes in the mitochondria. The c-type cytochromes are required for proper functioning of the electron transport pathway. The human gene (HGMW-approved symbol HCCS) and the corresponding murine gene characterized in this paper are the first mammalian holocytochrome c-type synthetases to be described in the literature. Because of the lack of a neuromuscular phenotype in MLS, it is uncertain whether the deletion of a mitochondrial holocytochrome synthetase would contribute to the phenotype seen in MLS. The expression pattern of this gene and knowledge about the function of holocytochrome synthetases, however, suggest that it is a good candidate for X-linked encephalomyopathies typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Visible Watermarking within the Region of Non-Interest of Medical Images Based on Fuzzy C-Means and Harris Corner Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debalina Biswas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of medical information amongst various hos pitals and diagnostic centers for mutual availability of diagnostic and therapeutic case stu dies is a very common process. Watermarking is adding “ownership” information in multimedia con tents to verify signal integrity, prove authenticity and achieve control over the copy proc ess. Distortion in Region of Interest (ROI of a bio-medical image caused by watermarking may lead to wrong diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, proper selection of Region of Non-Intere st (RONI in a medical image is very crucial for adding watermark. First part of the present wor k proposes proper selection of Region of Non-Interest based on Fuzzy C-Means segmentation an d Harris corner detection, to improve retention of diagnostic value lost in embedding own ership information. The second part of the work presents watermark embedding in the selected a rea of RONI based on alpha blending technique. In this approach, the generated watermar ked image having an acceptable level of imperceptibility and distortion is compared to the original image. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR of the original image vs. watermarked image is calculated to prove the efficacy of the proposed method.

  14. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals compact domain-domain interactions in the N-terminal region of filamin C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Sethi

    Full Text Available Filamins are multi-domain, actin cross-linking, and scaffolding proteins. In addition to the actin cross-linking function, filamins have a role in mechanosensor signaling. The mechanosensor function is mediated by domain-domain interaction in the C-terminal region of filamins. Recently, we have shown that there is a three-domain interaction module in the N-terminal region of filamins, where the neighboring domains stabilize the structure of the middle domain and thereby regulate its interaction with ligands. In this study, we have used small-angle X-ray scattering as a tool to screen for potential domain-domain interactions in the N-terminal region. We found evidence of four domain-domain interactions with varying flexibility. These results confirm our previous study showing that domains 3, 4, and 5 exist as a compact three domain module. In addition, we report interactions between domains 11-12 and 14-15, which are thus new candidate sites for mechanical regulation.

  15. A Compilation of the Historical Earthquakes Database for Marmara Region from 2000 B.C. and 1900 A.D. in frame of Marsite and Mardim Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarir Basturk, Nilay; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at contributing to creation of a scenario database for tsunamigenic earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region through the investigation of the historical earthquakes under the frame of Marsite and also Mardim Projects for the work package 5 (WP5). Furthermore, this work provides an evaluation of earthquake history in Marmara Region which is important for seismic risk assesment in İstanbul and preparing an active fault map of the Sea of Marmara,which is one of the goals of the work package 7 (WP7) of Marmara Supersite Project. For this purpose, we have created a digital database containing 576 earthquakes with some parameters such as location and intensity, also including macroseismic explanations for Turkey between the dates of 2000 B.C. and 1900 A.D. by compiling over 20 available sources such as Ambraseys(2009), Ambraseys and Finkel(1995), Ergin et al. (1967 and 1971), Soysal et al. (1981), Guidoboni et al. (1994), Papazachos et al. (1997), Shebalin & Tatevossian (1997), Ambraseys & Jackson (1998), Kondorskaya & Ulomov (1999), Ambraseys & Jackson (2000), Guidoboni & Comastri(2005), Stucchi et al(2012), Papazachos&P.,(2003). Among these sources, the basic reference that we used for many earthquakes is the Soysal et al. (1981), including earthquake parameters such as macroseismic epicenter and intensity. Another important catalogue for the assessment of historical events is the Ambraseys (2009) which is a comprehensive review and contains macroseismic explanations of the earthquakes in Turkey from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D. Evaulation of every possible sources for the old earthquakes have enabled us to cross check differences among them , find dublicate events and debate the earthquakes in terms of their reliability. In the scope of this study, the historical earthquakes were classified to date, location, intensity, macroseismic explanations using available information. In addition, the coordinate and intensity were assigned to 343 and 114 events

  16. Gas isotopic signatures (He, C, and Ar) in the Lake Kivu region (western branch of the East African rift system): Geodynamic and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Poreda, R. J.; Darrah, T.; Cuoco, E.; Yalire, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    On 17 January 2002, the city of Goma was partly destroyed by two of the several lava flows erupted from a roughly N-S oriented fracture system opened along the southern flank of Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo), in the western branch of the East African rift system. A humanitarian and scientific response was promptly organized by international, governmental, and nongovernmental agencies coordinated by the United Nations and the European Union. Among the different scientific projects undertaken to study the mechanisms triggering this and possible future eruptions, we focused on the isotopic (He, C, and Ar) analysis of the magmatic-hydrothermal and cold gas discharges related to the Nyiragongo volcanic system, the Kivu and Virunga region. The studied area includes the Nyiragongo volcano, its surroundings, and peripheral areas inside and outside the rift. They have been subdivided into seven regions characterized by distinct 3He/4He (expressed as R/Rair) ratios and/or δ13C-CO2 values. The Nyiragongo summit crater fumaroles, whose R/Rair and δ13C-CO2 values are up to 8.73 and from -3.5‰ to -4.0‰ VPDB, respectively, show a clear mantle, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like contribution. Similar mantle-like He isotopic values (6.5-8.3 R/Rair) are also found in CO2-rich gas emanations (mazukus) along the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu main basin, whereas the 13δC-CO2 values range from -5.3‰ to -6.8‰ VPDB. The mantle influence progressively decreases in (1) dissolved gases of Lake Kivu (2.6-5.5 R/Rair) and (2) the distal gas discharges within and outside the two sides of the rift (from 0.1 to 1.7 R/Rair). Similarly, δ13C-CO2 ratios of the peripheral gas emissions are lighter (from -5.9‰ to -11.6‰ VPDB) than those of the crater fumaroles. Therefore, the spatial distribution of He and C signatures in the Lake Kivu region is mainly produced by mixing of mantle-related (e.g., Nyiragongo crater fumaroles and/or mazukus gases) and crustal-related (e

  17. Genetic Variability of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV 5' Untranslated Region in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bukowska-Ośko

    Full Text Available Association between hepatitis C virus (HCV quasispecies and treatment outcome among patients with chronic hepatitis C has been the subject of many studies. However, these studies focused mainly on viral variable regions (E1 and E2 and usually did not include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. The aim of the present study was to analyze heterogeneity of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR in HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin. The HCV 5'UTR was amplified from serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC samples in 37 HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Samples were collected right before treatment, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 24, 36, 44, 48, 60, and 72 weeks. Heterogeneity of the 5'UTR was analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP, cloning and sequencing. Sustained virological response (SVR was achieved in 46% of analyzed HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Stable SSCP band pattern was observed in 22 patients (62.9% and SVR rate among these patients was 23%. Decline in the number of bands and/or shift in band positions were found in 6 patients (17.1%, 5 (83% of whom achieved SVR (p=0.009. A novel viral genotype was identified in all but one of these patients. In 5 of these 6 patients a new genotype was dominant. 5'UTR heterogeneity may correlate with interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome. In the analyzed group of HCV/HIV coinfected patients, viral quasispecies stability during treatment favored viral persistence, whereas decrease in the number of variants and/or emergence of new variants was associated with SVR. Among injection drug users (IDU patients, a new genotype may become dominant during treatment, probably due to the presence of mixed infections with various strains, which have different susceptibility to treatment.

  18. Local and regional scale measurements of CH4, δ13CH4, and C2H6 in the Uintah Basin using a mobile stable isotope analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an innovative CH4, δ13CH4, and C2H6 instrument based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS. The design and performance of the analyzer is presented in detail. The instrument is highly precise, capable of precision of less than 1‰ on δ13CH4 with 1 min of averaging and about 0.1‰ in an hour. Using this instrument, we present a comprehensive approach to atmospheric methane emissions attribution. Field measurements were performed in the Uintah Basin (Utah, USA in the winter of 2013, using a mobile lab equipped with the CRDS analyzer, a high-accuracy GPS, a sonic anemometer, and a novel onboard gas storage and playback system. With a small population and almost no other sources of methane and ethane other than oil and gas extraction activities, the Uintah Basin represents an ideal location to investigate and validate new measurement methods of atmospheric methane and ethane. We present the results of measurements of the individual fugitive emissions from 23 natural gas wells and 6 oil wells in the region. The δ13CH4 and C2H6 signatures that we observe are consistent with the signatures present in the ground. Furthermore, regional measurements of the atmospheric CH4, δ13CH4, and C2H6 signatures throughout the basin have been made, using continuous sampling into a 450 m long tube. These measurements suggest that 86 ± 7% of the total emissions in the basin are from natural gas production.

  19. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Ruiz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription of the switch (S regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID, triggering class switch recombination (CSR, as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ. AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  20. Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobin; García-Estrada, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is the non-ribosomal condensation of L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine into the tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). This reaction is catalysed by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum by the pcbAB gene. This enzyme contains at least ten catalytic domains. The precise role of the C-terminal domain of this multidomain NRPS still remains obscure. The C-terminal region of ACVS bears the epimerase and the thioesterase domains and may be involved in the epimerization of LLL-ACV to LLD-ACV and in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond. In this work, the conserved motifs (3371)EGHGRE(3376) (located in the putative epimerase domain) and (3629)GWSFG(3633) (located in the thioesterase domain) were changed by site-directed-mutagenesis to LGFGLL and GWAFG, respectively. In addition, the whole thioesterase domain (230 amino acids) and the different parts of this domain were deleted. The activity of these mutant enzymes was assessed in vivo by two different procedures: i) through the quantification of bisACV produced by the fungus and ii) by quantifying the benzylpenicillin production using tailored strains of P. chrysogenum, which lack the pcbAB gene, as host strains. All indicated mutant enzymes showed lower or null activity than the control strain confirming that E3371, H3373, R3375 and E3376 belong to the epimerase active centre. Different fragments included in the C-terminal region of ACVS control thioester hydrolysis. Overexpression of the sequence encoding the ACVS integrated thioesterase domain as a separate (stand-alone) transcriptional unit complemented mutants lacking the integrated thioesterase domain, although with low ACV releasing activity, suggesting that the stand-alone thioesterease interacts with the other ACVS domains.

  1. Effects of 174 G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the interleukin-6 gene on plasma IL-6 levels and muscle strength in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of -174 G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL6 gene on plasma IL-6 levels and muscle strength, and the relationship between IL-6 levels and muscle strength in elderly women. The sample consisted of 199 elderly residents (73.0 ± 7.8 years old from rest homes and the community in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. -174 G/C polymorphism was determined by direct sequencing of the product by PCR, and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Muscle strength in the knee joint was evaluated using a Biodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer. ANCOVA was used to determine the effect of polymorphism on IL-6 levels and muscle strength, and the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the relationship between IL-6 levels and muscle strength. -174 G/C polymorphism was associated with the plasma IL-6 levels of elderly women (P 0.05. No association was found between IL-6 levels and knee extensor muscle (r = 0.087, P = 0.306 or flexor (r = -0.011, P = 0.894 strength. An interaction between -174 G/C polymorphism and housing conditions of the sample of elderly women was identified, with the effect of genotype on IL-6 levels being higher in the institutionalized elderly. These results support the evidence that -174 G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene associates with individual variability of plasma IL-6 levels in elderly women.

  2. Systematic analysis of enhancer and critical cis-acting RNA elements in the protein-encoding region of the hepatitis C virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick; Ren, Songyang; Hu, Stacy; Wang, Wei Gang; Subramanian, Aparna; Contreras, Deisy; Kanagavel, Vidhya; Chung, Eric; Ko, Justine; Amirtham Jacob Appadorai, Ranjit Singh; Sinha, Sanjeev; Jalali, Ziba; Hardy, David W; French, Samuel W; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. cis-acting RNA elements of the HCV genome are critical for translation initiation and replication of the viral genome. We hypothesized that the coding regions of nonstructural proteins harbor enhancer and essential cis-acting replication elements (CRE). In order to experimentally identify new cis RNA elements, we utilized an unbiased approach to introduce synonymous substitutions. The HCV genome coding for nonstructural proteins (nucleotide positions 3872 to 9097) was divided into 17 contiguous segments. The wobble nucleotide positions of each codon were replaced, resulting in 33% to 41% nucleotide changes. The HCV genome containing one of each of 17 mutant segments (S1 to S17) was tested for genome replication and infectivity. We observed that silent mutations in segment 13 (S13) (nucleotides [nt] 7457 to 7786), S14 (nt 7787 to 8113), S15 (nt 8114 to 8440), S16 (nt 8441 to 8767), and S17 (nt 8768 to 9097) resulted in impaired genome replication, suggesting CRE structures are enriched in the NS5B region. Subsequent high-resolution mutational analysis of NS5B (nt 7787 to 9289) using approximately 51-nucleotide contiguous subsegment mutant viruses having synonymous mutations revealed that subsegments SS8195-8245, SS8654-8704, and SS9011-9061 were required for efficient viral growth, suggesting that these regions act as enhancer elements. Covariant nucleotide substitution analysis of a stem-loop, JFH-SL9098, revealed the formation of an extended stem structure, which we designated JFH-SL9074. We have identified new enhancer RNA elements and an extended stem-loop in the NS5B coding region. Genetic modification of enhancer RNA elements can be utilized for designing attenuated HCV vaccine candidates.

  3. Homopolymer tract length dependent enrichments in functional regions of 27 eukaryotes and their novel dependence on the organism DNA (G+C% composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA homopolymer tracts, poly(dA.poly(dT and poly(dG.poly(dC, are the simplest of simple sequence repeats. Homopolymer tracts have been systematically examined in the coding, intron and flanking regions of a limited number of eukaryotes. As the number of DNA sequences publicly available increases, the representation (over and under of homopolymer tracts of different lengths in these regions of different genomes can be compared. Results We carried out a survey of the extent of homopolymer tract over-representation (enrichment and over-proportional length distribution (above expected length primarily in the single gene documents, but including some whole chromosomes of 27 eukaryotics across the (G+C% composition range from 20 – 60%. A total of 5.2 × 107 bases from 15,560 cleaned (redundancy removed sequence documents were analyzed. Calculated frequencies of non-overlapping long homopolymer tracts were found over-represented in non-coding sequences of eukaryotes. Long poly(dA.poly(dT tracts demonstrated an exponential increase with tract length compared to predicted frequencies. A novel negative slope was observed for all eukaryotes between their (G+C% composition and the threshold length N where poly(dA.poly(dT tracts exhibited over-representation and a corresponding positive slope was observed for poly(dG.poly(dC tracts. Tract size thresholds where over-representation of tracts in different eukaryotes began to occur was between 4 – 11 bp depending upon the organism (G+C% composition. The higher the GC%, the lower the threshold N value was for poly(dA.poly(dT tracts, meaning that the over-representation happens at relatively lower tract length in more GC-rich surrounding sequence. We also observed a novel relationship between the highest over-representations, as well as lengths of homopolymer tracts in excess of their random occurrence expected maximum lengths. Conclusions We discuss how our novel tract over

  4. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  5. Characterization and distribution of a maize cDNA encoding a peptide similar to the catalytic region of second messenger dependent protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, B.; Johnson, E. M.; Feldman, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) roots respond to a variety of environmental stimuli which are perceived by a specialized group of cells, the root cap. We are studying the transduction of extracellular signals by roots, particularly the role of protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation by kinases is an important step in many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. As a first phase of this research we have isolated a cDNA encoding a maize protein similar to fungal and animal protein kinases known to be involved in the transduction of extracellular signals. The deduced sequence of this cDNA encodes a polypeptide containing amino acids corresponding to 33 out of 34 invariant or nearly invariant sequence features characteristic of protein kinase catalytic domains. The maize cDNA gene product is more closely related to the branch of serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domains composed of the cyclic-nucleotide- and calcium-phospholipid-dependent subfamilies than to other protein kinases. Sequence identity is 35% or more between the deduced maize polypeptide and all members of this branch. The high structural similarity strongly suggests that catalytic activity of the encoded maize protein kinase may be regulated by second messengers, like that of all members of this branch whose regulation has been characterized. Northern hybridization with the maize cDNA clone shows a single 2400 base transcript at roughly similar levels in maize coleoptiles, root meristems, and the zone of root elongation, but the transcript is less abundant in mature leaves. In situ hybridization confirms the presence of the transcript in all regions of primary maize root tissue.

  6. Factor VIII C1 Domain Spikes 2092–2093 and 2158–2159 Comprise Regions That Modulate Cofactor Function and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Esther; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Voorberg, Jan; Faber, Johan H.; Kjalke, Marianne; Stennicke, Henning R.; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    The C1 domain of factor VIII (FVIII) has been implicated in binding to multiple constituents, including phospholipids, von Willebrand factor, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). We have previously described a human monoclonal antibody called KM33 that blocks these interactions as well as cellular uptake by LRP-expressing cells. To unambiguously identify the apparent “hot spot” on FVIII to which this antibody binds, we have employed hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The results showed that KM33 protects FVIII regions 2091–2104 and 2157–2162 from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. These comprise the two C1 domain spikes 2092–2093 and 2158–2159. Spike 2092–2093 has been demonstrated recently to contribute to assembly with lipid membranes with low phosphatidylserine (PS) content. Therefore, spike 2158–2159 might serve a similar role. This was assessed by replacement of Arg-2159 for Asn, which introduces a motif for N-linked glycosylation. Binding studies revealed that the purified, glycosylated R2159N variant had lost its interaction with antibody KM33 but retained substantial binding to von Willebrand factor and LRP. Cellular uptake of the R2159N variant was reduced both by LRP-expressing U87-MG cells and by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. FVIII activity was virtually normal on membranes containing 15% PS but reduced at low PS content. These findings suggest that the C1 domain spikes 2092–2093 and 2158–2159 together modulate FVIII membrane assembly by a subtle, PS-dependent mechanism. These findings contribute evidence in favor of an increasingly important role of the C1 domain in FVIII biology. PMID:24009077

  7. Factor VIII C1 domain spikes 2092-2093 and 2158-2159 comprise regions that modulate cofactor function and cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Esther; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Wroblewska, Aleksandra; Voorberg, Jan; Faber, Johan H; Kjalke, Marianne; Stennicke, Henning R; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-10-11

    The C1 domain of factor VIII (FVIII) has been implicated in binding to multiple constituents, including phospholipids, von Willebrand factor, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). We have previously described a human monoclonal antibody called KM33 that blocks these interactions as well as cellular uptake by LRP-expressing cells. To unambiguously identify the apparent "hot spot" on FVIII to which this antibody binds, we have employed hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The results showed that KM33 protects FVIII regions 2091-2104 and 2157-2162 from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. These comprise the two C1 domain spikes 2092-2093 and 2158-2159. Spike 2092-2093 has been demonstrated recently to contribute to assembly with lipid membranes with low phosphatidylserine (PS) content. Therefore, spike 2158-2159 might serve a similar role. This was assessed by replacement of Arg-2159 for Asn, which introduces a motif for N-linked glycosylation. Binding studies revealed that the purified, glycosylated R2159N variant had lost its interaction with antibody KM33 but retained substantial binding to von Willebrand factor and LRP. Cellular uptake of the R2159N variant was reduced both by LRP-expressing U87-MG cells and by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. FVIII activity was virtually normal on membranes containing 15% PS but reduced at low PS content. These findings suggest that the C1 domain spikes 2092-2093 and 2158-2159 together modulate FVIII membrane assembly by a subtle, PS-dependent mechanism. These findings contribute evidence in favor of an increasingly important role of the C1 domain in FVIII biology. PMID:24009077

  8. Detection of Local, Regional, and Distant Recurrence in Patients With PSA Relapse After External-Beam Radiotherapy Using 11C-Choline Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level cannot distinguish between local-regional recurrences and the presence of distant metastases after treatment with curative intent for prostate cancer. With the advent of salvage treatment such as cryotherapy, it has become important to localize the site of recurrence (local or distant). In this study, the potential of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) to identify site of recurrence was investigated in patients with rising PSA after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy patients with histologically proven prostate cancer treated with EBRT and showing biochemical recurrence as defined by American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus statement and 10 patients without recurrence underwent a PET scan using 400 MBq 11C-choline intravenously. Biopsy-proven histology from the site of suspicion, findings with other imaging modalities, clinical follow-up and/or response to adjuvant therapy were used as comparative references. Results: None of the 10 patients without biochemical recurrence had a positive PET scan. Fifty-seven of 70 patients with biochemical recurrence (median PSA 9.1 ng/mL; mean PSA 12.3 ng/mL) showed an abnormal uptake pattern (sensitivity 81%). The site of recurrence was only local in 41 of 57 patients (mean PSA 11.1 ng/mL at scan), locoregionally and/or distant in 16 of 57 patients (mean PSA 17.7 ng/mL). Overall the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for 11C-choline PET scan were 1.0 and 0.44 respectively. Accuracy was 84%. Conclusions: 11C-choline PET scan is a sensitive technique to identify the site of recurrence in patients with PSA relapse after EBRT for prostate cancer.

  9. [Frequency of encountering markers of viral hepatitis A, B, and C in the aboriginal inhabitants of the northwest region of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netesova, I G; Iaroslavtseva, O A; Dryga, S A; Posukh, O L; Osipova, L P; Bronshteĭn, E L; Zaĭtsev, S A; Netesov, S V

    1995-01-01

    A minor population of Nenets living near the village of Samburg in the Purov District, Tyumen region was screened for serological markers of virus hepatitides A, B, and C (VHA, HVB, and HVC, respectively). Commercial kits manufactured by VectorBest JSC, Russia, were used. All the tested sera contained antiHVA IgG; IgM antibodies to VHA were detected in none of the tested sera, anti-HVC IgG were found in 1 (0.93%) serum, antiHBc IgG in 11 (10.2%), and HBsAg was detected in 2 (1.85%) serum samples. The sera positive by antiHBc IgG and HBsAg were tested for DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. HVB DNA was found in two HBsAg-positive sera with the HBsAg subtype determined as "non ad". PMID:7483569

  10. [Frequency of encountering markers of viral hepatitis A, B, and C in the aboriginal inhabitants of the northwest region of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netesova, I G; Iaroslavtseva, O A; Dryga, S A; Posukh, O L; Osipova, L P; Bronshteĭn, E L; Zaĭtsev, S A; Netesov, S V

    1995-01-01

    A minor population of Nenets living near the village of Samburg in the Purov District, Tyumen region was screened for serological markers of virus hepatitides A, B, and C (VHA, HVB, and HVC, respectively). Commercial kits manufactured by VectorBest JSC, Russia, were used. All the tested sera contained antiHVA IgG; IgM antibodies to VHA were detected in none of the tested sera, anti-HVC IgG were found in 1 (0.93%) serum, antiHBc IgG in 11 (10.2%), and HBsAg was detected in 2 (1.85%) serum samples. The sera positive by antiHBc IgG and HBsAg were tested for DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. HVB DNA was found in two HBsAg-positive sera with the HBsAg subtype determined as "non ad".

  11. Pressure effect on crystallization of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with wide supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif;

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. In the pressure range from 0 to 2.......4 GPa, the crystallization temperature, Tx, increases with pressure, p, having a slope of 30 K/GPa while a minimum in Tx was detected in the range from 2.4 to 3.9 GPa. With a further increase of p, Tx is independent of p. The Tx vs p behavior can be qualitatively explained by the suppression of atomic...

  12. Application Self-organizing Map Type in a Study of the Profile of Gasoline C Commercialized in the Eastern and Northern Parana Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ramazzoti Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks self-organizing map type (SOM was used to classify samples of automotive gasoline C marketed in the eastern and northern regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil. The input order of parameters in the network were the values of temperature of the first drop, the 10, 50 and 90% distilled bulk, the final boiling point, density, residue content and alcohol content. A network with a topology of 25x25 and 5000 training epochs was used. The weight maps of input parameters for the trained network identified that the most important parameters for classifying samples were the temperature of the first drop and the temperature of the 10% and 50% of the distilled fuel. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.732 

  13. A single substitution in 5'-untranslated region of plcB is involved in enhanced broad-range phospholipase C activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Bai; Jianshun Chen; Qiaomiao Chen; Xiaokai Luo; Weihuan Fang; Lingli Jiang

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the in vitro phospholipase activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4 was due to two nucleotide mutations (C to T at position -26 and A to G at position + 1) in plcB or resulted from regulatory activation, two mutants H4-plcB-ml (single mutation at position -26) and H4-plcB-m2 (substitution at both positions) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the two mutants had significantly lower transcription of plcB than their parent strain H4 and did not show phospho-Hpase activity on the egg yolk agar, implying that the apparent phospholipase activity of strain H4 could be related to single substitution at position -26 ofplcB, most probably by its 5t-untranslated region (5'-UTR) regulation mechanism. Tn917-based transposon mutagenesis generated eight L. monocytogenes mutants lacking phospholipase activity among 560 mutant candidates. Seven mutants had transposon insertion into prfA (encoding positive regulatory factor A) open reading frame, whereas only one mutant (WF-L127) was inserted into the P1 promoter region ofprfA (prfAP1). Transcription of major virulence genes was significantly lower in both types of mutants than in their parent strain H4. Disruption of prfAP1 in WFL127 abolished its phospholipase C activity but did not change its hemolytic phenotype, indicating that plcB was more dependent on prfA regulation than hly. Taken together, this study presents some evidence for the regulation ofplcB expression by its 5'-UTR mechanism.

  14. A unique sequence in the N-terminal regulatory region controls the nuclear localization of KLF8 by cooperating with the C-terminal zinc-fingers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina S Mehta; Heng Lu; Xianhui Wang; Alison M Urvalek; Kim-Hang H Nguyen; Farah Monzur; Jojo D Hammond; Jameson Q Ma; Jihe Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) transcription factor plays a critical role in cell cycle progression, oncogenic trans-formation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and invasion. However, its nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) has not been identified. KLF8 shares with other KLFs monopartite NLSs (mNLS) and C2H2 zinc fingers (ZFs), both of which have been shown to be the NLSs for some other KLFs. In this report, using PCR-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescent microscopy, we show that disruption of the mNLSs, deletion of any single ZF, or mutation of the Zn2+-binding or DNA-contacting motifs did not affect the nuclear localization of KLF8. Deletion of>1.5 ZFs from C-terminus, however, caused cytoplasmic accumulation of KLF8. Surprisingly, deletion of amino acid (aa) 151-200 re-gion almost eliminated KLF8 from the nucleus. S165A, K171E or K171R mutation, or treatment with PKC inhibitor led to partial cytoplasmic accumulation. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that KLF8 interacted with importin-β and this interaction required the ZF motif. Deletion of aa 1-150 or 201-261 region alone did not alter the nuclear lo-calization. BrdU incorporation and cyclin D1 promoter luciferase assays showed that the KLF8 mutants defective in nuclear localization could not promote DNA synthesis or cyclin D1 promoter activation as the wild-type KLF8 did. Taken together, these results suggest that KLF8 has two NLSs, one surrounding S165 and K171 and the other being two tandem ZFs, which are critical for the regulation of KLF8 nuclear localization and its cellular functions.

  15. Micro-structural analysis of local damage introduced in subsurface regions of 4H-SiC wafers during chemo-mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Hideki; Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Nagaya, Masatake; Kido, Takanori; Kawata, Kenji; Kato, Tomohisa; Senzaki, Junji; Kitabatake, Makoto; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The surface morphology and lattice defect structures in the subsurface regions of 4H-SiC wafers introduced during chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is known that local damage consisting of high-density lattice defects is introduced in the wafers during the current CMP, however, optical microscopy showed that the surface was very flat and clean without any presence of surface defects. Specifically, this study focused on the detailed analysis of such lattice defect structures. The high-density lattice defects locally introduced in the subsurface regions consisted of nano-scale surface scratches, high-density basal-plane dislocation loops, Shockley-type stacking faults, and Y-shaped defects. Two types of dislocation loops were introduced near the scratches that were selected for further study: nearly perfect basal-plane dislocations, which were accompanied by narrow stacking faults, and apparent partial basal-plane dislocations, which were accompanied by wide stacking faults. A Y-shaped defect was observed in the local damage along the [ 11 2 ¯ 0 ] direction, but not in the local damage along the [ 1 ¯100 ] direction. It was also found that the directions of the Burgers vectors for the basal-plane dislocations clearly depended on the directions of the introduced scratch-like defects.

  16. Histiocitose das células de Langerhans na região anogenital Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the anogenital region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Neto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Histiocitose das células de Langerhans (HCL acometendo o trato genital tem uma incidência rara com apenas 48 casos relatados na literatura1-5 . Considerando somente as lesões da região anogenital, esse número cai para dois casos descritos1,2. Reportamos o 3º caso de HCL anogenital em uma paciente de 31 anos, branca, cuja comprovação diagnóstica foi feita através de microscopia eletrônica. O tratamento realizado foi quimioterapia sistêmica e excisão cirúrgica local.The Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH of the genital tract is rare, with only 48 cases related in the literature1-5. There were reported only 2 cases in the anogenital region1,2. We reported the third case of LCH in the anogenital region; patient was female, 31 years-old, caucasian and the diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic magnification. The treatment was local surgical excision and systemic chemotherapy.

  17. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries. PMID:27277421

  18. Molecular cloning of a full-length cDNA for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and regional expressions of the expanded alleles in the CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Osamu; Oyake, Mutsuo; Takano, Hiroki [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by genetic anticipation and variable combinations of symptoms including myoclonus, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis, and dementia. Recently, we discovered that DRPLA is caused by unstable expansion of a CAG repeat of a gene on the short arm of chromosome 12. We determined the consensus DRPLA cDNA sequence containing the complete coding region for 1,185 amino acids. The CAG repeat, which is expanded in DRPLA, is located 1,462 bp downstream from the putative methionine initiation codon and encodes a poly-glutamine tract. Although poly-serine and proline tracts exist near the CAG repeats, these poly-serine or proline tracts did not show any polymorphisms, which is in strong contrast to the high heterogeneity in the length of the CAG repeat. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.7-kb transcript that is widely expressed in various tissues including heart, lung, kidney, placenta, skeletal muscle, and brain. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the expanded alleles are transcribed to levels comparable to those of normal alleles. These results indicate that there is no difference in transcriptional efficiency between expanded and normal alleles. Furthermore, mRNA from cerebellar hemispheres of DRPLA patients showed smaller sizes of CAG repeats compared with other regions of the brain, which reflects somatic mosaicism of the expanded alleles of the DRPLA gene. 49 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Quasispecies evolution in NS5A region of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b during interferon or combined interferon-ribavirin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Veillon; Christopher Payan; Hélène Le Guillou-Guillemette; Catherine Gaudy; Fran(c)oise Lunel

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the implication of substitutions in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein in the resistance of HCV during mono-interferon (IFN)or combined IFN-ribavirin (IFN-R) therapy. Although NS5A has been reported to interact with the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B, as well as with many cellular proteins, the function of NS5A in the life cycle of HCV remains unclear.METHODS: HCV quasispecies were studied by cloning and sequencing of sequential isolates from patients infected by HCV genotype 1b. Patients were treated by IFN-α2b for 3 mo followed by IFN-α2b alone or combined IFN-R therapy for 9 additional months. Patients were categorized intro two groups based on their response to the treatments: 7 with sustained virological response (SVR) (quasispecies = 150) and 3 non-responders (NR) to IFN-R (quasispecies = 106).RESULTS: Prior to treatment, SVR patients displayed a lower complexity of quasispecies than NR patients. Most patients had a decrease in the complexity of quasispecies during therapy. Analysis of amino acids substitutions showed that the degree of the complexity of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) and the V3 domain of NS5A protein was able to discriminate the two groups of patients. Moreover, SVR patients displayed more variability in the NS5A region than NR patients.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that detailed molecular analysis of the NS5A region may be important for understanding its function in IFN response during HCV 1b infection.

  20. Amplitude analysis of the pp -> (pπ-) Δ++(1232) reaction in the Δ0(1232) mass region at 12 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amplitude analysis of the reaction pp-> (pπ-) Δ++ (1232) in the Δ0 (1232) mass region at 12 GeV/c has been carried out under the constraint that the relative spin between an incident proton and a Δ (1232) resonance to be 1. A detailed inspection of the angular momentum states of the (pπ-) system suggests that, for the (pπ-) effective mass less than 1.6 GeV, only S and P waves contribute to this reaction. The amplitude and their relative phases are determined in intervals of t' by a maximum likelihood fit of the experimental data and the expression of the differential cross section. To check the results, a comparison was made the experimental angular distributions in the Helicity system and, those obtained from the amplitudes mentioned above. In addition, the plot of experimental points of the spin density matrix elements of the Δ++ resonance determined in this work has been compared with the one obtained for the reaction pp-> Δ0 Δ++ at 8.1 GeV/c, in order to verify the selection criteria used in this work. (author)

  1. Topographical localization of the C-terminal region of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus using antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, R.D.; Fieles, W.E.; Schotland, D.L.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Barchi, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 1783-1794 near the C terminus of the electric eel sodium channel primary sequence of the eel (Electrophorus electricus) sodium channel has been synthesized and used to raise an antiserum in rabbits. This antiserum specifically recognized the peptide in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Specificity of the antiserum for the native channel protein was shown by its specific binding to a 280-kDa protein in immunoblots of eel electroplax membrane proteins. The antiserum also specifically labeled the innervated membrane of the eel electroplax in immunofluorescent studies. The membrane topology of the peptide recognized by this antiserum was proved in binding studies using oriented electroplax membrane vesicles. These vesicles were 98% right-side-out as determined by (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin binding. Binding of the antipeptide antiserum to this fraction was measured before and after permeabilization with 0.01% saponin. Specific binding to intact vesicles was low, but this binding increased 10-fold after permeabilization, implying a cytoplasmic orientation for the peptide. Confirmation for this orientation was then sought by localizing the antibody bound to intact electroplax cells with immunogold electron microscopy. The data imply that the region of the sodium channel primary sequence near the C terminus that is recognized by the anitserum is localized on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane; this localization provides some further constraints on models of sodium channel tertiary structure.

  2. Topographical localization of the C-terminal region of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus using antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 1783-1794 near the C terminus of the electric eel sodium channel primary sequence of the eel (Electrophorus electricus) sodium channel has been synthesized and used to raise an antiserum in rabbits. This antiserum specifically recognized the peptide in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Specificity of the antiserum for the native channel protein was shown by its specific binding to a 280-kDa protein in immunoblots of eel electroplax membrane proteins. The antiserum also specifically labeled the innervated membrane of the eel electroplax in immunofluorescent studies. The membrane topology of the peptide recognized by this antiserum was proved in binding studies using oriented electroplax membrane vesicles. These vesicles were 98% right-side-out as determined by [3H]saxitoxin binding. Binding of the antipeptide antiserum to this fraction was measured before and after permeabilization with 0.01% saponin. Specific binding to intact vesicles was low, but this binding increased 10-fold after permeabilization, implying a cytoplasmic orientation for the peptide. Confirmation for this orientation was then sought by localizing the antibody bound to intact electroplax cells with immunogold electron microscopy. The data imply that the region of the sodium channel primary sequence near the C terminus that is recognized by the anitserum is localized on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane; this localization provides some further constraints on models of sodium channel tertiary structure

  3. The NOD2 3020insC Mutation in Women with Breast Cancer from the Bydgoszcz Region in Poland. First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiszewska Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frameshift NOD2 gene mutation 3020insC is predominantly associated with Crohn's disease, but predisposes to many types of common cancers as well. We studied the frequency of this mutant NOD2 allele in 148 breast cancer women from the Bydgoszcz region in Poland. The NOD2 mutation was present in 8.8% of the patients. The mean age at breast cancer diagnosis of the mutation carriers was 43 years. We did not find any mutation in patients diagnosed with breast cancer after the age of 50 years. There was no association of the NOD2 mutation with a strong family history of breast cancer. On the contrary, the mutation frequency (11.4% was two times higher in women from families with a single case of breast cancer and with aggregation of other common types of cancer, especially digestive tract cancers. Low risk of breast cancer in the mutation carriers seems to be confirmed by finding the 3020insC mutation in three healthy parents of probands aged 73, 74 and 83 years, from three separate families.

  4. Papers of the Fifth Annual Congress of the Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica, A.C. 2. Regional Congress on Radiological and Nuclear Safety. Vol. 2 (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fulfillment of the Fifth Annual Congress of the Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica, A.C., this time inside the frame of the Second Regional Congress of Radiological and Nuclear Safety, is no doubt an event that approach us to make of this forum the most important for the exchange of ideas and the approaching among the members of our nuclear community. This time, the beautiful colonial city of Zacatecas, welcome us for this event, gathering fifty works in the areas of fuel cycle, power reactor operation, reactor physics, research reactors, transient analysis and instrumentation and experimental techniques. This significant number of works reaffirm the great interest of the nuclear community in to take part, presenting its most recent developments. The reporting belongs to seven of the main institutions of the country who dedicate, or are related with the technological development of the nuclear area and its different branches. With regard to participants of foreign countries, papers representing to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, United States of North America and Peru are included. The efforts of all the members of the Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica, A.C. has been addressed to do of the event a mean to make easy the exchange of ideas and to get acquainted with the work of other colleagues, in an ambient of warmth and surmounting. (Author)

  5. Genomic insights into hybridization in a localized region of sympatr y between pewee sister species (Contopus sordidulus × C. virens) and their chromosomal patterns of differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph D Manthey; and Mark B Robbins

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Great Plains of the United States includes a large number of hybrid and contact zones between bird species. The amount of gene lfow between sister species in these zones ranges from very rare hybridization events to widespread and prevalent introgression. Some of these avian systems have been studied extensively, while others have been indeterminate of whether hybridization exists in areas of sympatry. Using genomic-level approaches allows investigation of genomic patterns of hybridization and gene lfow between species—or lack thereof. Methods: We investigated a narrow zone of sympatry in Nebraska, USA between pewee species (Contopus sordidu-lus and C. virens), for which no hybridization has been conifrmed. We used thousands of single nucleotide polymor-phisms to identify potential hybridization and investigate genomic patterns of differentiation between these two species. Results: We found evidence of multiple hybrid individuals in the contact zone. Little genomic variation was ifxed between species, but a large proportion had differentiated allele frequencies between species. There was a positive relationship between genetic differentiation and chromosome size. Conclusions: We provided the ifrst conclusive evidence of hybridization between C. sordidulus and C. virens, in a region where secondary contact likely occurred due to human disturbance and habitat modiifcation. The genomic patterns of differentiation affrm that these species split in the relatively recent past. Finally, the relationship of chro-mosome size and genetic differentiation may have resulted from differential rates of chromosomal recombination in songbirds and genetic differentiation between species largely due to genetic drift (possibly in concert with selection).

  6. Characterising regional landslide initiation thresholds in Scotland, UK using NIMROD c-band precipitation radar and the BGS National Landslide Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting changes in slope stability and the location and timing of landslide events is of great scientific and societal interest. This is particularly the case in the context of critical infrastructure systems as these can cross many geological and hydro-geological domains and provide essential societal services. An established area of enquiry is that of characterising site, regional and national scale hydro-meteorological proxies (e.g. precipitation intensity/duration, antecedent precipitation or soil moisture deficit) to distil antecedent and initiation landslide threshold conditions. However, the application of such methods often suffers from limited spatio-temporal availability of meteorological data and landslide inventories. There are relatively few studies applying remotely sensed meteorological data to examine precursory conditions at national, regional and local scale. This study seeks to address this by applying remotely sensed meteorological data to examine precursory conditions at national, regional and local scale in combination with information derived from the BGS National Landslide Database. There are a total 115 landslides in Scotland, UK with recorded date of failure in the BGS National Landslide Database covering the period 2004 to 2015. To determine landslide initiation thresholds high resolution (15 minute 5km2) c-band precipitation intensity (mm/hr) radar data are analysed leading to the establishment of precipitation intensity time series for each landslide location. These time series enable calculation of derived explanatory variables including daily mean, max, volume and the aggregation of antecedent values at 3, 6, 18, 36 and 72 days. The statistical significance of each variable is determined, with the lowest probability of the observed occurrences being due to chance taken as indicating the best explanation. Combinations of thresholds and various spatial scales are examined to identify national and regional triggering conditions

  7. Diferenciais regionais de mortalidade por câncer no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1979-1981 Regional differentials in cancer mortality in a region of, Brazil, 1979-1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Boschi

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do fato de que os neoplasmas malignos foram a terceira causa de morte no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no ano de 1980, apresentando taxa bruta igual a 89,8 por 100.000 habitantes, foi analisada a mortalidade por câncer segundo suas principais localizações anatômicas, no período 1979-1981. Dividiu-se o Estado em três regiões distintas: Capital, Cinturão Metropolitano e Interior. Foram calculados coeficientes de mortalidade trienais, posteriormente padronizados pelo método direto utilizando-se, para tal, a população mundial. Para cumprir o objetivo de comparar diferentes regiões geográficas foram calculadas razões padronizadas de mortalidade. Observou-se que as principais localizações anatômicas foram pulmão, estômago, próstata, esôfago e fígado, nos homens; e mama, estômago, pulmão, cérvix uterino e útero (não especificado, nas mulheres. Encontrou-se que as maiores taxas para o total de tumores ocorreram na Capital e as menores no Interior, sendo as maiores razões padronizadas de mortalidade aquelas para mama (1,88, cólon (1,71 e pulmão (1,70. A mortalidade por neoplasmas malignos de esôfago e de fígado foi maior no Interior do que nas demais regiões, em ambos os sexos. Concluiu-se que existe comportamento distinto da mortalidade por câncer entre as diferentes regiões, apontando, mais uma vez, na direção da determinação ambiental de grande parte dos neoplasmas malignos.In 1980, malignant neoplasms ranked 3rd as a cause of death in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a crude mortality rate of 89.8 per 100,000. Cancer mortality data for 1979-1981 are presented for the State, with the objective of analyzing regional differentials. For the purpose of comparing mortality from the most important cancers, the State was divided into three regions: Capital, Metropolitan Belt and Interior, on the basis of the geographical structure of the State - which gave rise to the present urbanization patterns

  8. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  9. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B H; Taylor, Carmel T; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeff J; Hall, Roy A

    2015-06-08

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  10. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  11. Hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 variants presented on hepatitis B virus capsid-like particles induce cross-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lange

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is still a serious global health burden. Despite improved therapeutic options, a preventative vaccine would be desirable especially in undeveloped countries. Traditionally, highly conserved epitopes are targets for antibody-based prophylactic vaccines. In HCV-infected patients, however, neutralizing antibodies are primarily directed against hypervariable region I (HVRI in the envelope protein E2. HVRI is the most variable region of HCV, and this heterogeneity contributes to viral persistence and has thus far prevented the development of an effective HVRI-based vaccine. The primary goal of an antibody-based HCV vaccine should therefore be the induction of cross-reactive HVRI antibodies. In this study we approached this problem by presenting selected cross-reactive HVRI variants in a highly symmetric repeated array on capsid-like particles (CLPs. SplitCore CLPs, a novel particulate antigen presentation system derived from the HBV core protein, were used to deliberately manipulate the orientation of HVRI and therefore enable the presentation of conserved parts of HVRI. These HVRI-CLPs induced high titers of cross-reactive antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. The combination of only four HVRI CLPs was sufficient to induce antibodies cross-reactive with 81 of 326 (24.8% naturally occurring HVRI peptides. Most importantly, HVRI CLPs with AS03 as an adjuvant induced antibodies with a 10-fold increase in neutralizing capability. These antibodies were able to neutralize infectious HCVcc isolates and 4 of 19 (21% patient-derived HCVpp isolates. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the induction of at least partially cross-neutralizing antibodies is possible. This approach might be useful for the development of a prophylactic HCV vaccine and should also be adaptable to other highly variable viruses.

  12. Identificação de zonas mortas da cóclea por meio do teste TEN Identifying dead regions in the cochlea through the TEN test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina TS Jacob

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O audiograma ou o relato do paciente não é suficiente para determinar a presença ou não de zonas mortas na cóclea (ZMC, nem identificar sua extensão. OBJETIVO: Investigar, utilizando o teste TEN, ZMC de indivíduos com perda auditiva neurossensorial (PANS. CEDALVI/ HRAC-USP-Bauru, de agosto de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. Casuística e Métodos: O TEN foi aplicado nos grupos G1 (5 mulheres com limiares tonais aéreos dentro do padrão de normalidade; G2 (4 mulheres e 5 homens com PANS moderada plana; G3 (19 mulheres e 24 homens com PANS com o grau variando entre leve a profundo. RESULTADOS: Para G1, o valor de TEN para eliminar o tom de teste foi, em média, próximo ao limiar absoluto para todas as freqüências. Não foi observada ZMC em nenhuma das orelhas testadas do G2. Para as 76 orelhas do G3, 6 não apresentaram indício de ZM. CONCLUSÕES: O TEN é efetivo para indicar ZMC em indivíduos com PANS descendente. Há evidência de diferença na detecção do tom puro na presença de ruído entre indivíduos com PANS em altas freqüências e com PANS plana, pois se observou diferença significativa entre o limiar mascarado e absoluto apenas para PANS descendentes e não para as planas.An audiogram is not sufficient to indicate cochlear dead regions. AIM: To investigate cochlear dead regions in sensorineural hearing loss subjects using the TEN test. Site: CEDALVI/ HRAC-USP-Bauru/Sao Paulo/Brazil, August 2003 to February 2004. STUDY DESING: A contemporary cross-sectional cohort study. Material and Methods: The TEN test was applied in three groups: G1(5 women with pure-tone thresholds within normal limits; G2(4 women and 5 men with moderate sensorineural flat hearing loss; G3(19 women and 24 men with mild to severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss. RESULTS: In the G1 group the TEN value required to eliminate the test tone was, on average, close to the absolute threshold

  13. Line parameters including temperature dependences of air- and self-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 2.06-μm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297 K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49 m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594 Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146 Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711 Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers among children and adolescents in the south brazilian region: metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Royer Voigt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health, about 15% of population is infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV and less than 1% by hepatitis C virus (HCV. Nevertheless, the age-specific prevalence of HBV and HCV markers remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and immunity in children and adolescents between 10 to 16 years old who live in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Three hundred and eighty four individuals were enrolled in this study. Serological markers for HBV and HCV (HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were determined through Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (MEIA - AxSYM System® - by using commercial diagnostic kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA. All 384 adolescents (100% were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM. Only two (0.52% were positive for total anti-HBc. Among the studied individuals, 226 (58.85% presented titers of anti-HBs > 10.0mIU/mL, 121 (31.51% presented anti HBs < 10.0mIU/mL, and 37 (9.64% did not present titers of anti-HBs. Regarding to anti-HCV, all 384 adolescents (100% presented negative results for this marker. In conclusion, this study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infections. In addition, it was verified a great number of children and adolescents (89.84% who were positive for the immunity marker anti-HBs, implying that the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B has been effective in the studied region.

  15. Functional roles of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Oliveira

    Full Text Available Biochemical studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replisome demonstrate that the mtDNA polymerase and the mtDNA helicase are stimulated by the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB. Unlike Escherichia coli SSB, bacteriophage T7 gp2.5 and bacteriophage T4 gp32, mtSSBs lack a long, negatively charged C-terminal tail. Furthermore, additional residues at the N-terminus (notwithstanding the mitochondrial presequence are present in the sequence of species across the animal kingdom. We sought to analyze the functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mtSSB in the context of mtDNA replication. We produced the mature wild-type human mtSSB and three terminal deletion variants, and examined their physical and biochemical properties. We demonstrate that the recombinant proteins adopt a tetrameric form, and bind single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. They also stimulate similarly the DNA unwinding activity of the human mtDNA helicase (up to 8-fold. Notably, we find that unlike the high level of stimulation that we observed previously in the Drosophila system, stimulation of DNA synthesis catalyzed by human mtDNA polymerase is only moderate, and occurs over a narrow range of salt concentrations. Interestingly, each of the deletion variants of human mtSSB stimulates DNA synthesis at a higher level than the wild-type protein, indicating that the termini modulate negatively functional interactions with the mitochondrial replicase. We discuss our findings in the context of species-specific components of the mtDNA replisome, and in comparison with various prokaryotic DNA replication machineries.

  16. Cerebrovascular Segmentation Based on Region Growing and Local Adaptive C-V Model%基于区域增长与局部自适应C-V模型的脑血管分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解立志; 周明全; 田沄; 武仲科; 王醒策

    2013-01-01

      提出了一种针对TOF MRA(time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography)磁共振图像的双重分割脑血管提取方法。首先结合高斯滤波,采用二维OTSU算法,结合MIP(maximum intensity projection)图像获得三维血管种子点,定义全局与局部信息相结合的区域增长规则,通过区域增长算法对血管进行粗分割;然后,采用 Catt 扩散模型对体数据场进行各向异性滤波,提出了局部自适应C-V模型,将初步分割结果作为自适应活动轮廓模型的初始轮廓线进行二次分割。实验结果表明,该算法不仅能够有效分割脑血管粗大分支,而且还能精确提取脑血管的细小结构。%This paper presents an effective approach to extract cerebrovascular tree from time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images. The approach consists of two segmentation stages. In the first stage, Gaussian filtering is implemented for the 3D volumetric field. By virtue of the maximum intensity projection (MIP) image segmented by the two dimensional OTSU algorithm, 3D vessel seeds are obtained. The region growing rule is defined by combining the global information with the local information, and then the rough segmentation is implemented by the region growing algorithm. In second stage, the original volume data is filtered by an anisotropic filtering based on Catt diffusion. A local adaptive C-V model is proposed, and the initial contour of the model is set by employing the first segmented vessels. Then the accurate segmentation is realized by the contour evolution. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is not only able to effectively segment the thick vessel, but also able to accurately extract the thinner vessels with weak boundaries.

  17. The TAF9 C-terminal conserved region domain is required for SAGA and TFIID promoter occupancy to promote transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Malika; Sawhney, Sonal; Sinha, Ishani; Singh, Rana Pratap; Dahiya, Rashmi; Thakur, Anushikha; Siddharthan, Rahul; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2014-05-01

    A common function of the TFIID and SAGA complexes, which are recruited by transcriptional activators, is to deliver TBP to promoters to stimulate transcription. Neither the relative contributions of the five shared TBP-associated factor (TAF) subunits in TFIID and SAGA nor the requirement for different domains in shared TAFs for transcriptional activation is well understood. In this study, we uncovered the essential requirement for the highly conserved C-terminal region (CRD) of Taf9, a shared TAF, for transcriptional activation in yeast. Transcriptome profiling performed under Gcn4-activating conditions showed that the Taf9 CRD is required for induced expression of ∼9% of the yeast genome. The CRD was not essential for the Taf9-Taf6 interaction, TFIID or SAGA integrity, or Gcn4 interaction with SAGA in cell extracts. Microarray profiling of a SAGA mutant (spt20Δ) yielded a common set of genes induced by Spt20 and the Taf9 CRD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that, although the Taf9 CRD mutation did not impair Gcn4 occupancy, the occupancies of TFIID, SAGA, and the preinitiation complex were severely impaired at several promoters. These results suggest a crucial role for the Taf9 CRD in genome-wide transcription and highlight the importance of conserved domains, other than histone fold domains, as a common determinant for TFIID and SAGA functions.

  18. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis. PMID:14999010

  19. Polymorphism attribution of cSNPs in cancer-related genes located in loss regions with a high frequency of HCC between HBV and health groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; NI Hong; CHEN Li; CHEN Chengbin; SONG Wenqin

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-related genes harbored in the loss regions containing a high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were selected.Related information was gathered and the coding single nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) sequences were obtained from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database.The appropriate primers and oligonucleotide probes were then designed in accordance with the SNP sites,and subsequently,the gene chips for detecting SNPs were constructed.Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of healthy controls and from patients with HBV infection.The sequences,including the SNPs,were amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and labeled using digoxigenin deoxyuridine tri-phosphate (Dig-dUTP).The labeled products were then hybridized with the SNP chips.Results confirmed that the differences in allele frequencies of three SNPs EGFL3 (rs947345),Caspase9 (rs2308950),and E2F2 (rs3218171) were distinct between HBV-infected patients and controls,suggesting that these SNPs ocuring in high frequency in HBV-infected individuals may be associated with susceptibility to HCC.

  20. Distinct Roles for the N- and C-terminal Regions of M-Sec in Plasma Membrane Deformation during Tunneling Nanotube Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Masami; Yamakami-Kimura, Megumi; Sato, Yusuke; Yamagata, Atsushi; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Amada, Takako; Hase, Koji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Fukai, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    The tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a structure used for intercellular communication, and is a thin membrane protrusion mediating transport of various signaling molecules and cellular components. M-Sec has potent membrane deformation ability and induces TNT formation in cooperation with the Ral/exocyst complex. Here, we show that the N-terminal polybasic region of M-Sec directly binds phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate for its localization to the plasma membrane during the initial stage of TNT formation. We further report a crystal structure of M-Sec, which consists of helix bundles arranged in a straight rod-like shape, similar to the membrane tethering complex subunits. A positively charged surface in the C-terminal domains is required for M-Sec interaction with active RalA to extend the plasma membrane protrusions. Our results suggest that the membrane-associated M-Sec recruits active RalA, which directs the exocyst complex to form TNTs. PMID:27629377

  1. Mutations around interferon sensitivity-determining region: A pilot resistance report of hepatitis C virus 1b in a Hong Kong population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Zhou; Paul KS Chan; John S Tam

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore mutations around the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) which are associated with the resistance of hepatitis C virus 1b (HCV-1b) to interferon-α treatment.METHODS: Thirty-seven HCV-1b samples were obtained from Hong Kong patients who had completed the combined interferon-α/ribavirin treatment for more than one year with available response data. Nineteen of them were sustained virological responders, while 18 were non-responders. The amino acid sequences of the extended ISDR (eISDR) covering 64 amino acids upstream and 67 amino acids downstream from the previously reported ISDR were analyzed.RESULTS: One amino acid variation (I2268V, P = 0.023) was significantly correlated with treatment outcome in this pilot study with a limited number of patients, while two amino acid variations (R2260H, P = 0.05 and S2278T, P = 0.05) were weakly associated with treatment outcome. The extent of amino acid variations within the ISDR or eISDR was not correlated with treatment outcome as previously reported.CONCLUSION: Three amino acid mutations near but outside of ISDR may associate with interferon treatment resistance of HCV-1b patients in Hong Kong.

  2. High Species C Human Adenovirus Genome Copy Numbers in the Treated Water Supply of a Neotropical Area of the Central-West Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hugo D; Fongaro, Gislaine; Garcíazapata, Marco T A; Melo, Arthur T O; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; de Faria, Karla M S; Anunciação, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    There is little information about the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in drinking water in Neotropical regions. Thus, the present study sought to conduct quantification and molecular characterization of HAdVs detected in treated water samples from an area of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. Between August and November 2012, samples were collected from four treated water reservoirs and their respective sites along the water distribution network of the city of Goiânia, for a total of 80 samples. All samples were concentrated and analyzed by qPCR, and selected samples were sequenced. Overall, 76.6 (10(0)-10(9) GC mL(-1)) and 37.5% (10(1)-10(8) GC mL(-1)) of samples drawn from reservoirs and their distribution sites, respectively, were positive for virus by qPCR. All samples selected for sequencing were characterized as species C human adenovirus. Such high HAdV counts have in treated water samples. This finding merits special attention, particularly from the sanitation authorities, because the high number of GC mL(-1) may be an indicative of risk to human health.

  3. Evaluation of novel Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine candidates incorporating multiple conserved sequences from the C-repeat region of the M-protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michelle J; Georgousakis, Melina M; Vu, Therese; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Rettel, Mandy; Hafner, Louise M; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

    2012-03-01

    A major challenge for Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine development is the identification of epitopes that confer protection from infection by multiple S. pyogenes M-types. Here we have identified and characterised the distribution of common variant sequences from individual repeat units of the C-repeat region (CRR) of M-proteins representing 77 different M-types. Three polyvalent fusion vaccine candidates (SV1, SV2 and SV3) incorporating the most common variants were subsequently expressed and purified, and demonstrated to be alpha-helical by Circular Dichroism (CD), a secondary conformational characteristic of the CRR in the M-protein. Antibodies raised against each of these constructs recognise M-proteins that vary in their CRR, and bind to the surface of multiple S. pyogenes isolates. Antibodies raised against SV1, containing five variant sequences, also kill heterologous S. pyogenes isolates in in vitro bactericidal assays. Further structural characterisation of this construct demonstrated the conformation of SV1 was stable at different pHs, and thermal unfolding of SV1 is a reversible process. Our findings demonstrate that linkage of multiple variant sequences into a single recombinant construct overcomes the need to embed the variant sequences in foreign helix promoting flanking sequences for conformational stability, and demonstrates the viability of the polyvalent candidates as global S. pyogenes vaccine candidates. PMID:22265945

  4. Characterization of the humic substances isolated from postfire soils of scotch pine forest in Togljatty city, Samara region by the 13C-NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Postpyrogenic soil dynamics is an informative tool for studying of soil elementary processes in extreme temperature conditions and for predicting of short time environmental changes in conditions of catastrophic landscape changes. Soil organic matter (SOM) system evolution is the most rapid process of postpyrogenic soil development. In this relation the evaluation of humus accumulation rates and humification trend were conducted with use of the classical chemical and modern spectroscopy methods. Soil restoration after spontaneous forest fires near Togljatty city (Samara region, Russia) was abandoned in 2010, and further monitoring over the next four years was organized to evaluate the speed of biogenic processes and humus accumulation dynamics. Three key soil plots were studied for estimating SOM quality changes under the forest fire effect: surface forest fire, crown forest fire and control. Total carbon and nitrogen content as well as Cha/Cfa ratios (content of humic acids/ content of fulvic acids), were estimated to assess the dynamics of soil restoration. Humic acid powders were extracted and analyzed by elemental composition and 13C-NMR spectroscopy to assess changes in humic substance structure and composition. The data obtained indicate that burning of a forest floor and sod (humic) horizon led to humus losses and decreases in total carbon stocks. As a result of the fires, the content of humic acids in the pyrogenic horizon increased, leading alterations of humus type. Greater increases in the degree of organic matter humification were observed for surface fires than crown fires. It was shown that the humus molecular composition was substantially affected by the wildfires. The data show an increase in aromaticity, a loss of oxygen-containing groups and dehydrogenation of humic acids. Humic acids in the soils of the control plots and after wildfires were significantly different, especially in the ratios of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. The increase in the

  5. Teores de cátions dos vinhos da Serra Gaúcha Cation content of wines from the Serra Gaúcha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os cátions representam uma parte das cinzas e podem contribuir para caracterizar os vinhos de diferentes regiões vitícolas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos principais cátions de vinhos da Serra Gaúcha, RS, visando a sua caracterização. Foram analisados 600 vinhos de mesa e 380 vinhos finos, ambos distribuídos nas categorias tinto, rosado e branco. As análises de K+, Na+, Li+ e Rb+ foram feitas por emissão de chama, enquanto que as de Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Fe++, Cu++ e Zn++ por absorção atômica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, ao teste de Tukey e à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A análise de variância não mostrou diferenças significativas nas concentrações de Na+, Cu++ e Zn++ nos diferentes tipos de vinhos da Serra Gaúcha; os vinhos de mesa apresentaram maior concentração de Mn++ em relação aos finos; os de mesa e os rosados finos apresentaram concentração mais elevada de Fe++; enquanto que os tintos finos apresentaram concentrações mais elevadas de K+ e Rb+. A ACP permitiu diferenciar os vinhos em relação à cor - tinto, rosado e branco - e ao tipo - fino e de mesa.Cations represent an important part of the ash content and they can contribute to characterize wines from different viticultural regions. The purpose of this work was to determine the concentration of the main cations in the wines of the Serra Gaúcha region in Brazil. Six hundred table wines, primarily from American/hybrid varieties, and 380 wines elaborated with Vitis vinifera varieties, both including red, rosé and white wines, were analyzed. The analyses of K+, Na+, Li+ and Rb+ were performed by flame emission, while Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Fe++, Cu++ and Zn++ analyses were performed by atomic absorption. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test and to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the concentration of Na

  6. Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M Santiveri

    Full Text Available Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3 shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM. Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402 of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p, very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role.

  7. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore-Washington, D.C. region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G. S.; Moore, R. H.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Anderson, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites) and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring) must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type - such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity - and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH), and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD-Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 %) and organics (57 %). A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity) such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs). The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m-3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35 ng m-3 in the free troposphere (above

  8. PolyC-binding protein 1 interacts with 5'-untranslated region of enterovirus 71 RNA in membrane-associated complex to facilitate viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which may lead to severe neurological disorders and mortality in children. EV71 genome is a positive single-stranded RNA containing a single open reading frame (ORF flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR and 3'UTR. The 5'UTR is fundamentally important for virus replication by interacting with cellular proteins. Here, we revealed that poly(C-binding protein 1 (PCBP1 specifically binds to the 5'UTR of EV71. Detailed studies indicated that the RNA-binding K-homologous 1 (KH1 domain of PCBP1 is responsible for its binding to the stem-loop I and IV of EV71 5'UTR. Interestingly, we revealed that PCBP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but mainly localized in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells due to interaction and co-localization with the viral RNA. Furthermore, sub-cellular distribution analysis showed that PCBP1 is located in ER-derived membrane, in where virus replication occurred in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells, suggesting PCBP1 is recruited in a membrane-associated replication complex. In addition, we found that the binding of PCBP1 to 5'UTR resulted in enhancing EV71 viral protein expression and virus production so as to facilitate viral replication. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism in which PCBP1 as a positive regulator involved in regulation of EV71 replication in the host specialized membrane-associated replication complex, which provides an insight into cellular factors involved in EV71 replication.

  9. Study of the influence of the metal partition coefficient on the human health risk evaluation, applied to Figueira (PR) soil region, using C-Soil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of partition coefficient show that Kp values of metals can vary orders of magnitude according to the soil physical-chemistry characteristics. Therefore, the Kp is a sensible parameter in human health risk assessment model. In general, a default value is adopted by environmental agencies and often it is not represent suitably the soil studied and can cause errors in the risk calculation. The objectives of this work are: evaluate the heavy metals soil contamination around the Figueira coal-fired power plant; determine the metal Kp of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil by the ratio between the metal concentration obtained by concentrate HNO3 digestion and the metal concentration obtained by extraction with EDTA 0,05 mol L-1 (KpEDTA) or Ca(NO3)2 0,1 mol L-1 (KpCa(NO3)2); and evaluate the influence of the application of different Kp values in human health risk assessment C-Soil model in risk calculation. The main conclusions of the present study were: As, Cd, Mo, Pb e Zn were the Figueira soil metal contaminants, being As the pollutant of major human health concern; either KpCa(NO3)2 or KpEDTA values could be used for human health risk calculation, in Figueira case, except for Pb, and the KpEDTA values were preferably recommended due to the less dispersion of their values; the KpCSoil metals default values could be applied for the human health risk calculation in Figueira case, in other words, it would not have necessity to determine Kp values of region (KpEDTA and KpCa(NO3)2), except to Pb. (author)

  10. A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Hofbaur, Stefan; Loell, Eva; Rieder, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection. In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct. The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions. PMID:27766167

  11. The tryptophan hydroxylase activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, decreases regional 5-HT synthesis in the rat brain measured with alpha-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan: an autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Shu; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Gittos, Maurice; Diksic, Mirko

    2005-10-15

    Many experimental conditions are stressful for animals. It is well known that stress induces tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation, resulting in increased serotonin (5-HT) synthesis. In our experimental procedure to measure 5-HT synthesis using alpha-[(14)C]methyl-L-tryptophan (alpha-MTrp) autoradiographic method, the hind limbs of animals are restrained using a loose-fitted plaster cast such that the forelimbs of the animal remain free. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the changes, if any, in 5-HT synthesis, after injecting these restrained rats with the TPH activation inhibitor AGN-2979. The effect on regional 5-HT synthesis was studied using the alpha-MTrp autoradiographic method. The hypothesis was that the TPH activation inhibitor would reduce 5-HT synthesis, if TPH activation was induced by this restraint. The rats received injection of AGN-2979 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or distilled water vehicle (1 mL/kg, i.p.) 1 h prior to tracer administration. The free- and total tryptophan concentrations were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups. The results demonstrate that 5-HT synthesis in AGN-2979 treated rats is significantly decreased (-12 to -35%) in both the raphe nuclei and their terminal areas when compared to the control rats. These findings suggest that restrained conditions, such as those used in our experimental protocol, induce TPH activation resulting in an increased 5-HT synthesis throughout the brain. The reduction in 5-HT synthesis in the AGN-2979 group is not related to a change in the plasma tryptophan. Because there was no activation in the pineal body, the structure having a different isoform of TPH, we can propose that it is only the brain TPH that becomes activated with this specific restraint.

  12. Frequency distribution of the single-nucleotide -108C/T polymorphism at the promoter region of the PON1 gene in Asian Indians and its relationship with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Imteyaz; Narang, Rajiv; Venkatraman, Anand; Das, Nibhriti

    2011-01-01

    A single-nucleotide promoter region polymorphism (-108C/T) of the paraoxonase (PON1) gene had been suggested to influence an individual's susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). No data is available on this polymorphism from India. One hundred seventy-eight healthy individuals and 204 angiographically proven CAD patients were recruited to get baseline data on the frequency distribution of the -108C/T polymorphism in normal people of Asian Indian ethnicity and its relation with the ri...

  13. Intraspecies Diversity of Cryptococcus laurentii as Revealed by Sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and 28S rRNA Gene and Taxonomic Position of C. laurentii Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Sugita, Takashi; Takashima, Masako; Ikeda, Reiko; Nakase, Takashi; Shinoda, Takako

    2000-01-01

    The intraspecies diversity of an opportunistic yeast pathogen, Cryptococcus laurentii, was revealed by analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions and the 28S rRNA gene. Ten strains of C. laurentii were grouped into two major phylogenetic groups and were further divided into at least seven species. Four of the strains isolated from patients did not represent a single species but showed heterogeneity. These results suggest that C. laurentii is a genetically heterogeneo...

  14. Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase: role of amino acids conserved in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain on the specific recognition of the initiator tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S; Li, Y; Ramesh, V; RajBhandary, U L

    2000-03-01

    The formylation of initiator methionyl-tRNA by methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTF) is important for the initiation of protein synthesis in eubacteria. We are studying the molecular mechanisms of recognition of the initiator tRNA by Escherichia coli MTF. MTF from eubacteria contains an approximately 100-amino acid C-terminal extension that is not found in the E. coli glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, which, like MTF, use N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as a formyl group donor. This C-terminal extension, which forms a distinct structural domain, is attached to the N-terminal domain through a linker region. Here, we describe the effect of (i) substitution mutations on some nineteen basic, aromatic and other conserved amino acids in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain of MTF and (ii) deletion mutations from the C-terminus on enzyme activity. We show that the positive charge on two of the lysine residues in the linker region leading to the C-terminal domain are important for enzyme activity. Mutation of some of the basic amino acids in the C-terminal domain to alanine has mostly small effects on the kinetic parameters, whereas mutation to glutamic acid has large effects. However, the deletion of 18, 20, or 80 amino acids from the C-terminus has very large effects on enzyme activity. Overall, our results support the notion that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal domain provide a positively charged channel that is used for the nonspecific binding of tRNA, whereas some of the amino acids in the linker region play an important role in activity of MTF.

  15. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Jans, David A.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  16. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Moon Y F; Smith, Kate; Ng, Ivan H W; Chan, Kitti W K; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Luo, Dahai; Jans, David A; Forwood, Jade K; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  17. The C-terminal region of Rad52 is essential for Rad52 nuclear and nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Rad52 might play a key role in the repair of DSB immediately after irradiation. •EYFP-Rad52 accumulates rapidly at DSB sites and colocalizes with Ku80. •Accumulation of Rad52 at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors. •Localization and recruitment of Rad52 to DSB sites are dependent on the Rad52 CTR. •Basic amino acids in Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among vertebrate species. -- Abstract: Rad52 plays essential roles in homologous recombination (HR) and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in vertebrates, knockouts of the Rad52 gene show no hypersensitivity to agents that induce DSBs. Rad52 localizes in the nucleus and forms foci at a late stage following irradiation. Ku70 and Ku80, which play an essential role in nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ), are essential for the accumulation of other core NHEJ factors, e.g., XRCC4, and a HR-related factor, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) changes dynamically during the cell cycle. In addition, EYFP-Rad52(1–418) accumulates rapidly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. Moreover, the accumulation of EYFP-Rad52(1–418) at DSB sites is independent of the core NHEJ factors, i.e., Ku80 and XRCC4. Furthermore, we observed that EYFP-Rad52(1–418) localizes in nucleoli in CHO-K1 cells and XRCC4-deficient cells, but not in Ku80-deficient cells. We also found that Rad52 nuclear localization, nucleolar localization, and accumulation at DSB sites are dependent on eight amino acids (411–418) at the end of the C-terminal region of Rad52 (Rad52 CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on Rad52 CTR are highly conserved among mammalian, avian, and fish homologues, suggesting that Rad52 CTR is important for the regulation and function of Rad52 in vertebrates. These findings also suggest that the mechanism underlying the regulation of subcellular localization of Rad52 is

  18. The mechanism of chromosomal translocation t(11;14) involving the T-cell receptor C delta locus on human chromosome 14q11 and a transcribed region of chromosome 11p15.

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, T.; Baer, R; Lavenir, I; Forster, A; Waters, J J; Nacheva, E; Rabbitts, T H

    1988-01-01

    A chromosomal translocation t(11;14) (p15;q11) is described in a human acute T-cell leukaemia of immature phenotype (CD3-, CD4-, CD8-). The translocation occurs at a T-cell receptor joining J delta segment, 12 kb upstream of the constant C delta gene and 98 kb upstream of the C alpha gene at chromosome band 14q11. Nucleotide sequencing shows that both J delta and C delta are very conserved between mouse and man. The region of chromosome 11 involved in the translocation is transcriptionally ac...

  19. Diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cérvix en México entre 1979 y 2006 Regional differences in breast and cervical cancer mortality in Mexico between 1979-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sofía Palacio-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama (CaMa y cervical (CaCu en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon tendencias de mortalidad por CaMa y CaCu mediante modelos probabilísticos ajustados por estado, grado de marginación y lugar de residencia (urbano/rural. RESULTADOS: La tendencia de mortalidad por CaMa ha sido ascendente, de una tasa estandarizada de 5.6 muertes por cada 100 000 mujeres en 1979 a 10.1 en 2006. La mortalidad por CaCu alcanzó un pico en 1989 y a partir de esa fecha se redujo a 9.9 en 2006. Las tasas más altas de mortalidad por CaMa se encuentran en la capital (13.2 y la región norte (11.8, mientras en el sur se registra la mortalidad por CaCu más alta (11.9. DISCUSIÓN: El número de muertes por CaMa aumenta de forma gradual a lo largo del tiempo a nivel nacional y persisten elevadas tasas de mortalidad por CaCu en áreas marginadas.OBJECTIVE: Explore the regional differences in breast (BC and cervical cancer (CC mortality in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated mortality trends for BC and CC using probabilistic models adjusted by state marginalization level and urban and rural residence. RESULTS: BC mortality shows a rising trend, from a rate of 5.6 deaths per 100000 women in 1979 to 10.1 in 2006. The CC mortality rate reached a peak in 1989 and after this decreased significantly to 9.9 in 2006. The highest BC mortality rates are found in Mexico City (13.2 and the northern part of the country (11.8. As for CC, the highest mortality rates are found in the south (11.9 per 100000 women the. DISCUSSION: The number of BC cases are increased gradually at the national level during the last three decades and high rates of CC mortality persist in marginalized areas.

  20. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from Metop/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  1. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  2. Cloning and expression of a cDNA covering the complete coding region of the P32 subunit of human pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H;

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed a cDNA encoding the 32-kDa subunit (P32) of the human pre-mRNA splicing factor, SF2. This cDNA extends beyond the 5'-end of a previously reported cDNA [Krainer et al., Cell 66 (1991) 383-394]. Importantly, our fragment includes an ATG start codon which was absent from...

  3. Characterization of age/sex and the regional distribution of mGluR5 availability in the healthy human brain measured by high-resolution [{sup 11}C]ABP688 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Jonathan M.; Porras-Betancourt, Manuel; Massarweh, Gassan; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Kobayashi, Eliane [McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rousset, Olivier G. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rowley, Jared [McGill University, Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal (Canada); Reader, Andrew J. [McGill University, PET Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal (Canada); King' s College London, St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Labbe, Aurelie [McGill University, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational health, Montreal (Canada); Douglas Mental Health University Institute / Douglas Institut Universitaire en Sante Mentale, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal (Canada); Rosa-Neto, Pedro [McGill University, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); McGill University, Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. The radiopharmaceutical [{sup 11}C]ABP688 allows for in vivo quantification of mGluR5 availability using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we aimed to detail the regional distribution of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 binding potential (BP{sub ND}) and the existence of age/sex effects in healthy individuals. Thirty-one healthy individuals aged 20 to 77 years (men, n = 18, 45.3 ± 18.2 years; females, n = 13, 41.5 ± 19.6 years) underwent imaging with [{sup 11}C]ABP688 using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT). We developed an advanced partial volume correction (PVC) method using surface-based analysis in order to accurately estimate the regional variation of radioactivity. BP{sub ND} was calculated using the simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellum as the reference region. Surface-based and volume-based analyses were performed for 39 cortical and subcortical regions of interest per hemisphere. We found the highest [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} in the lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The lowest [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} was observed in the pre- and post-central gyri as well as the occipital lobes and the thalami. No sex effect was observed. Associations between age and [{sup 11}C]ABP688 BP{sub ND} without PVC were observed in the right amygdala and left putamen, but were not significant after multiple comparisons correction. The present results highlight complexities underlying brain adaptations during the aging process, and support the notion that certain aspects of neurotransmission remain stable during the adult life span. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of age/sex and the regional distribution of mGluR5 availability in the healthy human brain measured by high-resolution [11C]ABP688 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. The radiopharmaceutical [11C]ABP688 allows for in vivo quantification of mGluR5 availability using positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we aimed to detail the regional distribution of [11C]ABP688 binding potential (BPND) and the existence of age/sex effects in healthy individuals. Thirty-one healthy individuals aged 20 to 77 years (men, n = 18, 45.3 ± 18.2 years; females, n = 13, 41.5 ± 19.6 years) underwent imaging with [11C]ABP688 using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT). We developed an advanced partial volume correction (PVC) method using surface-based analysis in order to accurately estimate the regional variation of radioactivity. BPND was calculated using the simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellum as the reference region. Surface-based and volume-based analyses were performed for 39 cortical and subcortical regions of interest per hemisphere. We found the highest [11C]ABP688 BPND in the lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The lowest [11C]ABP688 BPND was observed in the pre- and post-central gyri as well as the occipital lobes and the thalami. No sex effect was observed. Associations between age and [11C]ABP688 BPND without PVC were observed in the right amygdala and left putamen, but were not significant after multiple comparisons correction. The present results highlight complexities underlying brain adaptations during the aging process, and support the notion that certain aspects of neurotransmission remain stable during the adult life span. (orig.)

  5. Sequence and functional analysis of the left-hand part of the T-region from the nopaline-type Ti plasmid, pTiC58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, L; Salomone, J Y; Helfer, A; Schmidt, J; Hammann, P; De Ruffray, P

    1999-12-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline strain C58 transfers a large, 29 kb T-DNA into plant cells during infection. Part of this DNA (the 'common DNA') is also found on the T-DNA of octopine strains, the remaining DNA is nopaline strain-specific. Up to now, only parts of the C58 T-DNA and related T37 T-DNA have been sequenced. We have sequenced the remainder of the nopaline-specific T-DNA (containing genes a to d) and acs to iaaM. Gene c codes for a new unknown T-DNA protein. Gene a is homologous to the agrocinopine synthase gene. Genes b, c', d and e are part of a larger family: they are related to the T-DNA genes 5, rolB, lso and 3'. Genes 5, rolB and lso induce or modify plant growth and have been called T-DNA oncogenes. Our studies show that gene 3' (located on the TR-DNA of octopine strains) is also oncogenic. Although the b-e T-DNA fragment from C58 and its individual genes lack growth-inducing activity, an a-acs deletion mutant was distinctly less virulent on Kalanchoe daigremontiana and showed reduced shoot formation on Kalanchoe tubiflora. Shoot formation could be restored by genes c and c' in co-infection experiments. Contrary to an earlier report, a C58 e gene deletion mutant was fully virulent on all plants tested. PMID:10737141

  6. Effect of vitamin C in pineapple rind (Ananas comosus L. Merr on thyroxine hormone and anti stress on broilers in tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruddin E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the right level of vitamin C in extracted pineapple rind to prevent heat stress effects so it does not interfere with the performance of broiler chickens. This study was done in a series of field experiments. Experiments in the field/cage was biological test of the effect of vitamin C from pineapple rind on production responses (percentage of body weight gain and carcass and physiological responses (thyroxine hormone levels in broiler chicken aged 3 weeks as many as 360 of Strain Arbor acress. The basic design used was CRD 3 x 4 factorial models and 3 replications with 10 chickens for each box, as factor 1: Room temperature (21 : 27 and 33ºC, and factor II: level of vitamin C in the pineapple rind (0:500:1000 and 1500 ppm. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using SAS program package, and if it showed any significant effect then followed by Duncans test/DMRT. Variables measured were body weight gain, carcass percentage and levels of thyroxine hormone of broiler. Results showed that addition of pineapple rind containing 500 ppm vitamin C in the drinking water reduced heat stress in chicken that were kept at temperature of 27ºC, while at 33ºC needed 1000 ppm vitamin C. Both treatments increase level of thyroxine hormone, produce weight gain equal to control, more over, there was no effect on the percentage of carcasses.

  7. NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE OF THE LAST EXON OF THE GENE FOR HUMAN CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE SUBUNIT-VIB AND ITS FLANKING REGIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; SCHRAGE, C; BOKMA, E; REUVEKAMP, P; AGSTERIBBE, E; DEVRIES, H

    1991-01-01

    A human genomic clone encompassing the last exon of the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb and a human genomic clone containing the most distal end of this gene were characterized. The last exon of the gene codes for the 17 C-terminal amino acid residues of the subunit and the 3' noncoding re

  8. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy of KxC60 and K-halides: comparison in the K-3p excitation region

    OpenAIRE

    上野, 啓司; 斉木, 幸一朗; 小間, 篤

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of KxC60 (x = 0-6) using low-energy electron energy loss spectroscopy (LEELS), especially focusing on the K-3p core-electron excitation spectra. It is found that the structure of the K-3p-excitation spectrum of KxC60 quite differs from that of KCI. Furthermore, the K-3p-excitation LEELS of K3C60 has been revealed to be different from that of K6C60. K-3p electrons are excited into K-4s- and K-3d-derived empty states in both KxC60 and KCI, but in th...

  9. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of Mitochondrial Glutaminase C Reveal Extended Flexible Regions, and Link Oligomeric State with Enzyme Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.; Nielsen, Søren Skou; Ramachandran, Siddharth;

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase C is a key metabolic enzyme, which is unregulated in many cancer systems and believed to play a central role in the Warburg effect, whereby cancer cells undergo changes to an altered metabolic profile. A long-standing hypothesis links enzymatic activity to the protein oligomeric state......, hence the study of the solution behavior in general and the oligomer state in particular of glutaminase C is important for the understanding of the mechanism of protein activation and inhibition. In this report, this is extensively investigated in correlation to enzyme concentration or phosphate level...... state and investigates the C-terminal influence on the enzyme solution behavior. Our data enable SAXS-based rigid body modeling of the full-length tetramer states, thereby presenting the first ever experimentally derived structural model of mitochondrial glutaminase C including the N- and C...

  10. The C-terminal Cytosolic Region of Rim21 Senses Alterations in Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition: INSIGHTS INTO SENSING MECHANISMS FOR PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPID ASYMMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kanako; Obara, Keisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2015-12-25

    Yeast responds to alterations in plasma membrane lipid asymmetry and external alkalization via the sensor protein Rim21 in the Rim101 pathway. However, the sensing mechanism used by Rim21 remains unclear. Here, we found that the C-terminal cytosolic domain of Rim21 (Rim21C) fused with GFP was associated with the plasma membrane under normal conditions but dissociated upon alterations in lipid asymmetry or external alkalization. This indicates that Rim21C contains a sensor motif. Rim21C contains multiple clusters of charged residues. Among them, three consecutive Glu residues (EEE motif) were essential for Rim21 function and dissociation of Rim21C from the plasma membrane in response to changes in lipid asymmetry. In contrast, positively charged residues adjacent to the EEE motif were required for Rim21C to associate with the membrane. We therefore propose an "antenna hypothesis," in which Rim21C moves to or from the plasma membrane and functions as the sensing mechanism of Rim21.

  11. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  12. Differentiation of Candida glabrata, C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis based on fragment length polymorphism of ITS1 and ITS2 and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS and D1/D2 regions in rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, H; Bruun, B; Schønheyder, H C;

    2011-01-01

    Different molecular methods for the discrimination of Candida glabrata, C. bracarensis and C. nivariensis were evaluated and the prevalence of these species among Danish blood isolates investigated. Control strains were used to determine fragment length polymorphism in the ITS1, ITS2, ITS1-5.8S...

  13. Phospholipase C-gamma1 interacts with conserved phosphotyrosyl residues in the linker region of Syk and is a substrate for Syk.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, C L; Chandran, K A; Sidorenko, S P; Clark, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Antigen receptor ligation on lymphocytes activates protein tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) isoforms. Glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the C-terminal Src-homology 2 [SH2(C)] domain of PLC-gamma1 bound to tyrosyl phosphorylated Syk. Syk isolated from antigen receptor-activated B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 on Tyr-771 and the key regulatory residue Tyr-783 in vitro, whereas Lyn from the same B cells phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 only on Tyr-771. The abi...

  14. Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C;

    2001-01-01

    A dansylated form of porcine surfactant-associated protein C (Dns-SP-C), bearing a single dansyl group at its N-terminal end, has been used to characterize the lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-C reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers, using fluorescence spectroscopy...... of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers...... phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the fluorescence of Dns-SP-C shows a 3-fold increase with respect to the fluorescence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), suggesting that electrostatic lipid-protein interactions induce important effects on the structure and disposition of the N-terminal segment of the protein in these membranes...

  15. Genetic polymorphism of T6235C mutation in 3 non-coding region of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes and lung cancer susceptibility in the Mongolian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relative risk for lung cancer associated with genetic polymorphism of T6235C mutation in 3' non-coding region(MspⅠ)of cytochrome P450 1A1(CYP1A1)and glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1)in the Mongolian population in Inner Mongolian Region of China.Methods Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP)and multiplex PCR methods were used to analyze blood samples obtained from 263 case subjects and 263 control subjects to determine their genotypes for CYP1...

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gresner

    Full Text Available Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC. We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05. Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference. Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  18. Cooperativity in virus neutralization by human monoclonal antibodies to two adjacent regions located at the amino terminus of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Zhenyong; Wang, Wenyan; Wang, Yong;

    2013-01-01

    polyclonal antibodies to aa 412 to 423 from HCV-infected individuals confirmed broad neutralization, conflicting findings have been reported on polyclonal antibodies to an adjacent region, aa 434 to 446, that may or may not interfere with neutralization by antibodies to aa 412 to 423. To define the interplay...

  19. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction. PMID:24200075

  20. Seasonally varying contributions to urban CO2 in the Chicago, Illinois, USA region: Insights from a high-resolution CO2 concentration and δ13C record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding urban carbon cycling is essential given that cities sustain 54% of the global population and contribute 70% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When combined with CO2 concentration measurements ([CO2], stable carbon isotope analyses (δ13C can differentiate sources of CO2, including ecosystem respiration and combustion of fossil fuels, such as petroleum and natural gas. In this study, we used a wavelength scanned-cavity ringdown spectrometer to collect ∼2x106 paired measurements for [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston, IL for August 2011 through February 2012. Evanston is located immediately north of Chicago, IL, the third largest city in the United States. The measurements represent one of the longest records of urban [CO2] and δ13C values thus far reported. We also compiled local meteorological information, as well as complementary [CO2] and δ13C data for background sites in Park Falls, WI and Mauna Loa, HI. We use the dataset to examine how ecosystem processes, fossil fuel usage, wind speed, and wind direction control local atmospheric [CO2] and δ13C in a midcontinent urban setting on a seasonal to daily basis. On average, [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston were 16–23 ppm higher and 0.97–1.13‰ lower than the background sites. While seasonal [CO2] and δ13C values generally followed broader northern hemisphere trends, the difference between Evanston and the background sites was larger in winter versus summer. Mixing calculations suggest that ecosystem respiration and petroleum combustion equally contributed CO2 in excess of background during the summer and that natural gas combustion contributed 80%–94% of the excess CO2 in winter. Wind speed and direction strongly influenced [CO2] and δ13C values on an hourly time scale. The highest [CO2] and lowest δ13C values occurred at wind speeds <3 m s−1 and when winds blew from the northwest, west, and south over densely populated neighborhoods.

  1. TUNGSTEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN STARDUST SiC GRAINS FROM THE MURCHISON METEORITE: CONSTRAINTS ON THE s-PROCESS IN THE Hf-Ta-W-Re-Os REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Janaina N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lugaro, Maria; Buntain, Joelene [Centre for Stellar and Planetary Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Cristallo, Sergio [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Karakas, Amanda, E-mail: janaina.avila@anu.edu.au [Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    We report the first tungsten isotopic measurements in stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains recovered from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The isotopes {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 179,180}Hf were measured on both an aggregate (KJB fraction) and single stardust SiC grains (LS+LU fraction) believed to have condensed in the outflows of low-mass carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The SiC aggregate shows small deviations from terrestrial (= solar) composition in the {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W ratios, with deficits in {sup 182}W and {sup 183}W with respect to {sup 184}W. The {sup 186}W/{sup 184}W ratio, however, shows no apparent deviation from the solar value. Tungsten isotopic measurements in single mainstream stardust SiC grains revealed lower than solar {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W, {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W, and {sup 186}W/{sup 184}W ratios. We have compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of W isotopic ratios in the envelopes of AGB stars. These ratios are affected by the slow neutron-capture process and match the SiC data regarding their {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W, {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W, and {sup 179}Hf/{sup 180}Hf isotopic compositions, although a small adjustment in the s-process production of {sup 183}W is needed in order to have a better agreement between the SiC data and model predictions. The models cannot explain the {sup 186}W/{sup 184}W ratios observed in the SiC grains, even when the current {sup 185}W neutron-capture cross section is increased by a factor of two. Further study is required to better assess how model uncertainties (e.g., the formation of the {sup 13}C neutron source, the mass-loss law, the modeling of the third dredge-up, and the efficiency of the {sup 22}Ne neutron source) may affect current s-process predictions.

  2. Influence of N- and/or C-terminal regions on activity, expression, characteristics and structure of lipase from Geobacillus sp. 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiukaitė, Renata; Gegeckas, Audrius; Kazlauskas, Darius; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-01-01

    GD-95 lipase from Geobacillus sp. strain 95 and its modified variants lacking N-terminal signal peptide and/or 10 or 20 C-terminal amino acids were successfully cloned, expressed and purified. To our knowledge, GD-95 lipase precursor (Pre-GD-95) is the first Geobacillus lipase possessing more than 80% lipolytic activity at 5 °C. It has maximum activity at 55 °C and displays a broad pH activity range. GD-95 lipase was shown to hydrolyze p-NP dodecanoate, tricaprylin and canola oil better than other analyzed substrates. Structural and sequence alignments of bacterial lipases and GD-95 lipase revealed that the C-terminus forms an α helix, which is a conserved structure in lipases from Pseudomonas, Clostridium or Staphylococcus bacteria. This work demonstrates that 10 and 20 C-terminal amino acids of GD-95 lipase significantly affect stability and other physicochemical properties of this enzyme, which has never been reported before and can help create lipases with more specific properties for industrial application. GD-95 lipase and its modified variants GD-95-10 can be successfully applied to biofuel production, in leather and pulp industries, for the production of cosmetics or perfumes. These lipases are potential biocatalysts in processes, which require extreme conditions: low or high temperature, strongly acidic or alkaline environment and various organic solvents.

  3. Tungsten isotopic compositions in stardust SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite: Constraints on the s-process in the Hf-Ta-W-Re-Os region

    CERN Document Server

    Ávila, J N; Ireland, T R; Gyngard, F; Zinner, E; Cristallo, S; Holden, P; Buntain, J; Amari, S; Karakas, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the first tungsten isotopic measurements in stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains recovered from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The isotopes 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W and 179Hf, 180Hf were measured on both an aggregate (KJB fraction) and single stardust SiC grains (LS+LU fraction) believed to have condensed in the outflows of low-mass carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The SiC aggregate shows small deviations from terrestrial (=solar) composition in the 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, with deficits in 182W and 183W with respect to 184W. The 186W/184W ratio, however, shows no apparent deviation from the solar value. Tungsten isotopic measurements in single mainstream stardust SiC grains revealed lower than solar 182W/184W, 183W/184W, and 186W/184W ratios. We have compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of W isotopic ratios in the envelopes of AGB stars. These ratios are affected by the slow neutron-capture process and match...

  4. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly;

    2016-01-01

    of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory...... on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries....... surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared...

  5. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ANALYSIS OF IL -1Β, IL -4, AND IL -1Β RA GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN ETHNIC BASHKIR PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, LIVING IN C HELYABINSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Burmistrova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Common polymorphisms of interleukin-1β, receptor antagonist interleukin-1, and interleukin-4 genes have been studied among the patients with rheumatoid arthritis of Bashkir origin, living in Chelyabinsk Region. As a result of study, an increased frequency of interleukin-1β homozygosity for a high-producer allele was found. An association has been revealed between the homozygosity for 2-repeat allele of interleukin-4, and the age of disease onset.

  6. Visible Watermarking within the Region of Non-Interest of Medical Images Based on Fuzzy C-Means and Harris Corner Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Debalina Biswas; Poulami Das; Prosenjit Maji; Nilanjan Dey; Sheli Sinha Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of medical information amongst various hos pitals and diagnostic centers for mutual availability of diagnostic and therapeutic case stu dies is a very common process. Watermarking is adding “ownership” information in multimedia con tents to verify signal integrity, prove authenticity and achieve control over the copy proc ess. Distortion in Region of Interest (ROI) of a bio-medical image caused by watermarking may lead to ...

  7. Inhibition of alpha-synuclein fibrillization by dopamine is mediated by interactions with five C-terminal residues and with E83 in the NAC region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E Herrera

    Full Text Available The interplay between dopamine and alpha-synuclein (AS plays a central role in Parkinson's disease (PD. PD results primarily from a severe and selective devastation of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. The neuropathological hallmark of the disease is the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusions known as Lewy bodies within the surviving neurons, enriched in filamentous AS. In vitro, dopamine inhibits AS fibril formation, but the molecular determinants of this inhibition remain obscure. Here we use molecular dynamic (MD simulations to investigate the binding of dopamine and several of its derivatives onto conformers representative of an NMR ensemble of AS structures in aqueous solution. Within the limitations inherent to MD simulations of unstructured proteins, our calculations suggest that the ligands bind to the (125YEMPS(129 region, consistent with experimental findings. The ligands are further stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions with glutamate 83 (E83 in the NAC region. These results suggest that by forming these interactions with AS, dopamine may affect AS aggregation and fibrillization properties. To test this hypothesis, we investigated in vitro the effects of dopamine on the aggregation of mutants designed to alter or abolish these interactions. We found that point mutations in the (125YEMPS(129 region do not affect AS aggregation, which is consistent with the fact that dopamine interacts non-specifically with this region. In contrast, and consistent with our modeling studies, the replacement of glutamate by alanine at position 83 (E83A abolishes the ability of dopamine to inhibit AS fibrillization.

  8. c-fos gene induction by interleukin 2: identification of the critical cytoplasmic regions within the interleukin 2 receptor beta chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, M; Kawahara, A; Mori, H.; Shibuya, H.; Taniguchi, T.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) plays a critical role in the growth and differentiation of lymphoid cells. The IL-2 signal is delivered intracellularly by the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta); however, the mechanism by which the signal reaches the nucleus remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the rapid activation of c-fos protooncogene transcription by IL-2 and provide evidence that the serum-responsive element (SRE) within the c-fos promoter is responsible for the activation in a murine p...

  9. Isolation of novel non-HLA gene fragments from the hemochromatosis region (6p21. 3) by cDNA hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goei, V.L.; Capossela, A.; Gruen, J.R.; Parimoo, S.; Chu, T.W. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-02-01

    It has previously been shown that cDNA hybridization selection can identify and recover novel genes from large cloned genomic DNA such as cosmids or YACs. In an effort to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, this technique was applied to a 320-kb YAC containing the HLA-A gene. A short fragment cDNA library derived from human duodenum was selected with the YAC DNA. Ten novel gene fragments were isolated, characterized, and localized on the physical map of the YAC. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Random-walk approach to mapping nodal regions of N-body wave functions: Ground-state Hartree--Fock wave functions for Li--C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the widespread acceptance of the relevance of the nodes of one-body electronic wave functions (atomic or molecular orbitals) in determining chemical properties, relatively little is known about the corresponding nodes of many-body wave functions. As an alternative to mapping the nodal surfaces present in the ground states of many-electron systems, we have focused instead on the structural domains implied by these surfaces. In the spirit of Monte Carlo techniques, the nodal hypervolumes of a series of atomic N-body Hartree--Fock level electronic wave functions have been mapped using a random-walk simulation in 3N dimensional configuration space. The basic structural elements of the domain of atomic or molecular wave functions are identified as nodal regions (continuous volumes of the same sign) and permutational cells (identical building blocks). Our algorithm determines both the relationships among nodal regions or cells (topology) as well as the geometric properties within each structural domain. Our results indicate that ground-state Hartree--Fock wave functions generally consist of four equivalent nodal regions (two positive and two negative), each constructed from one or more permutational cells. We have developed an operational method to distinguish otherwise identical permutational cells. The limitations and most probable sources of error associated with this numerical method are discussed as are directions for future research

  11. THE HEPARIN-BINDING DOMAIN AND V REGION OF FIBRONECTIN REGULATE APOPTOSIS BY SUPPRESSION OF P53 AND C-MYC IN HUMAN PRIMARY CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In apoptosis the tumor suppressor p53 and oncogene c-myc, are usually upregulated. However, we report here an alternate pathway of regulation that is triggered by inflammatory-associated matrix fragments of fibronectin (FN) and leads to apoptosis. It is mediated by transcriptio...

  12. Identification of distinct nisin leader peptide regions that determine interactions with the modification enzymes NisB and NisC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khusainov, Rustem; Moll, Gert N.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2013-01-01

    Nisin is the most prominent and applied bacteriocin that serves as a model for class I lantibiotics. The nisin leader peptide importantly determines interactions between precursor nisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC that mature nisin posttranslationally. NisB dehydrates serines and thre

  13. Limited participation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the clozapine-induced Fos-protein expression in rat forebrain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebens, JB; Kuipers, SD; Koch, T; Ter Horst, GJ; Korf, J

    2000-01-01

    Through the development of tolerance following long-term clozapine treatment, we investigated whether 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors participate in the clozapine-induced Fos-protein expression in the rat forebrain. Tolerance exists when the acutely increased Fos responses to a challenge dose of the

  14. Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q in hepatocellular carcinoma metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsemman, Ibrahim; Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed;

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide healthcare problem; however, traditional treatment methods have failed to cure all patients, and HCV has developed resistance to new drugs. Systems biology-based analyses could play an important role in the holistic analysis of the impact of HCV...

  15. Line parameters including temperature dependences of self- and air-broadened line shapes of 12C16O2: 1.6-μm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.; Drouin, Brian J.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Gamache, Robert R.

    2016-07-01

    Pressure-broadened line shapes in the 30013←00001 (ν1+4 ν20 +ν3) band of 12C16O2 at 6228 cm-1 are reanalyzed using new spectra recorded with sample temperatures down to 170 K. High resolution, high signal-to-noise (S/N) laboratory measurements of line shapes (Lorentz air- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, pressure-shift coefficients and off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients) as a function of gas sample temperatures for various pressures and volume mixing ratios are presented. The spectra were recorded using two different Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS): (1) the McMath-Pierce FTS located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona (and reported in Devi et al., J Mol Spectrosc 2007;245:52-80) and, (2) the Bruker IFS-125HR FTS at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The 19 spectra taken at Kitt Peak were all recorded near room temperature while the 27 Bruker spectra were acquired both at room temperature and colder temperatures (170-296 K). Various spectral resolutions (0.004-0.011 cm-1), absorption path lengths (2.46-121 m) and CO2 samples (natural and 12C-enriched) were included in the dataset. To maximize the accuracies of the various retrieved line parameters, a multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting software program was used to adjust the ro-vibrational constants (G,B,D etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis terms) instead of directly measuring the individual line positions and intensities. To minimize systematic residuals, line mixing (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements) and quadratic speed dependence parameters were included in the analysis. Contributions from other weakly absorbing bands: the 30013←00001 and 30012←00001 bands of 13C16O2, the 30013←00001 band of 12C16O18O, hot bands 31113←01101 and 32212←02201 of 12C16O2, as well as the 40013←10001 and the 40014←10002 bands of 12C16O2, present within the fitted interval were also measured

  16. Vaccine-induced plasma IgA specific for the C1 region of the HIV-1 envelope blocks binding and effector function of IgG

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Pollara, Justin; Bonsignori, Mattia; Moody, M. Anthony; Fong, Youyi; Chen, Xi; Poling, Brigid; Nicholson, Cindo O; Zhang, Ruijun; Lu, Xiaozhi; Parks, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of correlates of risk of infection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial demonstrated that plasma IgG against the HIV-1 envelope (Env) variable region 1 and 2 inversely correlated with risk, whereas HIV-1 Env-specific plasma IgA responses directly correlated with risk. In the secondary analysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was another inverse correlate of risk, but only in the presence of low plasma IgA Env-specific antibodies. Thus, we investigated the hypoth...

  17. Search for $H^0 \\rightarrow b \\bar{b}$ or $c \\bar{c}$ in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson in the forward region of $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb dataset consisting of proton--proton collisions recorded at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ $\\mathrm{TeV}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98 $\\pm$ 0.02 $fb^{-1}$, is used to search for a Higgs boson with a mass of 125 $\\mathrm{GeV}$, produced in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson and decaying to a $b \\bar{b}$ or $c \\bar{c}$ pair. The final state considered is a pair of heavy flavour tagged jets and one or two high $p_T$ leptons (electrons or muons). No excess over the background expectation is found and upper limits on the product of cross section times branching fraction, with two heavy quarks from $H^0$ and one lepton from $W$/$Z$ in the $\\text {LHCb}$ acceptance $2 < \\eta < 5$, are set at $95\\% ~\\text{CL}$: \\begin{align} \\sigma (pp \\rightarrow W/Z + H^0 ) \\times \\mathrm{{\\cal B}}(H^0 \\to b \\bar{b}) < 1.6 ~ \\mathrm{pb}, \\end{align} \\begin{align} \\sigma(pp \\rightarrow W/Z + H^0 ) \\times \\mathrm{{\\cal B}}(H^0 \\to c \\bar{c}) < 9.4 ~ \\mathrm{pb}. \\end{align}

  18. Mutations induced at the promoter region of the c-myc gene due to dual exposure to ionizing radiation and methyl nitroso urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant tumors were arising from a sequence of events including mutation in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.The accretion of these mutations is apparently facilitated by acquired or inherited defects inguardianmechanisms that maintain the integrity of the cellular genome. The proto-oncogene c-myc, which is frequently over expressed in tumors at the center of a transcription factor network, requlates cellular proliferation replicate potential, growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Expression of c-myc is down reglated during differentiation and is rapidly induced by a diverse catalog of mutagens including ionizing radiation and many alkylating agents. In the present study, the dual exposure to methyl nitroso urea(MNU) and ionizing radiation were assessed. These induced effects were assessed histopathologically and biochemically and were correlated at the molecular level by assessing single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)

  19. Seasonally varying contributions to urban CO2 in the Chicago, Illinois, USA region: Insights from a high-resolution CO2 concentration and δ13C record

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Moore; Jacobson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding urban carbon cycling is essential given that cities sustain 54% of the global population and contribute 70% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When combined with CO2 concentration measurements ([CO2]), stable carbon isotope analyses (δ13C) can differentiate sources of CO2, including ecosystem respiration and combustion of fossil fuels, such as petroleum and natural gas. In this study, we used a wavelength scanned-cavity ringdown spectrometer to collect ∼2x106 paired measur...

  20. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  1. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is no information about 2 species with Andean origin: ajíes and rocotos. Due to their relevance for the Andean cuisine and increasing importance in ethnic restaurants in Europe, we studied their carotenoid pattern and vitamin A contribution. PMID:21535519

  2. Synthesis of [11C-methyl]-(-)-OSU6162, its regional brain distribution and some pharmacological effects of (-)-OSU6162 on the dopaminergic system studied in the rhesus monkey by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of the presynaptic dopamine receptor antagonist (-)-OSU6162, ((S)-(-)-3-(3-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1-propylpiperidine) was performed by an alkylation with [11C]methyl iodide of the thio anion (-)-OSU1281, followed by a selective oxidation to the corresponding methyl sulfone, [11C-methyl]-(-)-OSU6162. The total radiochemical yield calculated from the produced [11C]carbon dioxide to final product was about 25% and the time of synthesis was in the range of 40 min from end of bombardment. The synthesis of the precursor, (-)-OSU1281, was performed from (-)-3PPP in a three-step synthesis. The regional brain distribution of (-)-OSU6162 radiolabelled with 11C was studied in rhesus monkeys by means of positron emission tomography, PET. [11C-Methyl]-(-)-OSU6162 was rapidly and uniformly distributed to gray matters of the brain, and no decrease of radioactivity uptake in the brain was seen after pretreatment with 1 to 3 mg/kg/h of (-)-OSU6162. The effect of doses of 1 to 3 mg/kg/h of (-)-OSU6162 on the dopamine binding was studied by PET using [11C-methyl]raclopride. Radioactivity in the striatum was significantly and dose-dependently decreased by (-)-OSU6162 (r = 0.88), supporting competition with dopamine for selective binding to dopamine receptors

  3. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  4. A study on single nucleotide polymorphism of exon 7 T/C (locus 593 of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene in healthy Han population in the Shanghai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-bao XIA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 in healthy Han population in Shanghai region and the features different from other races. Methods The SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was detected and analyzed by PCR and sequencing in 110 healthy Han people from Shanghai areas. The genotype and allele frequency were then calculated and compared with that in other races in combination with review of relevant literature. Results The amplified product of the SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (locus 593 was 240 bp in 110 healthy Han people, of whom 97 were with TT genotype and 13 with TC genotype, but no CC genotype was found. As to the allele frequency distribution, T type allele took the highest position, and C type followed. The genotype frequency of TT and TC was 88.2% and 11.8%, respectively, and they were markedly different from that in German population (0.95%, while not statistically significant different from that in British population (7.67%. Conclusions There exists SNP in PAF-AH gene exon 7 T/C (position 593 in healthy Han people in Shanghai region, with a higher frequency of T→C mutation. The mutational genotype frequency is found to be located at the locus 593 is 11.81%, and it is markedly different from that in German population, but not significantly different from that in British population.

  5. The oxidation state of primary MOR-Basalts before degassing of C-H-S-O species indicates an oxidized source regions buffered by sulphur-sulphate equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Morizet, Yann; Marrocchi, Yves

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's mantle redox state regulates the igneous inputs of volcanic gases in the atmosphere and probably controls the depth of mantle weakening by redox melting. Capturing the processes that control basalt oxidation state and how the latter is connected to their mantle sources is a central topic in planetary sciences. Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts, constituting 80% of the extrusive rocks, are widely used for this purpose. But MOR-basalts are considerably degassed. In particular, they have lost most of their primary CO2 by open system degassing and it is unclear if this can importantly affect their redox state. In order to reconstruct their primary volatile contents and their primary oxidation states, we simulate here their degassing considering primary undegassed MORB being variably enriched in H2O and CO2. Our results indicate that clear relationships between MORB oxidation state and their volatile enrichments are triggered by degassing: Volatile-rich melts degas more CO2, H2O and SO2, which triggers a more pronounced decrease in Fe3+/Fetot. The reduction associated to degassing is relatively small, but it explains well recently reported geochemical observations relating geochemical enrichments and MORBs oxidation state. The oxidation state of MORBs as retrieved from their post-eruption Fe3+/Fetot therefore underestimates the oxidation state of their source regions by about 0.3-0.8 log-units; the degree of underestimation correlating with the amount of initial CO2 and H2O. The source regions of MORBs must buffer fO2s that are centred on FMQ+1 just after melt extraction from the mantle. This fO2 range corresponds to the region where the sulphide-sulphate equilibrium in basalts is the dominant redox buffer, and we therefore propose that the fact most basalts erupting on Earth since the Archean have a constant fO2 of FMQ reflects the redox buffering by sulphur during partial melting. Prior to melting, the deep subsolidus mantle must be equilibrated with higher fO2 as

  6. Analysis of drought events in a North Africa semi-arid region, Using SPOT-VEGETATION and C band scatterometer satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M.; Amri, R.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Wagner, W.; Hasenauer, S.; Duchemin, B.; Boulet, G.; Mougenot, B.

    2012-04-01

    In semi-arid regions, and northern Africa in particular, the scarcity of rainfall and the occurrence of long periods of drought, represent one of the main environmental factors having a negative effect on agricultural productivity. This is the case in Central Tunisia, where the monitoring of agricultural and water resources is of prime importance. Vegetation cover and soil moisture are key parameters in this objective. Remote sensing has shown in the last decades a high potential to estimate these surface parameters. This study is based on two satellite products: SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI data and ERS and ASCAT/METOP moisture products proposed by Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) (Wagner et al., 1999). A validation of soil moisture products is realized over the studied site using ground measurements (Thetaprobe continuous measurements), inter-comparison with other satellite products and precipitation levels. Based on long time series of satellite products, two anomaly indices have been proposed. In order to estimate the state of stress of the vegetation cover, an index referred to as the Vegetation Anomaly Index (VAI) is proposed from SPOT-VGT time series. A positive VAI indicates good vegetation dynamics, whereas a negative VAI indicates the presence of vegetation stress. This index is highly correlated to precipitation, and is found to have a maximum correlation with the 4-month cumulative precipitation (CP3). The VAI index can be operationally applied in order to estimate quantitatively the effect of drought on vegetation cover. Based on SWI (Soil Water Index) products, representing root-zone soil moisture content in the first meter of the soil, we propose a simple Moisture Anomaly Index, which can provide a quantitative visualization of drought periods. This index is compared with and validated, using the SPI precipitation index. A high degree of correlation is observed between the two indices. The Moisture Anomaly Index could be a very useful tool in

  7. TRANSITION-REGION/CORONAL SIGNATURES AND MAGNETIC SETTING OF SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL JETS: HINODE (SOT/FG), Hi-C, AND SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Mail Code ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Alpert, Shane E., E-mail: sanjiv.k.tiwari@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    Penumbral microjets (PJs) are transient narrow bright features in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae, first characterized by Katsukawa et al. using the Ca ii H-line filter on Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). It was proposed that the PJs form as a result of reconnection between two magnetic components of penumbrae (spines and interspines), and that they could contribute to the transition region (TR) and coronal heating above sunspot penumbrae. We propose a modified picture of formation of PJs based on recent results on the internal structure of sunspot penumbral filaments. Using data of a sunspot from Hinode/SOT, High Resolution Coronal Imager, and different passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we examine whether PJs have signatures in the TR and corona. We find hardly any discernible signature of normal PJs in any AIA passbands, except for a few of them showing up in the 1600 Å images. However, we discovered exceptionally stronger jets with similar lifetimes but bigger sizes (up to 600 km wide) occurring repeatedly in a few locations in the penumbra, where evidence of patches of opposite-polarity fields in the tails of some penumbral filaments is seen in Stokes-V images. These tail PJs do display signatures in the TR. Whether they have any coronal-temperature plasma is unclear. We infer that none of the PJs, including the tail PJs, directly heat the corona in active regions significantly, but any penumbral jet might drive some coronal heating indirectly via the generation of Alfvén waves and/or braiding of the coronal field.

  8. Characteristics of postmidnight L band scintillation in the transition region from the equatorial to midlatitudes over the Indian longitude sector using COSMIC, C/NOFS, and GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Haralambous, H.; Oikonomou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of L band scintillations around midnight and postmidnight hours have not been well studied and reported from the higher equatorial latitudes in the transition region from the equatorial to midlatitudes over the Indian longitude sector. The present paper reports cases of postmidnight L band scintillation observations by COSMIC during March 2014 over the Indian longitude sector. GPS S4 measurements from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service station at Lucknow (26.91°N, 80.96°E geographic; magnetic dip: 39.75°N) corroborate occurrence of postmidnight scintillations. The F region vertical upward velocities around the magnetic equator during evening hours have been used to understand the possibility of impact of irregularities generated over the magnetic equator at latitudes north of 30°N. Postmidnight L band scintillations at latitudes greater than 30°N without corresponding premidnight scintillations present interesting scientific scenario and give rise to suggestions of (1) any coupling mechanism between the equatorial and midlatitudes through which irregularities seeded in the midlatitudes may affect transionospheric satellite links at low latitudes or (2) irregularity generation at midlatitudes not connected with equatorial instabilities. Long-term analysis of S4 at L band measured by COSMIC over the Indian longitudes during March 2007-2014 exhibits a well-defined longitude swath around 75-83°E of reduced (0.2 < S4 < 0.4) or no scintillations which may be attributed to the longitudinal variability of scintillation occurrence following the global four-cell pattern of ionospheric activity.

  9. Domain mapping of Escherichia coli RecQ defines the roles of conserved N- and C-terminal regions in the RecQ family

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Douglas A.; Keck, James L.

    2003-01-01

    RecQ DNA helicases function in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Although the precise cellular roles played by this family of enzymes remain elusive, the importance of RecQ proteins is clear; mutations in any of three human RecQ genes lead to genomic instability and cancer. In this report, proteolysis is used to define a two-domain structure for Escherichia coli RecQ, revealing a large (∼59 kDa) N-terminal and a small (∼9 kDa) C-terminal domain. A short N-terminal segment (7 or 21 re...

  10. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.;

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H(+)-AT...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase....

  11. Linkage of Niemann-Pick disease type D to the same region of human chromosome 18 as Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, W. L.; Riddell, D. C.; Byers, D M; Welch, J. P.; Girouard, G S; Sparrow, S M; Gillan, T L; Neumann, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type II disease is a severe disorder characterized by accumulation of tissue cholesterol and sphingomyelin and by progressive degeneration of the nervous system. This disease has two clinically similar subtypes, type C (NPC) and type D (NPD). NPC is clinically variable and has been identified in many ethnic groups. NPD, on the other hand, has been reported only in descendants of an Acadian couple who lived in Nova Scotia in the early 18th century and has a more homogeneous expres...

  12. Distinct properties of Ca2+-calmodulin binding to N- and C-terminal regulatory regions of the TRPV1 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Sze-Yi; Procko, Erik; Gaudet, Rachelle [Harvard

    2012-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a molecular pain receptor belonging to the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. As a polymodal receptor, TRPV1 responds to heat and a wide range of chemical stimuli. The influx of calcium after channel activation serves as a negative feedback mechanism leading to TRPV1 desensitization. The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. Two CaM-binding sites are identified in TRPV1: the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and a short distal C-terminal (CT) segment. Here, we present the crystal structure of calcium-bound CaM (Ca2+–CaM) in complex with the TRPV1-CT segment, determined to 1.95-Å resolution. The two lobes of Ca2+–CaM wrap around a helical TRPV1-CT segment in an antiparallel orientation, and two hydrophobic anchors, W787 and L796, contact the C-lobe and N-lobe of Ca2+–CaM, respectively. This structure is similar to canonical Ca2+–CaM-peptide complexes, although TRPV1 contains no classical CaM recognition sequence motif. Using structural and mutational studies, we established the TRPV1 C terminus as a high affinity Ca2+–CaM-binding site in both the isolated TRPV1 C terminus and in full-length TRPV1. Although a ternary complex of CaM, TRPV1-ARD, and TRPV1-CT had previously been postulated, we found no biochemical evidence of such a complex. In electrophysiology studies, mutation of the Ca2+–CaM-binding site on TRPV1-ARD abolished desensitization in response to repeated application of capsaicin, whereas mutation of the Ca2+–CaM-binding site in TRPV1-CT led to a more subtle phenotype of slowed and reduced TRPV1 desensitization. In summary, our results show that the TRPV1-ARD is an important mediator of TRPV1 desensitization, whereas TRPV1-CT has higher affinity for CaM and is likely involved in separate regulatory mechanisms.

  13. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan; Wang, Xiaobo; Mu, Shanxue; Sun, Lixin; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine seven constituents (umbelliferone, apigenin, triumbelletin, daphnoretin, arctigenin, genkwanin and emodin) in Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B). Multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive and negative electrospray ionization interface was carried out to detect the components. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability. Excellent linear behavior was observed over the certain concentration ranges with the correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999. The intraday and innerday precisions were within 2.0%. The recoveries of seven analytes were 99.4-101.1% with relative standard deviation less than 1.2%. The 18 Wikstroemia indica samples from different origins were classified by hierarchical clustering analysis according to the contents of seven components. The results demonstrated that the developed method could successfully be used to quantify simultaneously of seven components in Wikstroemia indica and could be a helpful tool for the detection and confirmation of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25866087

  14. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan; Wang, Xiaobo; Mu, Shanxue; Sun, Lixin; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine seven constituents (umbelliferone, apigenin, triumbelletin, daphnoretin, arctigenin, genkwanin and emodin) in Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B). Multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive and negative electrospray ionization interface was carried out to detect the components. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability. Excellent linear behavior was observed over the certain concentration ranges with the correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999. The intraday and innerday precisions were within 2.0%. The recoveries of seven analytes were 99.4-101.1% with relative standard deviation less than 1.2%. The 18 Wikstroemia indica samples from different origins were classified by hierarchical clustering analysis according to the contents of seven components. The results demonstrated that the developed method could successfully be used to quantify simultaneously of seven components in Wikstroemia indica and could be a helpful tool for the detection and confirmation of the quality of traditional Chinese medicines.

  15. Association of-238G/A and -857C/T Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter Region With Outcomes of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether -238G/A and -857C/T polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene promoter were associated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection. Methods A total of 246 HBV self-limited infected subjects and 443 chronic hepatitis B (HB) patients were recruited in this case-control study. TNF-α-238G/A and -857C/T gene promoter polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).Results The frequency of TNF-α-238 GG (90.7%) in chronic HB group was significantly lower than that (95.1%) in self-limited group (P=0.041). The frequency of TNF-α-857 CC (79.7%) in chronic HB patients was significantly higher than that (70.9%) in self-limited infected subjects (P=0.021). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that both TNF-α-238GA and -857CC were independently associated with chronic HB. Conclusions TNF-α promoter variants are likely to play a substantial role in influencing the outcomes of HBV infection.

  16. A regional-scale geochemical survey of soil O and C horizon samples in Nord-Trøndelag, Central Norway: Geology and mineral potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Soil O and C horizon samples from Nord-Trøndelag are used to investigate the exploration potential. • All major mineral deposits are marked by single or multi-element anomalies in at least one of the soil horizons . • Maps of several elements and the Pb isotopes clearly reflect important geological features in Nord-Trøndelag. • New anomalies highlight the mineral potential of the area. - Abstract: A highly efficient, low-density sampling strategy was employed to study the geochemical expression of geological bodies and the mineral potential on the county scale in Central Norway. Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag, and analysed for 53 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr) and Pb isotopes in an aqua regia extraction. At the sample density of one site/36 km2 the four metal deposits, which have been mined in the area within the last 50 years were all detected as geochemical anomalies. In addition, a number of new anomalies that may warrant follow-up surveys were found. In terms of geology the Grong–Olden Culmination is marked by a distinct 206Pb/207Pb isotope anomaly. Geochemical differences distinguish the most important belts of mafic metavolcanic lithologies in the area. Though the Fosdalen iron ore deposit is only marked in the soil O horizon, the C horizon outlines the more prominent anomalies of possibly economic interest. Climatic factors like the input of marine aerosols along the coast are clearly visible in the soil O horizon. Low-density geochemical mapping of two sample materials provides important complementing information for the interpretation of the geochemical variation in Nord-Trøndelag county

  17. Insertion/deletion variant (-141C Ins/Del) in the 5' regulatory region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene: lack of association with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöber, G; Jatzke, S; Heils, A; Jungkunz, G; Knapp, M; Mössner, R; Riederer, P; Lesch, K P

    1998-01-01

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenic psychoses, in particular of paranoid-hallucinatory states, and of the manic episodes of bipolar affective disorder. In the present study we analysed allelic and genotypic variations of a recently described functional deletion/insertion variant (-141C Ins/Del) in the 5' flanking region of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene. We investigated a total of 620 unrelated individuals, comprising 260 schizophrenic patients, 70 patients with bipolar affective disorder, and 290 population controls. Analysis of the -141C Ins/Del variant revealed that the schizophrenic, bipolar affective and control groups did not differ significantly regarding genotype frequencies and allele frequencies. No evidence of an allelic association with either a family history of schizophrenic psychosis or a diagnosis of schizophrenia of the paranoid type (according to ICD 10) was found. Our findings indicate that the -141C Del variant in the 5' flanking region of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene is unlikely to play a substantial role in genetic predisposition to major psychiatric disorders in Caucasians.

  18. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  19. Lack of association between rs1800795 (-174 G/C) polymorphism in the promoter region of interleukin-6 gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Isfahan population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavimi, Reza; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadian, Hossein; Khadempar, Saedeh; Rezaei, Hamzeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that mostly affects older adults. The etiology of T2DM includes both genetic and environmental factors. rs1800795 (−174 G/C) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linked with autoimmune disorders predispositions, identified by Genome-Wide Association Study among genes, which immunologically related is considerably over signified. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between rs1800795 (−174 G/C) polymorphisms in the promoter of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene with susceptibility to T2DM in a subset of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, 120 healthy subjects and 120 patients with T2DM were included. Genomic DNA obtained from whole blood samples and the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the fragment of interest contain rs1800795 SNP, restriction fragment length polymorphism method was applied for genotyping of the DNA samples with NlaIII as a restriction enzyme. SPSS for Windows software (version 18.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was performed for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found between healthy controls and T2DM patients with respect to the frequency distribution of the cytokine gene polymorphism investigated. Odds ratio, adjusted for sex, age, and smoking status has displayed similar outcomes. Conclusion: These results indicated that the rs1800795 SNP is not a susceptibility gene variant for the development of T2DM in the Isfahan population. Further studies using new data on complex transcriptional interactions between IL-6 polymorphic sites are necessary to determine IL-6 haplotype influence on susceptibility to T2DM. PMID:26962520

  20. Psoriasis-Associated Genetic Polymorphism in North Indian Population in the CCHCR1 Gene and in a Genomic Segment Flanking the HLA-C Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common, chronic, recurrent, inflammatory, hyper proliferative disorder of the skin, which has a relatively high prevalence in the general population (0.6–4.8%. Linkage and association analyses in various populations have revealed a major locus for psoriasis susceptibility, PSORS1, at 6p21.3. Association of the disease with human leukocyte antigen (HLA Cw6, corneodesmosin (CDSN and the coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein-1 (CCHCR1 has also been reported. Though the PSORS1 locus accounts for 30–50% of familial psoriasis in various global population groups, yet no studies have been published from the North Indian population. Some of the SNPs in HLA-C and CCHCR1 genes have been reported as markers for disease susceptibility. Therefore in the present study, DNA samples from psoriasis patients from North India were genotyped for polymorphisms in CCHCR1 and HLA-C genes. The allele frequencies were calculated for patients and controls, and were compared for odds ratio and confidence interval values. SNPn.7*22222 (rs12208888, SNPn.7*22333 (rs12216025, SNPn.9*24118 (rs10456057, CCHCR1_386 (rs130065, CCHCR1_404 (rs130076 and CCHCR1_1364 (rs130071 were found to be significant in psoriasis patients. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed two haplotypes (rs12208888, rs2844608, rs12216025, rs10456057, rs130065, rs130066, rs130068, rs130269, and rs12208888, rs2844608, rs12216025, rs130076, rs130066, rs130068, rs130269, rs130071 as highly susceptible haplotypes for psoriasis in the cohort studied. Preliminary analysis of the data also suggests the possibilities of ethnic group specific disease related polymorphisms, pending validation in future studies.

  1. Androgen deprivation causes truncation of the C-terminal region of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Inoue, Kaoru; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, whereas mutant AR lacking the C-terminal ligand-binding domain functions in a ligand-independent manner. In the present study we report that the C-terminal truncated AR, which we named AR-NH1 (the N-terminal fragment of AR cleaved in the neighborhood of helix 1 of the ligand-binding domain), is produced in LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cells. The AR-NH1 of ~90 kDa was observed in an androgen-independent LNCaP subline and was further accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. MG132 treatment caused the accumulation of AR-NH1 even in parent LNCaP cells. AR-NH1 was produced in the absence of ligand or in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide, whereas AR agonists suppressed its production. AR-NH1 was detected with different AR antibodies recognizing amino acid residues 1-20 and 300-316 and was also generated from exogenous AR. Both siRNA-mediated AR knockdown and treatment with a serine protease inhibitor (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride) reduced AR-NH1 levels. According to the predicted cleavage site (between amino acid residues 660-685) and its nuclear localization, it is assumed that AR-NH1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor. These data suggest that AR-NH1 is produced under hormone therapy and contributes to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer due to its ligand-independent transcriptional activity.

  2. Transition-Region/Coronal Signatures and Magnetic Setting of Sunspot Penumbral Jets: {\\it Hinode} (SOT/FG), Hi-C and {\\it SDO}/AIA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K; Winebarger, Amy R; Alpert, Shane E

    2015-01-01

    Penumbral microjets (PJs) are transient narrow bright features in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae, first characterized by Katsukawa et al (2007) using the \\CaII\\ H-line filter on {\\it Hinode}'s Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). It was proposed that the PJs form as a result of reconnection between two magnetic components of penumbra (spines and interspines), and that they could contribute to the transition region (TR) and coronal heating above sunspot penumbrae. We propose a modified picture of formation of PJs based on recent results on internal structure of sunspot penumbral filaments. Using data of a sunspot from {\\it Hinode}/SOT, High Resolution Coronal Imager, and different passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the {\\it Solar Dynamics Observatory}, we examine whether PJs have signatures in the TR and corona. We find hardly any discernible signature of normal PJs in any AIA passbands, except a few of them showing up in the 1600 \\AA\\ images. However, we discovered exceptionally stro...

  3. Papers of the Fourth Annual Congress of the Mexican Nuclear Society, C.A., 2. Regional Congress of Radiological and Nuclear Safety. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fulfillment of the Fourth Annual Congress of the Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana, this time inside the frame of the Second Regional Congress of Radiological and Nuclear Safety, is no doubt an event that approach us to make of this forum the most important for the exchange of ideas and the approaching among the members of our nuclear community. This time, the beautiful colonial city of Zacatecas, welcome us for this event, gathering fifty works in the areas of fuel cycle, power reactor operation, reactor physics, research reactors, transient analysis and instrumentation and experimental techniques. This significant number of work reaffirm the great interest of the nuclear community in to take part, presenting its most recent developments. The reporting belongs to seven of the main institutions of the country who dedicate, or are related with the technological development of the nuclear and its different branches. With regard to participants of foreign countries, papers representing to Argentina, Brazil, Chile,United States of North America and Peru are included. The efforts of all the members of the Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana has been addressed to do of the event a mean to make easy the exchange of ideas and to get acquainted with the work of other colleagues, in an ambient of warmth and surmounting. (Author)

  4. Gamma-radiation with E gamma 5 MeV detected from Seyfert galaxy 3C120 and region with 1" = 190 deg and b" = 20 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, S. V.; Fradkin, M. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V. G.; Kotov, Y. D.; Kurnosova, L. V.; Smirnov, Y. V.; Yurov, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of the Galaxy anticenter region in gamma-rays with E gamma = 5 / 100 MeV was made by gamma-telescope Natalya-1 in a balloon flight. The flight was performed at the ceiling 5.1 + or - 0.1 g/sq cm, magnetic cutoff being 17 GV. The description of the instrument and the analysis of the experiment conditions are given. The tracks of electron-positron pairs generated by gamma-quanta in the convertors were detected by wire spark chambers. The recorded events were classified manually by an operator using a graphic display into three classes: pairs, single and bad events. The arrival angle of gamma-quanta and their energy for selected gamma-ray events (pairs and singles) were determined through multiple scattering of pair components in the convertors. On the basis of the data obtained the celestial maps were made in gamma-rays for E sub gamma 5 MeV and E gamma 20 MeV energy ranges.

  5. Solar cycle variations in F-region Te in the vicinity of the midlatitude trough based on AE-C measurements at solar minimum and DE-2 measurements at solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Larry H.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetospheric energy deposited in the plasmasphere produces large enhancements in the electron temperature in the nightside ionosphere at the foot of the geomagnetic L shell that traverses the plasmapause. This temperature peak, which is associated with the midlatitude trough in electron density, often has a great enough amplitude to produce 630 nm emission known as a Sar-arc. The Atmosphere Explorer-C measurements made at solar minimum and the Dynamics Explorer-2 measurements made at solar maximum are used to illustrate how this signature of F-region electron heating changes with solar activity. Global empirical models of the electron temperature and density have not been able to resolve these features thus far because of their large movements with geomagnetic activity and because of the large bin sizes used in the models. It is not yet clear how this major feature of the F-region temperature structure could be included easily in the IRI model.

  6. Effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms -705T/C and -603T/A in P1 promoter region of human insulin-like growth factor-I gene on promoter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP -705T>C and -603T>A in the P1 promoter region of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene on promoter activity. Methods  A total of 152 healthy volunteers were recruited for the present study. The peripheral blood samples were obtained through venipuncture. The total genomic DNA of each blood sample was extracted using the genomic DNA extraction kit. Genotyping of SNP -705T>C and -603T>A in each volunteer was performed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis, and the frequencies of each genotype were statistically analyzed. P1 promoter haplotypes and their frequencies were analyzed by PHASE v2.1 software. Luciferase reporter gene assays were adopted to determine the difference in activity between different promoter haplotypes. Results  The total genomic DNA of each volunteer was successfully extracted. Genotyping of SNP -705T>C and -603T>A was also carried out. The genotype frequencies of -705T/T, -705T/C, and -705C/C were the same as those of -603T/T, -603T/ A, and -603A/A, which were 43.4%, 45.4%, and 11.2%, respectively. The frequencies of allelic gene -705T and -705C were the same as those of -603T and -603A, which were 66.1% and 33.9%, respectively. A complete linkage disequilibrium between SNP -705T>C and -603T>A was observed. Moreover, these two SNPs only comprised two types of promoter haplotypes, including -705T/-603T (66.1% and -705C/-603A (33.9%. The results of reporter gene assays showed that the activity of -705C/-603A P1 promoter haplotype was significantly higher than that of -705T/-603T haplotype. Conclusion  SNP -705T>C and -603T>A in the P1 promoter field of human IGF-I gene can affect the activity of the P1 promoter.

  7. Naturally-acquired humoral immune responses against the N- and C-termini of the Plasmodium vivax MSP1 protein in endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea using a multiplex assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic. Methods Glutathione S-transferase (GST and GST-fusion proteins representing the N- terminus of the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax, PvMSP1-N, and the C-terminus, PvMSP1-C, were covalently coupled to BioPlex carboxylated beads. Recombinant proteins and coupled beads were used, respectively, in ELISA and Bioplex assays using immune sera of P. vivax patients from Brazil and PNG to determine IgG and subclass responses. Concordances between the two methods in the seropositivity responses were evaluated using the Kappa statistic and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results The results using this methodology were compared with the classical microtitre enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay (ELISA, showing that the assay was sensitive, reproducible and had good concordance with ELISA; yet, further research into different statistical analyses seems desirable before claiming conclusive results exclusively based on multiplex assays. As expected, results demonstrated that PvMSP1 was immunogenic in natural infections of patients from different endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG, and that age correlated only with antibodies against the C-terminus part of the molecule. Furthermore, the IgG subclass profiles were different in these endemic regions having IgG3 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in Brazil and IgG1 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in PNG. Conclusions This study validates the use of the multiplex assay to measure naturally-acquired IgG antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax.

  8. TWEAK-independent Fn14 self-association and NF-κB activation is mediated by the C-terminal region of the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron A N Brown

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK binds to a 102-amino acid type I transmembrane cell surface receptor named fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14. TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activates several intracellular signaling cascades, including the NF-κB pathway, and sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Although several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for therapeutic use, much more basic science research is required before we fully understand the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling axis. For example, we and others have proposed that TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling may occur in cells when Fn14 levels are highly elevated, but this idea has never been tested directly. In this report, we first demonstrate TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling by showing that an Fn14 deletion mutant that is unable to bind TWEAK can activate the NF-κB pathway in transfected cells. We then show that ectopically-expressed, cell surface-localized Fn14 can self-associate into Fn14 dimers, and we show that Fn14 self-association is mediated by an 18-aa region within the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain. Endogenously-expressed Fn14 as well as ectopically-overexpressed Fn14 could also be detected in dimeric form when cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Additional experiments revealed that Fn14 dimerization occurs during cell lysis via formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at cysteine residue 122. These findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and may aid current studies to develop therapeutic agents targeting this small cell surface receptor.

  9. 基于P@S@T分析的柳州旅游4C@D营销策略研究%4C @ D region marketing strategies of Liuzhou's tourism based on the analysis of P @ S @ T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦立公

    2001-01-01

    基于柳州旅游的现状,研究了其市场定位(Positioning)、市场细分(Segmenting)、目标市场的确定(Target-ing )问题,在此分析的基础上确定了不同于传统4P'S理论的柳州旅游的4C@D区域营销策略,即注重旅游者的需求和欲望( Consumers' wants and needs)、成本(Cost)、方便(Convenience)旅游者的购买、与旅游者有效沟通(Communication)、以及实施数据库营销(Database Marketing)的策略.

  10. Data Conversion from CAD to GIS Based on AE and C# in Maoer Mountain Region%基于AE和C#的帽儿山CAD用图到GIS数据转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立; 罗传文; 余向勇; 赵庆丹; 孙海洪

    2010-01-01

    介绍CAD数据到Shapefile数据的4种转换方法,研究利用C#和AE开发应用于林业的CAD数据到Shapefile数据转换软件,主要用于帽儿山地区CAD数据的转换.针对CAD数据到GIS数据的转换问题,对转换前、转换后从理论与实践方面进行探讨.结果显示:为尽量避免转换后产生的问题,在转换前后必须对数据进行必要的处理,提高转换精度.

  11. A proposed method for the determination of cerebral regional intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled 11C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). I. An animal model with 14C-glucose and rat brain autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon data obtained with our arterio-venous technique for the determination of cerebral metabolism in humans in vivo we have proposed a method for the determination of cerebral regional intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled 11C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). In it we would give the subject successive intravenous injections of [3,4-11C] glucose, [2,5-11C] glucose and [1-11C] glucose. There would be a 30 min period of continuous PETT measurements following each injection and a 2 hr interval after the first and second injections. The data would be used with suitable equations and algorithms to estimate for each specific region of the subject's brain the dynamics of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolic pathways and the incorporation of glucose carbons into lactate, and the extent of dilution of glucose carbons into lactate, and the extent of dilution of glucose carbons in traversing the TCA with their subsequent incorporation into other carbon pools of the brain (ie, glutamate, glutamine, GABA, alanine). Using 14C as a model for 11C and autoradiographs made with rat brain slices, we have produced an animal model to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method. The resulting autoradiographs have provided evidence of the validity of the predictions made from our arterio-venous data. The model was employed to show the selective reductions in the rates of incorporation of specific carbon atoms of glucose into regions of the rat brain and evidence of altered metabolic pathways following a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and after a series of nine ECS

  12. Association between interleukin-6 polymorphism in the -174 G/C region and hearing loss in the elderly with a history of occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miula Portelinha Braga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The biological processes involved in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL are still unclear. The involvement of inflammation in this condition has been suggested. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between interleukin - 6 (IL-6 polymorphism and susceptibility to NIHL. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 191 independent elderly individuals aged > 60 years of age. Information on exposure to occupational noise was obtained by interviews. Audiological evaluation was performed using pure tone audiometry and genotyped through PCR by restriction fragment length polymorphism - PCR-RFLP. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and the Odds ratio (OR, with the significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Among elderly with hearing loss (78.0%, 18.8% had a history of exposure to occupational noise. There was a statistically significant association between the genotype frequencies of the IL-6 -174 and NIHL. The elderly with the CC genotype were less likely to have hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure when compared to those carrying the GG genotype (OR = 0.0124; 95% CI 0.0023-0.0671; p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: This study suggests there is an association of polymorphisms in the IL- 6 gene at position - G174C with susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

  13. Inclusive production of Lambda in the proton fragmentation region from K/sup -/p to Lambda X at 42 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, S N; Holmgren, S O; Kittel, E W; Lamb, P R; Losty, Michael J; Muirhead, William Hugh; Pols, C L A; Shephard, W D; Vergeest, J S M; Wells, J

    1978-01-01

    A study of Lambda production has been made for the process p to Lambda from K/sup -/p interactions at 4.2 GeV/c. The total Lambda production cross-section is (4.5+or-0.2) mb and the cross-section in which Lambda is associated with KK in the final state is found to be (0.44+or-0.03) mb. A study of the polarization is made for the off-mass-shell strangeness annihilations KK to pions and strangeness nonannihilations KK to KK+pions; the polarization, when plotted as a function of x, p/sub T/ and (recoiling mass)/sup 2/, exhibits differences between the two processes. The polarization observed in the strangeness nonannihilation process shows identical behaviour to that in pp reactions. An attempt has been made to understand the behaviour of the polarized and the unpolarized cross-sections as a function of (recoiling mass)/sup 2/ in the triple-Regge framework. (18 refs).

  14. Rapid detection of Candida albicans in clinical samples by DNA amplification of common regions from C. albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahaut, M; Sanglard, D; Monod, M; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods such as PCR may provide an alternative and more sensitive method than conventional culture for the early detection of deep-seated candidiasis, an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. A novel method of DNA extraction from clinical samples based on treatment with proteinase K and isolation of DNA on a silica membrane was developed. The targets used for DNA amplification were the Candida albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase (SAP) genes, a multiple-gene family of at least seven members in C. albicans. A single pair of primers was designed in order to detect six of these SAP genes and, subsequently, to increase the sensitivity of the test. Detection of the PCR product by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found to be as sensitive as Southern blotting with an SAP-labeled probe. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 cell/ml from serially diluted Candida cultures and 1 to 4 cells/ml from seeded blood specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of the present assay were tested in a retrospective study performed blindly with 156 clinical samples and were 100 and 98%, respectively, compared with the results of culture. For the subset of blood culture samples (n = 124), the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. The two false-positive PCR samples came from patients treated with azole antifungal agents, indicating that PCR was probably able to detect damaged organisms that could not be recovered by culture.

  15. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  16. N2- and (H2+He)-broadened cross sections of benzene (C6H6) in the 7-15 μm region for the Titan and jovian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Crawford, Timothy J.

    2016-06-01

    In support of atmospheric remote sensing of Titan and jovian planets, we measured absorption cross sections of benzene (C6H6) in the 7-15 μm region at temperatures between 235 K and 297 K. For this, high-resolution laboratory spectra of C6H6 were obtained using two cold cells (80 cm and 2.07 cm path length) configured to a high resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, Bruker IFS-125HR, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The spectrum sets include 15 pure and 15 N2-broadened benzene spectra in the 630-1534 cm-1 region, along with four additional spectra broadened by an H2(85%) and He(15%) gas mixture for the 630-740 cm-1 region. From these spectra, temperature dependent benzene cross sections were obtained for gas phase benzene in the presence of N2 and (H2+He) at ambient pressures and temperatures down to 235 K. In addition, we generated two independent sets of pseudolines: one of N2-broadened benzene for Titan and the other of (H2+He)-broadened benzene for jovian planets. It is shown that the benzene pseudolines can reproduce the observed features to ˜ 5% in transmittance, including the continuum-like absorption formed by numerous overlapping weak and hot band transitions. Based on the pseudoline parameters, the integrated band intensities at 296 K for the three strongest bands in the region were measured to be 177.0(73), 14.0(10), 27.2(9)×10-17 cm-1/(molecule·cm-2) in the region of v4 at 674 cm-1, v14 at 1038.267, and v13 at 1483.985 cm-1, respectively, from the combined set of pure and N2-broadened benzene spectra. For the (H2+He) mixture-broadened benzene spectra, the integrated band intensity for v4 band in the 630-735 cm-1 region was measured to be 168.8(17)×10-17 cm-1/(molecule·cm-2) at 296 K, which is in agreement with the intensity derived from the N2-broadened benzene spectra within the combined measurement uncertainties. The results from this work show an excellent agreement (2%) with one of the latest experimental studies by

  17. Non-symmetrical profiles of the C IV 1548A and 1550A lines for small dynamic events and their interpretation in terms of resonant scattering in solar active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontikakis, Costis; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    We present observations of small areas in solar active regions recorded with the SUMER/SOHO spectrograph where the C IV 1548A and 1550A lines have spectral profiles of different shapes, although they are recorded simultaneously and at the same location. This asymmetry may be explained by resonant scattering associated with relative velocities of the emitting plasmas. We present detailed artificial spectral profiles that may explain the observations. The profiles have been computed using several physical parameters such as the plasma temperature and electron density and/or the incident radiation on the emitting volumes. We conclude that the study of asymmetries in the C IV 1548A, 1550A lines, and also in different doublets, can be a valuable diagnostic tool for deriving the physical conditions in solar/stellar plasmas, especially where the radiation processes (such as flare-emission) are enhanced at the vicinity of the observed structures.

  18. Increased deposition of C3b on red cells with low CR1 and CD55 in a malaria-endemic region of western Kenya: Implications for the development of severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Michael M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous studies have shown an age-related expression of red cell complement regulatory proteins, which protect erythrocytes from autologous complement attack and destruction. Our primary objective was to determine whether in a malaria-endemic area red cells with low levels of complement regulatory proteins are at increased risk for complement (C3b deposition in vivo. Secondarily, we studied the relationship between red cell complement regulatory protein levels and hemoglobin levels. Methods Three hundred and forty-two life-long residents of a malaria-holoendemic region of western Kenya were enrolled in a cross-sectional study and stratified by age. We measured red cell C3b, CR1, CD55, and immune complex binding capacity by flow cytometry. Individuals who were positive for malaria were treated and blood was collected when they were free of parasitemia. Analysis of variance was used to identify independent variables associated with the %C3b-positive red cells and the hemoglobin level. Results Individuals between the ages of 6 and 36 months had the lowest red cell CR1, highest %C3b-positive red cells, and highest parasite density. Malaria prevalence also reached its peak within this age group. Among children ≤ 24 months of age the %C3b-positive red cells was usually higher in individuals who were treated for malaria than in uninfected individuals with similarly low red cell CR1 and CD55. The variables that most strongly influenced the %C3b-positive red cells were age, malaria status, and red cell CD55 level. Although it did not reach statistical significance, red cell CR1 was more important than red cell CD55 among individuals treated for malaria. The variables that most strongly influenced the hemoglobin level were age, the %C3b

  19. Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q in hepatocellular carcinoma metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsemman, Ibrahim E; Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Soliman, Taysir H; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-04-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide healthcare problem; however, traditional treatment methods have failed to cure all patients, and HCV has developed resistance to new drugs. Systems biology-based analyses could play an important role in the holistic analysis of the impact of HCV on hepatocellular metabolism. Here, we integrated HCV assembly reactions with a genome-scale hepatocyte metabolic model to identify metabolic targets for HCV assembly and metabolic alterations that occur between different HCV progression states (cirrhosis, dysplastic nodule, and early and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) and healthy liver tissue. We found that diacylglycerolipids were essential for HCV assembly. In addition, the metabolism of keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate was significantly changed in the cirrhosis stage, whereas the metabolism of acyl-carnitine was significantly changed in the dysplastic nodule and early HCC stages. Our results explained the role of the upregulated expression of BCAT1, PLOD3 and six other methyltransferase genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in the early and advanced HCC stages. Moreover, GNPAT and BCAP31 expression was upregulated in the early and advanced HCC stages and could lead to increased acyl-CoA consumption. By integrating our results with copy number variation analyses, we observed that GNPAT, PPOX and five of the methyltransferase genes (ASH1L, METTL13, SMYD2, TARBP1 and SMYD3), which are all located on chromosome 1q, had increased copy numbers in the cancer samples relative to the normal samples. Finally, we confirmed our predictions with the results of metabolomics studies and proposed that inhibiting the identified targets has the potential to provide an effective treatment strategy for HCV-associated liver disorders. PMID:27040643

  20. Serological survey on Ehrlichia sp. among dogs in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul Pesquisa sorológica de Ehrlichia sp. em cães da região central do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey on Ehrlichia canis was conducted among dogs in the central area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a common parasite of dogs. Out of a total of 316 dogs attended at the veterinary teaching hospital in the municipality of Santa Maria, only 14 (4.43% reacted positively to E. canis antigens in the indirect immunofluorescence assay, with the following endpoint titers: 80 (three dogs, 160 (five, 320 (four, 640 (one and 1280 (one. Like in previous studies in other regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, only a very small portion of the dogs in Santa Maria presented antibodies reactive to E. canis, even though canine infestations due to R. sanguineus are very common in this study region. These results contrast with other regions of Brazil, where E. canis is endemic among canine populations, with seropositivity values generally higher than 30%. Genetic differences among the R. sanguineus populations in South America might be implicated in these contrasting results.Foi realizada uma pesquisa sorológica para Ehrlichia canis, em cães, na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, onde o carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus é um parasita comum em cães. De um total de 316 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário Universitário no Município de Santa Maria, somente 14 (4,43% reagiram positivamente para o antígeno de E. canis pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta, com os seguintes títulos finais: 80 (3 cães, 160 (5, 320 (4, 640 (1 e 1.280 (1. Semelhante aos estudos anteriores em outras regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, apenas uma pequena parcela dos cães de Santa Maria apresentaram anticorpos reativos para E. canis, mesmo que as infestações caninas por R. sanguineus sejam muito comuns na região de estudo. Esses resultados contrastam com outras regiões do Brasil, nas quais E. canis é endêmica entre a população canina, com valores de soropositividade geralmente

  1. MicroRNA-30c-1-3p is a silencer of the pregnane X receptor by targeting the 3'-untranslated region and alters the expression of its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Yan, Bingfang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a master regulator of genes involved in drug elimination. Recently, activation of PXR has also been linked to the development of many disease conditions such as metabolic disorders and malignancies. MicroRNAs (miRs) emerge as important molecular species involved in these conditions. This study was undertaken to test a large number of miRs for their ability to regulate PXR expression. As many as 58 miRs were tested and miR-30c-1-3p was identified to suppress PXR expression. The suppression was achieved by targeting the 3'-untranslated region, 438 nucleotides from the stop codon. The suppression was detected in multiple cell lines from different organ origins. In addition, miR-30c-1-3p altered basal and induced expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), a prototypical target gene of PXR. The alteration varied depending on the time and amounts of miR-30c-1-3p. CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% medicines. The interconnection between miR-30c-1-3p and PXR signifies a role of miRs in drug-drug interactions and chemosensitivity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:27085140

  2. REGIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Top-level officials shared their views of regional economic and social development at the Third Session of the 11th National People’s Congress.Nur Bekri, Chairman of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

  3. Regions & Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    KOFF, Harlan; Maganda, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The journal of the Consortium for Comparative Research on Regional Integration and Social Cohesion (RISC), a cross-regional, interdisciplinary, and multi-lingual network of socially conscious and prestigious research institutes in Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Asia. Due to the dramatic changes in global affairs related to regional integration, studies can no longer be limited to the analysis of economic competitiveness and political power in global geopolitics. Regions and...

  4. Transcription analysis of the dnaA gene and oriC region of the chromosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and its regulation by the DnaA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Leiria; Guerrero, Elba; Casart, Yveth; Turcios, Lilia; Bartoli, Fulvia

    2003-03-01

    The regions flanking the Mycobacterium dnaA gene have extensive sequence conservation, and comprise various DnaA boxes. Comparative analysis of the dnaA promoter and oriC region from several mycobacterial species revealed that the localization, spacing and orientation of the DnaA boxes are conserved. Detailed transcriptional analysis in M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG shows that the dnaN gene of both species and the dnaA gene of M. bovis BCG are transcribed from two promoters, whereas the dnaA gene of M. smegmatis is transcribed from a single promoter. RT-PCR with total RNA showed that dnaA and dnaN were expressed in both species at all growth stages. Analysis of the promoter activity using dnaA-gfp fusion plasmids and DnaA expression plasmids indicates that the dnaA gene is autoregulated, although the degree of transcriptional autorepression was moderate. Transcription was also detected in the vicinity of oriC of M. bovis BCG, but not of M. smegmatis. These results suggest that a more complex transcriptional mechanism may be involved in the slow-growing mycobacteria, which regulates the expression of dnaA and initiation of chromosomal DNA replication.

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  6. cT1-2N0甲状腺乳头状癌Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫48例分析%To Analysis 48 Surgical Treatment of Patients with Region Ⅵ Lymph Node Dissection cT1-2N0 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑾; 李宏发; 赵利荣; 李军; 郭翠兰; 刘秋敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨 cT1-2N0甲状腺乳头状癌Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫的意义及阳性率之间的差异。方法回顾我院2009年1月至2012年12月cT1N0甲状腺乳头状癌22例,cT2N0甲状腺乳头状癌26例Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫的临床资料,并行统计学分析。结果22例 cT1N0甲状腺乳头状癌中有16例Ⅵ区淋巴结阳性,阳性率72.72%,26例 cT2N0甲状腺乳头状癌中有19例Ⅵ区淋巴结阳性,阳性率73.07%,P >0.05,二者之间无统计学意义。结论 cT1-2N0甲状腺乳头状癌应行Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫,cT1N0和 cT2N0甲状腺乳头状癌Ⅵ区淋巴结阳性率之间无差异。%Objective To determine the value of region Ⅵ lymph node dissection and variance of lymph node metastasis in the surgical treatment of patients with cT1-2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC).Methods Clinical data of 22 patients with cT1N0 and 26 patients with cT2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma in author′s hospital from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The 22 patients with cT1N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma,16 patients had Ⅵ lymph node metastasis,72.72%.19 patients had Ⅵ lymph node metastasis of the 26 patients with cT2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma,73.07%. Variance analysis of lymph node metastasis of cT1 N0 and cT2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma was insignificant(P>0.05).Conclusion Region Ⅵ lymph node dissection in the surgical treatment of patients with cT1-2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma is necessary and node metastasis of cT1 N0 and cT2N0 Papillary thyroid carcinoma was insignificant.

  7. The gene for spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is located in a region of {approximately} 3 cM on chromosome 14q24.3-q32.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanin, G.; Cancel, G.; Duerr, A.; Dubourg, O.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Chneiweiss, H.; Weissenbach, J.; Cann, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    SCA3, the gene for spinal cerebellar ataxia 3, was recently mapped to a 15-cM interval between D14S67 and D14S81 on chromosome 14q, by linkage analysis in two families of French ancestry. The SCA3 candidate region has now been refined by linkage analysis with four new microsatellite markers (D14S256, D14S291, D14S280, and AFM343vf1) in the same two families, in which 19 additional individuals were genotyped, and in a third French family. Combined two-point linkage analyses show that the new markers, D14S280 and AFM343vf1, are tightly linked to the SCA3 locus, with maximal lod scores, at recombination fraction, ({theta}) = .00, of 7.05 and 13.70, respectively. Combined multipoint and recombinant haplotype analyses localize the SCA3 locus to a 3-cM interval flanked by D14S291 and D14S81. The same allele for D14S280 segregates with the disease locus in the three kindreds. This allele is frequent in the French population, however, and linkage disequilibrium is not clearly established. The SCA3 locus remains within the 29-cM region on 14q24.3-q32.2 containing the gene for the Machado-Joseph disease, which is clinically related to the phenotype determined by SCA3, but it cannot yet be concluded that both diseases result from alterations of the same gene. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Loco-regional recurrence after mastectomy in high-risk breast cancer-risk and prognosis. An analysis of patients from the DBCG 82 b and c randomization trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In the DBCG 82 b and c trials, 3083 patients with stages II and III breast cancer were randomised to receive post-mastectomy radiotherapy (RT) versus no RT in addition to systemic therapy. The study showed a decrease in loco-regional recurrences and an improved survival in patients receiving RT. The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for loco-regional recurrence (LRR), to evaluate the treatment of LRR and to examine the prognosis after LRR. Patients and methods: The 18-year probabilities of LRR were calculated for different prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method. The efficacy of different LRR treatments was compared. The 5-year survival and distant metastases (DM) probability after LRR was calculated with regard to initial randomization group, primary tumor and recurrence related variables. Results: Of the 3083 patients, 535 had a LRR alone as first site of failure. In univariate analyses, large primary tumor size, ductal carcinoma, high malignancy grade, fascia invasion, few removed nodes, many positive nodes and extracapsular invasion were all risk factors for developing LRR. Combined treatment with surgery and RT at the time of LRR increased the persistent loco-regional control. The 5-year probability of subsequent DM was 73% irrespective of initial randomization group. In multivariate analysis, large primary tumor size, many positive nodes, extracapsular invasion, supra/infraclaviculary failures, multiple LRR and a short interval less than 2 years to first LRR were poor prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions: Twenty-seven percent of LRR patients had no DM 5 years after failure. Initial randomization group did not alter the prognosis after LRR. Combined treatment of the LRR with surgery and RT improved persistent loco-regional control compared with surgery or RT alone

  9. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-X; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  10. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present inventors used the previously developed H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT (1a/2a), J4/JFH .sub.1T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVRI (1b/2a), J6/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVRI (2a/2a), J8/JFH 1.sub..DELTA.HVRI (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T27i8G,.tau.7i6oc (3a/2a), SA13/JFH 1.sub.C34O5G,A3696G (5a/2a) and HK6a/JFH 1T.......sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...

  11. Mainstreaming regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Closa, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of regionalism as a broad field of research attracting scholars across disciplines demands an inquiry on its scientific foundations. This inquiry should consider the object of research, the methods and the theories used. First, regionalism scholars lack a consensually agreed definition of their subject. Second, research focusses mainly in case studies, led by area specialists and comparative research is a rather occasional methodological occurrence. Finally, regionalism has ...

  12. "In vivo" toxicity of a truncated version of the Drosophila Rst-IrreC protein is dependent on the presence of a glutamine-rich region in its intracellular domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO C. MACHADO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The roughest-irregular chiasm C ( rst-irreC gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein containing five immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular portion and an intracytoplasmic tail rich in serine and threonine as well some conserved motifs suggesting signal transduction activity. In the compound eye, loss-of-function rst-irreC mutants lack the characteristic wave of programmed cell death happening in early pupa and which is essential for the elimination of the surplus interommatidial cells. Here we report an investigation on the role played by the Rst-irreC molecule in triggering programmed cell death. "In vivo" transient expression assays showed that deletion of the last 80 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus produces a form of the protein that is highly toxic to larvae. This toxicity is suppressed if an additional 47 amino acid long, glutamine-rich region ("opa-like domain", is also removed from the protein. The results suggest the possibility that the opa-like domain and the carboxyl terminus act in concert to modulate rst-irreC function in apoptosis, and we discuss this implication in the context of the general mechanisms causing glutamine-rich neurodegenerative diseases in humans.O gene roughest-irregular chiasm C ( rst-irreC de Drosophila melanogaster, codifica uma glicoproteína transmembranar contendo cinco domínios semelhantes a imunoglobulina em sua porção extracelular e uma cauda intracitoplasmática rica em serina e treonina, assim como alguns sequências conservadas que sugerem atividade transdutora de sinais. No olho composto, mutantes rst-irreC de perda de função não apresentam uma característica "onda" de morte celular programada que ocorre no início do período pupal e que é essencial para a eliminação de células interomatidiais em excesso. Aqui descrevemos uma investigação sobre o papel desempenhado pela molécula Rst-IrreC no disparo da morte celular programada. Ensaios de

  13. Identification of a naturally processed cytotoxic CD8 T-cell epitope of coxsackievirus B4, presented by HLA-A2.1 and located in the PEVKEK region of the P2C nonstructural protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Calvino, Ruben; Skowera, Ania; Arif, Sefina; Peakman, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The adaptive immune system generates CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) as a major component of the protective response against viruses. Knowledge regarding the nature of the peptide sequences presented by HLA class I molecules and recognized by CTLs is thus important for understanding host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we focused on identification of a CTL epitope generated from coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4), a member of the enterovirus group responsible for several inflammatory diseases in humans and often implicated in the triggering and/or acceleration of the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes. We identified a 9-mer peptide epitope that can be generated from the P2C nonstructural protein of CVB4 (P2C(1137-1145)) and from whole virus by antigen-presenting cells and presented by HLA-A2.1. This epitope is recognized by effector memory (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma]-producing) CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood at a frequency of responders that suggests that it is a major focus of the anti-CVB4 response. Short-term CD8 T-cell lines generated against P2C(1137-1145) are cytotoxic against peptide-loaded target cells. Of particular interest, the epitope lies within a region of viral homology with the diabetes-related autoantigen, glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD(65)). However, P2C(1137-1145)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines were not activated to produce IFN-gamma by the GAD(65) peptide homologue and did not show cytotoxic activity in the presence of appropriately labeled targets. These results describe the first CD8 T-cell epitope of CVB4 that will prove useful in the study of CVB4-associated disease. PMID:15564450

  14. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  15. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Huang

    Full Text Available Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps, also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species.

  16. Influência da lista única de uma regional de transplantes de córnea em um Banco de Olhos vinculado a um hospital escola Influence of a single regional list for corneal transplantation on the eye bank of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a implantação do sistema de lista única para transplantes de córnea influenciou um Banco de Olhos vinculado a um hospital escola. Analisar sua interferência nas córneas (captação e destino, no número de transplantes realizados e também na média de tempo de espera pela cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo, avaliando os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a ceratoplastia penetrante e também os dados do Banco de Olhos da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto - SP. O estudo comparou dados relativos ao funcionamento do serviço por um ano antes e após a criação da lista única. RESULTADOS: O número de cirurgias aumentou de 60 para 92 cirurgias. A média mensal de córneas retiradas aumentou de 13,83 ± 6,57 para 18,16 ± 4,80 (p=0,07. O número de córneas enviadas por esta instituição foi maior que o número de córneas recebidas de outros serviços (p=0,003. Não houve diferença significativa entre o tempo de espera pela cirurgia antes e após a criação da fila única (desconsiderando o período de cadastramento. CONCLUSÕES: Este Banco de Olhos funcionou como fornecedor de córneas para outras instituições. Após seu primeiro ano de funcionamento, a implantação da lista única não alterou o tempo de espera dos pacientes pela cirurgia. Apesar disso, evidenciou-se uma tendência à homogeneização do tempo de espera pela ceratoplastia penetrante entre os pacientes.PURPOSE: To evaluate how the implantation of a single regional list for corneal transplants influenced an eye bank of a university hospital. To analyze the influence of the regional list on the corneas (procurement and destiny, the number of transplantations made and the average waiting time for surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study was made to compare the records of patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty and also the data of the eye bank of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo

  17. 环渤海“C型”经济区经济格局的空间演变研究%Spatial Evolution of Economic Pattern in“C-typed”Economic Region Along the Bohai Rim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鹏; 李诚固

    2015-01-01

    利用空间自相关指数、经济平均增长指数和空间变差函数,分析1990年以来环渤海“C型”经济区经济格局的空间演变特征。结果表明:经济发展呈现显著空间自相关,高-高、低-低集聚度不断提高,京津唐都市圈、沈大经济带和山东半岛城市群成为经济发展的热点集中区,其他内陆县市和省际邻接地区是冷点集中区;经济增长空间集聚,高增长率转化快,热点区跃迁特征明显,1990~2000年呈不规则的团块状零散分布,2000~2010年呈带状集中分布于辽西北,省内经济差异不断缩小,而省际经济差异逐渐增大;经济发展的结构化分异显著,空间自组织性增强,大城市的辐射作用减弱,以东部沿海为中心,向周边多峰值递减,西南与西北内陆始终处于低谷。最后,从区域战略政策、经济产业基础、区位与交通条件探讨经济格局演化的驱动机制。%Taking the“C-typed”economic region along the Bohai Rim as a study case, GDP per capita as the measuring indicator, this article used the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), semivariogram function, Kriging spatial interpolation and the software of ArcGIS10.0 and GeoDA to study the spatial evolu-tion of economic pattern at the level of county in1990, 2000 and 2010. Then, driving factors of the spatial evo-lution of economic pattern were deeply discussed. Conclusions are drawn as follows:1) At the overall spatial economic framework, the economic development of“C-typed”economic region along the Bohai Rim shows a strong trend of spatial autocorrelation, and the patterns of high-high and low-low agglomeration are inclined to get strengthened continuously. The hotspots of economic development are centralized in the regions of Bei-jing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area, Shenyang-Dalian economic belt and Shandong Peninsula Urban Ag-glomerations, and the coldspots clusters in the inland

  18. Variantes moleculares en el gen L1 del virus del papiloma humano tipo 16, y regiones de la proteína L1 probablemente involucradas en la interacción virus-célula epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Bravo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La infección con virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo es considerada como el principal factor de riesgo en el desarrollo del cáncer de cuello uterino. Entre los HPV de alto riesgo, el tipo 16 es el más frecuente tanto en mujeres con citología normal, como en mujeres con lesiones premalignas y en cáncer invasivo. Se ha demostrado la existencia de variaciones en la secuencia del genoma de HPV16, estos polimorfismos se han agrupado en cinco ramas filogenéticas denominadas según su distribución geográfica: Europeas (E, Asiaticas-Americanas (AA, Asiáticas (As, Africanas (Af y Norteamericanas (NA; determinadas por sustituciones nucleotídicas en los genes E6, L1 y L2 y la región larga de control.

    Varios estudios han sugerido que las variantes no Europeas son más agresivas que las Europeas, esto puede ser el reflejo de una interacción diferente con el huésped y por tanto implicar diferencias en el resultado final de la infección (mayor persistencia o mayor oncogenicidad.

    Particularmente se ha demostrado que las variaciones en la secuencia de aminoácidos de la proteína L1, la proteína principal de la cápside viral, pueden modificar las epítopes neutralizantes del virus afectando la efectividad de la respuesta inmune, también estas variaciones pueden afectar la capacidad de ensamble de las cápsides y la afinidad por receptores a nivel epitelial.

    El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las variaciones moleculares del gen L1 de HPV16 en aislamientos provenientes de cepillados cervicales de mujeres colombianas con citología normal y con cáncer de cuello uterino, con el fin de analizar si existen variaciones que alteren las regiones

  19. Construction of expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and study on biological properties of the recombinant virus%痘苗病毒天坛株C8L-K3L片段缺失表达载体的生物学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮; 刘颖; 王书晖; 张其程; 刘莹; 侯爵; 王荣敏; 邵一鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究缺失C8L-K3L片段的痘苗病毒天坛株载体的生物学性能及外源基因的免疫原性.方法 构建缺失C8L-K3L区域的重组痘苗病毒天坛株载体VTT△C8-K3-gag.在4种细胞上检测了重组载体的增殖能力、在小鼠和家兔模型上进行毒力评价,并在BALB/c小鼠进行了免疫效果评价.结果 与VTT相比,VTT△C8-K3-gag在CEF、BHK-21、HeLa细胞中复制能力显著下降,在Vero细胞中失去复制能力.VTT△C8-K3-gag在小鼠和家兔模型中毒力均有显著降低.VTT△C8-K3-gag免疫小鼠第4周后诱导的痘苗病毒特异结合抗体与中和抗体滴度分别达到5.6× 103和1.0× 104,第9周滴度达到5.8×105和5.25×103,与VTKgpe相比均显著下降3~9倍,但E3刺激后的细胞免疫应答无显著变化.VTT△C8-K3-gag单独免疫或与DNA疫苗联合免疫诱导的HIV特异性抗体水平和细胞免疫应答均与VTKgpe无差异.结论 VTT△C8-K3-gag是一个安全性较高且具有深入研究价值的HIV候选疫苗株.%Objective To study the biological properties of the recombinant vaccinia virus Tiantan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and its immunogenicity.Methods The expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain (VTT△C8-K3-gag) was constructed by replacing C8L-K3L genes with HIV gag gene and GFP gene.Viral replication capacities in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21,monkey Vero and human HeLa cell lines were detected respectively.Virulence evaluation was carried out in mice and rabbit models,and immune effects of VTT△C8-K3-gag was evaluated in BALA/c mice model.Results The replication capacity of VTT△C8-K3-gag was impaired in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21 and human HeLa cell lines,and was completely restricted in monkey Vero cell line as compared with the parental VTT.VTT△C8-K3-gag was less virulent than VTT in mice and rabbit models.The cellular and humoral responses to HIV elicited by VTT△C8-K3-gag alone or in combination with DNA vaccine were similar

  20. Prevalência de cárie dental em uma população de escolares da região amazônica Prevalence of dental caries in a school population of the amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Corrêa Normando

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a ausência de dados sobre a prevalência de cárie dental em uma população tipicamente amazônida, foi feito um levantamento epidemiológico em 103 escolares na região da Ilha de Sirituba, no Município de Abaetetuba, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O CPOD médio encontrado foi de 6,5 e o ceo de 5,4. Apesar da primitividade do local, o alto índice de cárie pode estar relacionado a diversos fatores, dentre os quais deve ser incluída a influência urbana na alimentação, principalmente pelo açúcar, criando novos hábitos alimentares que alteraram fundamentalmente a dieta da região.In view of the lack of data as to the prevalence of dental caries among typical amazonian populations, the authors carried out an epidemiological study of 103 schoolchildren from Sirituba Island, Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. The mean values found for DMFT and deft were 6.5 and 5.4 respectively. Although the region is very primitive, this high prevalence may be linked to several factors, among which is the urban influence, mainly through the use of sugar, on food habits in such a way as fundamentally to alter the diet of the amazonian population.

  1. Regional odontodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  2. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or ′ghost teeth′ in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  3. Tumor-promoting function of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1836724 (C3388T) alters multiple potential legitimate microRNA binding sites at the 3'-untranslated region of ErbB4 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Mesrian Tanha, Hamzeh; Mojtabavi Naeini, Marjan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Azadeh, Mansoureh

    2016-05-01

    ErbB4 can act as either a tumor-suppressor gene or an oncogene in breast cancer. Multiple genetic factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect gene expression patterns. Multiple 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) SNPs reside within the target binding site of microRNAs, which can strengthen or weaken binding to target genes. The present study aimed to predict potential 3'‑UTR variants of ErbB4 that alter the target binding site of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to clarify the association of the potential variant with the risk of developing breast cancer. In silico prediction was performed to identify potential functional SNPs within miRNA target binding sites in the 3'‑UTR of ErbB4. Thus, 146 patients and controls were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. In addition to the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, allele and genotype frequency differences were determined to investigate the association between rs1836724 and the susceptibility to breast cancer. Bioinformatics analysis identified rs1836724 to be a polymorphism in the seed region of four miRNA binding sites (hsa-miR335-5p, hsa-miR-28-5p, has‑miR‑708‑5p and has‑miR‑665), which may participate in the development of breast cancer. Logistic regression data indicated that the T allele of the polymorphism [OR (95% CI)=1.72 (1.056‑2.808), P=0.029] is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Using bioinformatics tools, a correlation was indicated between the presence of the T allele and a reduction in ErbB4 RNA silencing based on miRNA interaction. Furthermore, case subgroup data analysis revealed an association between the C/T genotype and an ER positive phenotype [OR (95% CI)=6.00 (1.082‑33.274), P=0.028] compared with the T/T genotype. ErbB4 and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) are regulated by identical miRNAs thus there may be a competition for binding sites. Due to this pattern, if the interaction between miRNAs with one gene is reduced, it

  4. Clonal study of avian Escherichia coli strains by fliC conserved-DNA-sequence regions analysis Estudo clonal de Escherichia coli aviário por análise de seqüências de DNA conservadas do gene fliC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Amabile de Campos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The clonal relationship among avian Escherichia coli strains and their genetic proximity with human pathogenic E. coli, Salmonela enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Proteus mirabilis, was determined by the DNA sequencing of the conserved 5' and 3'regions fliC gene (flagellin encoded gene. Among 30 commensal avian E. coli strains and 49 pathogenic avian E. coli strains (APEC, 24 commensal and 39 APEC strains harbored fliC gene with fragments size varying from 670bp to 1,900bp. The comparative analysis of these regions allowed the construction of a dendrogram of similarity possessing two main clusters: one compounded mainly by APEC strains and by H-antigens from human E. coli, and another one compounded by commensal avian E. coli strains, S. enterica, and by other H-antigens from human E. coli. Overall, this work demonstrated that fliC conserved regions may be associated with pathogenic clones of APEC strains, and also shows a great similarity among APEC and H-antigens of E. coli strains isolated from humans. These data, can add evidence that APEC strains can exhibit a zoonotic risk.A relação clonal entre linhagens de Escherichia coli de origem aviária e sua proximidade genética com E. coli patogênica para humanos, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica e Proteus mirabilis foi determinada através da utilização das seqüências conservadas 5' e 3' do gene fliC (responsável pela codificação da flagelina. Entre as 30 linhagens comensais de E. coli aviária e as 49 linhagens patogênicas de E. coli para aves (APEC, 24 linhagens comensais e 39 APEC apresentaram o gene fliC, que foi encontrado em tamanhos que variam de 670pb a 1900pb. Um dendrograma representando similaridade genética foi obtido a partir do seqüenciamento das regiões 5' e 3' conservadas do gene fliC das linhagens de E. coli de origem aviária, das seqüências dos antígenos H de E. coli de origem humana, de S. enterica, Y. enterocolitica e de P. mirabilis. A an

  5. Caracterização e modelo logístico na descrição da hepatite B ou C entre os doadores do Hemocentro Regional de Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Cizuka Toyama Udo

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma aplicação dos métodos estatísticos-medidas de associação e regressão logística para variáveis categorizadas de um estudo comparativo cujo objetivo é identificar fatores de risco para a condição de hepatite B ou C, buscando sanar as deficiências e as distorções no processo de triagem clínica dos candidatos a doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Maringá, no período de 1993 a 1996. Pela regressão logística, os fatores de risco detectados foram possuir mais de três parceiros sexuais e ter tido parceiros desconhecidos, homossexual ou prostituta. Apesar de o modelo ser significativo, é restrito no que se refere à previsão, uma vez que, pelo critério de classificação, o percentual de acertos entre os doadores com pelo menos uma sorologia positiva de hepatite é baixa. Observa-se que a entrevista médica na triagem clínica trouxe uma contribuição significativa na identificação de inaptidão.

  6. Persistent replication of a hepatitis C virus genotype 1b-based chimeric clone carrying E1, E2 and p6 regions from GB virus B in a New World monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Mori, Ken-Ichi; Higashino, Atsunori; Iwasaki, Yuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Maki, Noboru; Akari, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The development of effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccines is essential for the prevention of further HCV dissemination, especially in developing countries. Therefore the aim of this study is to establish a feasible and immunocompetent surrogate animal model of HCV infection that will help in evaluation of the protective efficacy of newly developing HCV vaccine candidates. To circumvent the narrow host range of HCV, an HCV genotype 1b-based chimeric clone carrying E1, E2 and p6 regions from GB virus B (GBV-B), which is closely related to HCV, was generated. The chimera between HCV and GBV-B, named HCV/G, replicated more efficiently as compared with the HCV clone in primary marmoset hepatocytes. Furthermore, it was found that the chimera persistently replicated in a tamarin for more than 2 years after intrahepatic inoculation of the chimeric RNA. Although relatively low (production of the chimeric virus. Our results will help establish a novel non-human primate model for HCV infection on the basis of the HCV/G chimera in the major framework of the HCV genome. PMID:26634303

  7. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  8. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay;

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a...... core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviable. After E2 exchange from three 1b isolates, long delays were observed before spread of infection....... For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight decrease...

  9. The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiting Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. METHODS: All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 10,104 residents (92.4% were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000. Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7% and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR]  = 5.8, education (OR = 2.29; occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12; drug abuse (OR = 18.0; and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92. Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. CONCLUSION: HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.

  10. Expression of KCNQ1OT1, CDKN1C, H19, and PLAGL1 and the methylation patterns at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 imprinting control regions is conserved between human and bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Katherine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS is a loss-of-imprinting pediatric overgrowth syndrome. The primary features of BWS include macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. Secondary features that are frequently observed in BWS patients are hypoglycemia, nevus flammeus, polyhydramnios, visceromegaly, hemihyperplasia, cardiac malformations, and difficulty breathing. BWS is speculated to occur primarily as the result of the misregulation of imprinted genes associated with two clusters on chromosome 11p15.5, namely the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2. A similar overgrowth phenotype is observed in bovine and ovine as a result of embryo culture. In ruminants this syndrome is known as large offspring syndrome (LOS. The phenotypes associated with LOS are increased birth weight, visceromegaly, skeletal defects, hypoglycemia, polyhydramnios, and breathing difficulties. Even though phenotypic similarities exist between the two syndromes, whether the two syndromes are epigenetically similar is unknown. In this study we use control Bos taurus indicus X Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrid bovine concepti to characterize baseline imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status of imprinted domains known to be misregulated in BWS. This work is intended to be the first step in a series of experiments aimed at determining if LOS will serve as an appropriate animal model to study BWS. Results The use of F1 B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus tissues provided us with a tool to unequivocally determine imprinted status of the regions of interest in our study. We found that imprinting is conserved between the bovine and human in imprinted genes known to be associated with BWS. KCNQ1OT1 and PLAGL1 were paternally-expressed while CDKN1C and H19 were maternally-expressed in B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus F1 concepti. We also show that in bovids, differential methylation exists at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 ICRs. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that the

  11. Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive peptide fragments mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 and copeptin in hemodialysis patients: associated factors and prediction of mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Artunc

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin are vasoactive peptides that regulate vascular tone and might play a role in hypertensive diseases. Recently, laboratory assays have been developed to measure stable fragments of vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin. Little is known about their diagnostic and prognostic value in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we measured the plasma concentration of copeptin, mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-pro-ADM and C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 (CT-pro-ET1 in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239 and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. In all patients enrolled, the plasma concentrations of copeptin, MR-pro-ADM and CT-pro-ET1 were largely elevated with a median concentration of 132 pmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 78-192 for copeptin, 1.26 nmol/L (IQR 1.02-1.80 for MR-pro-ADM and 149 pmol/L (IQR 121-181 for CT-pro-ET1. The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin concentration and were negatively correlated to residual diuresis. The plasma concentration of MR-pro-ADM was a strong predictor of all-cause (univariate hazard ratio for a 10-fold increase 9.94 [3.14;32], p<0.0001 and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 34.87 [5.58;217], p = 0.0001 within a 3.8-year follow-up. The associations remained stable in models adjusted for dialysis specific factors and were attenuated in a full model adjusted for all prognostic factors. Plasma copeptin concentration was weakly associated with cardiovascular mortality (only in univariate analysis and CT-pro-ET1 was not associated with mortality at all. In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, increased release. Increased concentrations of MR-pro-ADM are predictive of mortality.

  12. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimma Reddy B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the etiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and esthetic needs in each case. This article reports the case of a 5-year-old boy presenting a rare anomaly on the right side of the maxillary arch. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic checkups. The extraction was followed by rehabilitation with dental implants. The main aim of this article is to provide valuable information to pediatric dentists about the review and treatment alternatives for ROD.

  13. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  14. Non-random escape pathways from a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody map to a highly conserved region on the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein encompassing amino acids 412-423.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-yong Keck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412-423 is conserved and antibodies to 412-423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that cannot be neutralized by a murine but by human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs against 412-423. To determine whether HCV escapes from these antibodies, we analyzed variants that emerged when cell culture infectious HCV virions (HCVcc were passaged under increasing concentrations of a specific HMAb, HC33.1. Multiple nonrandom escape pathways were identified. Two pathways occurred in the context of an N-glycan shift mutation at N417T. At low antibody concentrations, substitutions of two residues outside of the epitope, N434D and K610R, led to variants having improved in vitro viral fitness and reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 binding and neutralization. At moderate concentrations, a S419N mutation occurred within 412-423 in escape variants that have greatly reduced sensitivity to HC33.1 but compromised viral fitness. Importantly, the variants generated from these pathways differed in their stability. N434D and K610R-associated variants were stable and became dominant as the virions were passaged. The S419N mutation reverted back to N419S when immune pressure was reduced by removing HC33.1. At high antibody concentrations, a mutation at L413I was observed in variants that were resistant to HC33.1 neutralization. Collectively, the combination of multiple escape pathways enabled the virus to persist under a wide range of antibody concentrations. Moreover, these findings pose a different challenge to vaccine development beyond the identification of highly conserved epitopes. It will be necessary for a vaccine to induce high potency antibodies that prevent the formation of escape

  15. C. Raudvere & J.P. Schjödt (eds., More Than Mythology – Narratives, Ritual Practices and Regional Distribution in Pre-Christian Scandinavian Religions (Lund: Nordic Academic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A book review of; Raudvere, Catharina & Schjödt, Jens Peter: More Than Mythology – Narratives, Ritual Practices and Regional Distribution in Pre-Christian Scandinavian Religions

  16. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS and Metop-A/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  17. Exploring the central sub-pc region of the \\gamma-ray bright radio galaxy 3C 84 with the VLBA at 43 GHz in the period of 2002-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenta; Kino, Motoki; Kataoka, Jun; Asada, Keiichi; Doi, Akihiro; Inoue, Makoto; Orienti, Monica; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Tornikoski, Merja; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Bach, Uwe; Kameno, Seiji; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of a new radio component right before the GeV \\gamma-ray detection since 2008 August by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, we present a detailed study of the kinematics and lightcurve on the central sub-pc scale of 3C 84 using the archival VLBA 43-GHz data covering the period between 2002 January to 2008 November. We find that the new component "C3", previously reported by the observations with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), was already formed in 2003. The flux density of C3 increases moderately until 2008, and then it becomes brighter rapidly after 2008. The radio core, C1, also shows a similar trend. The apparent speed of C3 with reference to the core C1 shows moderate acceleration from 0.10c to 0.47c between 2003 November to 2008 November, but is still sub-relativistic. We further try to fit the observed broadband spectrum by the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model using the measured apparent speed of C3. The fit can reproduce the observed \\gamma-ray emissi...

  18. Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 Atrazine Catabolism Genes trzN, atzB, and atzC Are Linked on a 160-Kilobase Region and Are Functional in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjaphan, Kannika; Shapir, Nir; Wackett, Lawrence P; Palmer, Michael; Blackmon, Barbara; Tomkins, Jeff; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 metabolizes atrazine to cyanuric acid via TrzN, AtzB, and AtzC. The complete sequence of a 160-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone indicated that trzN, atzB, and atzC are linked on the A. aurescens genome. TrzN, AtzB, and AtzC were shown to be functional in Escherichia coli. Hybridization studies localized trzN, atzB, and atzC to a 380-kb plasmid in A. aurescens strain TC1.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Lateolabrax japonicus Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit (G6PC) cDNA and Its 5'-flanking Region%鲈鱼6-磷酸葡萄糖酶催化亚基(G6PC)cDNA和5’侧翼序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云霞; 郑伟贤; 宋娟娟

    2011-01-01

    1 080 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 359 amino acids with a molecular weight of 40.45 kD and pi 9.30(GenBank accession No. HQ317736.1). The deduced amino acid sequence of L. Japonicus G6PC shared high identity with other eleven species, which was from 58% to 85%, and the highest was 85% with Osmerus mordax. L. Japonicus G6PC contained three conserved domains. RT-PCR was used to test the expression profile of G6PC in ten tissues, including muscle, eye, spleen, kidney, liver, fat, heart, gill, intestine and brain. The results showed that G6PC was mainly expressed in liver, inte stine and kidney, and weakly in brain and gill. A 1 243 bp 5'-flanking region sequence upstream of the translationalstart of G6PC gene was cloned using genomic walking technique. It contained highly conserved 2 TATA boxes, 2 IRS (insulin response sequence), C/EBPb(CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein b), CRE-BP(cAMP response element binding proteins) and HNF-3b (hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 beta, FoxA2) potential transcriptional factor binding sites. We conclude that L. Japonicus G6PC are abundant in liver, intestine and kidney, and the 5'- flanking region of G6PC contains multiple binding sites for transcriptional factor. These results will be helpful foundation for understanding the regulation mechanism of G6PC.

  20. Ljubljana urban region - a problem region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Agglomerative regions are a special type of problem regions with a specific set of development problems. An analysis of the economic, demographic, social,spatial and environmental processes and the situation in the Ljubljana urban region has highlighted the main problems in the region and the reasons behind them. The results fully confirmed the initial assumption that the region in question has all the characteristics of the agglomerative type of problem regions.

  1. Functional importance of the Ala(116)-Pro(136) region in the calcium-sensing receptor. Constitutive activity and inverse agonism in a family C G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Spalding, T A; Burstein, E S;

    2000-01-01

    the Ala(116)-Pro(136) region of CaR, indicating that this part of the receptor is particularly sensitive to mutation-induced activation. This region was subjected to random saturation mutagenesis, and 219 mutant receptor clones were isolated and screened pharmacologically in a high throughput...... screening assay. Selected mutants were characterized further in an inositol phosphate assay. The vast majority of the mutants tested displayed an increased affinity for Ca(2+). Furthermore, 21 of the mutants showed increased basal activity in the absence of agonist. This constitutive activity was not......, suppressed the elevated basal response of the constitutively activated Ca/1a mutants demonstrating inverse agonist activity of CPCCOEt. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the Ala(116)-Pro(136) region is of key importance for the maintenance of the inactive conformation of CaR....

  2. Effect of polymorphism of uncoupling protein 3 gene -55 (C>T) on the resting energy expenditure, total body fat and regional body fat in Chinese%解偶联蛋白3基因启动子区-55(C>T)多态与中国人静息能量消耗及体脂含量与分布的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方启晨; 贾伟平; 杨明; 包玉倩; 陈蕾; 张蓉; 项坤三

    2005-01-01

    目的研究解偶联蛋白3基因 (UCP3)启动子区-55(C>T)多态与中国人静息能量消耗、体脂参数的关系.方法在300名中国人(正常体重91人,超重/肥胖209人)中,用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms,PCR-RFLP)检测 UCP3基因启动子区-55(C>T)变异,并测定其静息能量消耗、体脂含量及分布.结果 UCP3基因启动子区-55(C>T)多态基因型频率与肥胖及肥胖类型均无相关.正常体重组TT基因型者静息能量消耗水平显著高于CT及CC基因型者(PT)多态与中国人静息能量消耗相关,该变异可能通过对静息能量消耗的影响调节机体的能量代谢.%Objective To investigate the relationship of the C to T variant at the -55 site of the promoter region of uncoupling protein 3 gene (UCP3) with the resting energy expenditure and the parameters of body fat in Chinese population. Methods Three hundred Chinese (91 normal weight subjects, 209 overweight/obesity subjects) were genotyped for the UCP3 gene -55(C>T) by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and the parameters for regional adipose tissue distribution were measured. Results Genotype frequencies of UCP3 gene -55(C>T) were not associated with obesity and different types of obesity. The REE level in normal weight subjects with TT homozygotes was higher than that in those with CT heterozygotes and CC homozygotes (P=0.0200). Similar tendency was also observed in overweight/obesity subjects. The FM/FFM exhibited significant differentce between the overweight/obesity subjects with a TT genotype and those with a CT or CC genotype (P=0.0096). Conclusion The level of difference in REE caused by the polymorphism of promoter region of UCP3 -55(C>T) may play a role in energy metabolism in Chinese.

  3. A novel partial deletion of the Y chromosome azoospermia factor c region is caused by non-homologous recombination between palindromes and may be associated with increased sperm counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Noordam; S.K.M. van Daalen; S.E. Hovingh; C.M. Korver; F. van der Veen; S. Repping

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) contains multiple testis-specific genes. Most deletions in the MSY lead to inadequate or absent sperm production. Nearly all deletions occur via homologous recombination between amplicons. Previously, we identified two P5/distal-P1

  4. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  5. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  6. Regional Tourism Development - Western Region Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriana Sava

    2011-01-01

    Regional development can be considered a means of economic growth and of living standards, in order to reduce existing imbalances. Evolution and development of tourism is part of the overall development processes of economy and regional development. Development Region West is one of the eight development regions of Romania, which was established in 1998. One possibility of developing tourism in the region would be niche tourism such as speleo-tourism.

  7. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  8. Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Maceió, Alagoas, Northeast region of Brazil Infecção por Dirofilaria immitis em cães de Maceió

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Brito

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available De 2.007 amostras de sangue examinadas de cães da cidade de Maceió-AL, foram detectados 62 (3,1% animais positivos para a presença de microfilárias (mf. Em 11 cães, escolhidos aleatoriamente, foi colhido sangue venoso para a identificação específica de Dirofilaria immitis. Para tal, foram utilizadas a motilidade, o tamanho, a morfologia das mf e a presença de antígenos solúveis do parasito, sendo encontrados cinco animais portadores de D. immitis. Mosquitos da espécie Culex quinquefasciatus foram alimentados com sangue de um cão portador de D. immitis. O desenvolvimento de formas larvárias foi observado nos túbulos de Malpighi, confirmando a ocorrência da dirofilariose canina causada por D. immitis na cidade de Maceió-AL.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory of crystalline β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β CL-20) in the region of its C-H stretching vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, K. D.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Cabalo, J.; Sausa, R.

    2013-10-01

    Molecular vibrational spectroscopy provides a useful tool for material characterization and model verification. We examine the CH stretching fundamental and overtones of energetic material β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β-CL-20) by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Laser Photoacoustic Overtone Spectroscopy, and utilize Density Functional Theory to calculate the C-H bond energy of β-CL-20 in a crystal. The spectra reveal four intense and distinct features, whose analysis yields C-H stretching fundamental frequencies and anharmonicity values that range from 3137 to 3170 cm-1 and 53.8 to 58.8 cm-1, respectively. From these data, we estimate an average value of 42,700 cm-1 (5.29 eV) for the C-H bond energy, a value that agrees with our quantum mechanical calculations.

  10. Multi-isotopic study (15N, 34S, 18O, 13C) to identify processes affecting nitrate and sulfate in response to local and regional groundwater mixing in a large-scale flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We studied a range-and-basin area where different scale flow systems converge. ► Pig manure and chemical fertilizers are the main nitrate and sulfate sources. ► Mixing between regional and local groundwater can favor denitrification processes. - Abstract: The integrated use of hydrogeologic and multi-isotopic approaches (δ15N, δ18ONO3, δ34S, δ18OSO4 and δ13CHCO3) was applied in the Selva basin area (NE Spain) to characterize NO3- and SO42- sources and to evaluate which geochemical processes affect NO3- in groundwater. The studied basin is within a basin-and-range physiographic province where natural hydrodynamics have been modified and different scale flow systems converge as a consequence of recent groundwater development and exploitation rates. As a result, groundwaters related to the local recharge flow system (affected by anthropogenic activities) and to the generally deeper regional flow system (recharged from the surrounding ranges) undergo mixing processes. The δ15N, δ18ONO3 and δ34S indicated that the predominant sources of contamination in the basin are pig manure and synthetic fertilizers. Hydrochemical data along with δ15N, δ18ONO3, δ34S, δ18OSO4 and δ13CHCO3 of some wells confirmed mixing between regional and local flow systems. Apart from dilution processes that can contribute to the decrease of NO3- concentrations, the positive correlation between δ15N and δ18ONO3 agreed with the occurrence of denitrification processes. The δ34S and δ18OSO4 indicated that pyrite oxidation is not linked to denitrification, and δ13CHCO3 did not clearly point to a role of organic matter as an electron donor. Therefore, it is proposed that the mixing processes between deeper regional and local surface groundwater allow denitrification to occur due to the reducing conditions of the regional groundwater. Thus, isotopic data add useful complementary information to hydrochemical studies, especially in those areas where hydrochemical data

  11. Evaluation of a novel functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs35010275 G>C) in MIR196A2 promoter region as a risk factor of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Qiang, Fulin; Gao, Yan; Kang, Meiyun; Wang, Meilin; Tao, Guoquan; Gong, Weida; Zhu, Haixia; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zhao, Qinghong

    2014-11-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to influence the occurrence and progression of cancer through altering the expression and biological function of miRNAs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the potential functional SNPs in MIR196A2 promoter had effect on the susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) in a Chinese population.We conducted a 2-stage case-control study (753 cases and 854 controls in testing set; 940 cases and 1061 controls in validation set) to evaluate the association between 2 potential functional SNPs in MIR196A2 promoter (rs12304647 A>C and rs35010275 G>C) and GC risk. The luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were used to examine the functionality of the important polymorphism.We found that the rs35010275 C allele was significantly associated with the decreased risk of GC (adjusted odds ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.77-0.94) in the combined case-control studies. The miR-196a expression levels in GC tissues were significantly higher than that in corresponding adjacent normal tissues (P C polymorphism in MIR196A2 promoter was significantly associated with miR-196a expression and influenced the genetic susceptibility to GC.

  12. A Lys49 Phospholipase A2, Isolated from Bothrops asper Snake Venom, Induces Lipid Droplet Formation in Macrophages Which Depends on Distinct Signaling Pathways and the C-Terminal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cristina Giannotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT-II, a Lys49PLA2 homologue devoid of catalytic activity from B. asper venom, stimulates inflammatory events in macrophages. We investigated the ability of MT-II to induce formation of lipid droplets (LDs, key elements of inflammatory responses, in isolated macrophages and participation of protein kinases and intracellular PLA2s in this effect. Influence of MT-II on PLIN2 recruitment and expression was assessed, and the effects of some synthetic peptides on LD formation were further evaluated. At noncytotoxic concentrations, MT-II directly activated macrophages to form LDs. This effect was reproduced by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence 115–129 of MT-II, evidencing the critical role of C-terminus for MT-II-induced effect. Moreover, MT-II induced expression and recruitment of PLIN2. Pharmacological interventions with specific inhibitors showed that PKC, PI3K, ERK1/2, and iPLA2, but not P38MAPK or cPLA2, signaling pathways are involved in LD formation induced by MT-II. This sPLA2 homologue also induced synthesis of PGE2 that colocalized to LDs. In conclusion, MT-II is able to induce formation of LDs committed to PGE2 formation in a process dependent on C-terminal loop engagement and regulated by distinct protein kinases and iPLA2. LDs may constitute an important inflammatory mechanism triggered by MT-II in macrophages.

  13. A Lys49 Phospholipase A2, Isolated from Bothrops asper Snake Venom, Induces Lipid Droplet Formation in Macrophages Which Depends on Distinct Signaling Pathways and the C-Terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Giannotti, Karina; Leiguez, Elbio; Moreira, Vanessa; Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Lopes de Melo, Robson; Teixeira, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    MT-II, a Lys49PLA2 homologue devoid of catalytic activity from B. asper venom, stimulates inflammatory events in macrophages. We investigated the ability of MT-II to induce formation of lipid droplets (LDs), key elements of inflammatory responses, in isolated macrophages and participation of protein kinases and intracellular PLA2s in this effect. Influence of MT-II on PLIN2 recruitment and expression was assessed, and the effects of some synthetic peptides on LD formation were further evaluated. At noncytotoxic concentrations, MT-II directly activated macrophages to form LDs. This effect was reproduced by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence 115–129 of MT-II, evidencing the critical role of C-terminus for MT-II-induced effect. Moreover, MT-II induced expression and recruitment of PLIN2. Pharmacological interventions with specific inhibitors showed that PKC, PI3K, ERK1/2, and iPLA2, but not P38MAPK or cPLA2, signaling pathways are involved in LD formation induced by MT-II. This sPLA2 homologue also induced synthesis of PGE2 that colocalized to LDs. In conclusion, MT-II is able to induce formation of LDs committed to PGE2 formation in a process dependent on C-terminal loop engagement and regulated by distinct protein kinases and iPLA2. LDs may constitute an important inflammatory mechanism triggered by MT-II in macrophages. PMID:23509782

  14. Genotype frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a Colombian Caribbean population do not correspond with lactase persistence prevalence reported in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mendoza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms located upstream of the lactase gene are reliable predictors of lactase persistence in Caucasian-derived populations. Assessing the presence and distribution of these polymorphisms in other populations is central to developing genotyping assays and understanding the evolutionary mechanism behind this trait in several human populations. Objective: Genotyping the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a sample of Colombian Caribbean individuals. Materials and methods: The polymorphisms were identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Amplified fragments were digested using Hinf I and Hha I. Arlequin v. 3.1 was used to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage disequilibrium. Results: Genotypic frequencies were CC (81.4%, CT (18.6%, and TT (0% for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. Frequencies were AA (55.5%, GA (45.5%, and GG (0% for the G/A-22018 polymorphism. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the two loci. Only the locus containing the C/T-13910 polymorphism was found in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: The allelic and genotypic distributions observed in this first genotyping study in a Colombian Caribbean population indicate a distribution pattern different from the one of the North European Caucasians and do not correspond to the lactase persistence prevalence reported for Caribbean populations.

  15. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2013-01-01

    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis

  16. Interaction for Innovation: Comparing Norwegian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Building upon insights from earlier investigations of innovation collaboration from a regional perspective as well as the triple helix perspective, local/regional innovation systems and open innovation approaches, this study explores whether cooperation between firms, universities and government increases the intensity of innovation equally for the capital city and peripheral regions. We investigate whether firms located in the capital region benefit more from public support, c...

  17. Las Antillas, nuevamente, «entre imperios» y de cómo enfrentarse al insularismo racialista para alcanzar el objetivo de una confederación regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscaglia Salgado, José F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At the start of the 21st century the peoples of the Antilles once again find themselves as minor actors in a process of global geopolitical restructuring where the Caribbean is a scenario of major relevance. A new period “between empires” is coming into focus with the retreat of the United States and the rise in the influence of China in the region. This work is a broad reflection that, at the intersection of history, cultural studies and macropolitics, reclaims the legacy of the 19th century project for the creation of the Antillean Confederation to posit a possible realignment of forces at the regional level that would favor the possibility of breaking with the insularism complex, the culture of racialism and half a millennium of political subjection to foreign powers.A principios del siglo XXI los pueblos antillanos vuelven a ser agentes de poca monta en un proceso de reordenamiento geopolítico a escala mundial dentro del cual el Caribe es un escenario de mayor relevancia. Un nuevo período de «entre imperios» ya se vislumbra en el repliegue de los Estados Unidos y el alza de la influencia de China en la región. Este trabajo, ubicado en la intersección de la historia, los estudios culturales y la macropolítica, es una reflexión amplia que rescata el legado del proyecto decimonónico de la Liga Antillana para proponer un posible realineamiento de fuerzas a nivel regional con miras hacia la posibilidad real de romper el complejo de insularismo, la cultura del racialismo y la sujeción política de medio milenio a potencias ultramarinas.

  18. The indicator quality of dippers (Cinclus c. aquaticus) for detecting residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a contribution to the monitoring of the water quality of river systems in urban-industrial regions and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1977, the dipper population of the river system of the Wupper in the Remscheid/Wuppertal urban region has been investigated with regard to breeding biology and population dynamics. Inexplicable irregularities in breeding behavior and success first appeared in a sub-population. They caused suspicion of a pollutant load in one of the tributaries. The further investigations provided impressive proof of the indicator quality of the dipper for identification of pollution phenomena. It can indicate environmental hazards without great technical expenditure, and it can complete the biochemical and saprobia-systematic results in the phase of intensive post-research. (orig.)

  19. Las Antillas, nuevamente, «entre imperios» y de cómo enfrentarse al insularismo racialista para alcanzar el objetivo de una confederación regional

    OpenAIRE

    José F. Buscaglia Salgado

    2015-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century the peoples of the Antilles once again find themselves as minor actors in a process of global geopolitical restructuring where the Caribbean is a scenario of major relevance. A new period “between empires” is coming into focus with the retreat of the United States and the rise in the influence of China in the region. This work is a broad reflection that, at the intersection of history, cultural studies and macropolitics, reclaims the legacy of the 19th century...

  20. Prevalência de cárie dental em uma população de escolares da região amazônica Prevalence of dental caries in a school population of the amazonian region

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio David Corrêa Normando; Izamir Carnevali de Araújo

    1990-01-01

    Considerando-se a ausência de dados sobre a prevalência de cárie dental em uma população tipicamente amazônida, foi feito um levantamento epidemiológico em 103 escolares na região da Ilha de Sirituba, no Município de Abaetetuba, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O CPOD médio encontrado foi de 6,5 e o ceo de 5,4. Apesar da primitividade do local, o alto índice de cárie pode estar relacionado a diversos fatores, dentre os quais deve ser incluída a influência urbana na alimentação, principalmente pelo açú...