Sample records for c invariance

  1. Invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    removed two cells of the same color. Whenever you are putting a 2 × 1 rectangle you are covering one black and one white cell. So the total number of white cells you have covered minus the total number of black cells you have covered after putting some 2 × 1 rectangles is always zero. So this difference is an invariant! You.

  2. Perturbations of C*-algebraic Invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.


    The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property.......The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property....

  3. Invariant Nonrecurrent Fatou Components of Automorphisms of $C^2$


    Jupiter, Daniel; Lilov, Krastio


    We examine invariant nonrecurrent Fatou components of automorphisms of $\\mathbb{C}^2$ in the case where all limit maps are constant. We show that except in special cases there cannot be more than one such limit map. We also briefly examine such Fatou components where the limit maps may be nonconstant. Lastly we present a few examples of such Fatou components.

  4. Discriminating sterile neutrinos and unitarity violation with C P invariants (United States)

    Päs, Heinrich; Sicking, Philipp


    We present a new method to analyze upcoming results in the search for C P violating neutrino oscillations. The C P violating amplitudes Aαβ k j provide parametrization independent observables, which will be accessible by experiments soon. The strong prediction of a unique Aαβ k j (the Jarlskog invariant) in case of the standard three neutrino model does not hold in models with new physics beyond the standard model. Nevertheless there are still correlations among the amplitudes depending on the specific model. Due to these correlations it is possible to reject specific new physics models by determining only 3 of the C P violating amplitudes.

  5. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.


    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  6. d $\\leq$ 1 U d $\\geq$ 25 and W constraints from BRST invariance in the C $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz


    The BRST invariance condition in a highest-weight representation of the topological ($\\equiv$ twisted $N=2$) algebra captures the `invariant' content of two-dimensional gravity coupled to matter. The standard DDK formulation is recovered by splitting the topological generators into $c=-26$ reparametrization ghosts+matter +`Liouville', while a similar splitting involving $c=-2$ ghosts gives rise to the matter dressed in exactly the way required in order that the theory be equivalent to Virasoro constraints on the KP hierarchy. The two dressings of matter with the `Liouville' differ also by their `ghost numbers', which is similar to the existence of representatives of BRST cohomologies with different ghost numbers. The topological central charge $\\ctop\

  7. cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invariant chain (Ii) plays an important role in MHC class II molecules assembly and exogenous peptide presentation in vertebrates. Although mammalian Ii has been extensively studied, less attention is paid to its fish counterpart. In this study, in order to understand the structure and biological function of Chinese Pengze ...

  8. Invariant subspaces

    CERN Document Server

    Radjavi, Heydar


    This broad survey spans a wealth of studies on invariant subspaces, focusing on operators on separable Hilbert space. Largely self-contained, it requires only a working knowledge of measure theory, complex analysis, and elementary functional analysis. Subjects include normal operators, analytic functions of operators, shift operators, examples of invariant subspace lattices, compact operators, and the existence of invariant and hyperinvariant subspaces. Additional chapters cover certain results on von Neumann algebras, transitive operator algebras, algebras associated with invariant subspaces,

  9. Chronometric Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Zelmanov, Abraham


    This book introduces the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities) in the General Theory of Relativity, and also numerous results the mathematical apparatus found in relativistic cosmology (236 pages, 1 foto).

  10. Algorithms in invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd


    J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.

  11. Origin of Invariant Gel Melting Temperatures in the c-T Phase Diagram of an Organogel. (United States)

    Christ, Elliot; Blanc, Christophe; Al Ouahabi, Abdelaziz; Maurin, David; Le Parc, Rozenn; Bantignies, Jean-Louis; Guenet, Jean-Michel; Collin, Dominique; Mésini, Philippe J


    Binary c-T phase diagrams of organogelators in solvent are frequently simplified to two domains, gel and sol, even when the melting temperatures display two distinct regimes, an increase with T and a plateau. Herein, the c-T phase diagram of an organogelator in solvent is elucidated by rheology, DSC, optical microscopy, and transmitted light intensity measurements. We evidence a miscibility gap between the organogelator and the solvent above a threshold concentration, cL. In this domain the melting or the formation of the gel becomes a monotectic transformation, which explains why the corresponding temperatures are nonvariant above cL. As shown by further studies by variable temperature FTIR and NMR, different types of H-bonds drive both the liquid-liquid phase separation and the gelation.

  12. Invariant vacuum (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador


    We apply the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method for the harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency to the modes of a charged scalar field that propagates in a curved, homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. We recover the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the case of a flat DeSitter spacetime, the equivalent one in the case of a closed DeSitter spacetime and the invariant vacuum in a curved spacetime that evolves adiabatically. In the three cases, it is computed the thermodynamical magnitudes of entanglement between the modes of the particles and antiparticles of the invariant vacuum, and the modification of the Friedmann equation caused by the existence of the energy density of entanglement. The amplitude of the vacuum fluctuations are also computed.

  13. Identification of evolutionarily invariant sequences in the protein C gene promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, C. A.; Bertina, R. M.; Reitsma, P. H.


    Recent studies on human protein C gene expression have revealed the presence of three transcription factor binding sites in close proximity to the transcription start site. Binding sites for the liver-enriched hepatocyte nuclear factors 1 and 3 (HNF-1 and HNF-3, respectively) are located immediately

  14. Lunar Laser Ranging Test of the Invariance of c: a Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruchholz U. E.


    Full Text Available In the APOLLO test, a speed of light was found, which seemingly supports a Galileian addition theorem of velocities. However, the reported difference of 200 +/- 10 m/s is based on a simple error. The correct evaluation of this test leads to the known value of c within the given precision. This correction does not mean an impossibility of detecting spatial anisotropies or gravitational waves.

  15. Intra-Hepatic Depletion of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Liver Inflammation. (United States)

    Bolte, Fabian J; O'Keefe, Ashley C; Webb, Lauren M; Serti, Elisavet; Rivera, Elenita; Liang, T Jake; Ghany, Marc; Rehermann, Barbara


    Chronic hepatitis affects phenotypes of innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the liver as compared with the blood, respond to intra-hepatic cytokines, and (via the semi-invariant T-cell receptor) to bacteria translocated from the gut. Little is known about the role of MAIT cells in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their fate after antiviral therapy. We collected blood samples from 42 patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir. Mononuclear cells were isolated from blood before treatment, at weeks 4 and 12 during treatment, and 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Liver biopsies were collected from 37 of the patients prior to and at week 4 of treatment. Mononuclear cells from 56 blood donors and 10 livers that were not suitable for transplantation were used as controls. Liver samples were assessed histologically for inflammation and fibrosis. Mononuclear cells from liver and blood were studied by flow cytometry and analyzed for responses to cytokine and bacterial stimulation. The frequency of MAIT cells among T cells was significantly lower in blood and liver samples of patients with HCV infection than of controls (median, 1.31% vs 2.32% for blood samples, P = .0048; and median, 4.34% vs 13.40% for liver samples, P = .001). There was an inverse correlation between the frequency of MAIT cells in the liver and histologically determined levels of liver inflammation (r = -.5437, P = .0006) and fibrosis (r = -.5829, P = .0002). MAIT cells from the liver had higher levels of activation and cytotoxicity than MAIT cells from blood (P liver inflammation and MAIT cell activation and cytotoxicity, and increased the MAIT cell frequency among intra-hepatic but not blood T cells. The MAIT cell response to T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation did not change during the 12 weeks of

  16. Galilei invariant molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Mathematisches Inst.; Jaekel, C.D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    We construct a C{sup *}-dynamical model for a chemical reaction. Galilei invariance of our nonrelativistic model is demonstrated by defining it directly on a Galilean space-time fibrebundle with C{sup *}-algebra valued fibre, i.e. without reference to any coordinate system. The existence of equilibrium states in this model is established and some of their properties are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Test of charge conjugation invariance. (United States)

    Nefkens, B M K; Prakhov, S; Gårdestig, A; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Supek, I; Tippens, W B


    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of eta decay to pi0pi0gamma and to pi0pi0pi0gamma. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(eta-->pi0pi0gamma)pi0pi0pi0gamma)<6 x 10(-5) at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  18. Computational invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm


    This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...

  19. A short German Physical-Self-Concept Questionnaire for elementary school children (PSCQ-C): Factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender. (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas


    Research on children's physical self-concept (PSC) is increasingly recognised as an important field of psychology. However, there is a lack of instruments suitable for younger children at elementary school age. In the present study, a short German 21-item Physical Self-Concept-Questionnaire for children (PSCQ-C) was tested measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC (strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination, physical appearance, global sport competence). A number of 770 elementary school children aged 8-12 years completed the PSCQ-C. Results showed good psychometric properties and high reliabilities of the seven scales. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the presumed 7-factor model fitted the data best compared to a global 1- and 2-factor model. Also, full measurement invariance was strongly established. Correlations among the seven scales were mainly moderate. Gender differences were suggestive of developmental trends that are consistent with prior studies. These results provide support that the PSCQ-C is a confidential instrument with sound psychometric properties measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC.

  20. Local invariant manifolds for delay differential equations with state space in $C^1((-\\infty,0],\\mathbb{R}^n$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Otto Walther


    Full Text Available Consider the delay differential equation $x'(t=f(x_t$ with the history $x_t:(-\\infty,0]\\to\\mathbb{R}^n$ of $x$ at 'time' $t$ defined by $x_t(s=x(t+s$. In order not to lose any possible entire solution of any example we work in the Fréchet space $C^1((-\\infty,0],\\mathbb{R}^n$, with the topology of uniform convergence of maps and their derivatives on compact sets. A previously obtained result, designed for the application to examples with unbounded state-dependent delay, says that for maps $f$ which are slightly better than continuously differentiable the delay differential equation defines a continuous semiflow on a continuously differentiable submanifold $X\\subset C^1$ of codimension $n$, with all time-t-maps continuously differentiable. Here continuously differentiable for maps in Fréchet spaces is understood in the sense of Michal and Bastiani. It implies that $f$ is of locally bounded delay in a certain sense. Using this property - and a related further mild smoothness hypothesis on $f$ - we construct stable, unstable, and center manifolds of the semiflow at stationary points, by means of transversality and embeddings.

  1. Conformal projective invariants in the problem of image recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Григорьевна Коновенко


    Full Text Available In this paper we reduce local classification of differential 1-forms on the plane with respect to group SL_2(C of Mobius transformations. We find the field of rational conformal differential invariants and show that the field is generated by two differential invariant derivations and by differential invariants of the first and second orders.

  2. Comparing invariants of SK1


    Wouters, Tim


    In this text, we compare several invariants of the reduced Whitehead group SK1 of a central simple algebra. For biquaternion algebras, we compare a generalised invariant of Suslin as constructed by the author in a previous article to an invariant introduced by Knus-Merkurjev-Rost-Tignol. Using explicit computations, we prove these invariants are essentially the same. We also prove the non-triviality of an invariant introduced by Kahn. To obtain this result, we compare Kahn's invariant to an i...

  3. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V


    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  4. Relativistic gauge invariant potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Negro, J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Olmo, M.A. del (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)


    A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)

  5. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of the Beck Depression Inventory II across Gender Groups (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen


    This study examined measurement invariance (i.e., configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance) of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C) across college males and females and compared gender differences on depression at the latent factor mean level. Two samples composed of 402 male college students and 595…

  6. Robust Affine Invariant Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Yang


    Full Text Available An approach is developed for the extraction of affine invariant descriptors by cutting object into slices. Gray values associated with every pixel in each slice are summed up to construct affine invariant descriptors. As a result, these descriptors are very robust to additive noise. In order to establish slices of correspondence between an object and its affine transformed version, general contour (GC of the object is constructed by performing projection along lines with different polar angles. Consequently, affine in-variant division curves are derived. A slice is formed by points fall in the region enclosed by two adjacent division curves. To test and evaluate the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very robust to noise.

  7. Modular Invariant Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, HEA


    This book covers the modular invariant theory of finite groups, the case when the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group, a theory that is more complicated than the study of the classical non-modular case. Largely self-contained, the book develops the theory from its origins up to modern results. It explores many examples, illustrating the theory and its contrast with the better understood non-modular setting. It details techniques for the computation of invariants for many modular representations of finite groups, especially the case of the cyclic group of prime order. It

  8. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  9. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.


    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  10. Invariant differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Vladimir K


    With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.

  11. Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...

  12. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon


    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  13. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just


    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  14. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)


    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the δN formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  15. Convex Graph Invariants (United States)


    evaluating the function ΘP (A) for any fixed A,P is equivalent to solving the so-called Quadratic Assignment Problem ( QAP ), and thus we can employ various...tractable linear programming, spectral, and SDP relaxations of QAP [40, 11, 33]. In particular we discuss recent work [14] on exploiting group...symmetry in SDP relaxations of QAP , which is useful for approximately computing elementary convex graph invariants in many interesting cases. Finally in

  16. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I


    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  17. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza


    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...

  18. Invariant Characteristics of Carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sherman

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic modeling is aimed at mathematical descriptions of cancer development in aging. In this work, we assumed that a small fraction of individuals in the population is susceptible to cancer, while the rest of the population is resistant to cancer. For individuals susceptible to cancer we adopted methods of conditional survival analyses. We performed computational experiments using data on pancreatic, stomach, gallbladder, colon and rectum, liver, and esophagus cancers from the gastrointestinal system collected for men and women in the SEER registries during 1975-2009. In these experiments, we estimated the time period effects, the birth cohort effects, the age effects and the population (unconditional cancer hazard rates. We also estimated the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates, which are, correspondingly, the hazard and survival rates conditioned on the susceptibility to cancer. The performed experiments showed that for men and women, patterns of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates are: (i intrinsic for each cancer subtype, (ii invariant to the place of living of the individuals diagnosed with cancer, and (iii well adjusted for the modifiable variables averaged at a given time period. Such specificity and invariability of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates suggest that these carcinogenic characteristics can be useful for predictive carcinogenic studies by methods of inferential statistics and for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention.

  19. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi


    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  20. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi


    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  1. Finite type invariants and fatgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry


    –Murakami–Ohtsuki of the link invariant of Andersen–Mattes–Reshetikhin computed relative to choices determined by the fatgraph G; this provides a basic connection between 2d geometry and 3d quantum topology. For each fixed G, this invariant is shown to be universal for homology cylinders, i.e., G establishes an isomorphism...

  2. Invariants for minimal conformal supergravity in six dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butter, Daniel [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuzenko, Sergei M. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009 (Australia); Novak, Joseph; Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)


    We develop a new off-shell formulation for six-dimensional conformal supergravity obtained by gauging the 6D N=(1,0) superconformal algebra in superspace. This formulation is employed to construct two invariants for 6D N=(1,0) conformal supergravity, which contain C{sup 3} and C◻C terms at the component level. Using a conformal supercurrent analysis, we prove that these exhaust all such invariants in minimal conformal supergravity. Finally, we show how to construct the supersymmetric F◻F invariant in curved superspace.

  3. Three +1 Faces of Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Fayngold, Moses


    A careful look at an allegedly well-known century-old concept reveals interesting aspects in it that have generally avoided recognition in literature. There are four different kinds of physical observables known or proclaimed as relativistic invariants under space-time rotations. Only observables in the first three categories are authentic invariants, whereas the single "invariant" - proper length - in the fourth category is actually not an invariant. The proper length has little is anything to do with proper distance which is a true invariant. On the other hand, proper distance, proper time, and rest mass have more in common than usually recognized, and particularly, mass - time analogy opens another view of the twin paradox.

  4. Physical Invariants of Intelligence (United States)

    Zak, Michail


    A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective

  5. On density of the Vassiliev invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots......The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots...

  6. Invariant and semi-invariant probabilistic normed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.B. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Lafuerza-Guillen, B. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria E-04120 (Spain)], E-mail:; Saiedinezhad, S. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:


    Probabilistic metric spaces were introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger . We introduce the concept of semi-invariance among the PN spaces. In this paper we will find a sufficient condition for some PN spaces to be semi-invariant. We will show that PN spaces are normal spaces. Urysohn's lemma, and Tietze extension theorem for them are proved.

  7. Invariant Laws of Thermodynamics and Validity of Hasenöhrl Mass-Energy Equivalence Formula m = (4/3) E/c2 at Photonic, Electrodynamic, and Cosmic Scales (United States)

    Sohrab, Siavash


    According to a scale-invariant statistical theory of fields electromagnetic photon mass is given as mem , k =√{ hk /c3 } . Since electromagnetic energy of photon is identified as amu =√{ hkc } , all baryonic matter is composed of light (photons) Eem = Nmem , kc2 =Mem , kc2 [ Joule ] or equivalently Mem , kc2 / 8338 [ kcal ] = Namu =Ma [ kg ] where 8338 is De Pretto number. Besides particle electromagnetic energy one requires potential energy associated with Poincaré stress for particle stability leading to rest enthalpy \\hcirco =\\ucirco +po \\vcirc =\\ucirco +\\ucirco / 3 = (4 / 3)mem , kc2 in accordance with Hasenöhrl. The 4/3 problem of electrodynamics (T. H. Boyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1982) is also related to Poincaré stress thus the potential energy po \\vcirc =\\ucirco / 3 . Hence, the factor 4/3 is identified as Poisson polytropic index b =cp /cv and total particle rest mass will be composed of electromagnetic and gravitational parts mo =mem +mgr = (3 / 4) Eo /c2 + (1 / 4) Eo /c2 . At cosmological scale, respectively 3/4 and 1/4 of the total mass of closed universe will be electromagnetic (dark energy) and gravitational (dark matter) in nature as was emphasized by Pauli (Theory of Relativity, Dover, 1958). Also, Poincaré-Lorentz dynamic versus Einstein kinematic theory of relativity will be discussed.

  8. Invariant measures in brain dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarsky, Abraham [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Gora, Pawel [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    This note concerns brain activity at the level of neural ensembles and uses ideas from ergodic dynamical systems to model and characterize chaotic patterns among these ensembles during conscious mental activity. Central to our model is the definition of a space of neural ensembles and the assumption of discrete time ensemble dynamics. We argue that continuous invariant measures draw the attention of deeper brain processes, engendering emergent properties such as consciousness. Invariant measures supported on a finite set of ensembles reflect periodic behavior, whereas the existence of continuous invariant measures reflect the dynamics of nonrepeating ensemble patterns that elicit the interest of deeper mental processes. We shall consider two different ways to achieve continuous invariant measures on the space of neural ensembles: (1) via quantum jitters, and (2) via sensory input accompanied by inner thought processes which engender a 'folding' property on the space of ensembles.

  9. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De


    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  10. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of iron and phosphorous are shown to increase at elevated pressures. Finally, we discuss how scale invariance explains the Grüneisen equation of state and a number of well-known empirical melting and freezing rules...

  11. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz


    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  12. Astroparticle Physics Tests of Lorentz Invariance Violation (United States)

    Lang, R. G.; de Souza, V.


    Testing Lorentz invariance is essential as it is one of the pillars of modern physics. Moreover, its violation is foreseen in several popular Quantum Gravity models. Several authors study the effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These particles are the most energetic events ever detected and therefore represent a promising framework to test LIV. In this work we present an analytic calculation of the inelasticity for any a + b → c + d interaction using first order perturbation in the dispersion relation that violates Lorentz invariance. The inelasticity can be calculated by solving a third-order polynomial equation containing: a) the kinematics of the interaction, b) the LIV term for each particle and c) the geometry of the interaction. We use the inelasticity we calculate to investigate the proton propagation in the intergalactic media. The photopion production of the proton interaction with the CMB is taken into account using the inelasticity and the attenuation length in different LIV scenarios. We show how the allowed phase space for the photopion production changes when LIV is considered for the interaction. The calculations presented here are going to be extended in order to calculated the modified ultra-high energy cosmic rays spectrum and compare it to the data.

  13. On invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absos Ali Shaikh


    Full Text Available The object of the present paper is to study the invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. We study semiparallel and 2-semiparallel invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. Among others we study 3-dimensional invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. It is shown that every 3-dimensional invariant submanifold of a (LCSn-manifold is totally geodesic.

  14. Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces


    Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.


    In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.

  15. Loop quasi-invariant chunk detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyen, Jean-Yves; Rubiano, Thomas; Seiller, Thomas


    Several techniques for analysis and transformations are used in compilers. Among them, the peeling of loops for hoisting quasi-invariants can be used to optimize generated code, or simply ease developers’ lives. In this paper, we introduce a new concept of dependency analysis borrowed from...... the computational complexity of the overall program can be decreased. In this paper, we introduce the theory around this concept and present a prototype analysis pass implemented on LLVM. We already implemented a proof of concept on a toy C parser ( analysing...

  16. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)


    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  17. A generalization of gauge invariance (United States)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu


    We consider perturbative quantum field theory in the causal framework. Gauge invariance is, in this framework, an identity involving chronological products of the interaction Lagrangian; it expresses the fact that the scattering matrix must leave invariant the sub-space of physical states. We are interested in generalizations of such identity involving Wick sub-monomials of the interaction Lagrangian. The analysis can be performed by direct computation in the lower orders of perturbation theory; guided by these computations, we conjecture a generalization for arbitrary orders.

  18. Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S


    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  19. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  20. Lie groups and invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vinberg, Ernest


    This volume, devoted to the 70th birthday of A. L. Onishchik, contains a collection of articles by participants in the Moscow Seminar on Lie Groups and Invariant Theory headed by E. B. Vinberg and A. L. Onishchik. The book is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in Lie groups and related topics.

  1. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott


    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  2. Invariant manifolds near hyperbolic fixed points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.


    Abstract: In these notes, we discuss obstructions to the existence of local invariant manifolds of some smoothness class, near hyperbolic fixed points of diffeomorphisms. We present an elementary construction for continuously differentiable invariant manifolds that are not necessarily normally

  3. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael


    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  4. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de


    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Homotopy invariants of Gauss words


    Gibson, Andrew


    By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.

  6. A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.


    For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon in...... in terms of Hamiltonian dynamics is given. The relation to the Equipartition Theorem of statistical Mechanics is briefly discussed....

  7. Scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model. (United States)

    Delamotte, Bertrand; Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás


    Using the Wilson renormalization group, we show that if no integrated vector operator of scaling dimension -1 exists, then scale invariance implies conformal invariance. By using the Lebowitz inequalities, we prove that this necessary condition is fulfilled in all dimensions for the Ising universality class. This shows, in particular, that scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

  8. Disformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 (United States); White, Jonathan, E-mail:, E-mail: [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)


    We show that under a general disformal transformation the linear comoving curvature perturbation is not identically invariant, but is invariant on superhorizon scales for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's theory. The difference between disformally related curvature perturbations is found to be given in terms of the comoving density perturbation associated with a single canonical scalar field. In General Relativity it is well-known that this quantity vanishes on superhorizon scales through the Poisson equation that is obtained on combining the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, and we confirm that a similar result holds for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's scalar-tensor theory so long as the invertibility condition for the disformal transformation is satisfied. We also consider the curvature perturbation at full nonlinear order in the unitary gauge, and find that it is invariant under a general disformal transformation if we assume that an attractor regime has been reached. Finally, we also discuss the counting of degrees of freedom in theories disformally related to Horndeski's.

  9. Chronometric Invariance and String Theory (United States)

    Pollock, M. D.

    The Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian R is expressed in terms of the chronometrically invariant quantities introduced by Zel'manov for an arbitrary four-dimensional metric gij. The chronometrically invariant three-space is the physical space γαβ = -gαβ+e2ϕ γαγβ, where e2ϕ = g00 and γα = g0α/g00, and whose determinant is h. The momentum canonically conjugate to γαβ is π α β =-√ {h}(Kα β -γ α β K), where Kα β =½ ∂ tγ α β and ∂t≡e-ϕ∂0 is the chronometrically invariant derivative with respect to time. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function Ψ is derived. For a stationary space-time, such as the Kerr metric, παβ vanishes, implying that there is then no dynamics. The most symmetric, chronometrically-invariant space, obtained after setting ϕ = γα = 0, is Rα β =-λ (t)δ α β , where δαβ is constant and has curvature k. From the Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations, we find that λ is constant only if k=1 and the source is a perfect fluid of energy-density ρ and pressure p=(γ-1)ρ, with adiabatic index γ=2/3, which is the value for a random ensemble of strings, thus yielding a three-dimensional de Sitter space embedded in four-dimensional space-time. Furthermore, Ψ is only invariant under the time-reversal operator {T} if γ=2/(2n-1), where n is a positive integer, the first two values n=1,2 defining the high-temperature and low-temperature limits ρ T±2, respectively, of the heterotic superstring theory, which are thus dual to one another in the sense T↔1/2π2α‧T.

  10. Position-invariant, rotation-invariant, and scale-invariant process for binary image recognition. (United States)

    Levkovitz, J; Oron, E; Tur, M


    A novel recognition process is presented that is invariant under position, rotation, and scale changes. The recognition process is based on the Fang-Häusler transform [Appl. Opt. 29, 704 (1990)] and is applied to the autoconvolved image, rather than to the image itself. This makes the recognition process sensitive not only to the image histogram but also to its detailed pattern, resulting in a more reliable process that is also applicable to binary images. The proposed recognition process is demonstrated, by use of a fast algorithm, on several types of binary images with a real transform kernel, which contains amplitude, as well as phase, information. Good recognition is achieved for both synthetic and scanned images. In addition, it is shown that the Fang-Hausler transform is also invariant under a general affine transformation of the spatial coordinates.

  11. SPEEDY: An Eclipse-based IDE for invariant inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Cok


    Full Text Available SPEEDY is an Eclipse-based IDE for exploring techniques that assist users in generating correct specifications, particularly including invariant inference algorithms and tools. It integrates with several back-end tools that propose invariants and will incorporate published algorithms for inferring object and loop invariants. Though the architecture is language-neutral, current SPEEDY targets C programs. Building and using SPEEDY has confirmed earlier experience demonstrating the importance of showing and editing specifications in the IDEs that developers customarily use, automating as much of the production and checking of specifications as possible, and showing counterexample information directly in the source code editing environment. As in previous work, automation of specification checking is provided by back-end SMT solvers. However, reducing the effort demanded of software developers using formal methods also requires a GUI design that guides users in writing, reviewing, and correcting specifications and automates specification inference.

  12. Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabholkar, Atish, E-mail: [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP-UNESCO, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)


    Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.

  13. Age-invariant face recognition. (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K


    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  14. A Local Galilean Invariant Thermostat. (United States)

    Groot, Robert D


    The thermostat introduced recently by Stoyanov and Groot (J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 114112) is analyzed for inhomogeneous systems. This thermostat has one global feature, because the mean temperature used to drive the system toward equilibrium is a global average. The consequence is that the thermostat locally conserves energy rather than temperature. Thus, local temperature variations can be long-lived, although they do average out by thermal diffusion. To obtain a faster local temperature equilibration, a truly local thermostat must be introduced. To conserve momentum and, hence, to simulate hydrodynamic interactions, the thermostat must be Galilean invariant. Such a local Galilean invariant thermostat is studied here. It is shown that, by defining a local temperature on each particle, the ensemble is locally isothermal. The local temperature is obtained from a local square velocity average around each particle. Simulations on the ideal gas show that this local Nosé-Hoover algorithm has a similar artifact as dissipative particle dynamics:  the ideal gas pair correlation function is slightly distorted. This is attributed to the fact that the thermostat compensates fluctuations that are natural within a small cluster of particles. When the cutoff range rc for the square velocity average is increased, systematic errors decrease proportionally to rc(-)(3/2); hence, the systematic error can be made arbitrary small.

  15. Multispectral and hyperspectral images invariant to illumination


    Yazdani Salekdeh, Amin


    In this thesis a novel method is proposed that makes use of multispectral and hyperspectral image data to generate a novel photometric-invariant spectral image. For RGB colour image, an illuminant-invariant image was constructed independent of the illuminant and shading. To generate this image either a set of calibration images was required, or entropy information from a single image was used. For spectral images we show that photometric-invariant image formation is in essence greatly simplif...

  16. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter


    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu


    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  17. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev


    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  18. On the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preti, Giovanni; De Felice, Fernando; Masiero, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    When asked to explain the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism on the basis of pre-relativistic considerations alone, students-and sometimes their teachers too-may face an impasse. Indeed, they often argue that a pre-relativistic physicist could most obviously have provided the explanation 'at a glance', on the basis of the presence of a parameter c with the dimensions of a velocity in Maxwell's equations, being well aware of the fact that any velocity is non-invariant in Galilean relativity. This 'obvious' answer, however popular, is not correct due to the actual observer-invariance of the Maxwell parameter c in pre-relativistic physics too. A pre-relativistic physicist would therefore have needed a different explanation. Playing the role of this physicist, we pedagogically show how a proof of the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism can be obtained, resting on simple pre-relativistic considerations alone.

  19. Exploiting design patterns to automate validation of class invariants


    Malloy, Brian A.; Power, James F.


    In this paper, techniques are presented that exploit two design patterns, the Visitor pattern and the Decorator pattern, to automatically validate invariants about the data attributes in a C++ class. To investigate the pragmatics involved in using the two patterns, a study of an existing, well-tested application, keystone, a parser and frontend for the C++ language, is presented. Results from the study indicate that these two patterns provide flexibility in terms of the frequen...

  20. Invariants of DNA genomic signals (United States)

    Cristea, Paul Dan A.


    For large scale analysis purposes, the conversion of genomic sequences into digital signals opens the possibility to use powerful signal processing methods for handling genomic information. The study of complex genomic signals reveals large scale features, maintained over the scale of whole chromosomes, that would be difficult to find by using only the symbolic representation. Based on genomic signal methods and on statistical techniques, the paper defines parameters of DNA sequences which are invariant to transformations induced by SNPs, splicing or crossover. Re-orienting concatenated coding regions in the same direction, regularities shared by the genomic material in all exons are revealed, pointing towards the hypothesis of a regular ancestral structure from which the current chromosome structures have evolved. This property is not found in non-nuclear genomic material, e.g., plasmids.

  1. Scale invariance in road networks. (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher


    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  2. Modular invariance and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, Sagar Fakirchand; Mukhi, Sunil [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Homi Bhabha Rd, Pashan, Pune 411 008 (India)


    We study the Rényi and entanglement entropies for free 2d CFT’s at finite temperature and finite size, with emphasis on their properties under modular transformations of the torus. We address the issue of summing over fermion spin structures in the replica trick, and show that the relation between entanglement and thermal entropy determines two different ways to perform this sum in the limits of small and large interval. Both answers are modular covariant, rather than invariant. Our results are compared with those for a free boson at unit radius in the two limits and complete agreement is found, supporting the view that entanglement respects Bose-Fermi duality. We extend our computations to multiple free Dirac fermions having correlated spin structures, dual to free bosons on the Spin(2d) weight lattice.

  3. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha


    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  4. Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry


    It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, li...

  5. Numerical Approximation of Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Henk; Hagen, Aaron; Vegter, Gert


    This paper deals with the numerical continuation of invariant manifolds, regardless of the restricted dynamics. Typically, invariant manifolds make up the skeleton of the dynamics of phase space. Examples include limit sets, co-dimension 1 manifolds separating basins of attraction (separatrices),

  6. Invariant Ordering of Item-Total Regressions (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…

  7. Scale invariant Volkov–Akulov supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ferrara


    Full Text Available A scale invariant goldstino theory coupled to supergravity is obtained as a standard supergravity dual of a rigidly scale-invariant higher-curvature supergravity with a nilpotent chiral scalar curvature. The bosonic part of this theory describes a massless scalaron and a massive axion in a de Sitter Universe.

  8. The invariator principle in convex geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; Kiderlen, Markus

    The invariator principle is a measure decomposition that was rediscovered in local stereology in 2005 and has since been used widely in the stereological literature. We give an exposition of invariator related results where existing formulae are generalized and new ones proposed. In particular, w...

  9. Negative electric susceptibility and magnetism from translational invariance and rotational invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Je Huan, E-mail:


    In this work we investigate magnetic effects in terms of the translational and rotational invariances of magnetisation. Whilst Landau-type diamagnetism originates from translational invariance, a new diamagnetism could result from rotational invariance. Translational invariance results in only conventional Landau-type diamagnetism, whereas rotational invariance can induce a paramagnetic susceptibility for localised electrons and also a new kind of diamagnetism that is specific to conducting electrons. In solids, the moving electron shows a paramagnetic susceptibility but the surrounding screening of electrons may produce a new diamagnetic response by Lenz's law, resulting in a total susceptibility that tends to zero. For electricity, similar behaviours are obtained. We also derive the DC-type negative electric susceptibility via two methods in analogy with Landau diamagnetism. - Highlights: • The translational invariance of magnetisation. • The rotational invariance of magnetisation. • An electron attached to an electric vortex. • A kind of Landau paramagnetism. • A kind of Pauli diamagnetism.

  10. A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaefer-Rolffs


    Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.

  11. Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery (United States)

    Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz


    Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.

  12. Comment on ``Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance'' (United States)

    Arias, J. M.; Gallardo, M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.


    A recent article by Dussel, Sofia, and Tonina studies the relation between Galilei invariance and dipole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR). The authors find that the pairing interaction, which is neither Galilei nor Lorentz invariant, produces big changes in the EWSR and in effective masses of the nucleons. They argue that these effects of the pairing force could be realistic. In this Comment we stress the validity of Galilei invariance to a very good approximation in this context of low-energy nuclear physics and show that the effective masses and the observed change in the EWSR for the electric dipole operator relative to its classical value are compatible with this symmetry.

  13. Modified dispersion relations, inflation, and scale invariance (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Friedhoff, Victor Nicolai; Wilson-Ewing, Edward


    For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to redshift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This requires nontrivial background dynamics before the onset of standard radiation-dominated cosmology; we demonstrate that one possible solution is inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, for this slow roll is not necessary. In addition, we also show that if the slow-roll condition is added to inflation with a large Hubble rate, then for any power law modified dispersion relation quantum vacuum fluctuations become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius.

  14. Invariant Measures of Genetic Recombination Processes (United States)

    Akopyan, Arseniy V.; Pirogov, Sergey A.; Rybko, Aleksandr N.


    We construct a non-linear Markov process connected with a biological model of a bacterial genome recombination. The description of invariant measures of this process gives us the solution of one problem in elementary probability theory.

  15. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey


    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  16. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  17. Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)


    Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.

  18. Numerical considerations in computing invariant subspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hammarling, S. (Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd., Oxford (UK)); Wilkinson, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    This paper describes two methods for computing the invariant subspace of a matrix. The first involves using transformations to interchange the eigenvalues; the second involves direct computation of the vectors. 10 refs.

  19. Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model (United States)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.


    Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the (1/2,1/2) representation there is a fields family {AμI} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.

  20. Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)


    Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation there is a fields family {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.

  1. On invariant measures of nonlinear Markov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed


    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear (in the sense of McKean Markov process described by a stochastic differential equations in Rd. We prove the existence and uniqueness of invariant measures of such process.

  2. Galilean invariance in 2+1 dimensions


    Brihaye, Y.; Gonera, C.; Giller, S; Kosinski, P.


    The Galilean invariance in three dimensional space-time is considered. It appears that the Galilei group in 2+1 dimensions posses a three-parameter family of projective representations. Their physical interpretation is discussed in some detail.

  3. Fibred knots and twisted Alexander invariants


    Cha, Jae Choon


    We introduce a new algebraic topological technique to detect non-fibred knots in the three sphere using the twisted Alexander invariants. As an application, we show that for any Seifert matrix of a knot with a nontrivial Alexander polynomial, there exist infinitely many non-fibered knots with the given Seifert matrix. We illustrate examples of knots that have trivial Alexander polynomials but do not have twisted Alexander invariants of fibred knots.

  4. Gauge invariant determination of charged hadron masses arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin; Patella, Agostino; Tantalo, Nazario

    In this paper we show, for the first time, that charged-hadron masses can be calculated on the lattice without relying on gauge fixing at any stage of the calculations. In our simulations we follow a recent proposal and formulate full QCD+QED on a finite volume, without spoiling locality, by imposing C-periodic boundary conditions in the spatial directions. Electrically charged states are interpolated with a class of operators, originally suggested by Dirac and built as functionals of the photon field, that are invariant under local gauge transformations. We show that the quality of the numerical signal of charged-hadron masses is the same as in the neutral sector and that charged-neutral mass splittings can be calculated with satisfactory accuracy in this setup. We also discuss how to describe states of charged hadrons with real photons in a fully gauge-invariant way by providing a first evidence that the proposed strategy can be numerically viable.

  5. Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University,Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University,Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University,Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)


    There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under SU(3){sub C} with masses lower than 1 TeV, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than 2.6 TeV.

  6. DDF and Pohlmeyer invariants of (super)string


    Schreiber, Urs


    We show how the Pohlmeyer invariants of the bosonic string are expressible in terms of DDF invariants. Quantization of the DDF observables in the usual way yields a consistent quantization of the algebra of Pohlmeyer invariants. Furthermore it becomes straightforward to generalize the Pohlmeyer invariants to the superstring as well as to all backgrounds which allow a free field realization of the worldsheet theory.

  7. Invariant geodynamical information in geometric geodetic measurements (United States)

    Xu, Peiliang; Shimada, Seiichi; Fujii, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Torao


    Repeated geodetic measurements have been used to extract geodynamical quantities such as displacements, velocities of movement and crustal strains. Historical geodetic networks, especially those established before the space geodetic era, were, and still are, very important in providing a unique insight into the (local or regional) historical deformation state of the Earth. For the geodetic network without a tie to an external reference frame, free network adjustment methods have been widely applied to derive geodynamical quantities. Currently, it is commonly accepted that absolute displacements cannot be uniquely determined from triangulation/trilateration measurements, but relative displacements can be found uniquely if the geodetic network is geometrically overdetermined (see e.g. Segall & Matthews 1988). Strain tensors were derived using the coordinate method and were reported to be uniquely determined. We have carried out a theoretical analysis of invariant geodynamical information in geometric geodetic observations and concluded: (1) that relative displacements are not invariant quantities and thus cannot be uniquely determined from the geodetic network without a tie to an external reference frame; and (2) the components of the strain tensors are not all invariant and thus cannot individually be determined uniquely from the network. However, certain combinations of strain components are indeed invariant and can be uniquely determined from geometric geodetic measurements. The theory of invariant information is then applied to the analysis of the Tokai first-order triangulation/trilateration network spanning an interval of more than 100yr. The results show that the normal and principal strains are significantly affected by the unknown scaling biases and orientation differences; thus any attempt at geophysical interpretation of these quantities must be exercised with great care. If the scaling bias and the orientation difference are small, the shear strain is

  8. Ethnic identity: Factor structure and measurement invariance across ethnic groups. (United States)

    Feitosa, Jennifer; Lacerenza, Christina N; Joseph, Dana L; Salas, Eduardo


    Considering a historically diversified (and growing) population in the United States, one's ethnic identification is often an important psychological-as well as social and political-construct because it can serve as a hindrance to interpersonal interaction. Despite the importance of ethnic identity in psychological research, the most widely developed ethnic identity measurement tool, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992), lacks consensus regarding its psychometric properties. The purpose of this article is to identify the factor structure of this measure and identify whether it exhibits measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) across ethnicities. The current findings offer several contributions to the state of the literature. First, our data suggests a two-factor model, including affirmation/commitment and exploration factors, is the most appropriate structure when considering fit and parsimony indices via confirmatory factor analysis. Second, configural and metric measurement equivalence was found across Caucasian and non-Caucasian participants. Interestingly, partial scalar invariance was established when comparing Caucasians with the minority groups with the exception of the Hispanic subgroup, which exhibited no scalar invariance. Third, differences in ethnic identity factor means were found, especially across Caucasians and African Americans. In conclusion, the use of the two-factor model of the MEIM is recommended, and results suggest that the MEIM is an appropriate measure of ethnic identity in most ethnic groups. Limitations and future research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism. (United States)

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A


    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Blurred image recognition by Legendre moment invariants. (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guoniu N; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean Louis


    Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments.

  11. Spontaneous breaking of continuous translational invariance (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Brauner, Tomáš


    Unbroken continuous translational invariance is often taken as a basic assumption in discussions of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), which singles out SSB of translational invariance itself as an exceptional case. We present a framework that allows us to treat translational invariance on the same footing as other symmetries. It is shown that existing theorems on SSB can be straightforwardly extended to this general case. As a concrete application, we analyze the Nambu-Goldstone modes in a (ferromagnetic) supersolid. We prove on the ground of the general theorems that the Bogoliubov mode stemming from a spontaneously broken internal U(1) symmetry and the longitudinal phonon due to a crystalline order are distinct physical modes.

  12. Invariant death [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Frank


    Full Text Available In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes.

  13. Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics (United States)

    Bublik, Vasily V.


    In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with

  14. The Uniqueness of -Matrix Graph Invariants (United States)

    Dehmer, Matthias; Shi, Yongtang


    In this paper, we examine the uniqueness (discrimination power) of a newly proposed graph invariant based on the matrix defined by Randić et al. In order to do so, we use exhaustively generated graphs instead of special graph classes such as trees only. Using these graph classes allow us to generalize the findings towards complex networks as they usually do not possess any structural constraints. We obtain that the uniqueness of this newly proposed graph invariant is approximately as low as the uniqueness of the Balaban index on exhaustively generated (general) graphs. PMID:24392099

  15. Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo


    Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.

  16. Application of invariant embedding to reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Akinao; Parsegian, V L


    Application of Invariant Embedding to Reactor Physics describes the application of the method of invariant embedding to radiation shielding and to criticality calculations of atomic reactors. The authors intend to show how this method has been applied to realistic problems, together with the results of applications which will be useful to shielding design. The book is organized into two parts. Part A deals with the reflection and transmission of gamma rays by slabs. The chapters in this section cover topics such as the reflection and transmission problem of gamma rays; formulation of the probl

  17. Symmetric form-invariant dual Pearcey beams. (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Fan, Changjiang; Shi, Yile; Chen, Bo


    We introduce another type of Pearcey beam, namely, dual Pearcey (DP) beams, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory. DP beams are experimentally generated by applying Fresnel diffraction of bright elliptic rings. Form-invariant Bessel distribution beams can be regarded as a special case of DP beams. Subsequently, the basic propagation characteristics of DP beams are identified. DP beams are the result of the interference of two half DP beams instead of two classical Pearcey beams. Moreover, we also verified that half DP beams (including special-case parabolic-like beams) generated by half elliptical rings (circular rings) are a new member of the family of form-invariant beams.

  18. Difference spaces and invariant linear forms

    CERN Document Server

    Nillsen, Rodney


    Difference spaces arise by taking sums of finite or fractional differences. Linear forms which vanish identically on such a space are invariant in a corresponding sense. The difference spaces of L2 (Rn) are Hilbert spaces whose functions are characterized by the behaviour of their Fourier transforms near, e.g., the origin. One aim is to establish connections between these spaces and differential operators, singular integral operators and wavelets. Another aim is to discuss aspects of these ideas which emphasise invariant linear forms on locally compact groups. The work primarily presents new results, but does so from a clear, accessible and unified viewpoint, which emphasises connections with related work.

  19. Conformal invariants topics in geometric function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlfors, Lars V


    Most conformal invariants can be described in terms of extremal properties. Conformal invariants and extremal problems are therefore intimately linked and form together the central theme of this classic book which is primarily intended for students with approximately a year's background in complex variable theory. The book emphasizes the geometric approach as well as classical and semi-classical results which Lars Ahlfors felt every student of complex analysis should know before embarking on independent research. At the time of the book's original appearance, much of this material had never ap

  20. Invariant distances and metrics in complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jarnicki, Marek


    As in the field of ""Invariant Distances and Metrics in Complex Analysis"" there was and is a continuous progress this is the second extended edition of the corresponding monograph. This comprehensive book is about the study of invariant pseudodistances (non-negative functions on pairs of points) and pseudometrics (non-negative functions on the tangent bundle) in several complex variables. It is an overview over a highly active research area at the borderline between complex analysis, functional analysis and differential geometry. New chapters are covering the Wu, Bergman and several other met

  1. The decomposition of global conformal invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakis, Spyros


    This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese

  2. Dihadron fragmentation functions for large invariant mass. (United States)

    Zhou, J; Metz, A


    Using perturbative quantum chromodynamics, we compute dihadron fragmentation functions for a large invariant mass of the dihadron pair. The main focus is on the interference fragmentation function H(1)(∢), which plays an important role in spin physics of the nucleon. Our calculation also reveals that H(1)(∢) and the Collins fragmentation function have closely related underlying dynamics. By considering semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, we further show that collinear factorization in terms of dihadron fragmentation functions and collinear factorization in terms of single-hadron fragmentation functions provide the same result in the region of intermediate invariant mass.

  3. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)


    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  4. A more general model for testing measurement invariance and differential item functioning. (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J


    The evaluation of measurement invariance is an important step in establishing the validity and comparability of measurements across individuals. Most commonly, measurement invariance has been examined using 1 of 2 primary latent variable modeling approaches: the multiple groups model or the multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) model. Both approaches offer opportunities to detect differential item functioning within multi-item scales, and thereby to test measurement invariance, but both approaches also have significant limitations. The multiple groups model allows 1 to examine the invariance of all model parameters but only across levels of a single categorical individual difference variable (e.g., ethnicity). In contrast, the MIMIC model permits both categorical and continuous individual difference variables (e.g., sex and age) but permits only a subset of the model parameters to vary as a function of these characteristics. The current article argues that moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) constitutes an alternative, more flexible model for evaluating measurement invariance and differential item functioning. We show that the MNLFA subsumes and combines the strengths of the multiple group and MIMIC models, allowing for a full and simultaneous assessment of measurement invariance and differential item functioning across multiple categorical and/or continuous individual difference variables. The relationships between the MNLFA model and the multiple groups and MIMIC models are shown mathematically and via an empirical demonstration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Invariance Properties for General Diagnostic Classification Models (United States)

    Bradshaw, Laine P.; Madison, Matthew J.


    In item response theory (IRT), the invariance property states that item parameter estimates are independent of the examinee sample, and examinee ability estimates are independent of the test items. While this property has long been established and understood by the measurement community for IRT models, the same cannot be said for diagnostic…

  6. Local Unitary Invariants of Quantum States (United States)

    Cui, Meiyu; Chang, Jingmei; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Huang, Xiaofen; Zhang, Tinggui


    We study the equivalence of mixed states under local unitary transformations. First we express quantum states in Bloch representation. Then based on the coefficient matrices, some invariants are constructed. This method and results can be extended to multipartite high dimensional system.

  7. Joint local quasinilpotence and common invariant subspaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In fact the intersection of the sets. QTi = {x ∈ X, such that Ti is locally quasinilpotent at x}, is a common invariant manifold. However if T1,...,TN are not commuting, the problem becomes more complicated. Example. Let T1,T2 be two operators ...

  8. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander


    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  9. Topologically left invariant means on semigroup algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let M ( S ) be the Banach algebra of all bounded regular Borel measures on a locally compact Hausdorff semitopological semigroup with variation norm and convolution as multiplication. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for M ( S ) ∗ to have a topologically left invariant mean.

  10. Automatic invariant detection in dynamic web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, F.; Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.


    The complexity of modern web applications increases as client-side JavaScript and dynamic DOM programming are used to offer a more interactive web experience. In this paper, we focus on improving the dependability of such applications by automatically inferring invariants from the client-side and

  11. Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...

  12. Holography for chiral scale-invariant models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldeira Costa, R.N.; Taylor, M.


    Deformation of any d-dimensional conformal field theory by a constant null source for a vector operator of dimension (d + z -1) is exactly marginal with respect to anisotropic scale invariance, of dynamical exponent z. The holographic duals to such deformations are AdS plane waves, with z=2 being

  13. Holography for chiral scale-invariant models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldeira Costa, R.N.; Taylor, M.


    Deformation of any d-dimensional conformal field theory by a constant null source for a vector operator of dimension (d + z -1) is exactly marginal with respect to anisotropic scale invariance, of dynamical exponent z. The holographic duals to such deformations are AdS plane waves, with z=2 being

  14. A functional LMO invariant for Lagrangian cobordisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheptea, Dorin; Habiro, Kazuo; Massuyeau, Gwénaël


    Lagrangian cobordisms are three-dimensional compact oriented cobordisms between once-punctured surfaces, subject to some homological conditions. We extend the Le–Murakami–Ohtsuki invariant of homology three-spheres to a functor from the category of Lagrangian cobordisms to a certain category...

  15. Algorithms for computing normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.W.; Osinga, H.M.; Vegter, G.

    An effcient algorithm is developed for the numerical computation of normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds, based on the graph transform and Newton's method. It fits in the perturbation theory of discrete dynamical systems and therefore allows application to the setting of continuation. A

  16. A versatile algorithm for computing invariant manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H. W.; Hagen, A.; Vegter, G.; Gorban, AN; Kazantzis, NK; Kevrekidis, IG; Ottinger, HC; Theodoropoulos, C


    This paper deals with the numerical computation of invariant manifolds using a method of discretizing global manifolds. It provides a geometrically natural algorithm that converges regardless of the restricted dynamics. Common examples of such manifolds include limit sets, co-dimension 1 manifolds

  17. Adaptivity and group invariance in mathematical morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    The standard morphological operators are (i) defined on Euclidean space, (ii) based on structuring elements, and (iii) invariant with respect to translation. There are several ways to generalise this. One way is to make the operators adaptive by letting the size or shape of structuring elements

  18. Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree ( 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system ...

  19. Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillator-type spectral properties (picket fence) in unfolded spectrum although the folded spectrum is completely random and uncorrelated. We conjecture this as the reflection of shape invariance symmetry in the spectral properties. The paper is organized as follows. We will introduce sl algebra and the method.

  20. Commentary: Visual object recognition: building invariant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 13, 2008 ... Keywords. Interferotemporal cortex; object invariance; object recognition; positional tolerance; saccadic eye movements. Author Affiliations. Duje Tadin1 Raphael Pinaud1. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Center for Visual Science, ...

  1. A Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfaro


    Full Text Available We introduce a Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization of loop integrals. Then we can compute the one loop quantum corrections to the photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex in the Electrodynamics sector of the Very Special Relativity Standard Model (VSRSM.

  2. Performance evaluation of local colour invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.


    In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are

  3. Complex-linear invariants of biochemical networks. (United States)

    Karp, Robert L; Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Dickenstein, Alicia; Gunawardena, Jeremy


    The nonlinearities found in molecular networks usually prevent mathematical analysis of network behaviour, which has largely been studied by numerical simulation. This can lead to difficult problems of parameter determination. However, molecular networks give rise, through mass-action kinetics, to polynomial dynamical systems, whose steady states are zeros of a set of polynomial equations. These equations may be analysed by algebraic methods, in which parameters are treated as symbolic expressions whose numerical values do not have to be known in advance. For instance, an "invariant" of a network is a polynomial expression on selected state variables that vanishes in any steady state. Invariants have been found that encode key network properties and that discriminate between different network structures. Although invariants may be calculated by computational algebraic methods, such as Gröbner bases, these become computationally infeasible for biologically realistic networks. Here, we exploit Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT) to develop an efficient procedure for calculating invariants that are linear combinations of "complexes", or the monomials coming from mass action. We show how this procedure can be used in proving earlier results of Horn and Jackson and of Shinar and Feinberg for networks of deficiency at most one. We then apply our method to enzyme bifunctionality, including the bacterial EnvZ/OmpR osmolarity regulator and the mammalian 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase glycolytic regulator, whose networks have deficiencies up to four. We show that bifunctionality leads to different forms of concentration control that are robust to changes in initial conditions or total amounts. Finally, we outline a systematic procedure for using complex-linear invariants to analyse molecular networks of any deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Atherton

    Full Text Available Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.

  5. Dualities between Scale Invariant and Magnitude Invariant Perturbation Spectra in Inflationary/Bouncing Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chonghong


    We study cosmological perturbation spectra using the dynamical equations of gauge invariant perturbations with a generalized blue/red-shift term. Combined with the power-law index of cosmological background, {\

  6. Monopole classes and Perelman's invariant of four-manifolds


    Kotschick, D.


    We calculate Perelman's invariant for compact complex surfaces and a few other smooth four-manifolds. We also prove some results concerning the dependence of Perelman's invariant on the smooth structure.

  7. Statistical translation invariance protects a topological insulator from interactions (United States)

    Milsted, A.; Seabra, L.; Fulga, I. C.; Beenakker, C. W. J.; Cobanera, E.


    We investigate the effect of interactions on the stability of a disordered, two-dimensional topological insulator realized as an array of nanowires or chains of magnetic atoms on a superconducting substrate. The Majorana zero-energy modes present at the ends of the wires overlap, forming a dispersive edge mode with thermal conductance determined by the central charge c of the low-energy effective field theory of the edge. We show numerically that, in the presence of disorder, the c =1 /2 Majorana edge mode remains delocalized up to extremely strong attractive interactions, while repulsive interactions drive a transition to a c =3 /2 edge phase localized by disorder. The absence of localization for strong attractive interactions is explained by a self-duality symmetry of the statistical ensemble of disorder configurations and of the edge interactions, originating from translation invariance on the length scale of the underlying mesoscopic array.

  8. Single-spin asymmetries and invariant cross sections of the high transverse-momentum inclusive {pi}{sup 0} production in 200 GeV/c {ital pp} and {ital {bar p}}{ital p} interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.L. [T. W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States); Akchurin, N. [Department of Physics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Belikov, N.I. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142284, Protvino (Russia); Bravar, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Bystricky, J. [CEN-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Corcoran, M.D. [T. W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States); Cossairt, J.D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Cranshaw, J. [T. W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States); Derevschikov, A.A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142284, Protvino (Russia); En`yo, H.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 (Japan); Grachov, O.A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 142284, Protvino (Russia); Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Imai, K.; Itow, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 (Japan); Iwatani, K. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 724 (Japan); Krueger, K.W. [Northeastern State University, Talequah, Oklahoma 74464 (United States); Kuroda, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, B.P. 909, F-74017 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Laghai, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A. [CEN-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lopiano, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Luehring, F.C. [Physics Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States); Maki, T. [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kita-Kyushu 807 (Japan); Makino, S.; Masaike, A. [Department of Physcis, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 (Japan); Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.


    The {pi}{sup 0} inclusive and semi-inclusive, single-spin asymmetries have been measured using transversely-polarized, 200-GeV/c proton and antiproton beams colliding with an unpolarized hydrogen target. The measured asymmetries are consistent with a value of zero within the error bars for the kinematic regions, -0.15{much_gt}{ital x}{sub {ital F}}{much_gt}+0.15 and 1{much_gt}{ital p}{sub {ital T}}{much_gt}4.5 GeV/c. These data indicate that the higher-twist contribution in QCD to the single-spin asymmetry in inclusive {pi}{sup 0} production may not be as large as was previously expected. Additional evidence for such a conclusion comes from the measurement of a semi-inclusive {pi}{sup 0}-charged particle asymmetry, where the associated charged particles are detected opposite to the {pi}{sup 0} azimuthal direction. This experiment also has a high-statistics measurement of the inclusive {pi}{sup 0} cross sections for {ital pp} and {ital {bar p}}{ital p} collisions at 200 GeV/c. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Hammersley’s harness process: Invariant distributions and height fluctuations


    Seppäläinen, Timo; Zhai, Yun


    We study the invariant distributions of Hammersley’s serial harness process in all dimensions and height fluctuations in one dimension. Subject to mild moment assumptions there is essentially one unique invariant distribution, and all other invariant distributions are obtained by adding harmonic functions of the averaging kernel. We identify one Gaussian case where the invariant distribution is i.i.d. Height fluctuations in one dimension obey the stochastic heat equation with additive noise (...

  10. Invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces


    Chen, Zhiqi; Nikonorov, Yuriĭ; Nikonorova, Yulia


    In this paper, we study invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces $F^m/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$. In particular, we classify invariant Einstein metrics on $F^4/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$ and estimate the number of invariant Einstein metrics on general Ledger-Obata spaces $F^{m}/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$.

  11. Invariant solutions to the Strominger system and the heterotic equations of motion (United States)

    Otal, Antonio; Ugarte, Luis; Villacampa, Raquel


    We construct many new invariant solutions to the Strominger system with respect to a 2-parameter family of metric connections ∇ ε , ρ in the anomaly cancellation equation. The ansatz ∇ ε , ρ is a natural extension of the canonical 1-parameter family of Hermitian connections found by Gauduchon, as one recovers the Chern connection ∇c for (ε , ρ) = (0 ,1/2), and the Bismut connection ∇+ for (ε , ρ) = (1/2 , 0). In particular, explicit invariant solutions to the Strominger system with respect to the Chern connection, with non-flat instanton and positive α‧ are obtained. Furthermore, we give invariant solutions to the heterotic equations of motion with respect to the Bismut connection. Our solutions live on three different compact non-Kähler homogeneous spaces, obtained as the quotient by a lattice of maximal rank of a nilpotent Lie group, the semisimple group SL (2 , C) and a solvable Lie group. To our knowledge, these are the only known invariant solutions to the heterotic equations of motion, and we conjecture that there is no other such homogeneous space admitting an invariant solution to the heterotic equations of motion with respect to a connection in the ansatz ∇ ε , ρ.

  12. Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lesne, Annick


    During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...

  13. A Family of Invariant Stress Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.

    contour is given in explicit form. Several special cases are considered: a generalized Drucker-Prager criterion with straight generators and a smooth triangular deviatoric contour, surfaces with parabolic compression and tension generators, and the Lade failure surface for cohesionless soils. The use......A family of invariant stress surfaces with a cubic dependence on the deviatoric stress components is expressed as a linear combination of the second and third deviatori stress invariants. A simple geometric derivation demonstrates the convexity of the contours in the deviatoric plane. An explicit...... representation of the deviatoric contours in terms of a size and a shape parameter is given. The shape parameter effects a continuous transition from a triangle to a circle in the deviatoric plane. An explicit format in terms of the triaxial compresson and tension generators is derived, and the plane stress...

  14. The geometric Hopf invariant and surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crabb, Michael


    Written by leading experts in the field, this monograph provides homotopy theoretic foundations for surgery theory on higher-dimensional manifolds. Presenting classical ideas in a modern framework, the authors carefully highlight how their results relate to (and generalize) existing results in the literature. The central result of the book expresses algebraic surgery theory in terms of the geometric Hopf invariant, a construction in stable homotopy theory which captures the double points of immersions. Many illustrative examples and applications of the abstract results are included in the book, making it of wide interest to topologists. Serving as a valuable reference, this work is aimed at graduate students and researchers interested in understanding how the algebraic and geometric topology fit together in the surgery theory of manifolds. It is the only book providing such a wide-ranging historical approach to the Hopf invariant, double points and surgery theory, with many results old and new. .

  15. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L


    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  16. Actions and invariants of algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer Santos, Walter


    Actions and Invariants of Algebraic Groups presents a self-contained introduction to geometric invariant theory that links the basic theory of affine algebraic groups to Mumford''s more sophisticated theory. The authors systematically exploit the viewpoint of Hopf algebra theory and the theory of comodules to simplify and compactify many of the relevant formulas and proofs.The first two chapters introduce the subject and review the prerequisites in commutative algebra, algebraic geometry, and the theory of semisimple Lie algebras over fields of characteristic zero. The authors'' early presentation of the concepts of actions and quotients helps to clarify the subsequent material, particularly in the study of homogeneous spaces. This study includes a detailed treatment of the quasi-affine and affine cases and the corresponding concepts of observable and exact subgroups.Among the many other topics discussed are Hilbert''s 14th problem, complete with examples and counterexamples, and Mumford''s results on quotien...

  17. A Gauge Invariant Regulator for the ERG (United States)

    Arnone, S.; Kubyshin, Yu. A.; Morris, T. R.; Tighe, J. F.

    A gauge invariant regularisation for dealing with pure Yang-Mills theories within the exact renormalization group approach is proposed. It is based on the regularisation via covariant higher derivatives and includes auxiliary Pauli-Villars fields which amounts to a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. We demonstrate perturbatively that the extended theory is ultra-violet finite in four dimensions and argue that it has a sensible limit when the regularization cutoff is removed.

  18. Liaison, Schottky Problem and Invariant Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Maria Emilia; Mallavibarrena, Raquel; Sols, Ignacio


    This volume is a homage to the memory of the Spanish mathematician Federico Gaeta (1923-2007). Apart from a historical presentation of his life and interaction with the classical Italian school of algebraic geometry, the volume presents surveys and original research papers on the mathematics he studied. Specifically, it is divided into three parts: linkage theory, Schottky problem and invariant theory. On this last topic a hitherto unpublished article by Federico Gaeta is also included.

  19. Maximum Entropy Moment Systems and Galilean Invariance


    Junk, Michael; Unterreiter, Andreas


    In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment syst...

  20. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas


    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order to facilit...... to facilitate the crossover of ideas and techniques in further developments, it seems interesting to identify which aspects in the respective formal foundation are related. This paper presents initial results in this direction....

  1. Simplified topological invariants for interacting insulators


    Zhong Wang; Shou-Cheng Zhang


    We propose general topological order parameters for interacting insulators in terms of the Green’s function at zero frequency. They provide a unified description of various interacting topological insulators including the quantum anomalous Hall insulators and the time-reversal-invariant insulators in four, three, and two dimensions. Since only the Green’s function at zero frequency is used, these topological order parameters can be evaluated efficiently by most numerical and analytical algori...

  2. Generalized Connes-Chern characters in KK-theory with an application to weak invariants of topological insulators (United States)

    Prodan, Emil; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann


    We use constructive bounded Kasparov K-theory to investigate the numerical invariants stemming from the internal Kasparov products Ki(𝒜) × KKi(𝒜,ℬ) → K 0(ℬ) → ℝ, i = 0, 1, where the last morphism is provided by a tracial state. For the class of properly defined finitely-summable Kasparov (𝒜,ℬ)-cycles, the invariants are given by the pairing of K-theory of ℬ with an element of the periodic cyclic cohomology of ℬ, which we call the generalized Connes-Chern character. When 𝒜 is a twisted crossed product of ℬ by ℤk, 𝒜 = ℬ ⋊ξθℤk, we derive a local formula for the character corresponding to the fundamental class of a properly defined Dirac cycle. Furthermore, when ℬ = C(Ω) ⋊ξ‧ϕℤj, with C(Ω) the algebra of continuous functions over a disorder configuration space, we show that the numerical invariants are connected to the weak topological invariants of the complex classes of topological insulators, defined in the physics literature. The end products are generalized index theorems for these weak invariants, which enable us to predict the range of the invariants and to identify regimes of strong disorder in which the invariants remain stable. The latter will be reported in a subsequent publication.

  3. Estudio de la invarianza de escala mediante el método de cálculo integral en la medición de la calidad percibida de los servicios deportivos. (Analysing scale invariance through integral calculus when measuring perceived quality in sports services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Martínez García


    Full Text Available ResumenEsta investigación presenta un nuevo método para el estudio de la invarianza de escala que complementa otros métodos existentes, lo que contribuye a realizar un análisis ecléctico y multifocal de un problema importante en la investigación de marketing, y en particular en la investigación de servicios deportivos. Este método está basado en la utilización del cálculo integral y tiene una sencilla interpretación geométrica. Se describen y comparan varios procedimientos para testar la invarianza de escala, y se realiza un re-análisis de la investigación de Martínez y Martínez (2008b sobre la percepción de calidad del consumidor de servicios deportivos. Los resultados muestran cómo existen diferencias sobre las conclusiones originales de estos autores. De este modo, las escalas de siete opciones de respuesta sí son invariantes, mientras que la de cinco opciones no lo son. Finalmente, se discuten las bondades y las limitaciones del método integral, abogando por la triangulación estadística para dar robustez a los resultados empíricos.AbstractThis research introduces a new method to analyse scale invariance, which overcomes some shortcomings of other procedures. Under an eclectic perspective, this method must help to provide insights in the marketing research discipline, and specifically in the sports service management. The method is grounded on the use of definite integrals to compute the area between two functions. In addition, several procedures for testing scale invariance are depicted and compared. An empirical application is achieved by re-analysing the study of Martínez & Martínez (2008b on perceived quality in sports services. Results shows that misleading conclusions were derived from the original study of those authors. Finally, advantages and shortcomings of the new method are discussed.

  4. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Stoltz, Gabriel [Université Paris-Est, CERMICS (ENPC), INRIA, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)


    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  5. Volumetric Image Registration From Invariant Keypoints. (United States)

    Rister, Blaine; Horowitz, Mark A; Rubin, Daniel L


    We present a method for image registration based on 3D scale- and rotation-invariant keypoints. The method extends the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) to arbitrary dimensions by making key modifications to orientation assignment and gradient histograms. Rotation invariance is proven mathematically. Additional modifications are made to extrema detection and keypoint matching based on the demands of image registration. Our experiments suggest that the choice of neighborhood in discrete extrema detection has a strong impact on image registration accuracy. In head MR images, the brain is registered to a labeled atlas with an average Dice coefficient of 92%, outperforming registration from mutual information as well as an existing 3D SIFT implementation. In abdominal CT images, the spine is registered with an average error of 4.82 mm. Furthermore, keypoints are matched with high precision in simulated head MR images exhibiting lesions from multiple sclerosis. These results were achieved using only affine transforms, and with no change in parameters across a wide variety of medical images. This paper is freely available as a cross-platform software library.

  6. Knot invariants and M-theory: Proofs and derivations (United States)

    Errasti Díez, Verónica


    We construct two distinct yet related M-theory models that provide suitable frameworks for the study of knot invariants. We then focus on the four-dimensional gauge theory that follows from appropriately compactifying one of these M-theory models. We show that this theory has indeed all required properties to host knots. Our analysis provides a unifying picture of the various recent works that attempt an understanding of knot invariants using techniques of four-dimensional physics. This is a companion paper to K. Dasgupta, V. Errasti Díez, P. Ramadevi, and R. Tatar, Phys. Rev. D 95, 026010 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.026010, covering all but Sec. III C. It presents a detailed mathematical derivation of the main results there, as well as additional material. Among the new insights, those related to supersymmetry and the topological twist are highlighted. This paper offers an alternative, complementary formulation of the contents in the first paper, but is self-contained and can be read independently.

  7. Calculation of NMR chemical shifts. 7. Gauge-invariant INDO method (United States)

    Fukui, H.; Miura, K.; Hirai, A.

    A gauge-invariant INDO method based on the coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory is presented and applied to the calculation of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of hydrocarbons including ring compounds. Invariance of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic shieldings with respect to displacement of the coordinate origin is discussed. Comparison between calculated and experimental results exhibits fairly good agreement, provided that the INDO parameters of Ellis et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.94, 4069 (1972)) are used with the inclusion of all multicenter one-electron integrals.

  8. Translationally invariant clusters in coordinate space: an Euler-Lagrange approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.F. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Buendia, E. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias); Flynn, M.F.; Guardiola, R. (Universidad de Valencia Estudi General, Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica y Nuclear)


    A general translationally invariant version of the coupled cluster theory has been previously formulated. The linearized approximation referred to as the second-order translationally invariant cluster method is here investigated. In particular this method is algebraically formulated and numerically solved at the optimal Euler-Lagrange level for finite bosonic systems. The method proves to be highly superior to the standard configuration-interaction calculations of the shell-model type, and confirms the validity of the Gaussian geminal expansion of the two-body cluster C{sub 2}. (author).

  9. Invariance of the distributional curvature of the cone under smooth diffeomorphisms (United States)

    Vickers, J. A.; Wilson, J. P.


    An explicit calculation is carried out to show that the distributional curvature of a 2-cone, calculated by Clarke et al (Clarke C J S, Vickers J A and Wilson J P 1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 2485-98), using Colombeau's new generalized functions is invariant under nonlinear 0264-9381/16/2/019/img1 coordinate transformations.

  10. A geometrical take on invariants of low-dimensional manifolds found by integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintraecken, M.H.M.J.; Vegter, G.


    An elementary geometrical proof of the fact that the Euler characteristic is the only topological invariant of a surface that can be found by integration (using Gauss-Bonnet) is given. A similar method is also applied to three-dimensional manifolds. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach. (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Si, Gangyan; Stenling, Andreas


    The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, Mage = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

  12. Testing the measurement invariance of the University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale short form across four diagnostic subgroups. (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Jiseon; Park, Ryoungsun; Bamer, Alyssa M; Bocell, Fraser D; Amtmann, Dagmar


    The University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale (UW-SES) was originally developed for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). This study evaluates the measurement invariance of the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across four disability subgroups. Evidence of measurement invariance would extend the UW-SES for use in two additional diagnostic groups: muscular dystrophy (MD) and post-polio syndrome (PPS). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate successive levels of measurement invariance of the 6-item short form, the UW-SES: (a) configural invariance, i.e., equivalent item-factor structures between groups; (b) metric invariance, i.e., equivalent unstandardized factor loadings between groups; and (c) scalar invariance, i.e., equivalent item intercepts between groups. Responses from the four groups with different diagnostic disorders were compared: MD (n = 172), MS (n = 868), PPS (n = 225), and SCI (n = 242). The results of this study support that the most rigorous form of invariance (i.e., scalar) holds for the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across the four diagnostic subgroups. The current study suggests that the 6-item short form of the UW-SES has the same meaning across the four diagnostic subgroups. Thus, the 6-item short form is validated for people with MD, MS, PPS, and SCI.

  13. Superluminality in dilatationally invariant generalized Galileon theories (United States)

    Kolevatov, R. S.


    We consider small perturbations about homogeneous backgrounds in dilatationally invariant Galileon models. The issues we address are stability (absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities) and superluminality. We show that in the Minkowski background, it is possible to construct the Lagrangian in such a way that any homogeneous Galileon background solution is stable and small perturbations about it are subluminal. On the other hand, in the case of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) backgrounds, for any Lagrangian functions there exist homogeneous background solutions to the Galileon equation of motion and time dependence of the scale factor, such that the stability conditions are satisfied, but the Galileon perturbations propagate with superluminal speed.

  14. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael


    The paper proposes a rational method to derive fairness measures for surfaces. It works in cases where isophotes, reflection lines, planar intersection curves, or other curves are used to judge the fairness of the surface. The surface fairness measure is derived by demanding that all the given cu...... of curves. Six basic third order invariants by which the fairing measures can be expressed are defined. Furthermore, the geometry of a plane intersection curve is studied, and the variation of the total, the normal, and the geodesic curvature and the geodesic torsion is determined....

  15. Translational invariant shell model for Λ hypernuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolos R.V.


    Full Text Available We extend shell model for Λ hypernuclei suggested by Gal and Millener by including 2ћω excitations in the translation invariant version to estimate yields of different hyperfragments from primary p-shell hypernuclei. We are inspired by the first successful experiment done at MAMI which opens way to study baryon decay of hypernuclei. We use quantum numbers of group SU(4, [f], and SU(3, (λμ, to classify basis wave functions and calculate coefficients of fractional parentage.

  16. Topologically left invariant means on semigroup algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -compact in M(S)∗∗ . We define the semiflow (M0(S), ) by putting ρ(µ,F) = µF for µ ∈ M(S) and F ∈. M(S)∗∗ . By hypothesis, there exists M ∈ that is fixed under the action of M0(S), that is µM = M for every µ ∈ M0(S). It follows that M is a topologically left invariant mean on M(S)∗ . This completes our proof. 2. A right action of ...

  17. Lattice Boltzmann method with restored Galilean invariance. (United States)

    Prasianakis, N I; Karlin, I V; Mantzaras, J; Boulouchos, K B


    An isothermal model on the standard two-dimension nine-velocity lattice (D2Q9) is proposed and analyzed. It originates from the thermal model with energy conservation introduced by N. I. Prasianakis and I. V. Karlin [Phys. Rev. E 76, 016702 (2007)]. The isothermal and the thermal equivalent models are tested through the simulation of the decay of a shear wave and of a temperature wave. Both are shown to be Galilean invariant, reference temperature independent, and rotational isotropic through the measurement of the transport coefficients on a rotated moving frame of reference.

  18. Origin of gauge invariance in string theory (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.


    A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.

  19. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.


    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  20. Visual Distinctness Determined by Partially Invariant Features (United States)


    DISTINCTNESS DETERMINED BY PARTIALLY INVARIANT FEATURES. J.A. Garcia, J. Fdez-Valdivia Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A. Univ. de Granada...E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica. 18071 Granada. Spain E-mail:, Xose R. Fdez-Vidal Departamento de... Fisica Aplicada. Univ. de Santiago de Compostela. Facultad de Fisica . 15706 Santiago de Compostela. Spain E-mail: Rosa Rodriguez-Sanchez

  1. Monomial codes seen as invariant subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Planas María Isabel


    Full Text Available It is well known that cyclic codes are very useful because of their applications, since they are not computationally expensive and encoding can be easily implemented. The relationship between cyclic codes and invariant subspaces is also well known. In this paper a generalization of this relationship is presented between monomial codes over a finite field and hyperinvariant subspaces of n under an appropriate linear transformation. Using techniques of Linear Algebra it is possible to deduce certain properties for this particular type of codes, generalizing known results on cyclic codes.

  2. Invariant measures of mass migration processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajfrová, Lucie; Gobron, T.; Saada, E.


    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-52, č. článku 60. ISSN 1083-6489 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15238S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : interacting particle systems * product invariant measures * zero range process * target process * mass migration process * condensation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  3. Conformal invariance in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Ivan T; Petkova, Valentina B


    The present volume is an extended and up-to-date version of two sets of lectures by the first author and it reviews more recent work. The notes aim to present a self-contained exposition of a constructive approach to conformal invariant quantum field theory. Other parts in application of the conformal group to quantum physics are only briefly mentioned. The relevant mathematical material (harmonic analysis on Euclidean conformal groups) is briefly summarized. A new exposition of physical applications is given, which includes an explicit construction of the vacuum operator product expansion for the free zero mass fields.

  4. Gauge-invariant Aharonov-Bohm streamlines (United States)

    Berry, M. V.


    The phase gradient of the wave describing the Aharonov-Bohm effect (AB) is proportional to the local canonical momentum. This vector field contains vortices (phase singularities), whose strengths cannot be detected in quantum mechanics because they increase (discontinuously) with the magnetic flux, violating gauge invariance. The analogous quantity which is gauge-invariant is the kinetic momentum field, proportional to the local electron velocity. Investigation of the streamlines (integral curves) of this velocity field reveals that as the flux increases from 0 to 1/2 (in quantum units), a vortex V is generated at the flux line, accompanied by a stagnation point (saddle) S that emerges from V and then collapses back into V. The VS pair is always small: the maximum distance between V and S is approximately 0.0209 de Broglie wavelengths. The VS phenomenon survives generalization to a superposition of AB waves. If the flux is confined within an impenetrable tube of radius R, S persists if R  <  0.004 de Broglie wavelengths, and is swallowed by the tube for larger R. An experiment is envisaged.

  5. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie


    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  6. Multi-Centered Invariants, Plethysm and Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; van Geemen, Bert


    Motivated by multi-centered black hole solutions of Maxwell-Einstein theories of (super)gravity in D=4 space-time dimensions, we develop some general methods, that can be used to determine all homogeneous invariant polynomials on the irreducible (SL_h(p,R) x G4)-representation (p,R), where p denotes the number of centers, and SL_h(p,R) is the "horizontal" symmetry of the system, acting upon the indices labelling the centers. The black hole electric and magnetic charges sit in the symplectic representation R of the generalized electric-magnetic (U-)duality group G4. We start with an algebraic approach based on classical invariant theory, using Schur polynomials and the Cauchy formula. Then, we perform a geometric analysis, involving Grassmannians, Pluecker coordinates, and exploiting Bott's Theorem. We focus on non-degenerate groups G4 "of type E7" relevant for (super)gravities whose (vector multiplets') scalar manifold is a symmetric space. In the triality-symmetric stu model of N=2 supergravity, we explicitl...

  7. Gauge invariance and Compton scattering from relativistic composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Center for Nuclear Studies; Gross, F. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Using the Ward-Takahashi (W-T) identity and the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) wave equation, we investigate the dynamical requirements imposed by electromagnetic gauge invariance on Compton scattering from relativistic composite system. The importance of off-shell rescattering in intermediate states, which is equivalent to final state interactions in inclusive processes, is clarified in the context of current conservation. It is shown that, if the nuclear force is nonlocal, there will be both two-photon interaction currents and rescattering contributions to terms involving one-photon interaction currents. We derive the two-body W-T identity for the two-photon interaction currents, and obtain explicit forms for the interaction current operators for three illustrative models of nuclear forces: (a) two-pion exchange forces with baryon resonances, (b) covariant separable forces, and (c) charged one-pion exchange.

  8. A filter bank for rotationally invariant image recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rodtook


    Full Text Available We present new rotation moment invariants based on multiresolution filter bank techniques. The multiresolution pyramid motivates our simple but efficient feature selection procedure based on the fuzzy C-mean clustering methodology combined with the Mahalanobis distance measure. The proposed procedure verifies an impact of random noise as well as an interesting, less known impact of noise due to spatial transformations. The recognition accuracy of the proposed technique has been tested with the Zernike moments, the Fourier-Mellin moments as well as with wavelet based schemes. The numerical experiments, with more than 30 000 images, demonstrate a tangible accuracy increase of about 3% for low level noise, 8% for the average level noise and 15% for high level noise.

  9. Cotton-Type and Joint Invariants for Linear Elliptic Systems (United States)

    Aslam, A.; Mahomed, F. M.


    Cotton-type invariants for a subclass of a system of two linear elliptic equations, obtainable from a complex base linear elliptic equation, are derived both by spliting of the corresponding complex Cotton invariants of the base complex equation and from the Laplace-type invariants of the system of linear hyperbolic equations equivalent to the system of linear elliptic equations via linear complex transformations of the independent variables. It is shown that Cotton-type invariants derived from these two approaches are identical. Furthermore, Cotton-type and joint invariants for a general system of two linear elliptic equations are also obtained from the Laplace-type and joint invariants for a system of two linear hyperbolic equations equivalent to the system of linear elliptic equations by complex changes of the independent variables. Examples are presented to illustrate the results. PMID:24453871

  10. On logarithmic extensions of local scale-invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Malte, E-mail: [Groupe de Physique Statistique, Département de Physique de la Matière et des Matériaux, Institut Jean Lamour (CNRS UMR 7198), Université de Lorraine Nancy, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy Cedex (France)


    Ageing phenomena far from equilibrium naturally present dynamical scaling and in many situations this may be generalised to local scale-invariance. Generically, the absence of time-translation-invariance implies that each scaling operator is characterised by two independent scaling dimensions. Building on analogies with logarithmic conformal invariance and logarithmic Schrödinger-invariance, this work proposes a logarithmic extension of local scale-invariance, without time-translation-invariance. Carrying this out requires in general to replace both scaling dimensions of each scaling operator by Jordan cells. Co-variant two-point functions are derived for the most simple case of a two-dimensional logarithmic extension. Their form is compared to simulational data for autoresponse functions in several universality classes of non-equilibrium ageing phenomena.

  11. Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo


    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  12. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Paulos


    Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  13. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  14. The Kubelka-Munk Theory for Color Image Invariant Properties


    Geusebroek, J.M.; Gevers, Th.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    A fundamental problem in color image processing is the integration of the physical laws of light reflection into image processing results, the probem known as photometric invariance. The derivation of object properties from color images yields the extraction of geometric and photometric invariants from color images. Photometric invariance is to be derived from the physics of refelection. In this paper, we rehearse the results from radiative transfer theory to model the reflection and transmis...

  15. Localization of Compact Invariant Sets of the Lorenz'1984 System


    Kh. M. Ramazanova


    Localization of compact invariant sets of a dynamical system is one way to conduct a qualitative analysis of dynamical system. The localization task is aimed at evaluating the location of invariant compact sets of systems, which are equilibrium, periodic trajectories, attractors and repellers, and invariant tori. Such sets and their properties largely determine the structure of the phase portrait of the system. For this purpose, one can use a localization set, i.e. a set in the phase space of...

  16. Dimuon Level-1 invariant mass in 2017 data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    This document shows the Level-1 (L1) dimuon invariant mass with and without L1 muon track extrapolation to the collision vertex and how it compares with the offline reconstructed dimuon invariant mass. The plots are made with the data sample collected in 2017. The event selection, the matching algorithm and the results of the L1 dimuon invariant mass are described in the next pages.

  17. Skein Invariants of Links and Their State Sum Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Kauffman


    Full Text Available We present the new skein invariants of classical links, H [ H ] , K [ K ] and D [ D ] , based on the invariants of links, H, K and D, denoting the regular isotopy version of the Homflypt polynomial, the Kauffman polynomial and the Dubrovnik polynomial. The invariants are obtained by abstracting the skein relation of the corresponding invariant and making a new skein algorithm comprising two computational levels: first producing unlinked knotted components, then evaluating the resulting knots. The invariants in this paper, were revealed through the skein theoretic definition of the invariants Θ d related to the Yokonuma–Hecke algebras and their 3-variable generalization Θ , which generalizes the Homflypt polynomial. H [ H ] is the regular isotopy counterpart of Θ . The invariants K [ K ] and D [ D ] are new generalizations of the Kauffman and the Dubrovnik polynomials. We sketch skein theoretic proofs of the well-definedness and topological properties of these invariants. The invariants of this paper are reformulated into summations of the generating invariants (H, K, D on sublinks of the given link L, obtained by partitioning L into collections of sublinks. The first such reformulation was achieved by W.B.R. Lickorish for the invariant Θ and we generalize it to the Kauffman and Dubrovnik polynomial cases. State sum models are formulated for all the invariants. These state summation models are based on our skein template algorithm which formalizes the skein theoretic process as an analogue of a statistical mechanics partition function. Relationships with statistical mechanics models are articulated. Finally, we discuss physical situations where a multi-leveled course of action is taken naturally.

  18. Semi-invariant submanifolds of (g, F-manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novac-Claudiu Chiriac


    Full Text Available We introduce (g,F-manifolds and initiate a study of their semi-invariant submanifolds. These submanifolds are generalizations of CR-submanifolds of Kaehler manifolds. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of distributions on a semi-invariant submanifold and study the geometry of foliations defined by these distributions. In particular, for a large class of (g,F-manifolds we prove the existence of a natural foliation on their semi-invariant submanifolds.

  19. Metric Ranking of Invariant Networks with Belief Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Changxia [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yong [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Song, Qinbao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yuan [Anhui Polytechnic University, China; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL


    The management of large-scale distributed information systems relies on the effective use and modeling of monitoring data collected at various points in the distributed information systems. A promising approach is to discover invariant relationships among the monitoring data and generate invariant networks, where a node is a monitoring data source (metric) and a link indicates an invariant relationship between two monitoring data. Such an invariant network representation can help system experts to localize and diagnose the system faults by examining those broken invariant relationships and their related metrics, because system faults usually propagate among the monitoring data and eventually lead to some broken invariant relationships. However, at one time, there are usually a lot of broken links (invariant relationships) within an invariant network. Without proper guidance, it is difficult for system experts to manually inspect this large number of broken links. Thus, a critical challenge is how to effectively and efficiently rank metrics (nodes) of invariant networks according to the anomaly levels of metrics. The ranked list of metrics will provide system experts with useful guidance for them to localize and diagnose the system faults. To this end, we propose to model the nodes and the broken links as a Markov Random Field (MRF), and develop an iteration algorithm to infer the anomaly of each node based on belief propagation (BP). Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm on both realworld and synthetic data sets to illustrate its effectiveness.

  20. Binary optical filters for scale invariant pattern recognition (United States)

    Reid, Max B.; Downie, John D.; Hine, Butler P.


    Binary synthetic discriminant function (BSDF) optical filters which are invariant to scale changes in the target object of more than 50 percent are demonstrated in simulation and experiment. Efficient databases of scale invariant BSDF filters can be designed which discriminate between two very similar objects at any view scaled over a factor of 2 or more. The BSDF technique has considerable advantages over other methods for achieving scale invariant object recognition, as it also allows determination of the object's scale. In addition to scale, the technique can be used to design recognition systems invariant to other geometric distortions.

  1. Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang


    Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude

  2. Gauge invariance and Weyl-polymer quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco


    The book gives an introduction to Weyl non-regular quantization suitable for the description of physically interesting quantum systems, where the traditional Dirac-Heisenberg quantization is not applicable.  The latter implicitly assumes that the canonical variables describe observables, entailing necessarily the regularity of their exponentials (Weyl operators). However, in physically interesting cases -- typically in the presence of a gauge symmetry -- non-observable canonical variables are introduced for the description of the states, namely of the relevant representations of the observable algebra. In general, a gauge invariant ground state defines a non-regular representation of the gauge dependent Weyl operators, providing a mathematically consistent treatment of familiar quantum systems -- such as the electron in a periodic potential (Bloch electron), the Quantum Hall electron, or the quantum particle on a circle -- where the gauge transformations are, respectively, the lattice translations, the magne...

  3. Blocks of finite groups and their invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Sambale, Benjamin


    Providing a nearly complete selection of up-to-date methods and results on block invariants with respect to their defect groups, this book covers the classical theory pioneered by Brauer, the modern theory of fusion systems introduced by Puig, the geometry of numbers developed by Minkowski, the classification of finite simple groups, and various computer assisted methods. In a powerful combination, these tools are applied to solve many special cases of famous open conjectures in the representation theory of finite groups. Most of the material is drawn from peer-reviewed journal articles, but there are also new previously unpublished results. In order to make the text self-contained, detailed proofs are given whenever possible. Several tables add to the text's usefulness as a reference. The book is aimed at experts in group theory or representation theory who may wish to make use of the presented ideas in their research.

  4. Spiking models for level-invariant encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eBrette


    Full Text Available Levels of ecological sounds vary over several orders of magnitude,but the firing rate and membrane potential of a neuron are much more limited in range.In binaural neurons of the barn owl, tuning to interaural delays is independent oflevel differences. Yet a monaural neuron with a fixed threshold should fire earlier in responseto louder sounds, which would disrupt the tuning of these neurons. %, resulting in shifts in delay tuning for interaural level differences.How could spike timing be independent of input level?Here I derive theoretical conditions for a spiking model tobe insensitive to input level.The key property is a dynamic change in spike threshold.I then show how level invariance can be physiologically implemented,with specific ionic channel properties.It appears that these ingredients are indeed present inmonaural neurons of the sound localization pathway of birds and mammals.

  5. Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.


    We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

  6. Multivariate dice recognition using invariant features (United States)

    Hsu, Gee-Sern; Peng, Hsiao-Chia; Yeh, Shang-Min; Lin, Chyi-Yeu


    A system is proposed for automatic reading of the number of dots on dice in general table game settings. Different from previous dice recognition systems that recognize dice of a specific color using a single top-view camera in an enclosure with controlled settings, the proposed one uses multiple cameras to recognize dice of various colors and under uncontrolled conditions. It is composed of three modules. Module-1 locates the dice using the gradient-conditioned color segmentation, proposed, to segment dice of arbitrary colors from the background. Module-2 exploits the local invariant features good for building homographies, giving a solution to segment the top faces of the dice. To identify the dots on the segmented top faces, a maximally stable extremal region detector is embedded in module-3 for its consistency in locating the dot region. Experiments show that the proposed system performs satisfactorily in various test conditions.

  7. Positively invariant manifolds: concept and applications (United States)

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Shchepakina, Elena; Sobolev, Vladimir


    In many applications of the system order reduction models, including those focused on spray ignition and combustion processes, it is assumed that all functions in corresponding differential equations are Lipschitzian. This assumption has not been checked in most cases and the cases when these functions were non-Lipschitzian have sometimes been overlooked. This allows us to question the results of application of the conventional theory of integral manifolds to some such systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that even in the case of singular perturbed systems with non-Lipschitzian nonlinearities the order reduction can be performed, using a new concept of positively invariant manifolds. This is illustrated by several examples including the problem of heating, evaporation, ignition and combustion of Diesel fuel sprays.

  8. Rotationally invariant ensembles of integrable matrices. (United States)

    Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Shastry, B Sriram; Scaramazza, Jasen A


    We construct ensembles of random integrable matrices with any prescribed number of nontrivial integrals and formulate integrable matrix theory (IMT)-a counterpart of random matrix theory (RMT) for quantum integrable models. A type-M family of integrable matrices consists of exactly N-M independent commuting N×N matrices linear in a real parameter. We first develop a rotationally invariant parametrization of such matrices, previously only constructed in a preferred basis. For example, an arbitrary choice of a vector and two commuting Hermitian matrices defines a type-1 family and vice versa. Higher types similarly involve a random vector and two matrices. The basis-independent formulation allows us to derive the joint probability density for integrable matrices, similar to the construction of Gaussian ensembles in the RMT.

  9. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Eric G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10-4 or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10-5 is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + $\\bar{v}$e) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σn • pp x pe). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

  10. Scale invariance and universality of economic fluctuations (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Amaral, L. A. N.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, V.


    In recent years, physicists have begun to apply concepts and methods of statistical physics to study economic problems, and the neologism “econophysics” is increasingly used to refer to this work. Much recent work is focused on understanding the statistical properties of time series. One reason for this interest is that economic systems are examples of complex interacting systems for which a huge amount of data exist, and it is possible that economic time series viewed from a different perspective might yield new results. This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk that was designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena - scale invariance and universality - can be useful in guiding research on economics. We shall see that while scale invariance has been tested for many years, universality is relatively less frequently discussed. This article reviews the results of two recent studies - (i) The probability distribution of stock price fluctuations: Stock price fluctuations occur in all magnitudes, in analogy to earthquakes - from tiny fluctuations to drastic events, such as market crashes. The distribution of price fluctuations decays with a power-law tail well outside the Lévy stable regime and describes fluctuations that differ in size by as much as eight orders of magnitude. (ii) Quantifying business firm fluctuations: We analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distributions of growth rates is different for different bins of firm size, with a width that varies inversely with a power of firm size. Similar variation is found for other complex organizations, including country size, university research budget size, and size of species of bird populations.

  11. The Mond Limit from Spacetime Scale Invariance (United States)

    Milgrom, Mordehai


    The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) limit is shown to follow from a requirement of spacetime scale invariance of the equations of motion for nonrelativistic, purely gravitational systems, i.e., invariance of the equations of motion under (t, r) → (λt, λr) in the limit a 0 → ∞. It is suggested that this should replace the definition of the MOND limit based on the low-acceleration behavior of a Newtonian-MOND interpolating function. In this way, the salient, deep-MOND results—asymptotically flat rotation curves, the mass-rotational-speed relation (baryonic Tully-Fisher relation), the Faber-Jackson relation, etc.,—follow from a symmetry principle. For example, asymptotic flatness of rotation curves reflects the fact that radii change under scaling, while velocities do not. I then comment on the interpretation of the deep-MOND limit as one of "zero mass": rest masses, whose presence obstructs scaling symmetry, become negligible compared to the "phantom," dynamical masses—those that some would attribute to dark matter. Unlike the former masses, the latter transform in a way that is consistent with the symmetry. Finally, I discuss the putative MOND-cosmology connection in light of another, previously known symmetry of the deep-MOND limit. In particular, it is suggested that MOND is related to the asymptotic de Sitter geometry of our universe. It is conjectured, for example that in an exact de Sitter cosmos, deep-MOND physics would exactly apply to local systems. I also point out, in this connection, the possible relevance of a de Sitter-conformal-field-theory (dS/CFT) duality.

  12. A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility. (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo


    The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the ...

  14. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat. Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the fundamental ...

  15. Conservation Laws and Invariant Measures in Surjective Cellular Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kari, J.; Taati, S.


    We discuss a close link between two seemingly different topics studied in the cellular automata literature: additive conservation laws and invariant probability measures. We provide an elementary proof of a simple correspondence between invariant full-support Bernoulli measures and interaction-free

  16. Conservation Laws and Invariant Measures in Surjective Cellular Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kari, Jarkko; Taati, Siamak


    We discuss a close link between two seemingly different topics studied in the cellular automata literature: additive conservation laws and invariant probability measures. We provide an elementary proof of a simple correspondence between invariant full-support Bernoulli measures and interaction-free

  17. The Kubelka-Munk Theory for Color Image Invariant Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Gevers, Th.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    A fundamental problem in color image processing is the integration of the physical laws of light reflection into image processing results, the probem known as photometric invariance. The derivation of object properties from color images yields the extraction of geometric and photometric invariants

  18. Rephasing invariants of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi- Maskawa matrix (United States)

    Pérez R., H.; Kielanowski, P.; Juárez W., S. R.


    The paper is motivated by the importance of the rephasing invariance of the CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) matrix observables. These observables appear in the discussion of the CP violation in the standard model (Jarlskog invariant) and also in the renormalization group equations for the quark Yukawa couplings. Our discussion is based on the general phase invariant monomials built out of the CKM matrix elements and their conjugates. We show that there exist 30 fundamental phase invariant monomials and 18 of them are a product of 4 CKM matrix elements and 12 are a product of 6 CKM matrix elements. In the main theorem we show that a general rephasing invariant monomial can be expressed as a product of at most five factors: four of them are fundamental phase invariant monomials and the fifth factor consists of powers of squares of absolute values of the CKM matrix elements. We also show that the imaginary part of any rephasing invariant monomial is proportional to the Jarlskog's invariant J or is 0.

  19. On a class of invariant algebraic curves for Kukles systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Osuna


    Full Text Available In this paper we give a new upper bound for the degree of a class of transversal to infinity invariant algebraic curves for polynomial Kukles systems of arbitrary degree. Moreover, we prove that a quadratic Kukles system having at least one transversal to infinity invariant algebraic curve is integrable.

  20. Invariants for the construction of a handshake register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.


    Tromp's construction of a waitfree atomic register for one writing process and one reading process is presented and proved by means of ghost variables and invariants. Preservation of the invariants is proved mechanically. This approach can be compared with the original proof based on the partial

  1. Testing measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 in stroke patients. (United States)

    Munyombwe, Theresa; West, Robert M; Hill, Kate


    In order to combine self-reported measures data from multiple studies to conduct an integrated data analysis, the construct measured must have the same meaning across the studies. This study investigated the measurement invariance of the General Health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in two stroke studies before combining the data for an integrative data analysis. The study used data from the Stroke Outcomes Study 1 (SOS1, n = 448) and second Stroke Outcomes Study (SOS2, n = 585). The initial analysis was a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each study separately to confirm the four-factor structure of GHQ-28 questionnaire. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was used to assess the measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 questionnaire in the two stroke cohorts. Measurement invariance at configural invariance (same items associated with same factor across groups); factor loading invariance (equal factor loadings across groups) and scalar invariance (equal intercepts across groups) was examined. CFA supported all three invariances measured. Results showed that the GHQ-28 questionnaire has comparable measurement properties in the SOS1 and SOS2 stroke studies. Strong measurement invariance was established, and based on the results from this study, integrative data analysis of GHQ-28 scores from the two stroke studies is merited.

  2. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies


    Hayduk, Leslie A


    Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions ? including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion ...

  3. Testing for Factorial Invariance in the Context of Construct Validation (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.


    This article describes the logic and procedures behind testing for factorial invariance across groups in the context of construct validation. The procedures include testing for configural, measurement, and structural invariance in the framework of multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The "forward" (sequential constraint imposition)…

  4. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.


    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  5. Multidistortion-invariant image recognition with radial harmonic Fourier moments. (United States)

    Ren, Haiping; Ping, Ziliang; Bo, Wurigen; Wu, Wenkai; Sheng, Yunlong


    We propose radial harmonic Fourier moments, which are shifting, scaling, rotation, and intensity invariant. Compared with Chebyshev-Fourier moments, the new moments have superior performance near the origin and better ability to describe small images in terms of image-reconstruction errors and noise sensitivity. A multidistortion-invariant pattern-recognition experiment was performed with radial harmonic Fourier moments.

  6. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulos, M.F.; Rychkov, S.; van Rees, B.C.; Zan, B.

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to

  7. Galilean and dynamical invariance of entanglement in particle scattering. (United States)

    Harshman, N L; Wickramasekara, S


    Particle systems admit a variety of tensor product structures (TPSs) depending on the algebra of observables chosen for analysis. Global symmetry transformations and dynamical transformations may be resolved into local unitary operators with respect to certain TPSs and not with respect to others. Symmetry-invariant and dynamical-invariant TPSs are defined and various notions of entanglement are considered for scattering states.

  8. Galilean invariance and vertex renormalization in turbulence theory. (United States)

    McComb, W D


    The Navier-Stokes equation is invariant under Galilean transformation of the instantaneous velocity field. However, the total velocity transformation is effected by transformation of the mean velocity alone. For a constant mean velocity, the equation of motion for the fluctuating velocity is automatically Galilean invariant in the comoving frame, and vertex renormalization is not constrained by this symmetry.

  9. Galilean invariance and homogeneous anisotropic randomly stirred flows. (United States)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David


    The Ward-Takahashi identities for incompressible flow implied by Galilean invariance are derived for the randomly forced Navier-Stokes equation, in which both the mean and fluctuating velocity components are explicitly present. The consequences of the Galilean invariance for the vertex renormalization are drawn from this identity.

  10. Chronometrically invariant variations in the Einstein gravitation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelmanov, A.L.; Khabikov, Z.R.


    Attention is given to chronometrically invariant variations (which in general are infinitely small) of first order. It is noted that infinitely small chronometrically invariant variations can be applied in the problem of gravitational instability, the theory of gravitational waves, and the theory of bimetric formalism.

  11. Rephasing invariants of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi- Maskawa matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez R, H.; Kielanowski, P., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Juárez W, S. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P. “Adolfo López Mateos,” C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)


    The paper is motivated by the importance of the rephasing invariance of the CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) matrix observables. These observables appear in the discussion of the CP violation in the standard model (Jarlskog invariant) and also in the renormalization group equations for the quark Yukawa couplings. Our discussion is based on the general phase invariant monomials built out of the CKM matrix elements and their conjugates. We show that there exist 30 fundamental phase invariant monomials and 18 of them are a product of 4 CKM matrix elements and 12 are a product of 6 CKM matrix elements. In the main theorem we show that a general rephasing invariant monomial can be expressed as a product of at most five factors: four of them are fundamental phase invariant monomials and the fifth factor consists of powers of squares of absolute values of the CKM matrix elements. We also show that the imaginary part of any rephasing invariant monomial is proportional to the Jarlskog’s invariant J or is 0.

  12. Stable calculations for unstable particles: restoring gauge invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyres, E.N.; Beenakker, W.; van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Hoogland, J.K.; Kleiss, R.H.P.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Passarino, G.


    We discuss theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the use of boson propagators with energy-dependent widths in predictions for high-energy scattering processes. In general, gauge invariance is violated in such calculations. We discuss several approaches to restore gauge invariance, necessary

  13. Teleparallel conformal invariant models induced by Kaluza-Klein reduction (United States)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Luo, Ling-Wei


    We study the extensions of teleparallism in the Kaluza-Klein (KK) scenario by writing the analogous form to the torsion scalar TNGR in terms of the corresponding antisymmetric tensors, given by TNGR = a Tijk Tijk + b Tijk Tkji + c T j{}ji Tk{}k{}i , in the four-dimensional new general relativity (NGR) with arbitrary coefficients a, b and c. After the KK dimensional reduction, the Lagrangian in the Einstein-frame can be realized by taking 2a  +  b  +  c  =  0 with the ghost-free condition c≤slant0 for the one-parameter family of teleparallelism. We demonstrate that the pure conformal invariant gravity models can be constructed by the requirements of 2a  +  b  =  0 and c  =  0. In particular, the torsion vector can be identified as the conformal gauge field, while the conformal gauge theory can be obtained by 2a  +  b  +  4c  =  0 or 2a  +  b  =  0, which is described on the Weyl-Cartan geometry Y 4 with the ghost-free conditions 2a  +  b  +  c  >  0 and c\

  14. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanmurthy, P; Dutta, D


    We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index ($n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$, and $c_{TY}$. Although, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invarianc...

  15. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health. (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen


    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Learning to Be (In)Variant: Combining Prior Knowledge and Experience to Infer Orientation Invariance in Object Recognition (United States)

    Austerweil, Joseph L.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Palmer, Stephen E.


    How does the visual system recognize images of a novel object after a single observation despite possible variations in the viewpoint of that object relative to the observer? One possibility is comparing the image with a prototype for invariance over a relevant transformation set (e.g., translations and dilations). However, invariance over…

  17. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space (United States)

    Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas


    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

  18. Non-Local Translationally Invariant Nuclear Density (United States)

    Gennari, Michael; Calci, Angelo; Vorabbi, Matteo; Navratil, Petr


    Nonlocal nuclear density is derived from the no-core shell model (NCSM) one-body densities by generalizing the local density operator to a nonlocal form. The translational invariance is generated by exactly removing the spurious center of mass (COM) component of the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions. This enables the ab initio NCSM nuclear structure to be used in high energy nuclear reactions and density functional theory. The ground state local and nonlocal density of Helium-4, Helium-6, Helium-8, and Oxygen-16 are calculated to display the effects of COM removal on predicted nuclear structure. We show that amplified effects of the COM removal can be seen in related quantities like kinetic density, which is dependent on gradients of the nonlocal nuclear density. Additionally, we include nonlocal density in calculations of optical potentials - as opposed to using the local approximation - which produces more accurate theoretical predictions for the optical potentials of lighter nuclei. We present differential cross sections and analyzing powers for proton scattering on Helium-4, Helium-6, Helium-8, and Oxygen-16 at high energies using modern nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon chiral interactions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sez. Roma1, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Piran, Tsvi [The Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.

  20. Evolution of Brain Tumor and Stability of Geometric Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tawbe


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to reconstruct and to calculate geometric invariants on brain tumors. The geometric invariants considered in the paper are the volume, the area, the discrete Gauss curvature, and the discrete mean curvature. The volume of a tumor is an important aspect that helps doctors to make a medical diagnosis. And as doctors seek a stable calculation, we propose to prove the stability of some invariants. Finally, we study the evolution of brain tumor as a function of time in two or three years depending on patients with MR images every three or six months.

  1. Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos


    The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.

  2. The Statistical Model with Interpartial Scalar Conformally Invariant Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii


    A closed mathematical model of the statistical self-gravitating system of scalar charged particles for conformal invariant scalar interactions is constructed on the basis of relativistic kinetics and gravitation theory. Asymptotic properties of the model are investigated in the ultrarelativistic limit. It is shown, that scalar charge density automatically generates scalar field effective mass and the value of this mass is found. In the paper it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of constitutive equations in case of homogenous isotropic Universe. Also it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of field equations at the early stages of cosmological evolution.

  3. Conformal invariant cosmological perturbations via the covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mingzhe


    It is known that some cosmological perturbations are conformal invariant. This facilitates the studies of perturbations within some gravitational theories alternative to general relativity, for example the scalar-tensor theory, because it is possible to do equivalent analysis in a certain frame in which the perturbation equations are simpler. In this paper we revisit the problem of conformal invariances of cosmological perturbations in terms of the covariant approach in which the perturbation variables have clear geometric and physical meanings. We show that with this approach the conformal invariant perturbations are easily identified.

  4. Tuning the cosmological constant, broken scale invariance, unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förste, Stefan; Manz, Paul [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)


    We study gravity coupled to a cosmological constant and a scale but not conformally invariant sector. In Minkowski vacuum, scale invariance is spontaneously broken. We consider small fluctuations around the Minkowski vacuum. At the linearised level we find that the trace of metric perturbations receives a positive or negative mass squared contribution. However, only for the Fierz-Pauli combination the theory is free of ghosts. The mass term for the trace of metric perturbations can be cancelled by explicitly breaking scale invariance. This reintroduces fine-tuning. Models based on four form field strength show similarities with explicit scale symmetry breaking due to quantisation conditions.

  5. Network connectivity modulates power spectrum scale invariance. (United States)

    Rădulescu, Anca; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R


    Measures of complexity are sensitive in detecting disease, which has made them attractive candidates for diagnostic biomarkers; one complexity measure that has shown promise in fMRI is power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI). Even if scale-free features of neuroimaging turn out to be diagnostically useful, however, their underlying neurobiological basis is poorly understood. Using modeling and simulations of a schematic prefrontal-limbic meso-circuit, with excitatory and inhibitory networks of nodes, we present here a framework for how network density within a control system can affect the complexity of signal outputs. Our model demonstrates that scale-free behavior, similar to that observed in fMRI PSSI data, can be obtained for sufficiently large networks in a context as simple as a linear stochastic system of differential equations, although the scale-free range improves when introducing more realistic, nonlinear behavior in the system. PSSI values (reflective of complexity) vary as a function of both input type (excitatory, inhibitory) and input density (mean number of long-range connections, or strength), independent of their node-specific geometric distribution. Signals show pink noise (1/f) behavior when excitatory and inhibitory influences are balanced. As excitatory inputs are increased and decreased, signals shift towards white and brown noise, respectively. As inhibitory inputs are increased and decreased, signals shift towards brown and white noise, respectively. The results hold qualitatively at the hemodynamic scale, which we modeled by introducing a neurovascular component. Comparing hemodynamic simulation results to fMRI PSSI results from 96 individuals across a wide spectrum of anxiety-levels, we show how our model can generate concrete and testable hypotheses for understanding how connectivity affects regulation of meso-circuits in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Invariant parallels, invariant meridians and limit cycles of polynomial vector fields on some 2-dimensional algebraic tori in R^3


    Llibre, Jaume


    We consider the polynomial vector fields of arbitrary degree in R3 having the 2–dimensional algebraic torus T2(l, m, n) = {(x, y, z) ∈ R3: (x2l + y2m − r2)2 + z2n − 1 = 0}, where l, m and n positive integers, and r ∈ (1, ∞), invariant by their flow. We study the possible configurations of invariant meridians and parallels that these vector fields can exhibit on T2(l, m, n). Furthermore we analyze when these invariant meridians or parallels are limit cycles.

  7. Einstein gravity as a 3D conformally invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique; Koslowski, Tim


    We give an alternative description of the physical content of general relativity that does not require a Lorentz invariant spacetime. Instead, we find that gravity admits a dual description in terms of a theory where local size is irrelevant. The dual theory is invariant under foliation preserving 3-diffeomorphisms and 3D conformal transformations that preserve the 3-volume (for the spatially compact case). Locally, this symmetry is identical to that of Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the high energy limit but our theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity. Specifically, we find that the solutions of general relativity, in a gauge where the spatial hypersurfaces have constant mean extrinsic curvature, can be mapped to solutions of a particular gauge fixing of the dual theory. Moreover, this duality is not accidental. We provide a general geometric picture for our procedure that allows us to trade foliation invariance for conformal invariance. The dual theory provides a new proposal for the theory space of quantum gr...

  8. Invariant approach to CP in unbroken Δ(27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Branco


    Full Text Available The invariant approach is a powerful method for studying CP violation for specific Lagrangians. The method is particularly useful for dealing with discrete family symmetries. We focus on the CP properties of unbroken Δ(27 invariant Lagrangians with Yukawa-like terms, which proves to be a rich framework, with distinct aspects of CP, making it an ideal group to investigate with the invariant approach. We classify Lagrangians depending on the number of fields transforming as irreducible triplet representations of Δ(27. For each case, we construct CP-odd weak basis invariants and use them to discuss the respective CP properties. We find that CP violation is sensitive to the number and type of Δ(27 representations.

  9. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.


    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  10. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network (United States)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.


    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  11. RGW: Goodman-Weare Affine-Invariant Sampling (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.


    RGW is a lightweight R-language implementation of the affine-invariant Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method of Goodman & Weare (2010). The implementation is based on the description of the python package emcee (ascl:1303.002).

  12. Manifestly scale-invariant regularization and quantum effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.


    Scale invariant theories are often used to address the hierarchy problem, however the regularization of their quantum corrections introduces a dimensionful coupling (dimensional regularization) or scale (Pauli-Villars, etc) which break this symmetry explicitly. We show how to avoid this problem and study the implications of a manifestly scale invariant regularization in (classical) scale invariant theories. We use a dilaton-dependent subtraction function $\\mu(\\sigma)$ which after spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry generates the usual DR subtraction scale $\\mu(\\langle\\sigma\\rangle)$. One consequence is that "evanescent" interactions generated by scale invariance of the action in $d=4-2\\epsilon$ (but vanishing in $d=4$), give rise to new, finite quantum corrections. We find a (finite) correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$ to the one-loop scalar potential for $\\phi$ and $\\sigma$, beyond the Coleman-Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ is due to an evanescent correction ($\\propto\\epsilon$) to the field-dependent masses (of...

  13. Gauge-invariant two- and three- density correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de


    Gauge-invariant spatial correlations between two and three quarks inside a hadron are measured within quenched and unquenched QCD. These correlators provide information on the shape and multipole moments of the pion, the rho, the nucleon and the $\\Delta$.

  14. Scale-invariant gauge theories of gravity: theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Lasenby, Anthony


    We consider the construction of gauge theories of gravity, focussing in particular on the extension of local Poincar\\'e invariance to include invariance under local changes of scale. We work exclusively in terms of finite transformations, which allow for a more transparent interpretation of such theories in terms of gauge fields in Minkowski spacetime. Our approach therefore differs from the usual geometrical description of locally scale-invariant Poincar\\'e gauge theory (PGT) and Weyl gauge theory (WGT) in terms of Riemann--Cartan and Weyl--Cartan spacetimes, respectively. In particular, we reconsider the interpretation of the Einstein gauge and also the equations of motion of matter fields and test particles in these theories. Inspired by the observation that the PGT and WGT matter actions for the Dirac field and electromagnetic field have more general invariance properties than those imposed by construction, we go on to present a novel alternative to WGT by considering an `extended' form for the transforma...

  15. Construction of exact complex dynamical invariant of a two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional classical dynamical system on an extended complex space utilizing Lie algebraic approach. These invariants are expected to play a vital role in understanding the complex trajectories of both classical and quantum systems.

  16. Action-dependent perceptual invariants: from ecological to sensorimotor approaches. (United States)

    Mossio, Matteo; Taraborelli, Dario


    Ecological and sensorimotor theories of perception build on the notion of action-dependent invariants as the basic structures underlying perceptual capacities. In this paper we contrast the assumptions these theories make on the nature of perceptual information modulated by action. By focusing on the question, how movement specifies perceptual information, we show that ecological and sensorimotor theories endorse substantially different views about the role of action in perception. In particular we argue that ecological invariants are characterized with reference to transformations produced in the sensory array by movement: such invariants are transformation-specific but do not imply motor-specificity. In contrast, sensorimotor theories assume that perceptual invariants are intrinsically tied to specific movements. We show that this difference leads to different empirical predictions and we submit that the distinction between motor equivalence and motor-specificity needs further clarification in order to provide a more constrained account of action/perception relations.

  17. The elliptic Gromov-Witten invariants of $CP^3$

    CERN Document Server

    Getzler, E


    We present two explicit recursions which determine the elliptic Gromov-Witten invariants of CP^3 in terms of the rational ones, and give a table up to degree 5. Unlike the rational Gromov-Witten invariants, the coefficients are negative and fractional. In a further paper, we will prove that N^1_ab + (2n-1)N^0_ab/12 is the number of elliptic space curves through a generic lines and b generic points.

  18. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants


    Christopher Smith; Selim Touati


    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mass...

  19. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants


    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim


    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP -violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino mas...

  20. Rotation invariants from Gaussian-Hermite moments of color images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, B.; Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan; Shi, Z.; Chen, X.


    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 282-291 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Color images * Object recognition * Rotation invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Joint invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http:// library

  1. A new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip


    We provide a new formulation of nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariance. It is generated by localising the usual global Galilean Symmetry. The correspondence with the type of diffeomorphism invariant models currently in vogue in the theory of fractional quantum Hall effect has been discussed. Our construction is shown to open up a general approach of model building in theoretical condensed matter physics. Also, this formulation has the capacity of obtaining Newton - Cartan geometry from the gauge procedure.

  2. Invariant scrambled sets, uniform rigidity and weak mixing


    Foryś, Magdalena; Huang, Wen; Li, Jian; Oprocha, Piotr


    We show that for a non-trivial transitive dynamical system, it has a dense Mycielski invariant strongly scrambled set if and only if it has a fixed point, and it has a dense Mycielski invariant $\\delta$-scrambled set for some $\\delta>0$ if and only if it has a fixed point and not uniformly rigid. We also provide two methods for the construction of completely scrambled systems which are weakly mixing, proximal and uniformly rigid.

  3. A new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Banerjee


    Full Text Available We provide a new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance. It is generated by localising the usual global Galilean symmetry. The correspondence with the type of diffeomorphism invariant models currently in vogue in the theory of fractional quantum Hall effect has been discussed. Our construction is shown to open up a general approach of model building in theoretical condensed matter physics. Also, this formulation has the capacity of obtaining Newton–Cartan geometry from the gauge procedure.

  4. A new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin, E-mail: [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mitra, Arpita, E-mail: [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mukherjee, Pradip, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Barasat, West Bengal (India)


    We provide a new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance. It is generated by localising the usual global Galilean symmetry. The correspondence with the type of diffeomorphism invariant models currently in vogue in the theory of fractional quantum Hall effect has been discussed. Our construction is shown to open up a general approach of model building in theoretical condensed matter physics. Also, this formulation has the capacity of obtaining Newton–Cartan geometry from the gauge procedure.

  5. Removal of inactivation causes time-invariant sodium current decays (United States)


    The kinetic properties of the closing of Na channels were studied in frog skeletal muscle to obtain information about the dependence of channel closing on the past history of the channel. Channel closing was studied in normal and modified channels. Chloramine-T was used to modify the channels so that inactivation was virtually removed. A series of depolarizing prepulse potentials was used to activate Na channels, and a -140-mV postpulse was used to monitor the closing of the channels. Unmodified channels decay via a biexponential process with time constants of 72 and 534 microseconds at 12 degrees C. The observed time constants do not depend upon the potential used to activate the channels. The contribution of the slow component to the total decay increases as the activating prepulse is lengthened. After inactivation is removed, the biexponential character of the decay is retained, with no change in the magnitude of the time constants. However, increases in the duration of the activating prepulse over the range where the current is maximal 1-75 ms) produce identical biexponential decays. The presence of biexponential decays suggests that either two subtypes of Na channels are found in muscle, or Na channels can exist in one of two equally conductive states. The time- invariant decays observed suggest that channel closure does not depend upon their past history. PMID:2852208

  6. Wavelet-based moment invariants for pattern recognition (United States)

    Chen, Guangyi; Xie, Wenfang


    Moment invariants have received a lot of attention as features for identification and inspection of two-dimensional shapes. In this paper, two sets of novel moments are proposed by using the auto-correlation of wavelet functions and the dual-tree complex wavelet functions. It is well known that the wavelet transform lacks the property of shift invariance. A little shift in the input signal will cause very different output wavelet coefficients. The autocorrelation of wavelet functions and the dual-tree complex wavelet functions, on the other hand, are shift-invariant, which is very important in pattern recognition. Rotation invariance is the major concern in this paper, while translation invariance and scale invariance can be achieved by standard normalization techniques. The Gaussian white noise is added to the noise-free images and the noise levels vary with different signal-to-noise ratios. Experimental results conducted in this paper show that the proposed wavelet-based moments outperform Zernike's moments and the Fourier-wavelet descriptor for pattern recognition under different rotation angles and different noise levels. It can be seen that the proposed wavelet-based moments can do an excellent job even when the noise levels are very high.

  7. Invariance as a Tool for Ontology of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin J. Schroeder


    Full Text Available Attempts to answer questions regarding the ontological status of information are frequently based on the assumption that information should be placed within an already existing framework of concepts of established ontological statuses related to science, in particular to physics. However, many concepts of physics have undetermined or questionable ontological foundations. We can look for a solution in the recognition of the fundamental role of invariance with respect to a change of reference frame and to other transformations as a criterion for objective existence. The importance of invariance (symmetry as a criterion for a primary ontological status can be identified in the methodology of physics from its beginnings in the work of Galileo, to modern classifications of elementary particles. Thus, the study of the invariance of the theoretical description of information is proposed as the first step towards ontology of information. With the exception of only a few works among publications which set the paradigm of information studies, the issues of invariance were neglected. Orthodox analysis of information lacks conceptual framework for the study of invariance. The present paper shows how invariance can be formalized for the definition of information and, accompanying it, mathematical formalism proposed by the author in his earlier publications.

  8. Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, Anna [Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Rozmej, Piotr, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7A (United Kingdom)


    When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, momentum and energy are no longer exact invariants. (The only one is mass.) However, adiabatic invariants (AI) can be found. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, exact invariants are recovered. Existence of adiabatic invariants results from general theory of near-identity transformations (NIT) which allow us to transform higher order nonintegrable equations to asymptotically equivalent (when small parameters tend to zero) integrable form. Here we present a direct method of calculations of adiabatic invariants. It does not need a transformation to a moving reference frame nor performing a near-identity transformation. Numerical tests show that deviations of AI from constant values are indeed small. - Highlights: • We suggest a new and simple method for calculating adiabatic invariants of second order wave equations. • It is easy to use and we hope that it will be useful if published. • Interesting numerics included.

  9. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy (United States)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao


    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painlevé) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I_adia = \\oint p_i dq_i introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area.

  10. Quantum tunneling, adiabatic invariance and black hole spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)


    In the tunneling framework, one of us, Jiang, together with Han has studied the black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance, where the adiabatic invariant quantity has been intriguingly obtained by investigating the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. In this paper, we attempt to improve Jiang-Han's proposal in two ways. Firstly, we once again examine the fact that, in different types (Schwarzschild and Painleve) of coordinates as well as in different gravity frames, the adiabatic invariant I{sub adia} = circular integral p{sub i}dq{sub i} introduced by Jiang and Han is canonically invariant. Secondly, we attempt to confirm Jiang-Han's proposal reasonably in more general gravity frames (including Einstein's gravity, EGB gravity and HL gravity). Concurrently, for improving this proposal, we interestingly find in more general gravity theories that the entropy of the black hole is an adiabatic invariant action variable, but the horizon area is only an adiabatic invariant. In this sense, we emphasize the concept that the quantum of the black hole entropy is more natural than that of the horizon area. (orig.)

  11. Scale (in)variance in a unified diffusion model of decision making and timing. (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Vlasov, Ksenia; Papadakis, Samantha


    Weber's law is the canonical scale-invariance law in psychology: when the intensities of 2 stimuli are scaled by any value k, the just-noticeable-difference between them also scales by k. A diffusion model that approximates a spike-counting process accounts for Weber's law (Link, 1992), but there exist surprising corollaries of this account that have not yet been described or tested. We show that (a) this spike-counting diffusion model predicts time-scale invariant decision time distributions in perceptual decision making, and time-scale invariant response time (RT) distributions in interval timing; (b) for 2-choice perceptual decisions, the model predicts equal accuracy but faster responding for stimulus pairs with equally scaled-up intensities; (c) the coefficient of variation (CV) of decision times should remain constant across average intensity scales, but should otherwise decrease as a specific function of stimulus discriminability and speed-accuracy trade-off; and (d) for timing tasks, RT CVs should be constant for all durations, and RT skewness should always equal 3 times the CV. We tested these predictions using visual, auditory and vibrotactile decision tasks and visual interval timing tasks in humans. The data conformed closely to the predictions in all modalities. These results support a unified theory of decision making and timing in terms of a common, underlying spike-counting process, compactly represented as a diffusion process. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells: New Insights into Antigen Recognition and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Xiao


    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells, a novel subpopulation of innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCRα chain and a diverse TCRβ chain, can recognize a distinct set of small molecules, vitamin B metabolites, derived from some bacteria, fungi but not viruses, in the context of an evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex-related molecule 1 (MR1. This implies that MAIT cells may play unique and important roles in host immunity. Although viral antigens are not recognized by this limited TCR repertoire, MAIT cells are known to be activated in a TCR-independent mechanism during some viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. In this article, we will review recent works in MAIT cell antigen recognition, activation and the role MAIT cells may play in the process of bacterial and viral infections and pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases.

  13. Multi-input robust saturation controller for uncertain linear time-invariant systems (United States)

    Lim, Chae-Wook


    A robust saturation controller for the linear time-invariant (LTI) system involving both a control input's saturation and structured real parameter uncertainties was proposed in [C.W. Lim, Y. J. Park, S.J. Moon, Robust saturation controller for linear time-invariant system with structured real parameter uncertainties, Journal of Sound and Vibration 294 (1-2) (2006) 1-14]. This controller can also be applicable to the multi-input case. In this paper, the robust saturation controller is extended to the uncertain LTI system with multi-input and designed by introducing additional subsidiary setting parameters for each control input. An example is presented to show its application to multi-input uncertain LTI systems.

  14. Magnetic monopoles, Galilean invariance, and Maxwell's equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States). Physics Department)


    Maxwell's equations have space reserved for magnetic monopoles. Whether or not they exist in our part of the universe, monopoles provide a useful didactic tool to help us recognize relations among Maxwell's equations less easily apparent in the approach followed by many introductory textbooks, wherein Coulomb's law, Biot and Savart's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Maxwell's displacement current, etc., are introduced independently, as demanded by experiment.'' Instead a conceptual path that deduces all of Maxwell's equations from the near-minimal set of assumptions: (a) Inertial frames exist, in which Newton's laws hold, to a first approximation; (b) the laws of electrodynamics are Galilean invariant---i.e., they have the same form in every inertial frame, to a first approximation; (c) magnetic poles (as well as the usual electric charges) exist; (d) the complete Lorentz force on an electric charge is known; (e) the force on a monopole at rest is known; (f) the Coulomb-like field produced by a resting electric charge and by a resting monopole are known. Everything else is deduced. History is followed in the assumption that Newtonian mechanics have been discovered, but not special relativity. (Only particle velocities {ital v}{much lt}{ital c} are considered.) This ends up with Maxwell's equations (Maxwell did not need special relativity, so why should we,) but facing Einstein's paradox, the solution of which is encapsulated in the Einstein velocity-addition formula.

  15. C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Volkman, J.K.


    A limited suite of C-27, C-29 and C-30 rearranged hopenes identified as neohop-13(18)-enes have been reported in immature Recent and ancient marine/lacustrine sediments and their presence has been explained by dehydration and isomerisation of ubiquitous hopanols or hopenes. Here we investigated the

  16. Magnetic helicity and higher helicity invariants as constraints for dynamo action (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmetyev, Peter; Illarionov, Egor


    We consider classical magnetic helicity (a Gauss invariant of magnetic lines) and higher helicity invariants as nonlinear constraints for dynamo action. We argue that the Gauss invariant has several properties absent from higher helicity invariants which prevents use of the latter to constrain dynamo action. We consider other helicities (hydrodynamic helicity and cross helicity) in the context of the dynamo problem.

  17. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex. (United States)

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J


    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Hayduk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions – including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Summary Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.

  19. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies. (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie A


    Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions - including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.

  20. Phylogenetic mixtures and linear invariants for equal input models. (United States)

    Casanellas, Marta; Steel, Mike


    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequence data relies on modelling site substitutions by a Markov process, or a mixture of such processes. In general, allowing mixed processes can result in different tree topologies becoming indistinguishable from the data, even for infinitely long sequences. However, when the underlying Markov process supports linear phylogenetic invariants, then provided these are sufficiently informative, the identifiability of the tree topology can be restored. In this paper, we investigate a class of processes that support linear invariants once the stationary distribution is fixed, the 'equal input model'. This model generalizes the 'Felsenstein 1981' model (and thereby the Jukes-Cantor model) from four states to an arbitrary number of states (finite or infinite), and it can also be described by a 'random cluster' process. We describe the structure and dimension of the vector spaces of phylogenetic mixtures and of linear invariants for any fixed phylogenetic tree (and for all trees-the so called 'model invariants'), on any number n of leaves. We also provide a precise description of the space of mixtures and linear invariants for the special case of [Formula: see text] leaves. By combining techniques from discrete random processes and (multi-) linear algebra, our results build on a classic result that was first established by James Lake (Mol Biol Evol 4:167-191, 1987).

  1. Eye movement-invariant representations in the human visual system. (United States)

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Gallant, Jack L


    During natural vision, humans make frequent eye movements but perceive a stable visual world. It is therefore likely that the human visual system contains representations of the visual world that are invariant to eye movements. Here we present an experiment designed to identify visual areas that might contain eye-movement-invariant representations. We used functional MRI to record brain activity from four human subjects who watched natural movies. In one condition subjects were required to fixate steadily, and in the other they were allowed to freely make voluntary eye movements. The movies used in each condition were identical. We reasoned that the brain activity recorded in a visual area that is invariant to eye movement should be similar under fixation and free viewing conditions. In contrast, activity in a visual area that is sensitive to eye movement should differ between fixation and free viewing. We therefore measured the similarity of brain activity across repeated presentations of the same movie within the fixation condition, and separately between the fixation and free viewing conditions. The ratio of these measures was used to determine which brain areas are most likely to contain eye movement-invariant representations. We found that voxels located in early visual areas are strongly affected by eye movements, while voxels in ventral temporal areas are only weakly affected by eye movements. These results suggest that the ventral temporal visual areas contain a stable representation of the visual world that is invariant to eye movements made during natural vision.

  2. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting eWang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing of the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI). (United States)

    Cox, Stephen D; Pakenham, Kenneth I


    Research into youth caregiving in families where a parent experiences a significant medical condition has been hampered by a lack of contextually sensitive measures of the nature and breadth of young caregiving experiences. This study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of such a measure called the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI; Pakenham et al., 2006) using confirmatory factor analysis across 3 groups of youth. The YCOPI has 2 parts: YCOPI-A with 5 factors assessing caregiving experiences that are applicable to all caregiving contexts; YCOPI-B with 4 factors that tap dimensions related to youth caregiving in the context of parent illness. Two samples (ages 9-20 years) were recruited: a community sample of 2,429 youth from which 2 groups were derived ("healthy" family [HF], n = 1760; parental illness [PI], n = 446), and a sample of 130 youth of a parent with multiple sclerosis). With some modification, the YCOPI-A demonstrated a replicable factor structure across 3 groups, and exhibited only partial measurement invariance across the HF and PI groups. The impact of assuming full measurement invariance on latent mean differences appeared small, supporting use of the measure in research and applied settings when estimated using latent factors and controlling for measurement invariance. PI youth reported significantly higher scores than did HF youth on all YCOPI-A subscales. The YCOPI-B requires some modifications, and further development work is recommended. The factor structure that emerged and the addition of new items constitutes the YCOPI-Revised. Findings support the use of the YCOPI-Revised in research and applied settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Kahler-Einstein metrics, Bergman metrics, and higher alpha-invariants (United States)

    Macbeth, Heather

    The question of the existence of Kahler-Einstein metrics on a Kahler manifold M has been a subject of study for decades. The Kahler manifolds on which this question may be studied divide naturally into three types. For two of these types the question was long ago settled by Yau and Aubin. For the third type, Fano manifolds, the question is (despite great recent progress) open for many individual manifolds. In the first part of this thesis we define algebraic invariants Bm,k(M) of a Fano manifold M, which codify certain properties of M 's Bergman metrics. We prove a criterion (Theorem 1.1.1) in terms of these invariants Bm,k( M) for the existence of a Kahler-Einstein metric on M. The proof of Theorem 1.1.1 relies on Szekelyhidi's deep recent partial C0-estimate, and on a new family of estimates for Fano manifolds. We furthermore introduce a very general hypothesis on Bergman metrics, Conjecture 6.1.2, offering some partial results (Section 6.3) in evidence. Modulo this conjecture, we prove a variation of Theorem 1.1.1, which gives a criterion for the existence of a Kahler-Einstein metric on M in terms of the well-known alpha-invariants, alpha m,k(M). This result extends a theorem of Tian. The second part of this thesis concerns Riemannian manifolds more generally. We give a characterization (Theorem 1.2.1) of conformal classes realizing a compact manifold's Yamabe invariant. This characterization is the analogue of an observation of Nadirashvili for metrics realizing the maximal first eigenvalue, and of Fraser and Schoen for metrics realizing the maximal first Steklov eigenvalue.

  5. Hitchin's connection, Toeplitz operators, and symmetry invariant deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard


    We introduce the notion of a rigid family of Kähler structures on a symplectic manifold. We then prove that a Hitchin connection exists for any rigid holomorphic family of Kähler structures on any compact pre-quantizable symplectic manifold which satisfies certain simple topological constraints...... the Hitchin connection is projectively flat, the formal connections will be flat and we get a symmetry-invariant formal quantization. If a certain cohomological condition is satisfied a global trivialization of this algebra bundle is constructed. As a corollary we get a symmetry-invariant deformation...... a mapping class group invariant formal quantization of the smooth symplectic leaves of the moduli space of flat SU(n)-connections on any compact surface....

  6. Broken symmetries in a location-invariant word recognition network. (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan


    We studied the feedforward network proposed by Dandurand et al. (2010), which maps location-specific letter inputs to location-invariant word outputs, probing the hidden layer to determine the nature of the code. Hidden patterns for words were densely distributed, and K-means clustering on single letter patterns produced evidence that the network had formed semi-location-invariant letter representations during training. The possible confound with superseding bigram representations was ruled out, and linear regressions showed that any word pattern was well approximated by a linear combination of its constituent letter patterns. Emulating this code using overlapping holographic representations (Plate, 1995) uncovered a surprisingly acute and useful correspondence with the network, stemming from a broken symmetry in the connection weight matrix and related to the group-invariance theorem (Minsky & Papert, 1969). These results also explain how the network can reproduce relative and transposition priming effects found in humans.

  7. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix: rephasing invariants and parameterizations (United States)

    Pérez R, H.; Kielanowski, P.; Juárez W, S. R.


    In this work we study two topics: the first one considers the general phase invariant monomials built out of the CKM matrix elements and their conjugates. We show, that there exist 30 fundamental phase invariant monomials and 18 of them are a product of 4 CKM matrix elements and 12 are a product of 6 CKM matrix elements. In our main result we show that all rephasing invariant monomials can be expressed as a product of at most 5 factors with positive powers. Next, we propose a general method of a recursive construction of the CKM matrix for any number of generations. This allows to construct a parameterization with desired properties. As an application we generalize the Wolfenstein parameterization to the case of 4 generations and obtain restrictions on the CKM suppression of the fourth generation.

  8. Gravitomagnetism and the significance of the curvature scalar invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L Filipe O; Natário, José


    The curvature invariants have been subject of recent interest due to the debate concerning the notions of intrinsic/extrinsic frame-dragging, the use of the electromagnetic analogy in such classification, and the question of whether there is a fundamental difference between the gravitomagnetic field arising from the translational motion of the sources, detected with Lunar Laser Raging and in the observations of binary pulsars, and the gravitomagnetic field produced by the rotation of the Earth, detected in the LAGEOS Satellites data and by the Gravity Probe-B mission. In this work we clarify both the algebraic and physical meaning of the curvature invariants and their electromagnetic counterparts. The structure of the invariants of the astrophysical setups of interest is studied in detail, and its relationship with the gravitomagnetic effects is dissected. Finally, a new classification for intrinsic/extrinsic gravitomagnetism is put forth.

  9. Symplectic invariants, entropic measures and correlations of Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Siena, Silvio De [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)


    We present a derivation of the Von Neumann entropy and mutual information of arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states, based on the explicit determination of the symplectic eigenvalues of a generic covariance matrix. The key role of the symplectic invariants in such a determination is pointed out. We show that the Von Neumann entropy depends on two symplectic invariants, while the purity (or the linear entropy) is determined by only one invariant, so that the two quantities provide two different hierarchies of mixed Gaussian states. A comparison between mutual information and entanglement of formation for symmetric states is considered, taking note of the crucial role of the symplectic eigenvalues in qualifying and quantifying the correlations present in a generic state. (letter to the editor)

  10. Experimental evidence of conformal invariance in soap film turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Thalabard, S; Artana, G; Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A


    We present experimental evidence of statistical conformal invariance in isocontours of fluid thickness in experiments of two-dimensional turbulence using soap films. A Schlieren technique is used to visualize regions of the flow with constant film thickness, and association of isocontours with Schramm-L\\"owner evolution (SLE) is used to identify conformal invariance. In experiments where an inverse energy cascade develops, statistical evidence is consistent with such an association. The diffusivity of the associated one-dimensional Brownian process is close to 8/3, a value previously identified in isocontours of vorticity in high-resolution numerical simulations of two-dimensional turbulence (D. Bernard et al., Nature Phys. 2, 124, 2006). In experiments where the inverse energy cascade is not sufficiently developed, no statistical evidence of conformal invariance is found.

  11. Statistical Estimation and Clustering of Group-invariant Orientation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Newstadt, Gregory; DeGraef, Marc; Simmons, Jeffrey; Hero, Alfred


    We treat the problem of estimation of orientation parameters whose values are invariant to transformations from a spherical symmetry group. Previous work has shown that any such group-invariant distribution must satisfy a restricted finite mixture representation, which allows the orientation parameter to be estimated using an Expectation Maximization (EM) maximum likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm. In this paper, we introduce two parametric models for this spherical symmetry group estimation problem: 1) the hyperbolic Von Mises Fisher (VMF) mixture distribution and 2) the Watson mixture distribution. We also introduce a new EM-ML algorithm for clustering samples that come from mixtures of group-invariant distributions with different parameters. We apply the models to the problem of mean crystal orientation estimation under the spherically symmetric group associated with the crystal form, e.g., cubic or octahedral or hexahedral. Simulations and experiments establish the advantages of the extended EM-VMF and ...

  12. A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Nan


    This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T, m{sub f}/T and e{sup 2}, where m{sub D} and m{sub f} are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e {proportional_to} 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T and g{sup 2}, where m{sub D} is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T {proportional_to} 2 - 3 T{sub c}. The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)

  13. Synaptotagmin 7 confers frequency invariance onto specialized depressing synapses (United States)

    Turecek, Josef; Jackman, Skyler L.; Regehr, Wade G.


    At most synapses in the brain, short-term plasticity dynamically modulates synaptic strength. Rapid frequency-dependent changes in synaptic strength have key roles in sensory adaptation, gain control and many other neural computations. However, some auditory, vestibular and cerebellar synapses maintain constant strength over a wide range of firing frequencies, and as a result efficiently encode firing rates. Despite its apparent simplicity, frequency-invariant transmission is difficult to achieve because of inherent synaptic nonlinearities. Here we study frequency-invariant transmission at synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei and at vestibular synapses in mice. Prolonged activation of these synapses leads to initial depression, which is followed by steady-state responses that are frequency invariant for their physiological activity range. We find that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7), a calcium sensor for short-term facilitation, is present at both synapses. It was unclear why a sensor for facilitation would be present at these and other depressing synapses. We find that at Purkinje cell and vestibular synapses, Syt7 supports facilitation that is normally masked by depression, which can be revealed in wild-type mice but is absent in Syt7 knockout mice. In wild-type mice, facilitation increases with firing frequency and counteracts depression to produce frequency-invariant transmission. In Syt7-knockout mice, Purkinje cell and vestibular synapses exhibit conventional use-dependent depression, weakening to a greater extent as the firing frequency is increased. Presynaptic rescue of Syt7 expression restores both facilitation and frequency-invariant transmission. Our results identify a function for Syt7 at synapses that exhibit overall depression, and demonstrate that facilitation has an unexpected and important function in producing frequency-invariant transmission.

  14. No static black hole hairs in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Mukohyama, Shinji; Wang, Anzhong; Zhu, Tao


    In this paper, we revisit the issue of static hairs of black holes in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance in the case that the speed cϕ of the khronon field becomes infinitely large, cϕ=∞ , for which the sound horizon of the khronon field coincides with the universal horizon, and the boundary conditions at the sound horizon reduce to those given normally at the universal horizons. As a result, fewer boundary conditions are present in this extreme case in comparison with the case cϕ=finite . Consequently, it is expected that static hairs might exist. However, we show analytically that, even in this case, static hairs still cannot exist, based on a decoupling limit analysis. We also consider the cases in which cϕ is finite but with cϕ≫1 , and we obtain the same conclusion.

  15. Gauge invariants and correlators in flavoured quiver gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattioli, Paolo, E-mail:; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye, E-mail:


    In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.

  16. Infinite invariant densities due to intermittency in a nonlinear oscillator (United States)

    Meyer, Philipp; Kantz, Holger


    Dynamical intermittency is known to generate anomalous statistical behavior of dynamical systems, a prominent example being the Pomeau-Manneville map. We present a nonlinear oscillator, i.e., a physical model in continuous time, whose properties in terms of weak ergodity breaking and aging have a one-to-one correspondence to the properties of the Pomeau-Manneville map. So for both systems in a wide range of parameters no physical invariant density exists. We show how this regime can be characterized quantitatively using the techniques of infinite invariant densities and the Thaler-Dynkin limit theorem. We see how expectation values exhibit aging in terms of scaling in time.

  17. Infinite invariant densities due to intermittency in a nonlinear oscillator. (United States)

    Meyer, Philipp; Kantz, Holger


    Dynamical intermittency is known to generate anomalous statistical behavior of dynamical systems, a prominent example being the Pomeau-Manneville map. We present a nonlinear oscillator, i.e., a physical model in continuous time, whose properties in terms of weak ergodity breaking and aging have a one-to-one correspondence to the properties of the Pomeau-Manneville map. So for both systems in a wide range of parameters no physical invariant density exists. We show how this regime can be characterized quantitatively using the techniques of infinite invariant densities and the Thaler-Dynkin limit theorem. We see how expectation values exhibit aging in terms of scaling in time.

  18. Scalar dark matter in scale invariant standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Karim [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences,Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Hossein [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We investigate single and two-component scalar dark matter scenarios in classically scale invariant standard model which is free of the hierarchy problem in the Higgs sector. We show that despite the very restricted space of parameters imposed by the scale invariance symmetry, both single and two-component scalar dark matter models overcome the direct and indirect constraints provided by the Planck/WMAP observational data and the LUX/Xenon100 experiment. We comment also on the radiative mass corrections of the classically massless scalon that plays a crucial role in our study.

  19. Galilean-invariant lattice-Boltzmann models with H theorem. (United States)

    Boghosian, Bruce M; Love, Peter J; Coveney, Peter V; Karlin, Iliya V; Succi, Sauro; Yepez, Jeffrey


    We demonstrate that the requirement of Galilean invariance determines the choice of H function for a wide class of entropic lattice-Boltzmann models for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The required H function has the form of the Burg entropy for D=2, and of a Tsallis entropy with q=1-(2/D) for D>2, where D is the number of spatial dimensions. We use this observation to construct a fully explicit, unconditionally stable, Galilean-invariant, lattice-Boltzmann model for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, for which attainable Reynolds number is limited only by grid resolution.

  20. Broken boost invariance in the Glasma via finite nuclei thickness (United States)

    Ipp, Andreas; Müller, David


    We simulate the creation and evolution of non-boost-invariant Glasma in the early stages of heavy ion collisions within the color glass condensate framework. This is accomplished by extending the McLerran-Venugopalan model to include a parameter for the Lorentz-contracted but finite width of the nucleus in the beam direction. We determine the rapidity profile of the Glasma energy density, which shows deviations from the boost-invariant result. Varying the parameters both broad and narrow profiles can be produced. We compare our results to experimental data from RHIC and find surprising agreement.

  1. Projection Operators and Moment Invariants to Image Blurring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara


    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2015), s. 786-802 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * N-fold rotation symmetry * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants * blur invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 6.077, year: 2015

  2. Hard photoproduction of a diphoton with a large invariant mass (United States)

    Pedrak, A.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wagner, J.


    The electromagnetic probe has proven to be a very efficient way to access the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon, particularly thanks to the exclusive Compton processes. We explore the hard photoproduction of a large invariant mass diphoton in the kinematical regime where the diphoton is nearly forward and its invariant mass is the hard scale enabling to factorize the scattering amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We calculate unpolarized cross sections and the angular asymmetry triggered by a linearly polarized photon beam.

  3. Bound states in Galilean-invariant quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, S.R.; Greenberg, O.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)


    We consider the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a model of two spinless fermions interacting via a two-body potential. We introduce quantum fields associated with the two particles as well as the expansion of these fields in asymptotic {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} fields, including such fields for bound states, in principle. We limit our explicit discussion to a two-body bound state. In this context we discuss the implications of the Galilean invariance of the model and, in particular, show how to include bound states in a strictly Galilean-invariant quantum field theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Evaluating the invariance of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure across foreign-born, second-generation and later-generation college students in the United States. (United States)

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Donnellan, M Brent; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kim, Su Yeong; Huynh, Que-Lam; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Hurley, Eric A; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Castillo, Linda G; Donovan, Roxanne A; Blozis, Shelly A; Brown, Elissa J


    Past research has established that the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) exhibits measurement invariance across diverse ethnic groups. However, relatively little research has evaluated whether this measure is invariant across generational status. Thus, the present study evaluates the invariance of the MEIM across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation respondents. A large, ethnically diverse sample of college students completed the MEIM as part of an online survey (N = 9,107; 72.8% women; mean age = 20.31 years; SD = 3.38). There is evidence of configural and metric invariance, but there is little evidence of scalar invariance across generational status groups. This study suggests that the MEIM has an equivalent factor structure across generation groups, indicating it is appropriate to compare the magnitude of associations between the MEIM and other variables across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation individuals. However, the lack of scalar invariance suggests that mean-level differences across generational status should be interpreted with caution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Invariant Solutions for a Class of Perturbed Nonlinear Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Approximate symmetries of a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations are computed using two newly-developed methods. Invariant solutions associated with the approximate symmetries are constructed for both methods. Symmetries and solutions are compared through discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  6. An almost sure invariance principle for trimmed sums of random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 5. An almost sure Invariance Principle for Trimmed Sums of Random Vectors. Ke-Ang Fu. Volume 120 Issue 5 ...

  7. Spectral invariants of operators of Dirac type on partitioned manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Bleecker, D.


    We review the concepts of the index of a Fredholm operator, the spectral flow of a curve of self-adjoint Fredholm operators, the Maslov index of a curve of Lagrangian subspaces in symplectic Hilbert space, and the eta invariant of operators of Dirac type on closed manifolds and manifolds...

  8. The Loneliness Questionnaire: Establishing Measurement Invariance Across Ethnic Groups. (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chin, Eu Gene; Young, John


    A state of loneliness describes an individual's perception of having dissatisfying social connections to others. Though it is notable across the life span, it may have particularly deleterious effects in childhood and adolescence, leading to increased risk of emotional impairment. The current study evaluates a widely used test of loneliness, the Loneliness Questionnaire, for measurement invariance across ethnic groups in a large, representative sample of youth in the 2nd to 12th grades ( N = 12,344; 41% African American) in Mississippi. Analyses were conducted using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis following a published, sequential method to examine invariance in form, factor loadings, and item intercepts. Overall, our results indicated that the instrument was invariant across ethnicities, suggesting that youth with equivalent manifest scores can be discerned as having comparable levels of latent loneliness. The loneliness scores also corresponded significantly with depression and anxiety scores for most subsamples, with one exception. These findings are discussed in the context of previous results comparing levels of loneliness across ethnicities. Additionally, the broader context of the need to expand invariance studies in instrumentation work is highlighted.

  9. Spectral-Spatial Scale Invariant Feature Transform for Hyperspectral Images. (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, Suhad Lateef; Zhou, Jun; Zia, Ali; Liew, Alan Wee-Chung


    Spectral-spatial feature extraction is an important task in hyperspectral image processing. In this paper we propose a novel method to extract distinctive invariant features from hyperspectral images for registration of hyperspectral images with different spectral conditions. Spectral condition means images are captured with different incident lights, viewing angles, or using different hyperspectral cameras. In addition, spectral condition includes images of objects with the same shape but different materials. This method, which is named Spectral-Spatial Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SS-SIFT), explores both spectral and spatial dimensions simultaneously to extract spectral and geometric transformation invariant features. Similar to the classic SIFT algorithm, SS-SIFT consists of keypoint detection and descriptor construction steps. Keypoints are extracted from spectral-spatial scale space and are detected from extrema after 3D difference of Gaussian is applied to the data cube. Two descriptors are proposed for each keypoint by exploring the distribution of spectral-spatial gradient magnitude in its local 3D neighborhood. The effectiveness of the SS-SIFT approach is validated on images collected in different light conditions, different geometric projections, and using two hyperspectral cameras with different spectral wavelength ranges and resolutions. The experimental results show that our method generates robust invariant features for spectral-spatial image matching.

  10. Selected papers on harmonic analysis, groups, and invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi


    This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers range over a variety of topics, including representation theory, differential geometry, invariant theory, and complex analysis.

  11. Gauge invariance and equations of motion for closed string modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathiapalan


    Full Text Available We continue earlier discussions on loop variables and the exact renormalization group on the string world sheet for closed and open string backgrounds. The world sheet action with a UV regulator is written in a generally background covariant way by introducing a background metric. It is shown that the renormalization group gives background covariant equations of motion – this is the gauge invariance of the graviton. Interaction is written in terms of gauge invariant and generally covariant field strength tensors. The basic idea is to work in Riemann normal coordinates and covariantize the final equation. It turns out that the equations for massive modes are gauge invariant only if the space–time curvature of the (arbitrary background is zero. The exact RG equations give quadratic equations of motion for all the modes including the physical graviton. The level (2,2¯ massive field equations are used to illustrate the techniques. At this level there are mixed symmetry tensors. Gauge invariant interacting equations can be written down. In flat space an action can also be written for the free theory.

  12. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp. 555–570. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on Vaidya manifolds. R NARAIN and A H KARA. ∗. School of Mathematics and Centre for Differential Equations, Continuum Mechanics and. Applications, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050,. South Africa. ∗.

  13. Occlusion invariant face recognition using mean based weight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a novel occlusion invariant face recognition algorithm based on Mean based weight matrix (MBWM) technique is proposed. The proposed algorithm is composed of two phases—the occlusion detection phase and the MBWM based face recognition phase. A feature based approach is used to effectively detect ...

  14. Measuring University Students' Approaches to Learning Statistics: An Invariance Study (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Bilgin, Ayse Aysin; Lopez, Maria Virginia; del Carmen Fabrizio, Maria; Gozlu, Sitki; Tuan, Nguyen Minh


    The aim of the current study was to provide evidence that an abbreviated version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was invariant across different languages and educational contexts in measuring university students' learning approaches to statistics. Data were collected on samples of university students attending…

  15. Invariant measures for continued fraction algorithms with finitely many digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaikamp, C.; Langeveld, Niels


    In this paper we consider continued fraction (CF) expansions on intervals different from [0,1]. For every x in such interval we find a CF expansion with a finite number of possible digits. Using the natural extension, the density of the invariant measure is obtained in a number of examples. In

  16. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new set of promising rotation-invariant features based on radon and discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed for fingerprint matching. The radon and DCT of a tiny area in the region of core point of fingerprint image is computed. In the proposed method only 34% DCT coefficients are used for feature extraction.

  17. Superconducting-Gravimeter Tests of Local Lorentz Invariance (United States)

    Flowers, Natasha A.; Goodge, Casey; Tasson, Jay D.


    Superconducting-gravimeter measurements are used to test the local Lorentz invariance of the gravitational interaction and of matter-gravity couplings. The best laboratory sensitivities to date are achieved via a maximum-reach analysis for 13 Lorentz-violating operators, with some improvements exceeding an order of magnitude.

  18. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i...

  19. Octupolar invariants for compact binaries on quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Patrick; Dolan, Sam R; Ottewill, Adrian C; Warburton, Niels; Wardell, Barry


    We extend the gravitational self-force methodology to identify and compute new $O(\\mu)$ tidal invariants for a compact body of mass $\\mu$ on a quasi-circular orbit about a black hole of mass $M \\gg \\mu$. In the octupolar sector we find seven new degrees of freedom, made up of 3+3 conservative/dissipative `electric' invariants and 3+1 `magnetic' invariants, satisfying 1+1 and 1+0 trace conditions. After formulating for equatorial circular orbits on Kerr spacetime, we calculate explicitly for Schwarzschild spacetime. We employ both Lorenz gauge and Regge-Wheeler gauge numerical codes, and the functional series method of Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi. We present (i) highly-accurate numerical data and (ii) high-order analytical post-Newtonian expansions. We demonstrate consistency between numerical and analytic results, and prior work. We explore the application of these invariants in effective one-body models, and binary black hole initial-data formulations, and conclude with a discussion of future work.

  20. A filter bank for rotationally invariant image recognition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 18, 2005 ... Hu moments, noticed in [22], clearly indicates a need for further research. Shortly after. Hu's paper, a variety of invariant moments were proposed and analyzed [3, 4, 9, 10, 11,. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25 ..... [6] Han J & Kamber M, 2001, Data mining concepts and techniques, Morgan Kauf- mann Pub, London.

  1. An invariant symmetric non-selfadjoint differential operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Erik G.F.


    Let D be a symmetric left invariant differential operator on a unimodular Lie group G of type I. Then we show that D is essentially self-adjoint if and only if for almost all pi is an element of (G) over cap, with respect to the Plancherel measure, the operator pi(D) is essentially self-adjoint.

  2. Investigating an Invariant Item Ordering for Polytomously Scored Items (United States)

    Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    This article discusses the concept of an invariant item ordering (IIO) for polytomously scored items and proposes methods for investigating an IIO in real test data. Method manifest IIO is proposed for assessing whether item response functions intersect. Coefficient H[superscript T] is defined for polytomously scored items. Given that an IIO…

  3. A characterization of tight and dual generalized translation invariant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob


    We present results concerning generalized translation invariant (GTI) systems on a second countable locally compact abelian group G. These are systems with a family of generators {gj, P}jεJ, pεPJ ⊂ L2(G), where J is a countable index set, and Pj, j ε J are certain measure spaces. Furthermore...

  4. On the Galilean Non-Invariance of Classical Electromagnetism (United States)

    Preti, Giovanni; de Felice, Fernando; Masiero, Luca


    When asked to explain the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism on the basis of pre-relativistic considerations alone, students--and sometimes their teachers too--may face an impasse. Indeed, they often argue that a pre-relativistic physicist could most obviously have provided the explanation "at a glance", on the basis of the…

  5. History of science: Dante's insight into galilean invariance. (United States)

    Ricci, Leonardo


    In 1632, Galileo described his experience of motion aboard a large ship and exposed in detail the invariance principle, which was then rightly named after him. I suggest that more than three centuries earlier, in The Divine Comedy, his fellow countryman Dante Alighieri intuitively grasped what Galileo was later to establish as one of the pillars of modern science.

  6. Entropy and Galilean invariance of lattice Boltzmann theories. (United States)

    Chikatamarla, Shyam S; Karlin, Iliya V


    A theory of lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for hydrodynamic simulation is developed upon a novel relation between entropy construction and roots of Hermite polynomials. A systematic procedure is described for constructing numerically stable and complete Galilean invariant LB models. The stability of the new LB models is illustrated with a shock tube simulation.

  7. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D.P. de; Fokkema, M.; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.


    In mental health care, both clinical and scientific decisions are based on within-subject comparisons of test scores on the same self-report questionnaire at different points in time. To establish the validity of test score comparisons over time, longitudinal measurement invariance should be

  8. Invariant Measures for Monotone SPDEs with Multiplicative Noise Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-Sarhir, Abdelhadi, E-mail: [Universite Ibn Zohr, Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des Sciences (Morocco); Scheutzow, Michael, E-mail:; Toelle, Jonas M., E-mail: [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet II, Institut fuer Mathematik (Germany); Gaans, Onno van, E-mail: [Universiteit Leiden, Mathematisch Instituut (Netherlands)


    We study diffusion processes corresponding to infinite dimensional semilinear stochastic differential equations with local Lipschitz drift term and an arbitrary Lipschitz diffusion coefficient. We prove tightness and the Feller property of the solution to show existence of an invariant measure. As an application we discuss stochastic reaction diffusion equations.

  9. Perturbation to Noether Symmetries and Adiabatic Invariants for Birkhoffian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang


    Full Text Available Based on El-Nabulsi dynamical model for a non-conservative system, the problem of perturbation to Noether symmetries and adiabatic invariants of a Birkhoffian system under the action of a small disturbance is proposed and studied. Firstly, the El-Nabulsi-Pfaff variational problem from extended exponentially fractional integral is presented and the El-Nabulsi-Birkhoff equations are established. Secondly, the definitions and the criterions criteria of the Noether symmetric transformations and quasisymmetric transformations of the Birkhoffian system are given, and the Noether theorems of the system are established, which reveal the inner relationship between the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities. Thirdly, the perturbation of Noether symmetries under a small disturbance is studied, and corresponding adiabatic invariants are obtained. As special cases, the deductions in nonconservative Hamiltonian system and nonconservative Lagrangian system and standard Birkhoffian system are given. At the end of the paper, the case known as Hojman-Urrutia problem is discussed to investigate the Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants, the perturbation to Noether symmetries and the adiabatic invariants under El-Nabulsi dynamical model.

  10. Waveguide invariant broadband target detection and reverberation estimation. (United States)

    Goldhahn, Ryan; Hickman, Granger; Krolik, Jeffrey


    Reverberation often limits the performance of active sonar systems. In particular, backscatter off of a rough ocean floor can obscure target returns and/or large bottom scatterers can be easily confused with water column targets of interest. Conventional active sonar detection involves constant false alarm rate (CFAR) normalization of the reverberation return which does not account for the frequency-selective fading caused by multipath propagation. This paper presents an alternative to conventional reverberation estimation motivated by striations observed in time-frequency analysis of active sonar data. A mathematical model for these reverberation striations is derived using waveguide invariant theory. This model is then used to motivate waveguide invariant reverberation estimation which involves averaging the time-frequency spectrum along these striations. An evaluation of this reverberation estimate using real Mediterranean data is given and its use in a generalized likelihood ratio test based CFAR detector is demonstrated. CFAR detection using waveguide invariant reverberation estimates is shown to outperform conventional cell-averaged and frequency-invariant CFAR detection methods in shallow water environments producing strong reverberation returns which exhibit the described striations.

  11. On Spacetimes with Given Kinematical Invariants: Construction and Examples


    Plaue, M.; Scherfner, M.; Sousa Jr, L. A. M. de


    We present a useful method for the construction of cosmological models by solving the differential equations arising from calculating the kinematical invariants (shear, rotation, expansion and acceleration) of an observer field in proper time description. As an application of our method we present two generalizations of the G\\"odel spacetime that follow naturally from our approach.

  12. Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon W.; Rensvold, Roger B.


    Examined 20 goodness-of-fit indexes based on the minimum fit function using a simulation under the 2-group situation. Results support the use of the delta comparative fit index, delta Gamma hat, and delta McDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluation measurement invariance. These three approaches are independent of model complexity and sample size.…

  13. Conserved currents and gauge invariance in Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnich, G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences; Brandt, F. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Henneaux, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences


    It is shown that in the absence of free abelian gauge fields, the conserved currents of (classical) Yang-Mills gauge models coupled to matter fields can be always redefined so as to be gauge invariant. This is a direct consequence of the general analysis of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition for Yang-Mills theory that we have provided recently. (orig.).

  14. Essential role for autophagy during invariant NKT cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salio, M.; Puleston, D.J.; Mathan, T.S.M.; Shepherd, D.; Stranks, A.J.; Adamopoulou, E.; Veerapen, N.; Besra, G.S.; Hollander, G.A.; Simon, A.K.; Cerundolo, V.


    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular homeostatic pathway essential for development, immunity, and cell death. Although autophagy modulates MHC antigen presentation, it remains unclear whether autophagy defects impact on CD1d lipid loading and presentation to invariant natural killer T

  15. Newton's descent method for the determination of invariant tori. (United States)

    Lan, Y; Chandre, C; Cvitanović, P


    We formulate a fictitious-time-flow equation which drives an initial guess torus to a torus invariant under a given dynamics, provided such a torus exists. The method is general and applies in principle to continuous time flows and discrete time maps in arbitrary dimension and to both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems.

  16. The need for invariant assessments in South African education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    argue that few studies have dealt with detecting the causes of variance across different languages, because few studies use ..... Future studies will confirm whether the property of invariance is something the. Marko-D can lay a legitimate ... Available at Accessed 13 April 2014.

  17. Invariance principle, multifractional Gaussian processes and long-range dependence


    Cohen, Serge; Marty, Renaud


    This paper is devoted to establish an invariance principle where the limit process is a multifractional Gaussian process with a multifractional function which takes its values in $(1/2,1)$. Some properties, such as regularity and local self-similarity of this process are studied. Moreover the limit process is compared to the multifractional Brownian motion.

  18. Analysis of two recent tests of М-invariance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A second, less direct, method of testing М-invariance, reported [4] by the KTeV group, is through measurement of ... [6] long sought for without success in nuclear and particle reactions. 2. Direct test of reciprocity .... overall decay distribution must therefore transform into itself under motion-reversal. The. KTeV group found [4] ...

  19. Ehrenfest theorem, Galilean invariance and nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelbermann, G [Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)


    We prove that Galilean invariant Schroedinger equations derived from Lagrangian densities necessarily obey the Ehrenfest theorem for velocity-independent potentials. The conclusion holds as well for Lagrangians describing nonlinear self-interactions. An example of Doebner and Goldin motivates the result.

  20. From Galilean-invariant to relativistic wave equations


    Elizalde, E. (Emili), 1950-; Lobo Gutiérrez, José Alberto


    Through an imaginary change of coordinates in the Galilei algebra in 4 space dimensions and making use of an original idea of Dirac and Lvy-Leblond, we are able to obtain the relativistic equations of Dirac and of Bargmann and Wigner starting with the (Galilean-invariant) Schrdinger equation.

  1. The Satisfaction with Life Scale: : Measurement invariance across immigrant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.K.; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207


    The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate

  2. The Satisfaction With Life Scale : Measurement invariance across immigrant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.; van de Schoot, R.


    The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate

  3. Spacetime scale-invariance and the super p-brane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; London, L.A.J.; Townsend, P.K.


    We generalize to p-dimensional extended objects and type II superstrings a recently proposed Green-Schwarz type I superstring action in which the tension T emerges as an integration constant of the equations of motion. The action is spacetime scale-invariant but its equations of motion are

  4. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems (United States)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr


    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  5. Skew semi-invariant submanifolds of generalized quasi-Sasakian manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Siddiqi


    Full Text Available In the present paper,  we study a new class of submanifolds of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold, called skew semi-invariant submanifold. We obtain integrability conditions of the distributions on a skew semi-invariant submanifold and also find the condition for a skew semi-invariant submanifold  of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold to be mixed totally geodesic. Also it is shown that a  skew semi-invariant submanifold of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold will be anti-invariant if and only if $A_{\\xi}=0$; and the submanifold will be skew semi-invariant submanifold if $\

  6. Observation of a threshold enhancement in the p \\bar{Lambda} invariant mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, L; Huang, X P; Ji, X B; Jia, Q Y; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R B; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, X S; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J X; Wang, J Z; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, S D; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zang, S L; Zeng, Yu; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S


    An enhancement near the m_p + M_{\\Lambda} mass threshold is observed in the combined p \\bar{\\Lambda} and \\bar{p}\\Lambda invariant mass spectrum from J/\\psi --> p K^- \\bar{Lambda} + c.c. decays. It can be fit with an S-wave Breit-Wigner resonance with a mass m = 2075 +- 12 (stat) +- 5 (syst) MeV and a width of \\Gamma = 90 +- 35 (stat) +- 9 (syst) MeV; it can also be fit with a P-wave Breit-Wigner resonance. Evidence for a similar enhancement is also observed in \\psi' --> p K^- \\bar{\\Lambda} + c.c. decays. The analysis is based on samples of 5.8 X 10^7 J/\\psi and 1.4 X 10^7 \\psi' decays accumulated in the BES II detector at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider.

  7. Localization of Compact Invariant Sets of the Lorenz'1984 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. M. Ramazanova


    Full Text Available Localization of compact invariant sets of a dynamical system is one way to conduct a qualitative analysis of dynamical system. The localization task is aimed at evaluating the location of invariant compact sets of systems, which are equilibrium, periodic trajectories, attractors and repellers, and invariant tori. Such sets and their properties largely determine the structure of the phase portrait of the system. For this purpose, one can use a localization set, i.e. a set in the phase space of the system that contains all invariant compact sets.This article considers the problem of localization of invariant compact sets of an Autonomous version of the Lorenz-84 system. The system represents a simple model of the General circulation of the atmosphere in middle latitudes. The model was used in various climatological studies. To build localization set of the system the so-called functional localization method is applied. The article describes the main provisions of this method, lists the main properties of the localization sets. The simplest version of the Lorenz-84 system when there are no thermal loads is analyzed, and a common variant of the Autonomous Lorenz-84 system, in which for some values of system parameters chaotic dynamics occurs is investigated. In the first case it is shown that the only invariant compact set of the system is its equilibrium position, and localization function turned out to be a Lyapunov function of the system. For the General version of the system a family of localization sets is built and the intersection of this family is described. Graphical illustration for the localization set at fixed values of the parameters is shown. The result of the study partially overlaps with the result of K.E. Starkov on the subject, but provides additional information.The theme of localization of invariant compact sets is discussed quite actively in the literature. Research focuses both on the development of the method and its

  8. Scaling invariance of spherical projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin continuous shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myagkov, N. N., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Russian Federation)


    The problem of aluminum projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin aluminum shield is considered. A distinctive feature of this description is that the fragmentation has been numerically simulated using the complete system of equations of deformed solid mechanics by a method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics in three-dimensional setting. The transition from damage to fragmentation is analyzed and scaling relations are derived in terms of the impact velocity (V), ratio of shield thickness to projectile diameter (h/D), and ultimate strength (σ{sub p}) in the criterion of projectile and shield fracture. Analysis shows that the critical impact velocity V{sub c} (separating the damage and fragmentation regions) is a power function of σ{sub p} and h/D. In the supercritical region (V > V{sub c}), the weight-average fragment mass asymptotically tends to a power function of the impact velocity with exponent independent of h/D and σ{sub p}. Mean cumulative fragment mass distributions at the critical point are scale-invariant with respect to parameters h/D and σ{sub p}. Average masses of the largest fragments are also scale-invariant at V > V{sub c}, but only with respect to variable parameter σ{sub p}.

  9. Invariant recognition drives neural representations of action sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tacchetti


    Full Text Available Recognizing the actions of others from visual stimuli is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows individuals to respond to social cues. Humans are able to discriminate between similar actions despite transformations, like changes in viewpoint or actor, that substantially alter the visual appearance of a scene. This ability to generalize across complex transformations is a hallmark of human visual intelligence. Advances in understanding action recognition at the neural level have not always translated into precise accounts of the computational principles underlying what representations of action sequences are constructed by human visual cortex. Here we test the hypothesis that invariant action discrimination might fill this gap. Recently, the study of artificial systems for static object perception has produced models, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs, that achieve human level performance in complex discriminative tasks. Within this class, architectures that better support invariant object recognition also produce image representations that better match those implied by human and primate neural data. However, whether these models produce representations of action sequences that support recognition across complex transformations and closely follow neural representations of actions remains unknown. Here we show that spatiotemporal CNNs accurately categorize video stimuli into action classes, and that deliberate model modifications that improve performance on an invariant action recognition task lead to data representations that better match human neural recordings. Our results support our hypothesis that performance on invariant discrimination dictates the neural representations of actions computed in the brain. These results broaden the scope of the invariant recognition framework for understanding visual intelligence from perception of inanimate objects and faces in static images to the study of human perception of action sequences.

  10. Invariance of visual operations at the level of receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lindeberg

    Full Text Available The brain is able to maintain a stable perception although the visual stimuli vary substantially on the retina due to geometric transformations and lighting variations in the environment. This paper presents a theory for achieving basic invariance properties already at the level of receptive fields. Specifically, the presented framework comprises (i local scaling transformations caused by objects of different size and at different distances to the observer, (ii locally linearized image deformations caused by variations in the viewing direction in relation to the object, (iii locally linearized relative motions between the object and the observer and (iv local multiplicative intensity transformations caused by illumination variations. The receptive field model can be derived by necessity from symmetry properties of the environment and leads to predictions about receptive field profiles in good agreement with receptive field profiles measured by cell recordings in mammalian vision. Indeed, the receptive field profiles in the retina, LGN and V1 are close to ideal to what is motivated by the idealized requirements. By complementing receptive field measurements with selection mechanisms over the parameters in the receptive field families, it is shown how true invariance of receptive field responses can be obtained under scaling transformations, affine transformations and Galilean transformations. Thereby, the framework provides a mathematically well-founded and biologically plausible model for how basic invariance properties can be achieved already at the level of receptive fields and support invariant recognition of objects and events under variations in viewpoint, retinal size, object motion and illumination. The theory can explain the different shapes of receptive field profiles found in biological vision, which are tuned to different sizes and orientations in the image domain as well as to different image velocities in space-time, from a

  11. An orbital-invariant internally contracted multireference coupled cluster approach. (United States)

    Evangelista, Francesco A; Gauss, Jürgen


    We have formulated and implemented an internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) approach aimed at solving two of the problems encountered in methods based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst ansatz: (i) the scaling of the computational and memory costs with respect to the number of references, and (ii) the lack of invariance of the energy with respect to rotations among active orbitals. The ic-MRCC approach is based on a straightforward generalization of the single-reference coupled cluster ansatz in which an exponential operator is applied to a multiconfigurational wave function. The ic-MRCC method truncated to single and double excitations (ic-MRCCSD) yields very accurate potential energy curves in benchmark computations on the Be + H(2) insertion reaction, the dissociation of hydrogen fluoride, and the symmetric double dissociation of water. Approximations of the ic-MRCC theory in which the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion is truncated up to a given number of commutators are found to converge quickly to the full theory. In our tests, two commutators are sufficient to recover a total energy within 0.5 mE(h) of the full ic-MRCCSD method along the entire potential energy curve. A formal analysis shows that the ic-MRCC method is invariant with respect to rotation among active orbitals, and that the orthogonalization procedure used to produce the set of linearly independent excitation operators plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the invariance properties. The orbital invariance was confirmed in numerical tests. Moreover, approximated versions of the ic-MRCC theory based on a truncated Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion, preserve the orbital invariance properties of the full theory.

  12. Investigating the structure and measurement invariance of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure in a multiethnic sample of college students. (United States)

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Donnellan, M Brent; Schwartz, Seth J; Kim, Su Yeong; Castillo, Linda G; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Lee, Richard M; Park, Irene J K; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Vazsonyi, Alexander T


    In this article, we evaluate the factor structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and test whether the MEIM exhibits measurement invariance across ethnic groups taken from a diverse sample of students from 30 different colleges and universities across the United States (N = 9,625). Initial analyses suggested that a bifactor model was an adequate representation of the structure of the MEIM. This model was then used in subsequent invariance tests. Results suggested that the MEIM displayed configural and metric invariance across 5 diverse ethnic groups (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, East Asian, and South Asian). There were indications that the MEIM displayed a similar factor structure with roughly equivalent factor loadings across diverse ethnic groups. However, there was little evidence of scalar invariance across these groups, suggesting that mean-level comparisons of MEIM scores across ethnic groups should be interpreted with caution. The implications of these findings for the interpretation and use of this popular measure of ethnic identity are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. A study of polymer knots using a simple knot invariant consisting of multiple contour integrals (United States)

    Zhao, Yani; Ferrari, Franco


    In this work the thermodynamic properties of short polymer knots (up to 120 segments) defined on a simple cubic lattice are studied with the help of the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm. The sampling process is performed using pivot transformations starting from a given seed conformation. Both cases of short-range attractive and repulsive interactions acting on the monomers are considered. The properties of the specific energy, heat capacity and gyration radius of the knots 31,41 and 51 are discussed. It is found that the heat capacity exhibits a sharp peak. If the interactions are attractive, similar peaks have been observed also in single open chains and have been related to the transition from a frozen crystallite state to an expanded coil state. Some other peculiarities of the behavior of the analyzed observables are presented, such as the increase or decrease of the knot specific energy at high temperatures with increasing polymer lengths depending on whether the interactions are attractive or repulsive. Besides the investigation of the thermodynamics of polymer knots, the second goal of this paper is to introduce a method for distinguishing the topology of a knot based on a topological invariant which is in the form of multiple contour integrals and explicitly depends on the physical trajectory of the knot. The chosen invariant, denoted here ϱ(C), is related to the second coefficient of the Conway polynomial. It has been first isolated from the amplitudes of a Chern-Simons field theory with gauge group SU(N). It is shown that this invariant is very reliable in distinguishing the topology of polymer knots. One of the advantages of the proposed approach is that it allows one to reduce the number of samples needed by the Wang-Landau algorithm. Some solutions to speed up the calculations of ϱ(C) by exploiting Monte Carlo integration techniques are developed.

  14. Noise-invariant neurons in the avian auditory cortex: hearing the song in noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, R Channing; Lee, Tyler; Theunissen, Frédéric E


    .... Although invariant neural responses, such as rotation-invariant face cells, are well described in the visual system, high-level auditory neurons that can represent the same behaviorally relevant...

  15. Noise-invariant Neurons in the Avian Auditory Cortex: Hearing the Song in Noise: e1002942

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Channing Moore; Tyler Lee; Frédéric E Theunissen


    .... Although invariant neural responses, such as rotation-invariant face cells, are well described in the visual system, high-level auditory neurons that can represent the same behaviorally relevant...

  16. What to do When Scalar Invariance Fails: The Extended Alignment Method for Multi-Group Factor Analysis Comparison of Latent Means Across Many Groups. (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D; Nagengast, Benjamin; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthén, Bengt; Dicke, Theresa


    Scalar invariance is an unachievable ideal that in practice can only be approximated; often using potentially questionable approaches such as partial invariance based on a stepwise selection of parameter estimates with large modification indices. Study 1 demonstrates an extension of the power and flexibility of the alignment approach for comparing latent factor means in large-scale studies (30 OECD countries, 8 factors, 44 items, N = 249,840), for which scalar invariance is typically not supported in the traditional confirmatory factor analysis approach to measurement invariance (CFA-MI). Importantly, we introduce an alignment-within-CFA (AwC) approach, transforming alignment from a largely exploratory tool into a confirmatory tool, and enabling analyses that previously have not been possible with alignment (testing the invariance of uniquenesses and factor variances/covariances; multiple-group MIMIC models; contrasts on latent means) and structural equation models more generally. Specifically, it also allowed a comparison of gender differences in a 30-country MIMIC AwC (i.e., a SEM with gender as a covariate) and a 60-group AwC CFA (i.e., 30 countries × 2 genders) analysis. Study 2, a simulation study following up issues raised in Study 1, showed that latent means were more accurately estimated with alignment than with the scalar CFA-MI, and particularly with partial invariance scalar models based on the heavily criticized stepwise selection strategy. In summary, alignment augmented by AwC provides applied researchers from diverse disciplines considerable flexibility to address substantively important issues when the traditional CFA-MI scalar model does not fit the data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Theory and computation of disturbance invariant sets for discrete-time linear systems


    Kolmanovsky Ilya; Gilbert Elmer G.


    This paper considers the characterization and computation of invariant sets for discrete-time, time-invariant, linear systems with disturbance inputs whose values are confined to a specified compact set but are otherwise unknown. The emphasis is on determining maximal disturbance-invariant sets X that belong to a specified subset Γ of the state space. Such d-invariant sets have important applications in control problems where there are pointwise-in-time state constraints of the for...

  18. Normal Anti-Invariant Submanifolds of Paraquaternionic Kähler Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novac-Claudiu Chiriac


    Full Text Available We introduce normal anti-invariant submanifolds of paraquaternionic Kähler manifolds and study the geometric structures induced on them. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of the distributions defined on a normal anti-invariant submanifold. Also, we present characterizations of local (global anti-invariant products.

  19. Measurement Invariance for Latent Constructs in Multiple Populations: A Critical View and Refocus (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien


    Popular measurement invariance testing procedures for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations are revisited and discussed. A frequently used test of factor loading invariance is shown to possess serious limitations that in general preclude it from accomplishing its goal of ascertaining this invariance. A process…

  20. Decentralized stabilization of linear time invariant systems subject to actuator saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah; Tarbouriech, S.; Garcia, G.; Glattfelder, A.H.


    We are concerned here with the stabilization of a linear time invariant system subject to actuator saturation via decentralized control while using linear time invariant dynamic controllers. When there exists no actuator saturation, i.e. when we consider just linear time invariant systems, it is

  1. The Effect of Differential Item Functioning in Anchor Items on Population Invariance of Equating (United States)

    Huggins, Anne Corinne


    Invariant relationships in the internal mechanisms of estimating achievement scores on educational tests serve as the basis for concluding that a particular test is fair with respect to statistical bias concerns. Equating invariance and differential item functioning are both concerned with invariant relationships yet are treated separately in the…

  2. Bulk and Boundary Invariants for Complex Topological Insulators: From K-Theory to Physics


    Prodan, Emil; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann


    This monograph offers an overview on the topological invariants in fermionic topological insulators from the complex classes. Tools from K-theory and non-commutative geometry are used to define bulk and boundary invariants, to establish the bulk-boundary correspondence and to link the invariants to physical observables.

  3. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media. (United States)

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan


    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed.

  4. Invariance of Topological Indices Under Hilbert Space Truncation (United States)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Zhu, W.; Arovas, Daniel P.; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Balatsky, Alexander V.


    We show that the topological index of a wave function, computed in the space of twisted boundary phases, is preserved under Hilbert space truncation, provided the truncated state remains normalizable. If truncation affects the boundary condition of the resulting state, the invariant index may acquire a different physical interpretation. If the index is symmetry protected, the truncation should preserve the protecting symmetry. We discuss implications of this invariance using paradigmatic integer and fractional Chern insulators, Z2 topological insulators, and spin-1 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki and Heisenberg chains, as well as its relation with the notion of bulk entanglement. As a possible application, we propose a partial quantum tomography scheme from which the topological index of a generic multicomponent wave function can be extracted by measuring only a small subset of wave function components, equivalent to the measurement of a bulk entanglement topological index.

  5. a Complete and Minimal Catalogue of Mssm Gauge Invariant Monomials (United States)

    Basbøll, Anders

    We present a complete and minimal catalogue of MSSM gauge invariant monomials. That is, the catalogue of Gherghetta, Kolda and Martin is elaborated to include generational structure for all monomials. Any gauge invariant operator can be built as a linear combination of elements of the catalogue lifted to nonnegative integer powers. And the removal of any one of the monomials would deprive the catalogue of this feature. It contains 712 monomials, plus 3 generations of right-handed neutrinos if one extends the model to the νMSSM. We note that νMSSM flat directions can all be lifted by the sixth-order superpotential compared to the ninth-order needed in MSSM.

  6. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  7. Estimation Of Signal Parameters Via Rotational Invariance Techniques - ESPRIT (United States)

    Roy, R.; Paulraj, A.; Kailath, T.


    A novel approach to the general problem of signal parameter estimation is described. Though the technique (ESPRIT) is discussed in the context of direction-of-arrival estimation, it can be applied to a wide variety of problems including spectral estimation. ESPRIT exploits an underlying rotational invariance among signal subspaces induced by an array of sensors with a translational invariance structure (e.g., pairwise matched and co-directional antenna element doublets). The new approach has several significant advantages over earlier techniques such as MUSIC including improved performance, reduced computational load, freedom from array characterization/calibration, and reduced sensitivity to array perturbations. Results of computer simulations carried out to evaluate the new algorithm are presented.

  8. Efficient Invariant Features for Sensor Variability Compensation in Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennour Alimohad


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of invariant features for speaker recognition. Owing to their characteristics, these features are introduced to cope with the difficult and challenging problem of sensor variability and the source of performance degradation inherent in speaker recognition systems. Our experiments show: (1 the effectiveness of these features in match cases; (2 the benefit of combining these features with the mel frequency cepstral coefficients to exploit their discrimination power under uncontrolled conditions (mismatch cases. Consequently, the proposed invariant features result in a performance improvement as demonstrated by a reduction in the equal error rate and the minimum decision cost function compared to the GMM-UBM speaker recognition systems based on MFCC features.

  9. Isomonodromic deformations and SU 2-invariant instantons on S4 (United States)

    Manasliski, Richard Muñiz


    Anti-self-dual (ASD) solutions to the Yang-Mills equation (or instantons) over an anti-self-dual 4-manifold, which are invariant under an appropriate action of a three-dimensional Lie group, give rise, via twistor construction, to isomonodromic deformations of connections on CP having four simple singularities. As is well known, such deformations are governed by the sixth Painlevé equation P VI(α,β,γ,δ). We work out the particular case of the SU-action on S4, obtained from the irreducible representation on R5. In particular, we express the parameters (α,β,γ,δ) in terms of the instanton number. The present paper contains the proof of the result announced in [Richard Muñiz Manasliski, Painlevé VI equation from invariant instantons, in: Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum field theory, Contemp. Math., vol. 434, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2007, pp. 215-222].

  10. Aging and implicit learning of an invariant association. (United States)

    Howard, Darlene V; Howard, James H; Dennis, Nancy A; LaVine, Sean; Valentino, Kristin


    We investigated whether there is an age-related decline in implicit learning of an invariant association. Participants memorized letter strings in which a given letter always occurred in the second position (see Frick & Lee, 1995). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that young and older adults learned this regularity implicitly, with no significant age differences, even when a perceptual feature of the stimuli changed between encoding and test. Experiment 3 confirmed that learning had occurred during encoding, in that learning increased with the number of encoding presentations. We conclude that implicit learning of this invariant association is largely preserved in healthy aging, revealing another avenue by which older people continue to adapt efficiently to environmental regularities.

  11. Gauge invariant gluon spin operator for spinless nonlinear wave solutions (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Pak, D. G.; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.


    We consider nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass scale parameter and zero spin in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new stationary solution which can be treated as a system of static Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluon field is proposed. A remarkable feature of such a solution is that it possesses a finite energy density everywhere. All considered nonlinear wave type solutions have common features: presence of the mass scale parameter, nonvanishing projection of the color fields along the propagation direction and zero spin. The last property requires revision of the gauge invariant definition of the spin density operator which is supposed to produce spin one states for the massless vector gluon field. We construct a gauge invariant definition of the classical gluon spin density operator which is unique and Lorentz frame independent.

  12. Assessment of Rotationally-Invariant Clustering Using Streamlet Tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liptrot, Matthew George; Lauze, François


    We present a novel visualisation-based strategy for the assessment of a recently proposed clustering technique for raw DWI volumes which derives rotationally-invariant metrics to classify voxels. The validity of the division of all brain tissue voxels into such classes was assessed using the rece......We present a novel visualisation-based strategy for the assessment of a recently proposed clustering technique for raw DWI volumes which derives rotationally-invariant metrics to classify voxels. The validity of the division of all brain tissue voxels into such classes was assessed using...... the recently developed streamlets visualisation technique, which aims to represent brain fibres by collections of many short streamlines. Under the assumption that streamlines seeded in a cluster should stay within it, we were able to assess how well perceptual tracing could occur across the boundaries...... of the clusters....

  13. Assessment of rotationally-invariant clustering using streamlet tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liptrot, Matthew George; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    We present a novel visualisation-based strategy for the assessment of a recently proposed clustering technique for raw DWI volumes which derives rotationally-invariant metrics to classify voxels. The validity of the division of all brain tissue voxels into such classes was assessed using the rece......We present a novel visualisation-based strategy for the assessment of a recently proposed clustering technique for raw DWI volumes which derives rotationally-invariant metrics to classify voxels. The validity of the division of all brain tissue voxels into such classes was assessed using...... the recently developed streamlets visualisation technique, which aims to represent brain fibres by collections of many short streamlines. Under the assumption that streamlines seeded in a cluster should stay within it, we were able to assess how well perceptual tracing could occur across the boundaries...... of the clusters....

  14. Neural networks for data compression and invariant image recognition (United States)

    Gardner, Sheldon


    An approach to invariant image recognition (I2R), based upon a model of biological vision in the mammalian visual system (MVS), is described. The complete I2R model incorporates several biologically inspired features: exponential mapping of retinal images, Gabor spatial filtering, and a neural network associative memory. In the I2R model, exponentially mapped retinal images are filtered by a hierarchical set of Gabor spatial filters (GSF) which provide compression of the information contained within a pixel-based image. A neural network associative memory (AM) is used to process the GSF coded images. We describe a 1-D shape function method for coding of scale and rotationally invariant shape information. This method reduces image shape information to a periodic waveform suitable for coding as an input vector to a neural network AM. The shape function method is suitable for near term applications on conventional computing architectures equipped with VLSI FFT chips to provide a rapid image search capability.

  15. Weyl current, scale-invariant inflation, and Planck scale generation (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.


    Scalar fields, ϕi, can be coupled nonminimally to curvature and satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, including MP=0 ; (ii) the ϕi have arbitrary values and gradients, but undergo a general expansion and relaxation to constant values that satisfy a nontrivial constraint, K (ϕi)=constant; (iii) this constraint breaks scale symmetry spontaneously, and the Planck mass is dynamically generated; (iv) there can be adequate inflation associated with slow roll in a scale-invariant potential subject to the constraint; (v) the final vacuum can have a small to vanishing cosmological constant; (vi) large hierarchies in vacuum expectation values can naturally form; (vii) there is a harmless dilaton which naturally eludes the usual constraints on massless scalars. These models are governed by a global Weyl scale symmetry and its conserved current, Kμ. At the quantum level the Weyl scale symmetry can be maintained by an invariant specification of renormalized quantities.

  16. Statistical analysis of complex systems with nonclassical invariant measures

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea


    I investigate the problem of finding a statistical description of a complex many-body system whose invariant measure cannot be constructed stemming from classical thermodynamics ensembles. By taking solitons as a reference system and by employing a general formalism based on the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur scheme, I demonstrate how to build an invariant measure and, within a one-dimensional phase space, how to develop a suitable thermodynamics. A detailed example is provided with a universal model of wave propagation, with reference to a transparent potential sustaining gray solitons. The system shows a rich thermodynamic scenario, with a free-energy landscape supporting phase transitions and controllable emergent properties. I finally discuss the origin of such behavior, trying to identify common denominators in the area of complex dynamics.

  17. Model invariance across genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire. (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L; Meyer, J Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E


    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates psychometric properties superior to other self-report measures. To examine evidence regarding validity of the BAPQ, the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test the assumption of model invariance across genders. Results of the current study upheld model invariance at each level of parameter constraint; however, model fit indices suggested limited goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the sample. Exploratory analyses investigated alternate factor structure models but ultimately supported the proposed three-factor structure model.

  18. Computation of Quasiperiodic Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Tori: Rigorous Results (United States)

    Canadell, Marta; Haro, Àlex


    The development of efficient methods for detecting quasiperiodic oscillations and computing the corresponding invariant tori is a subject of great importance in dynamical systems and their applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we prove the convergence of a new Newton-like method for computing quasiperiodic normally hyperbolic invariant tori carrying quasiperiodic motion in smooth families of real-analytic dynamical systems. The main result is stated as an a posteriori KAM-like theorem that allows controlling the inner dynamics on the torus with appropriate detuning parameters, in order to obtain a prescribed quasiperiodic motion. The Newton-like method leads to several fast and efficient computational algorithms, which are discussed and tested in a companion paper (Canadell and Haro in J Nonlinear Sci, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00332-017-9388-z), in which new mechanisms of breakdown are presented.

  19. Observing Topological Invariants Using Quantum Walks in Superconducting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flurin


    Full Text Available The direct measurement of topological invariants in both engineered and naturally occurring quantum materials is a key step in classifying quantum phases of matter. Here, we motivate a toolbox based on time-dependent quantum walks as a method to digitally simulate single-particle topological band structures. Using a superconducting qubit dispersively coupled to a microwave cavity, we implement two classes of split-step quantum walks and directly measure the topological invariant (winding number associated with each. The measurement relies upon interference between two components of a cavity Schrödinger cat state and highlights a novel refocusing technique, which allows for the direct implementation of a digital version of Bloch oscillations. As the walk is performed in phase space, our scheme can be extended to higher synthetic dimensions by adding additional microwave cavities, whereby superconducting circuit-based simulations can probe topological phases ranging from the quantum-spin Hall effect to the Hopf insulator.

  20. Identification of black hole horizons using scalar curvature invariants (United States)

    Coley, Alan; McNutt, David


    We introduce the concept of a geometric horizon, which is a surface distinguished by the vanishing of certain curvature invariants which characterize its special algebraic character. We motivate its use for the detection of the event horizon of a stationary black hole by providing a set of appropriate scalar polynomial curvature invariants that vanish on this surface. We extend this result by proving that a non-expanding horizon, which generalizes a Killing horizon, coincides with the geometric horizon. Finally, we consider the imploding spherically symmetric metrics and show that the geometric horizon identifies a unique quasi-local surface corresponding to the unique spherically symmetric marginally trapped tube, implying that the spherically symmetric dynamical black holes admit a geometric horizon. Based on these results, we propose a suite of conjectures concerning the application of geometric horizons to more general dynamical black hole scenarios.

  1. Assessing Peer Victimization Across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.


    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from seventh through tenth grade. We hypothesized that a two-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general victimization factor) or a three-factor model (separately examining verbal, physical, and social victimization). The two-factor model best represented the data, and we found support for longitudinal invariance of this model across seventh through tenth grades for both boys and girls. Such findings of temporal invariance are important for further longitudinal comparisons, and we suggest future directions for using the Revised Adolescent Social Experience Questionnaire to examine stability and change in victimization as well as evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programs. PMID:22708574

  2. High-performance rotation invariant multiview face detection. (United States)

    Huang, Chang; Ai, Haizhou; Li, Yuan; Lao, Shihong


    Rotation invariant multiview face detection (MVFD) aims to detect faces with arbitrary rotation-in-plane (RIP) and rotation-off-plane (ROP) angles in still images or video sequences. MVFD is crucial as the first step in automatic face processing for general applications since face images are seldom upright and frontal unless they are taken cooperatively. In this paper, we propose a series of innovative methods to construct a high-performance rotation invariant multiview face detector, including the Width-First-Search (WFS) tree detector structure, the Vector Boosting algorithm for learning vector-output strong classifiers, the domain-partition-based weak learning method, the sparse feature in granular space, and the heuristic search for sparse feature selection. As a result of that, our multiview face detector achieves low computational complexity, broad detection scope, and high detection accuracy on both standard testing sets and real-life images.

  3. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  4. Violation of Bell inequality in perfect translation-invariant systems (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yu; Wu, Yu-Ying; Xu, Jian; Huang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Bo-Jun; Wang, Bo


    Bell inequalities and nonlocality have been widely studied in one-dimensional quantum systems. As a kind of quantum correlation, it is expected that bipartite nonlocality should be present in quantum systems, just as bipartite entanglement does. Surprisingly, for various models, two-qubit states do not violate Bell inequalities, i.e., they are local. Recently, it is realized that the results are related to the monogamy trade-off obeyed by bipartite Bell correlations, thus it is believed that for general translation invariant systems, two-qubit states should not violate the Bell inequality [Oliveira, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/100/60004 100, 60004 (2012)]. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that in perfect translation-invariant systems with an even number of sites, the Bell inequality can be violated. A nontrivial model is constructed to confirm the conclusion.

  5. Hamiltonian approach to second order gauge invariant cosmological perturbations (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao


    In view of growing interest in tensor modes and their possible detection, we clarify the definition of tensor modes up to 2nd order in perturbation theory within the Hamiltonian formalism. Like in gauge theory, in cosmology the Hamiltonian is a suitable and consistent approach to reduce the gauge degrees of freedom. In this paper we employ the Faddeev-Jackiw method of Hamiltonian reduction. An appropriate set of gauge invariant variables that describe the dynamical degrees of freedom may be obtained by suitable canonical transformations in the phase space. We derive a set of gauge invariant variables up to 2nd order in perturbation expansion and for the first time we reduce the 3rd order action without adding gauge fixing terms. In particular, we are able to show the relation between the uniform-ϕ and Newtonian slicings, and study the difference in the definition of tensor modes in these two slicings.

  6. Scale-invariance as the origin of dark radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gorbunov


    Full Text Available Recent cosmological data favor R2-inflation and some amount of non-standard dark radiation in the Universe. We show that a framework of high energy scale invariance can explain these data. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry provides gravity with the Planck mass and particle physics with the electroweak scale. We found that the corresponding massless Nambu–Goldstone bosons – dilatons – are produced at reheating by the inflaton decay right at the amount needed to explain primordial abundances of light chemical elements and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Then we extended the discussion on the interplay with Higgs-inflation and on general class of inflationary models where dilatons are allowed and may form the dark radiation. As a result we put a lower limit on the reheating temperature in a general scale invariant model of inflation.

  7. Background Independence and Duality Invariance in String Theory. (United States)

    Hohm, Olaf


    Closed string theory exhibits an O(D,D) duality symmetry on tori, which in double field theory is manifest before compactification. I prove that to first order in α^{'} there is no manifestly background independent and duality invariant formulation of bosonic string theory in terms of a metric, b field, and dilaton. To this end I use O(D,D) invariant second order perturbation theory around flat space to show that the unique background independent candidate expression for the gauge algebra at order α^{'} is inconsistent with the Jacobi identity. A background independent formulation exists instead for frame variables subject to α^{'}-deformed frame transformations (generalized Green-Schwarz transformations). Potential applications for curved backgrounds, as in cosmology, are discussed.

  8. Background Independence and Duality Invariance in String Theory (United States)

    Hohm, Olaf


    Closed string theory exhibits an O (D ,D ) duality symmetry on tori, which in double field theory is manifest before compactification. I prove that to first order in α' there is no manifestly background independent and duality invariant formulation of bosonic string theory in terms of a metric, b field, and dilaton. To this end I use O (D ,D ) invariant second order perturbation theory around flat space to show that the unique background independent candidate expression for the gauge algebra at order α' is inconsistent with the Jacobi identity. A background independent formulation exists instead for frame variables subject to α'-deformed frame transformations (generalized Green-Schwarz transformations). Potential applications for curved backgrounds, as in cosmology, are discussed.

  9. On invariant MASAs for endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Jeong Hee; Skalski, Adam; Szymanski, Wojciech


    The problem of existence of standard (i.e. product-type) invariant MASAs for endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n is studied. In particular, endomorphisms which preserve the canonical diagonal MASA D_n are investigated. Conditions on a unitary w equivalent to the fact that the corresponding...... endomorphism λ_w preserves D_n are found, and it is shown that they may be satisfied by unitaries which do not normalize D_n. Unitaries giving rise to endomorphisms which leave all standard MASAs invariant and have identical actions on them are characterized. Finally, some properties of examples of finite......-index endomorphisms of O_n given by Izumi and related to sector theory are discussed and it is shown that they lead to an endomorphism of O_2 associated to a matrix unitary which does not preserve any standard MASA....

  10. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups. (United States)

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira


    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations (United States)


    algebraic invariant, high-order Lie derivation, differential equation, automated checking, proof rules, continuous dynamics, formal verification Abstract...efficiency— in deductive formal verification tools. Content. In Section 2, we recall some basic definitions and concepts. Section 3 introduces a new...implementations of DRI and DRI∧ is very encouraging and we are confident that a proof strategy in a deductive formal verification system should give precedence

  12. Traveling salesman problem, conformal invariance, and dense polymers. (United States)

    Jacobsen, J L; Read, N; Saleur, H


    We propose that the statistics of the optimal tour in the planar random Euclidean traveling salesman problem is conformally invariant on large scales. This is exhibited in the power-law behavior of the probabilities for the tour to zigzag repeatedly between two regions, and in subleading corrections to the length of the tour. The universality class should be the same as for dense polymers and minimal spanning trees. The conjectures for the length of the tour on a cylinder are tested numerically.

  13. Self-healing in scaled propagation invariant beams

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino


    We analyze and demonstrate, numerically and experimentally, the self-healing effect in scaled propagation invariant beams, subject to opaque obstructions.We introduce the signal to noise intensity ratio, a semi-analytical figure of merit, explicitly dependent on the features of the beams and the obstructions applied to them. The effect is quantitatively evaluated employing the Root Mean Square deviation and the similarity function.

  14. Born approximation in linear-time invariant system


    Gumjudpai, Burin


    Linear-time invariant (LTI) oscillation systems such as forced mechanical vibration, series RLC and parallel RLC circuits can be solved by using simplest initial conditions or employing of Green's function of which knowledge of initial condition of the force term is needed. Here we show a mathematical connection of the LTI system and the Helmholtz equation form of the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in quantum mechanical scattering problem. We apply Born approximation in quantum mec...

  15. Operational risk modeled analytically II: the consequences of classification invariance


    Vivien Brunel


    Most of the banks' operational risk internal models are based on loss pooling in risk and business line categories. The parameters and outputs of operational risk models are sensitive to the pooling of the data and the choice of the risk classification. In a simple model, we establish the link between the number of risk cells and the model parameters by requiring invariance of the bank's loss distribution upon a change in classification. We provide details on the impact of this requirement on...

  16. Rotation invariants of vector fields from orthogonal moments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, B.; Kostková, Jitka; Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Bujack, R.


    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 110-121 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Vector field * Total rotation * Invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Zernike moments * Numerical stability Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.582, year: 2016 http:// library

  17. Existence domains for invariant reactions in binary regular solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    two phases (e.g. a liquid and a solid phase) has been examined using the regular solution model. The necessary conditions for the ... Binary phase diagrams; invariant reactions; regular solution model. 1. Introduction. Using the regular ...... Nb–Ta, Nb–W, Os–Re, Os–Ru, Pd–Pt, Pt–Rh,. Re–Ru, Ta–W, V–W]. R + T MN [Cr–V, ...

  18. Baryon non-invariant couplings in Higgs effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, Luca; Saa, Sara; Sacristan-Barbero, Mario [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fsica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)


    The basis of leading operators which are not invariant under baryon number is constructed within the Higgs effective field theory. This list contains 12 dimension six operators, which preserve the combination B - L, to be compared to only 6 operators for the standard model effective field theory. The discussion of the independent flavour contractions is presented in detail for a generic number of fermion families adopting the Hilbert series technique. (orig.)

  19. Linear complexity for multidimensional arrays - a numerical invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Perez, Domingo; Høholdt, Tom; Moreno, Oscar


    Linear complexity is a measure of how complex a one dimensional sequence can be. In this paper we extend the concept of linear complexity to multiple dimensions and present a definition that is invariant under well-orderings of the arrays. As a result we find that our new definition for the proce...... introduced in the patent titled “Digital Watermarking” produces arrays with good asymptotic properties....

  20. Factorial invariance of the Adult State Hope Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Nel


    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the impact of positive psychology on employees, it is imperative to use reliable and valid instruments to operationalise positive-psychology constructs. One such construct is hope.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the degree of factorial invariance across race and gender by using a sample of aspiring chartered accountants.Motivation for the study: Previous research on the hope construct and associated measuring instruments have been conducted, using homogenous samples from Westernised cultures. Researchers need to be careful to assume that hope looks and behaves in exactly the same manner across cultures and groups.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used. A sample of 295 aspiring chartered accountants participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the degree of factor similarity across groups, utilising Tucker’s coefficient of congruence. To supplement the exploratory factor analysis, a series of increasingly restrictive multi-group analyses were conducted to test the invariance of model parameters across the groups.Main findings: No significant differences were found in the factor patterns for the agency and pathways factors for (1 the white and designated groups and (2 females and males.Practical/managerial implications: Evidence related to factorial invariance was found. This should inform researchers and practitioners that both pathways and agency look similar across racial and gender groups.Contribution/value-add: Researchers are urged to use various statistical techniques, in combination, to determine the degree of factorial invariance across groups.

  1. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: iso-dispersive contours


    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.


    A dispersive model of a gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens is introduced based on the idea of iso-dispersive contours. These contours have constant Abbe number and their shape is related to iso-indicial contours of the monochromatic geometry-invariant GRIN lens (GIGL) model. The chromatic GIGL model predicts the dispersion throughout the GRIN structure by using the dispersion curves of the surface and the center of the lens. The analytical approach for paraxial ray tracing and the monochro...

  2. Generic R-transform for invariant pattern representation


    Hoang, Thai V; Tabbone, Salvatore


    ISBN: 978-1-61284-432-9; International audience; The beneficial properties of the Radon transform make it an useful intermediate representation for the extraction of invariant features from pattern images for the purpose of indexing/matching. This paper revisits the problem with a generic view on a popular Radon-based pattern descriptor, the R-signature, bringing in a class of descriptors spatially describing patterns at all the directions and at different levels. The domain of this class and...

  3. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia eDi Bono


    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  4. Invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we attempt to obtain the nature of the external field such that the Dirac equation with external electro-magnetic field is invariant. The Poincar´e group, which is the maximal symmetry group for field free case, is constrained by the presence of the external field. Introducing infinitesimal transformation of x andψ, ...

  5. Translationally-invariant coupled-cluster method for finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, R.; Moliner, I. [Valencia Univ., Burjassot (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica Molecular i Nuclear; Navarro, J.; Portesi, M. [IFIC (Centre Mixt CSIC -Universitat de Valencia), Avda. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46.100 Burjassot (Spain)


    The translational invariant formulation of the coupled-cluster method is presented here at the complete SUB(2) level for a system of nucleons treated as bosons. The correlation amplitudes are solutions of a non-linear coupled system of equations. These equations have been solved for light and medium systems, considering the central but still semi-realistic nucleon-nucleon S3 interaction. (orig.). 16 refs.

  6. Codes over infinite family of rings : Equivalence and invariant ring (United States)

    Irwansyah, Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan; Muchlis, Ahmad; Barra, Aleams; Suprijanto, Djoko


    In this paper, we study codes over the ring Bk=𝔽pr[v1,…,vk]/(vi2=vi,∀i =1 ,…,k ) . For instance, we focus on two topics, i.e. characterization of the equivalent condition between two codes over Bk using a Gray map into codes over finite field 𝔽pr, and finding generators for invariant ring of Hamming weight enumerator for Euclidean self-dual codes over Bk.

  7. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories (United States)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.


    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  8. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)


    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  9. CFT4 as SO(4,2-invariant TFT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch


    Full Text Available We show that correlators of local operators in four-dimensional free scalar field theory can be expressed in terms of amplitudes in a two-dimensional topological field theory (TFT2. We describe the state space of the TFT2, which has SO(4,2 as a global symmetry, and includes both positive and negative energy representations. Invariant amplitudes in the TFT2 correspond to surfaces interpolating from multiple circles to the vacuum. They are constructed from SO(4,2 invariant linear maps from the tensor product of the state spaces to complex numbers. When appropriate states labeled by 4D-spacetime coordinates are inserted at the circles, the TFT2 amplitudes become correlators of the four-dimensional CFT4. The TFT2 structure includes an associative algebra, related to crossing in the 4D-CFT, with a non-degenerate pairing related to the CFT inner product in the CFT4. In the free-field case, the TFT2/CFT4 correspondence can largely be understood as realization of free quantum field theory as a categorified form of classical invariant theory for appropriate SO(4,2 representations. We discuss the prospects of going beyond free fields in this framework.

  10. Partonic Orbital Angular Momentum and Lorentz Invariance Relations (United States)

    Rajan, Abha; Liuti, Simonetta; Engelhardt, Michael


    We show that Generalized Transverse Momentum Distributions (GTMDs) and twist three Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) can be connected through Lorentz Invariant Relations. The equations of motion along with the Lorentz Invariance Relations allow one to explicitly write the separate contributions to twist three GPDs from leading twist GPDs, a quark gluon quark correlation term and, in some cases, a mass term. In particular, the GTMD F14 or the correlation of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized proton, is known to describe the quarks. Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). In a separate approach, the twist three GPD Ẽ2 T tilde was also be shown to connect to OAM. We show that these two definitions are connected by a Lorentz Invariance Relation. A similar relation is found for the GTMD G11 which describes quark spin orbit correlations in the proton can be connected to the twist three GPDs E2T ' and H 2T ' . These relations show how twist three GPDs through an implicit quark gluon interaction reproduce the effects of intrinsic transverse momentum in the GTMDs.

  11. On-shell gauge invariant three-point amplitudes (United States)

    Sun, Zhengdi; Xu, Hui; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.


    Assuming locality, Lorentz invariance and parity conservation we obtain a set of differential equations governing the 3-point interactions of massless bosons, which in turn determines the polynomial ring of these amplitudes. We derive all possible 3-point interactions for tensor fields with polarisations that have total symmetry and mixed symmetry under permutations of Lorentz indices. Constraints on the existence of gauge-invariant cubic vertices for totally symmetric fields are obtained in general spacetime dimensions and are compared with existing results obtained in the covariant and light-cone approaches. Expressing our results in spinor helicity formalism we reproduce the perhaps mysterious mismatch between the covariant approach and the light cone approach in 4 dimensions. Our analysis also shows that there exists a mismatch, in the 3-point gauge invariant amplitudes corresponding to cubic self-interactions, between a scalar field ϕ and an antisymmetric rank-2 tensor field A μν . Despite the well-known fact that in 4 dimensions rank-2 anti-symmetric fields are dual to scalar fields in free theories, such duality does not extend to interacting theories.

  12. Transformation Invariant Control of Voxel-Wise False Discovery Rate (United States)

    Li, Junning; Shi, Yonggang; Toga, Arthur W.


    Multiple testing for statistical maps remains a critical and challenging problem in brain mapping. Since the false discovery rate (FDR) criterion was introduced to the neuroimaging community a decade ago, many variations have been proposed, mainly to enhance detection power. However, a fundamental geometrical property known as transformation invariance has not been adequately addressed, especially for the voxel-wise FDR. Correction of multiple testing applied after spatial transformation is not necessarily equivalent to transformation applied after correction in the original space. Without the invariance property, assigning different testing spaces will yield different results. We find that normalized residuals of linear models with Gaussian noises are uniformly distributed on a unit high-dimensional sphere, independent of t-statistics and F-statistics. By defining volumetric measure in the hyper-spherical space mapped by normalized residuals, instead of the image’s Euclidean space, we can achieve invariant control of the FDR under diffeomorphic transformation. This hyper-spherical measure also reflects intrinsic “volume of randomness” in signals. Experiments with synthetic, semi-synthetic and real images demonstrate that our method significantly reduces FDR inconsistency introduced by the choice of testing spaces. PMID:27101602

  13. A survey of theory and methods of invariant item ordering. (United States)

    Sijtsma, K; Junker, B W


    In many testing situations, ordering the items by difficulty is helpful in analysing the testing data; examples include intelligence testing, analysis of differential item functioning, person-fit analysis, and exploring hypotheses about the order in which cognitive operations are acquired by children. In each situation, interpretation and analysis are made easier if the items are ordered by difficulty in the same way for every individual taking the test, i.e. the item response functions do not cross. This is an invariant item ordering. In this paper we review a class of non-parametric unidimensional item response models in which the ordinal properties of items (and persons) can be studied, and survey both old and new methods for the investigation of invariant item ordering in empirical data sets. Our model formulation derives in particular from the work of Holland & Rosenbaum (1986), Junker (1993) and Mokken (1971). We survey methods based on the work of Mokken (1971), Rosenbaum (1987a, b), and Sijtsma & Meijer (1992), and we also discuss some new proposals for checking invariant item ordering. When violations are detected, these methods allow a rough assessment of where on the latent scale the item response functions cross. We also study similarities and differences between these various methods and provide guidelines for their use. Finally, the methods are illustrated with data from a developmental psychology experiment in which the ability to draw inferences about transitive relations is explored.

  14. One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M


    We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...

  15. Invariant recognition of polychromatic images of Vibrio cholerae 01 (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Cristobal, Gabriel; Pech-Pacheco, Jose L.


    Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease. It has claimed many lives throughout history, and it continues to be a global health threat. Cholera is considered one of the most important emergence diseases due its relation with global climate changes. Automated methods such as optical systems represent a new trend to make more accurate measurements of the presence and quantity of this microorganism in its natural environment. Automatic systems eliminate observer bias and reduce the analysis time. We evaluate the utility of coherent optical systems with invariant correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1. Images of scenes are recorded with a CCD camera and decomposed in three RGB channels. A numeric simulation is developed to identify the bacteria in the different samples through an invariant correlation technique. There is no variation when we repeat the correlation and the variation between images correlation is minimum. The position-, scale-, and rotation-invariant recognition is made with a scale transform through the Mellin transform. The algorithm to recognize Vibrio cholerae O1 is the presence of correlation peaks in the green channel output and their absence in red and blue channels. The discrimination criterion is the presence of correlation peaks in red, green, and blue channels.

  16. Gauge Invariance and Broken Symmetries in Anyon Superfluids (United States)

    Boyanovsky, Daniel

    We review aspects of broken symmetry and the nature of long range order in theories of anyons starting with bosons with a statistical interaction. We introduce a novel gauge invariant quantization scheme that allows the identification of local and gauge invariant order parameters. The connection between spin and statistics is reviewed and the consequences of broken symmetries in the anyon representation are discussed. An anyon gas is studied in the Bogoliubov approximation, it is determined that the ground state is a condensate of charge-flux composites with “quasi-long-range order” at zero temperature, a “weak” gap in the spectrum and finite helicity modulus. The system is disordered at nonzero temperatures. The disorder is not caused by Goldstone bosons but by the strong infrared behavior arising from the Coulomb interaction induced by the long-range statistical interaction. The properties of topological vortices in nonrelativistic and in relativistic Landau-Ginzburg theories are studied in detail. We study the physics of the mean-field ansatz and quasi-long range order in a simple exactly soluble relativistic model. This model exhibits a novel phenomenon of charge redistribution to the boundaries and restoration of translational invariance in the infinite volume limit. It also illuminates the physics of quasi-long-range order with a gap in the spectrum, statistical charge polarization by external magnetic fields and the role of “large” gauge transformations.

  17. Measuring topological invariants in disordered discrete-time quantum walks (United States)

    Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Elster, Fabian; Lorz, Lennart; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine


    Quantum walks constitute a versatile platform for simulating transport phenomena on discrete graphs including topological material properties while providing a high control over the relevant parameters at the same time. To experimentally access and directly measure the topological invariants of quantum walks, we implement the scattering scheme proposed by Tarasinski et al. [Phys. Rev. A 89, 042327 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.042327] in a photonic time multiplexed quantum walk experiment. The tunable coin operation provides opportunity to reach distinct topological phases, and accordingly to observe the corresponding topological phase transitions. The ability to read-out the position and the coin state distribution, complemented by explicit interferometric sign measurements, allowed the reconstruction of the scattered reflection amplitudes and thus the computation of the associated bulk topological invariants. As predicted, we also find localized states at the edges between two bulks belonging to different topological phases. In order to analyze the impact of disorder, we have measured invariants of two different types of disordered samples in large ensemble measurements, demonstrating their constancy in one disorder regime and a continuous transition with increasing disorder strength for the second disorder sample.

  18. Standard model with spontaneously broken quantum scale invariance (United States)

    Ghilencea, D. M.; Lalak, Z.; Olszewski, P.


    We explore the possibility that scale symmetry is a quantum symmetry that is broken only spontaneously and apply this idea to the standard model. We compute the quantum corrections to the potential of the Higgs field (ϕ ) in the classically scale-invariant version of the standard model (mϕ=0 at tree level) extended by the dilaton (σ ). The tree-level potential of ϕ and σ , dictated by scale invariance, may contain nonpolynomial effective operators, e.g., ϕ6/σ2, ϕ8/σ4, ϕ10/σ6, etc. The one-loop scalar potential is scale invariant, since the loop calculations manifestly preserve the scale symmetry, with the dimensional regularization subtraction scale μ generated spontaneously by the dilaton vacuum expectation value μ ˜⟨σ ⟩. The Callan-Symanzik equation of the potential is verified in the presence of the gauge, Yukawa, and the nonpolynomial operators. The couplings of the nonpolynomial operators have nonzero beta functions that we can actually compute from the quantum potential. At the quantum level, the Higgs mass is protected by spontaneously broken scale symmetry, even though the theory is nonrenormalizable. We compare the one-loop potential to its counterpart computed in the "traditional" dimensional regularization scheme that breaks scale symmetry explicitly (μ =constant) in the presence at the tree level of the nonpolynomial operators.

  19. Higher topological invariants of magnetic field lines: observational aspects (United States)

    Illarionov, Egor; Smirnov, Alexander; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmet'ev, Peter

    Topology of magnetic field lines is directly involved in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theorems and equations. Being an invariant of motion in ideal MHD conditions, the magnetic field-line topology is a natural obstacle to the relaxation of magnetic field into a current-free (potential) field and contrariwise limits a dynamo generation. Usage of these conservational laws and writing of numerical relations require a quantification of topology. One of the simplest existing measures of magnetic topology is the mutual magnetic helicity, that expresses the combined action of interaction and linkage between different magnetic field lines. For practical purposes there exists the revised concept of relative magnetic helicity, that allows to estimate the complexity of field-line topology in case of open volume, i.e. when magnetic lines cross the boundaries of given 3D region. At the same time this concept remains a simple interpretation of linkage number in terms of individual lines. Our point however is that magnetic helicity is far from being unique or comprehensive quantification of magnetic field-line topology. To improve the situation we introduce a set of higher invariants which extends the idea of relative helicity and provides a new means to describe the magnetic field-line topology. To practically study the possibility of implementation of higher topological invariants we reconstruct several moments of mutual helicity from observed solar vector magnetograms with extrapolated magnetic field above the photosphere and discuss to what extent such knowledge could be instructive for understanding of the solar magnetic field evolution.

  20. Origin invariance in vibrational resonance Raman optical activity. (United States)

    Vidal, Luciano N; Egidi, Franco; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara


    A theoretical investigation on the origin dependence of the vibronic polarizabilities, isotropic and anisotropic rotational invariants, and scattering cross sections in Resonance Raman Optical Activity (RROA) spectroscopy is presented. Expressions showing the origin dependence of these polarizabilities were written in the resonance regime using the Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) approximations for the electronic transition moments. Differently from the far-from-resonance scattering regime, where the origin dependent terms cancel out when the rotational invariants are calculated, RROA spectrum can exhibit some origin dependence even for eigenfunctions of the electronic Hamiltonian. At the FC level, the RROA spectrum is completely origin invariant if the polarizabilities are calculated using a single excited state or for a set of degenerate states. Otherwise, some origin effects can be observed in the spectrum. At the HT level, RROA spectrum is origin dependent even when the polarizabilities are evaluated from a single excited state but the origin effect is expected to be small in this case. Numerical calculations performed for (S)-methyloxirane, (2R,3R)-dimethyloxirane, and (R)-4-F-2-azetidinone at both FC and HT levels using the velocity representation of the electric dipole and quadrupole transition moments confirm the predictions of the theory and show the extent of origin effects and the effectiveness of suggested ways to remove them.

  1. Learning Invariant Color Features for Person Re-Identification. (United States)

    Rama Varior, Rahul; Wang, Gang; Lu, Jiwen; Liu, Ting


    Matching people across multiple camera views known as person re-identification, is a challenging problem due to the change in visual appearance caused by varying lighting conditions. The perceived color of the subject appears to be different under different illuminations. Previous works use color as it is or address these challenges by designing color spaces focusing on a specific cue. In this paper, we propose an approach for learning color patterns from pixels sampled from images across two camera views. The intuition behind this work is that, even though varying lighting conditions across views affect the pixel values of same color, the final representation of a particular color should be stable and invariant to these variations, i.e. they should be encoded with the same values. We model color feature generation as a learning problem by jointly learning a linear transformation and a dictionary to encode pixel values. We also analyze different photometric invariant color spaces as well as popular color constancy algorithm for person re-identification. Using color as the only cue, we compare our approach with all the photometric invariant color spaces and show superior performance over all of them. Combining with other learned low-level and high-level features, we obtain promising results in VIPeR, Person Re-ID 2011 and CAVIAR4REID datasets.

  2. Trajectory design using periapse maps and invariant manifolds (United States)

    Haapala, Amanda F.

    The invariant manifolds associated with periodic orbits in the vicinity of the collinear libration points in the planar CR3BP have been previously demonstrated as mechanisms for transport. Trajectories that pass between adjoining regions within the zero-velocity curves pass through the invariant manifold tubes. In particular, the invariant manifolds associated with the unstable L1 and L2 periodic libration point orbits may be exploited to construct transit orbits between the interior and exterior regions associated with the zero-velocity curves. In this investigation, periapse Poincare maps are used to display the manifolds and to distinguish regions of escape and, conversely, regions of long-term capture. Manifold periapse structures are employed as a design tool to construct planar trajectories with predetermined characteristics. The strategies that are developed are demonstrated by producing planar trajectories with predetermined behaviors, namely, long-term capture orbits and transit trajectories, as well as heteroclinic and homoclinic connections. Additionally, path approximations are generated for four Jupiter family comets that experience temporary satellite capture. Periapse Poincare maps are also employed to design three-dimensional transit trajectories in the spatial circular restricted three-body problem.

  3. Invariant properties and rotation transformations of the GPR scattering matrix (United States)

    Villela, Almendra; Romo, José M.


    We analyze the properties of the scattering matrix associated with the incident and scattered electric fields used in GPR. The elements of the scattering matrix provide information produced by different polarizations of the incident wave field. Rotationally invariant quantities such as trace, determinant and Frobenius norm lead to images that combine the information contained in the four elements of the scattering matrix in a mathematically simple and sound manner. The invariant quantities remove the directional properties implicit in the dipolar field used in GPR allowing the application of standard processing techniques designed for scalar fields, such as those used in seismic data processing. We illustrate the non-directional properties of the invariants using a 3D simulation of the wavefield produced by a point scatterer. The estimation of the azimuth angle of elongated targets is also explored using rotation transformations that maximize alternatively the co-polarized or the cross-polarized responses. The angle estimation is essentially an unstable process, particularly if low amplitudes or noisy data are involved. We apply the Frobenius norm ‖S‖F as a criterion for selection of the best amplitudes to use for a more stable and significant angle estimation. The performance of our formulation was tested with synthetic data produced by a 3D model of an air-filled metal pipe buried in a homogeneous halfspace. The images resulting from the invariants show a clear diffraction hyperbola suitable for a scalar wavefield migration, while the azimuth of the pipe is neatly resolved for amplitudes selected with ‖S‖F ≥ 0.4. A field experiment conducted above an aqueduct pipe illustrates the proposed methods with real data. The images obtained from the invariants are better than those from the individual elements of the scattering matrix. The azimuth estimated using our formulation is in agreement with the probable orientation of the aqueduct. Finally, a field

  4. The parameterization method for invariant manifolds from rigorous results to effective computations

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, Àlex; Figueras, Jordi-Lluis; Luque, Alejandro; Mondelo, Josep Maria


    This monograph presents some theoretical and computational aspects of the parameterization method for invariant manifolds, focusing on the following contexts: invariant manifolds associated with fixed points, invariant tori in quasi-periodically forced systems, invariant tori in Hamiltonian systems and normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds. This book provides algorithms of computation and some practical details of their implementation. The methodology is illustrated with 12 detailed examples, many of them well known in the literature of numerical computation in dynamical systems. A public version of the software used for some of the examples is available online. The book is aimed at mathematicians, scientists and engineers interested in the theory and applications of computational dynamical systems.

  5. Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. (United States)

    Dere, Jessica; Watters, Carolyn A; Yu, Stephanie Chee-Min; Bagby, R Michael; Ryder, Andrew G; Harkness, Kate L


    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI-II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI-II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  6. The advising alliance for international and domestic graduate students: Measurement invariance and implications for academic stress. (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Suh, Hanna; Yang, Xiaohui; Choe, Elise; Davis, Don E


    We expanded the focus of a prior study of international graduate student advising relationships (Rice et al., 2009) to examine advising experiences of both international and domestic students. International (n = 434) and domestic (n = 387) students completed the Advisory Working Alliance Inventory (AWAI-S; Schlosser & Gelso, 2001) and measures of advising experiences, perceived academic stress, and desire to change advisor. Measurement invariance analyses suggested that a 23-item AWAI-S showed support for scalar invariance. A bifactor structure showed superior fit to the 3-factor model or a second-order factor model for the AWAI-S. International and domestic graduate students did not differ in ratings of general alliance, academic stress, or desire to change advisors. General alliance was strongly related to less academic stress and less desire to change advisors. International students who felt disrespected by their advisors were more likely to be academically stressed than domestic students. Structured mentoring experiences were associated with lower stress and less desire to change, and this effect was similar in both international and domestic students. Overall, results suggested that the current level of measurement, and possibly theory development, regarding the advisory alliance is good at identifying generic satisfaction but weaker at differentiating components of the alliance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Invariance of the Dissipative Action at Ultrahigh Strain Rates above the Strong Shock Threshold (United States)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Knight, Kimberly; Zaug, Joseph; Behymer, Elaine


    We have directly resolved shock structures in pure aluminum in the first few hundred picoseconds subsequent to a dynamic load, at peak stresses up to 43 GPa and strain rates of in excess of 10^10 s-1. For strong shocks we obtain peak stresses, strain rates, and rise times. From these data, we directly validate^1 the invariance^2 of the dissipative action in the strong shock regime, and by comparing with data obtained at much lower strain rates show that this invariance is observed over at least 5 orders of magnitude in the strain rate. Over the same range, we similarly validate the fourth-power scaling of strain rate with peak stress (the Swegle-Grady relation). 1. J. C. Crowhurst, M. R. Armstrong, K. B. Knight, J. M. Zaug, E. M. Behymer, Phys. Rev. Lett, 107, 144302 (2011). 2. D. E. Grady, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013506 (2010). This work was also supported by the EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DESC0001057.

  8. Invariant Measures and Convergence Properties for Cellular Automaton 184 and Related Processes (United States)

    Belitsky, Vladimir; Ferrari, Pablo A.


    Our results concern long time limit properties of a deterministic dynamics that is common for a wide class of processes that have been studied so far during at least last two decades. The most widely known process from this class is a cellular automaton that acquired number 184 in the classification of S. Wolfram. This CA 184 is being intensively used to model vehicular traffic. However, our results are mainly derived with help of another process that offers a helpful insight into the studied dynamics, it is a so-called Ballistic Annihilation Model (abbreviated by BA). BA is a model for chemical reaction A+B → inert. In BA, A and B-type particles move in opposite directions with velocities 1 and -1, respectively, and annihilate upon collisions. Certain results concerning BA and CA 184 are also formulated in terms of another process known as a Model of Surface Growth (SG, for short); the surface shape in this process behaves as the integrated profile of particle distribution in CA 184. Our results are as follows. First, we characterize the invariant measures of the dynamics in interest. The bulk of our effort is devoted to the characterization of those of them that are not translation invariant; we call them phase separating invariant measures. In the case of BA, such measures are concentrated on the configurations consisting of two converging infinite blocks of (not necessarily adjacent) particles. In the case of CA 184, a phase separating measure describes the transition from free traffic phase to jammed phase. We also analyze domains of attraction of invariant measures and rates of convergence to them. This analysis then allows us to express the long time limit of particle current in CA 184 as a function of certain characteristics of its initial distribution, when it is translation invariant. This expression has been used in a companion paper (V. Belitsky, J. Krug, E. J. Neves and G. Schütz, A cellular automaton model for two-lane traffic, J. Stat. phys.103

  9. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control (United States)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel


    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  10. Shift Invariant Multi-linear Decomposition of Neuroimaging Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.


    with a fixed time course that may vary across either trials or space in its overall intensity and latency. Its utility is demonstrated on simulated data as well as actual EEG, and fMRI data. We show how shift-invariant multilinear decompositions of multiway data can successfully cope with variable latencies...... in data derived from neural activity--a problem that has caused degenerate solutions especially in modeling neuroimaging data with instantaneous multilinear decompositions. Our algorithm is available for download at

  11. Lorentz and Poincaré invariance 100 years of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu Jong Ping


    This collection of papers provides a broad view of the development of Lorentz and Poincaré invariance and spacetime symmetry throughout the past 100 years. The issues explored in these papers include: (1) formulations of relativity theories in which the speed of light is not a universal constant but which are consistent with the four-dimensional symmetry of the Lorentz and Poincaré groups and with experimental results, (2) analyses and discussions by Reichenbach concerning the concepts of simultaneity and physical time from a philosophical point of view, and (3) results achieved by the union o

  12. Schroedinger invariant solutions of type IIB with enhanced supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences


    We construct the Killing spinors for a class of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger algebra. The solutions depend on a five-dimensional Sasaki- Einstein space and it has been shown that they admit two Killing spinors. Here we will show that, for generic Sasaki-Einstein space, there are special subclasses of solutions which admit six Killing spinors and we determine the corresponding superisometry algebra. We also show that for the special case that the Sasaki-Einstein space is the round five-sphere, the number of Killing spinors can be increased to twelve. (orig.)

  13. Equivalent Lagrangian densities and invariant collective coordinates equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Sillero, ElIas [Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Building 27 Winterthurerstrasse 190 CH-8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Shapovalov, Alexander V, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    In the framework of the Lagrangian formalism the partial differential equation under study does not define univocally the Lagrangian density. In this paper we obtain a necessary and sufficient consistency condition over the ansatz that assures the invariance of the collective coordinates (CCs) equations under the change of equivalent Lagrangian densities. When this condition is not fulfilled we show explicitly that different equations of CCs may emerge from equivalent Lagrangian densities and a good agreement between the CCs and the partial differential equations is not expected.

  14. Search for T-invariance violation in pd-scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzikov Yuriy


    Full Text Available Scattering of protons with transversal polarization Pyp on deuterons with tensor polarization Pxz provides a null-test signal for time reversal invariance violating but P-parity conserving effects. The dedicated experiment will be done at COSY facility at proton beam energy 135 MeV using internal deuteron target. I give a brief review of results of theoretical calculations of the null-test observable within the spin-dependent Glauber theory at beam energies 100-1000 MeV considering phenomenological T-violating Pconserving NN-interactions.

  15. Scars of Invariant Manifolds in Interacting Few-Body Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Papenbrock, T; Weidenmüller, H A


    We present a novel extension of the concept of scars for the wave functions of classically chaotic few--body systems of identical particles with rotation and permutation symmetry. Generically there exist manifolds in classical phase space which are invariant under the action of a common subgroup of these two symmetries. Such manifolds are associated with highly symmetric configurations and, if sufficiently stable, support quantum resonances. Although not directly associated to individual periodic orbits, the resonances nevertheless cause scars which signify collective motion on the quantum level and which should be experimentally observable.

  16. On invariant measures of stochastic recursions in a critical case


    Buraczewski, Dariusz


    We consider an autoregressive model on ℝ defined by the recurrence equation Xn=AnXn−1+Bn, where {(Bn, An)} are i.i.d. random variables valued in ℝ×ℝ+ and $\\mathbb{E}[\\log A_{1}]=0$ (critical case). It was proved by Babillot, Bougerol and Elie that there exists a unique invariant Radon measure of the process {Xn}. The aim of the paper is to investigate its behavior at infinity. We describe also stationary measures of two other stochastic recursions, including one arising in queuing theory....

  17. Boost invariant formulation of the chiral kinetic theory (United States)

    Ebihara, Shu; Fukushima, Kenji; Pu, Shi


    We formulate the chiral kinetic equation with the longitudinal boost invariance. We particularly focus on the physical interpretation of the particle number conservation. There appear two terms associated with the expansion, which did not exist in the nonchiral kinetic equation. One is a contribution to the transverse current arising from the side-jump effect, and the other is a change in the density whose flow makes the longitudinal current. We point out a characteristic pattern in the transverse current driven by the expansion, which we call the chiral circular displacement.

  18. View Invariant Gesture Recognition using 3D Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    This paper presents a method for automatic recognition of human gestures. The method works with 3D image data from a range camera to achieve invariance to viewpoint. The recognition is based solely on motion from characteristic instances of the gestures. These instances are denoted 3D motion...... as a gesture using a probabilistic edit distance method. The system has been trained on frontal images (0deg camera rotation) and tested on 240 video sequences from 0deg and 45deg. An overall recognition rate of 82.9% is achieved. The recognition rate is independent of the viewpoint which shows that the method...

  19. How hairpin vortices emerge from exact invariant solutions (United States)

    Schneider, Tobias M.; Farano, Mirko; de Palma, Pietro; Robinet, Jean-Christoph; Cherubini, Stefania


    Hairpin vortices are among the most commonly observed flow structures in wall-bounded shear flows. However, within the dynamical system approach to turbulence, those structures have not yet been described. They are not captured by known exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations nor have other state-space structures supporting hairpins been identified. We show that hairpin structures are observed along an optimally growing trajectory leaving a well known exact traveling wave solution of plane Poiseuille flow. The perturbation triggering hairpins does not correspond to an unstable mode of the exact traveling wave but lies in the stable manifold where non-normality causes strong transient amplification.

  20. UAV Image Registration Algorithm Using Color Invariant and AKAZE Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Huanqing


    Full Text Available Image matching based on feature was one of practical methods in UAV image matching. Since the conventional methods of image registration mainly used gray image as input that it could not take color features into account to distinguish the identical point. To address this problem, this paper designed a matching algorithm combined color invariant with AKAZE feature, which overcame the shortcoming of ignoring color information in traditional UAV image matching. Then gray level transformation was utilized to reduce the number of feature points and remain its reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can find the identical point accurately and enhance the efficiency.

  1. P T -invariant Weyl semimetals in gauge-symmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, L.; Fulga, I. C.; Trombettoni, A.


    Weyl semimetals typically appear in systems in which either time-reversal (T ) or inversion (P ) symmetry is broken. Here we show that in the presence of gauge potentials these topological states of matter can also arise in fermionic lattices preserving both T and P . We analyze in detail the case...... of a cubic lattice model with π fluxes, discussing the role of gauge symmetries in the formation of Weyl points and the difference between the physical and the canonical T and P symmetries. We examine the robustness of this P T -invariant Weyl semimetal phase against perturbations that remove the chiral...

  2. Demonstration of entanglement assisted invariance on IBM's Quantum Experience (United States)

    Deffner, Sebastian

    Quantum entanglement is among the most fundamental, yet from classical intuition also most surprising properties of the fully quantum nature of physical reality. We report several experiments performed on IBM's Quantum Experience demonstrating envariance - entanglement assisted invariance. Envariance is a recently discovered symmetry of composite quantum systems, which is at the foundational origin of physics and a purely quantum phenomenon. These very easily reproducible and freely accessible experiments on Quantum Experience provide simple tools to study the properties of envariance, and we illustrate this for several cases with ``quantum universes'' consisting of up to five qubits.

  3. Invariant measures whose supports possess the strong open set property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S. Goodman


    Full Text Available Let \\(X\\ be a complete metric space, and \\(S\\ the union of a finite number of strict contractions on it. If \\(P\\ is a probability distribution on the maps, and \\(K\\ is the fractal determined by \\(S\\, there is a unique Borel probability measure \\(\\mu _P\\ on \\(X\\ which is invariant under the associated Markov operator, and its support is \\(K\\. The Open Set Condition (OSC requires that a non-empty, subinvariant, bounded open set \\(V \\subset X\\ exists whose images under the maps are disjoint; it is strong if \\(K \\cap V \

  4. Erlangen Program at Large-1: Geometry of Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kisil


    Full Text Available This paper presents geometrical foundation for a systematic treatment of three main (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic types of analytic function theories based on the representation theory of SL_2(R group. We describe here geometries of corresponding domains. The principal rôle is played by Clifford algebras of matching types. In this paper we also generalise the Fillmore-Springer-Cnops construction which describes cycles as points in the extended space. This allows to consider many algebraic and geometric invariants of cycles within the Erlangen program approach.

  5. Conditionally invariant solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huard, Benoit, E-mail: huard@dms.umontreal.c [Departement de mathematiques et de statistique, CP 6128, Succc. Centre-ville, Montreal, (QC) H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    This paper is devoted to the extension of the recently proposed conditional symmetry method to first-order nonhomogeneous quasilinear systems which are equivalent to homogeneous systems through a locally invertible point transformation. We perform a systematic analysis of the rank-1 and rank-2 solutions admitted by the shallow water wave equations in (2 + 1) dimensions and construct the corresponding solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations. These solutions involve in general arbitrary functions depending on Riemann invariants, which allow us to construct new interesting classes of solutions.

  6. Invariant tori for a class of nonlinear evolution equations (United States)

    Kolesov, A. Yu; Rozov, N. Kh


    The paper looks at quite a wide class of nonlinear evolution equations in a Banach space, including the typical boundary value problems for the main wave equations in mathematical physics (the telegraph equation, the equation of a vibrating beam, various equations from the elastic stability and so on). For this class of equations a unified approach to the bifurcation of invariant tori of arbitrary finite dimension is put forward. Namely, the problem of the birth of such tori from the zero equilibrium is investigated under the assumption that in the stability problem for this equilibrium the situation arises close to an infinite-dimensional degeneracy. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  7. An invariant approach to statistical analysis of shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Lele, Subhash R


    INTRODUCTIONA Brief History of MorphometricsFoundations for the Study of Biological FormsDescription of the data SetsMORPHOMETRIC DATATypes of Morphometric DataLandmark Homology and CorrespondenceCollection of Landmark CoordinatesReliability of Landmark Coordinate DataSummarySTATISTICAL MODELS FOR LANDMARK COORDINATE DATAStatistical Models in GeneralModels for Intra-Group VariabilityEffect of Nuisance ParametersInvariance and Elimination of Nuisance ParametersA Definition of FormCoordinate System Free Representation of FormEst

  8. Questions concerning matrix algebras and invariance of spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Questions concerning matrix algebras and invariance of spectrum. 73. R = ( λa 1. 1 0. ) T = ( λ + t21 r12 t11 t12. ) . Note that by construction, r11 = λ + t21 ∈ Inv(A). Let. S = (. 1. 0. −t11r−1. 11. 1. ) R = ( λ + t21 r12. 0 s22. ) . Note that V = ( λa 1. 1 0. ) and W = (. 1. 0. −t11r−1. 11. 1. ) are in GLn(A). Also, S = WVT . Thus, S−1 ...

  9. Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; ATHENA Collaboration


    Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments.

  10. Invariant-Based Inverse Engineering of Crane Control Parameters (United States)

    González-Resines, S.; Guéry-Odelin, D.; Tobalina, A.; Lizuain, I.; Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.


    By applying invariant-based inverse engineering in the small-oscillation regime, we design the time dependence of the control parameters of an overhead crane (trolley displacement and rope length) to transport a load between two positions at different heights with minimal final-energy excitation for a microcanonical ensemble of initial conditions. The analogy between ion transport in multisegmented traps or neutral-atom transport in moving optical lattices and load manipulation by cranes opens a route for a useful transfer of techniques among very different fields.

  11. Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zheng Yang


    Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.

  12. The NKG2D ligand ULBP2 is specifically regulated through an invariant chain-dependent endosomal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Kehlet, Stephanie


    by affecting endosomal/lysosomal integrity and protein kinase C activity. The invariant chain was further essential for endosomal transport of ULBP2. This novel pathway was identified through screening experiments by which methylselenic acid was found to possess notable NKG2D ligand regulatory properties....... The protein kinase C inhibitor methylselenic acid induced MICA/B surface expression but dominantly blocked ULBP2 surface transport. Remarkably, by targeting this novel pathway we could specifically block the production of soluble ULBP2 from different, primary melanomas. Our findings strongly suggest...

  13. Generating Property-Directed Potential Invariants By Backward Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Champion


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of lemma generation in a k-induction-based formal analysis of transition systems, in the linear real/integer arithmetic fragment. A backward analysis, powered by quantifier elimination, is used to output preimages of the negation of the proof objective, viewed as unauthorized states, or gray states. Two heuristics are proposed to take advantage of this source of information. First, a thorough exploration of the possible partitionings of the gray state space discovers new relations between state variables, representing potential invariants. Second, an inexact exploration regroups and over-approximates disjoint areas of the gray state space, also to discover new relations between state variables. k-induction is used to isolate the invariants and check if they strengthen the proof objective. These heuristics can be used on the first preimage of the backward exploration, and each time a new one is output, refining the information on the gray states. In our context of critical avionics embedded systems, we show that our approach is able to outperform other academic or commercial tools on examples of interest in our application field. The method is introduced and motivated through two main examples, one of which was provided by Rockwell Collins, in a collaborative formal verification framework.

  14. Scale invariant for one-sided multivariate likelihood ratio tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samruam Chongcharoen


    Full Text Available Suppose 1 2 , ,..., n X X X is a random sample from Np ( ,V distribution. Consider 0 1 2 : ... 0 p H      and1 : 0 for 1, 2,..., i H   i  p , let 1 0 H  H denote the hypothesis that 1 H holds but 0 H does not, and let ~ 0 H denote thehypothesis that 0 H does not hold. Because the likelihood ratio test (LRT of 0 H versus 1 0 H  H is complicated, severalad hoc tests have been proposed. Tang, Gnecco and Geller (1989 proposed an approximate LRT, Follmann (1996 suggestedrejecting 0 H if the usual test of 0 H versus ~ 0 H rejects 0 H with significance level 2 and a weighted sum of the samplemeans is positive, and Chongcharoen, Singh and Wright (2002 modified Follmann’s test to include information about thecorrelation structure in the sum of the sample means. Chongcharoen and Wright (2007, 2006 give versions of the Tang-Gnecco-Geller tests and Follmann-type tests, respectively, with invariance properties. With LRT’s scale invariant desiredproperty, we investigate its powers by using Monte Carlo techniques and compare them with the tests which we recommendin Chongcharoen and Wright (2007, 2006.

  15. Higgs mass naturalness and scale invariance in the UV

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, Gustavo Marques; Skiba, Witold


    It has been suggested that electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model may be natural if the Standard Model merges into a conformal field theory (CFT) at short distances. In such a scenario the Higgs mass would be protected from quantum corrections by the scale invariance of the CFT. In order for the Standard Model to merge into a CFT at least one new ultraviolet (UV) scale is required at which the couplings turn over from their usual Standard Model running to the fixed point behavior. We argue that the Higgs mass is sensitive to such a turn-over scale even if there are no associated massive particles and the scale arises purely from dimensional transmutation. We demonstrate this sensitivity to the turnover scale explicitly in toy models. Thus if scale invariance is responsible for Higgs mass naturalness, then the transition to CFT dynamics must occur near the TeV scale with observable consequences at colliders. In addition, the UV fixed point theory in such a scenario must be interacting because loga...

  16. Evaluation of scaling invariance embedded in short time series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Pan

    Full Text Available Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length ~10(2. Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of 0.2,0.3,...,0.9 show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias (≤0.03 and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ≤0.05. Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records.

  17. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou


    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  18. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi


    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  19. Gauge invariance and the electromagnetic current of composite pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.R. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandy, P.C. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Center for Nuclear Research


    The Global Color-symmetry Model of QCD is extended to deal with a background electromagnetic field, and the associated conserved current is identified for the finite size {bar q}q pion modes at tree level. A well-defined truncation issued that factorizes the bilocal pion field into a local field variable and a hadronic form factor having a ladder Bethe-Salpeter content. The associated pion charge form factor is formulated. These developments are used to provide an illustration of how an effective hadronic action containing form factors may be electromagnetically coupled in a gauge invariant way that is accountable to its field substructure. In particular, the Ward-Takahashi identity for the photon vertex appropriate to the localized pion fields is seen to contain the hadronic form factors. In this context, gauge invariance of the effective hadronic action also requires recognition of the fact that the free inverse propagator for the localized pion field gauge transforms due to the substructure field content that has been absorbed into it.

  20. Distance-invariant object recognition by real-time vision (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Chinh


    An efficient approach to recognize distance-invariant appearing in outdoor and indoor scenes is introduced. The differences of the sizes of object images caused by varying distances are normalized by a model-based subsampling of images. The distance-invariant images both simplify and due to their reduced number of pixels help to accelerate object recognition. This model-based subsampling has been used for creating a database of distance-independent representations of various objects allowing the subsequent recognition of such objects in real time. An interactive user interface with a learning ability was provided to facilitate the introduction of new objects into the database. A number of algorithms for recognizing objects were implemented and evaluated. They employ different forms of object representations and were analyzed regarding their effectiveness for recognizing objects in varying distances. In experiments two of the investigated recognition methods, one based on cross correlation and the other one on user-defined edges, appeared suitable for realizing a fairly reliable object recognition in real time, as required by autonomous vehicles and mobile robots.

  1. Invariants and flavour in the general Two Higgs Doublet Model (United States)

    Botella, F. J.; Branco, G. C.; Rebelo, M. N.


    The flavour structure of the general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) is analysed and a detailed study of the parameter space is presented, showing that flavour mixing in the 2HDM can be parametrized by various unitary matrices which arise from the misalignment in flavour space between pairs of various Hermitian flavour matrices which can be constructed within the model. This is entirely analogous to the generation of the CKM matrix in the Standard Model (SM). We construct weak basis invariants which can give insight into the physical implications of any flavour model, written in an arbitrary weak basis (WB) in the context of 2HDM. We apply this technique to two special cases, models with MFV and models with NNI structures. In both cases non-trivial CP-odd WB invariants arise in a mass power order much smaller than what one encounters in the SM, which can have important implications for baryogenesis in the framework of the general 2HDM.

  2. Hyperbolic normal forms and invariant manifolds: Astronomical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymiopoulos C.


    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the dynamics induced by the invariant manifolds of unstable periodic orbits in nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamical systems has led to a number of applications in celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. Two applications of main current interest are i space manifold dynamics, i.e. the use of the manifolds in space mission design, and, in a quite different context, ii the study of spiral structure in galaxies. At present, most approaches to the computation of orbits associated with manifold dynamics (i.e. periodic or asymptotic orbits rely either on the use of the so-called Poincaré - Lindstedt method, or on purely numerical methods. In the present article we briefly review an analytic method of computation of invariant manifolds, first introduced by Moser (1958, and developed in the canonical framework by Giorgilli (2001. We use a simple example to demonstrate how hyperbolic normal form computations can be performed, and we refer to the analytic continuation method of Ozorio de Almeida and co-workers, by which we can considerably extend the initial domain of convergence of Moser’s normal form.

  3. Real-time pose invariant logo and pattern detection (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Kottmann, Michal; Benesova, Wanda


    The detection of pose invariant planar patterns has many practical applications in computer vision and surveillance systems. The recognition of company logos is used in market studies to examine the visibility and frequency of logos in advertisement. Danger signs on vehicles could be detected to trigger warning systems in tunnels, or brand detection on transport vehicles can be used to count company-specific traffic. We present the results of a study on planar pattern detection which is based on keypoint detection and matching of distortion invariant 2d feature descriptors. Specifically we look at the keypoint detectors of type: i) Lowe's DoG approximation from the SURF algorithm, ii) the Harris Corner Detector, iii) the FAST Corner Detector and iv) Lepetit's keypoint detector. Our study then compares the feature descriptors SURF and compact signatures based on Random Ferns: we use 3 sets of sample images to detect and match 3 logos of different structure to find out which combinations of keypoint detector/feature descriptors work well. A real-world test tries to detect vehicles with a distinctive logo in an outdoor environment under realistic lighting and weather conditions: a camera was mounted on a suitable location for observing the entrance to a parking area so that incoming vehicles could be monitored. In this 2 hour long recording we can successfully detect a specific company logo without false positives.

  4. Activity Recognition Invariant to Sensor Orientation with Wearable Motion Sensors. (United States)

    Yurtman, Aras; Barshan, Billur


    Most activity recognition studies that employ wearable sensors assume that the sensors are attached at pre-determined positions and orientations that do not change over time. Since this is not the case in practice, it is of interest to develop wearable systems that operate invariantly to sensor position and orientation. We focus on invariance to sensor orientation and develop two alternative transformations to remove the effect of absolute sensor orientation from the raw sensor data. We test the proposed methodology in activity recognition with four state-of-the-art classifiers using five publicly available datasets containing various types of human activities acquired by different sensor configurations. While the ordinary activity recognition system cannot handle incorrectly oriented sensors, the proposed transformations allow the sensors to be worn at any orientation at a given position on the body, and achieve nearly the same activity recognition performance as the ordinary system for which the sensor units are not rotatable. The proposed techniques can be applied to existing wearable systems without much effort, by simply transforming the time-domain sensor data at the pre-processing stage.

  5. Perception of biological motion from size-invariant body representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eLappe


    Full Text Available The visual recognition of action is one of the socially most important and computationally demanding capacities of the human visual system. It combines visual shape recognition with complex non-rigid motion perception. Action presented as a point-light animation is a striking visual experience for anyone who sees it for the first time. Information about the shape and posture of the human body is sparse in point-light animations, but it is essential for action recognition. In the posturo-temporal filter model of biological motion perception posture information is picked up by visual neurons tuned to the form of the human body before body motion is calculated. We tested whether point-light stimuli are processed through posture recognition of the human body form by using a typical feature of form recognition, namely size invariance. We constructed a point-light stimulus that can only be perceived through a size-invariant mechanism. This stimulus changes rapidly in size from one image to the next. It thus disrupts continuity of early visuo-spatial properties but maintains continuity of the body posture representation. Despite this massive manipulation at the visuo-spatial level, size-changing point-light figures are spontaneously recognized by naive observers, and support discrimination of human body motion.

  6. Criticality in the scale invariant standard model (squared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Foot


    Full Text Available We consider first the standard model Lagrangian with μh2 Higgs potential term set to zero. We point out that this classically scale invariant theory potentially exhibits radiative electroweak/scale symmetry breaking with very high vacuum expectation value (VEV for the Higgs field, 〈ϕ〉≈1017–18 GeV. Furthermore, if such a vacuum were realized then cancellation of vacuum energy automatically implies that this nontrivial vacuum is degenerate with the trivial unbroken vacuum. Such a theory would therefore be critical with the Higgs self-coupling and its beta function nearly vanishing at the symmetry breaking minimum, λ(μ=〈ϕ〉≈βλ(μ=〈ϕ〉≈0. A phenomenologically viable model that predicts this criticality property arises if we consider two copies of the standard model Lagrangian, with exact Z2 symmetry swapping each ordinary particle with a partner. The spontaneously broken vacuum can then arise where one sector gains the high scale VEV, while the other gains the electroweak scale VEV. The low scale VEV is perturbed away from zero due to a Higgs portal coupling, or via the usual small Higgs mass terms μh2, which softly break the scale invariance. In either case, the cancellation of vacuum energy requires Mt=(171.53±0.42 GeV, which is close to its measured value of (173.34±0.76 GeV.

  7. Perception of biological motion from size-invariant body representations. (United States)

    Lappe, Markus; Wittinghofer, Karin; de Lussanet, Marc H E


    The visual recognition of action is one of the socially most important and computationally demanding capacities of the human visual system. It combines visual shape recognition with complex non-rigid motion perception. Action presented as a point-light animation is a striking visual experience for anyone who sees it for the first time. Information about the shape and posture of the human body is sparse in point-light animations, but it is essential for action recognition. In the posturo-temporal filter model of biological motion perception posture information is picked up by visual neurons tuned to the form of the human body before body motion is calculated. We tested whether point-light stimuli are processed through posture recognition of the human body form by using a typical feature of form recognition, namely size invariance. We constructed a point-light stimulus that can only be perceived through a size-invariant mechanism. This stimulus changes rapidly in size from one image to the next. It thus disrupts continuity of early visuo-spatial properties but maintains continuity of the body posture representation. Despite this massive manipulation at the visuo-spatial level, size-changing point-light figures are spontaneously recognized by naive observers, and support discrimination of human body motion.

  8. Unified Field Theory and Principle of Representation Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tian


    This is part of a research program to establish a unified field model for interactions in nature. The aim of this article is to postulate a new principle of representation invariance (PRI), to provide a needed mathematical foundation for PRI, and to use PRI to refine the unified field equations of four interactions. Intuitively, PRI amounts to saying that all SU(N) gauge theories should be invariant under transformations of different representations of SU(N). With PRI, we are able to substantially reduce the number of to-be-determined parameters in the unified model to two SU(2) and SU(3) constant vectors $\\{\\alpha^1_\\mu \\}$ and $\\{\\alpha^2_k\\}$, containing 11 parameters, which represent the portions distributed to the gauge potentials by the weak and strong charges. Furthermore, both PRI and PID can be directly applied to individual interactions, leading to a unified theory for dark matter and dark energy, and theories on strong and weak interaction potentials. As a direct application of the strong interacti...

  9. Invariants of nonlinearity in the phononic characteristics of granular chains. (United States)

    Ganesh, R; Gonella, S


    In this work, we analyze the phononic characteristics of wave motion in precompressed monoatomic and diatomic granular chains, with emphasis on the evolving spatial features of wave packets. A Taylor series expansion of the governing equations is considered to approximate the granular chain with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain. Within this approximation, the envelope modulation of the first-order features of the wave profile is monitored and the characteristics of this modulation are determined by studying the evolution of one of the distinctive features of the spatial profile. A set of constants that describe the quantitative effects of nonlinearity on the response are determined for monoatomic and diatomic chains and interpreted as invariants of quadratic nonlinearity. The universality of these invariants is verified by constructing inverse problems to estimate the contact power law from the wave response of granular chains with arbitrary nonlinear force interaction. The imposed power law is recovered exactly from numerical simulations for a number of considered scenarios, paving the way for inverse characterization of nonlinearity from experimental data.

  10. Iterative PET Image Reconstruction Using Translation Invariant Wavelet Transform. (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Senhadji, Lotfi; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Luo, Limin


    The present work describes a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) method using a statistical multiscale wavelet prior model. Rather than using the orthogonal discrete wavelet transform (DWT), this prior is built on the translation invariant wavelet transform (TIWT). The statistical modeling of wavelet coefficients relies on the generalized Gaussian distribution. Image reconstruction is performed in spatial domain with a fast block sequential iteration algorithm. We study theoretically the TIWT MAP method by analyzing the Hessian of the prior function to provide some insights on noise and resolution properties of image reconstruction. We adapt the key concept of local shift invariance and explore how the TIWT MAP algorithm behaves with different scales. It is also shown that larger support wavelet filters do not offer better performance in contrast recovery studies. These theoretical developments are confirmed through simulation studies. The results show that the proposed method is more attractive than other MAP methods using either the conventional Gibbs prior or the DWT-based wavelet prior.

  11. Invariant Functions, Symmetries and Primary Branch Solutions of First Order Autonomous Systems (United States)

    Lou, Sen-Yue; Yao, Ruo-Xia


    An invariant function (IF) is defined as a multiplier of a symmetry that means a symmetry multiplied by an IF is still a symmetry. Primary branch solutions of arbitrary first order scalar systems can be obtained by means of the IF and its related symmetry approach. Especially, one recursion operator and some sets of infinitely many high order symmetries are also explicitly given for arbitrary (1+1)-dimensional first order autonomous systems. Because of the intrusion of the arbitrary function, various implicit special exact solutions can be found by fixing the arbitrary functions and selecting different seed solutions. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 11435005, 11471004, 11175092, and 11205092, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things No. ZF1213 and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  12. Tangent unit-vector fields: Nonabelian homotopy invariants and the Dirichlet energy

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala


    Let O be a closed geodesic polygon in S2. Maps from O into S2 are said to satisfy tangent boundary conditions if the edges of O are mapped into the geodesics which contain them. Taking O to be an octant of S2, we evaluate the infimum Dirichlet energy, E (H), for continuous tangent maps of arbitrary homotopy type H. The expression for E (H) involves a topological invariant - the spelling length - associated with the (nonabelian) fundamental group of the n-times punctured two-sphere, π1 (S2 - {s1, ..., sn}, *). These results have applications for the theoretical modelling of nematic liquid crystal devices. To cite this article: A. Majumdar et al., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. I 347 (2009). © 2009 Académie des sciences.

  13. Manifestly gauge invariant discretizations of the Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Tore Gunnar, E-mail: [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kvaal, Simen, E-mail: [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)


    Grid-based discretizations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field are converted to manifest gauge invariant discretizations. This is done using generalizations of ideas used in classical lattice gauge theory, and the process defined is applicable to a large class of discretized differential operators. In particular, popular discretizations such as pseudospectral discretizations using the fast Fourier transform can be transformed to gauge invariant schemes. Also generic gauge invariant versions of generic time integration methods are considered, enabling completely gauge invariant calculations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation. Numerical examples illuminating the differences between a gauge invariant discretization and conventional discretization procedures are also presented. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field. ► Any grid-based discretization is made trivially gauge invariant. ► An extension of classical lattice gauge theory.

  14. Measuring Adolescent Violent Behavior Across Groups: Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Violent Behavior Checklist-Modified. (United States)

    Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Smokowski, Paul R


    Measures of violent behavior are often assumed to function identically across different groups (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity). However, failure to verify measurement invariance can lead to biased cross-group comparisons. The current study examines the measurement invariance of the Violent Behavior Checklist-Modified across genders and race/ethnicities. Using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, configural and metric invariance are assessed in a sample of racially/ethnically diverse middle and high school students (N = 4,128) in two rural counties. Results indicate that the Violent Behavior Checklist-Modified has partial measurement invariance across genders and race/ethnicities. Specifically, four out of six items were non-invariant across genders, while one out of six items was non-invariant across race/ethnicities. Findings suggest that the latent factor of violence may be qualitatively different across males and females. Implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The number and kind of invariant personality (Q) factors: a partial replication of Eysenck and Eysenck. (United States)

    Vagg, P R; Hammond, S B


    A study by Eysenck & Eysenck (1969) investigated the invariance across sex of factors derived from the Eysenck, Cattell and Guilford personality inventories. They found only neuroticism and extraversion invariant. The present study was designed as a partial replication of their study, but employed simpler, common-sense methods that gave the more moderate sized factors a chance to demonstrate the extent of their invariance across sex. Four invariant factors were found: the first two, neuroticism and sociability, were large and demonstrated almost complete invariance across sex; the third and fourth factors were moderate-sized and showed less, but substantial invariance across sex. They were called 'sensitivity v. practicality' and 'group-centred morality v. self-centred independence'.

  16. Proliferatory defect of invariant population and accumulation of non-invariant CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells in the joints of RA patients. (United States)

    Gutowska-Owsiak, Danuta; Birchall, Martin A; Moots, Robert J; Christmas, Stephen E; Pazmany, Laszlo


    While numerical and functional defects of invariant NKT cells have been demonstrated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the detailed characterization of proliferative and secretory responses following CD1d-mediated presentation is lacking; the presence of non-invariant populations has never been assessed in human autoimmunity. We have evaluated both invariant and non-invariant populations in the blood and synovial fluid from patients to assess feasibility of NKT cell-directed manipulations in RA. NKT cell populations were quantified by anti-CD4/anti-Vα24 staining and/or CD1d tetramers. Proliferation was measured in cultures of mononuclear cells following stimulations with αGalCer and cytokine secretion determined by multi-bead assay. We have confirmed a proliferative defect of iNKT cells in both peripheral blood and synovial fluid from RA patients, but no changes in baseline frequencies. Moreover, we have detected an enlargement of non-invariant cell pool in synovial fluid samples. In addition, we noted an evident Th2 shift following exposure to αGalCer and pronounced IL-6 secretion. While RA patients suffer from defective proliferative responses of invariant NKT cells, non-invariant cells accumulate at the site of inflammation. While stimulation with αGalCer results in reduced TNF-α and increased suppressive IL-10, abundantly produced IL-6 could potentially contribute to the induction of Th17 cells in the joints.

  17. Measurement Invariance of a Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Questionnaire Across Sex: The Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent Version. (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L


    Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, Mage = 14.58 years, SD = 1.37, range = 12-18 years). Of these participants, 1,512 (49.5%) reported appearance concerns and thus completed the full measure. Partial scalar measurement invariance was established among a revised two-factor, 9-item version of the BIQ-C (BIQ-C-9). Females reported significantly greater latent factor variance, higher BIQ-C-9 total and factor scores, and higher scores on most individual BIQ-C-9 items. The measure can be used with caution to compare body dysmorphic disorder symptoms between male and female adolescents, though sex-specific cutoff scores should be used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Covariant and gauge invariant formulation of the cosmological back-reaction: formalism and possible applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marozzi, G. [College de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France)] [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)


    I will show, using a gauge invariant prescription to average scalar quantities, a covariant and gauge invariant formulation of the so-called cosmological 'back-reaction'. In particular, these effective covariant equations allow us to describe in explicitly gauge invariant form the way quantum inhomogeneities affect the average evolution of our Universe. In the end of the talk I will try to give some applications in this direction. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)

  19. Estimating Turaev-Viro three-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation


    Alagic, Gorjan; Jordan, Stephen P.; König, Robert; Reichardt, Ben W.


    The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem ef...

  20. Approximating Turaev-Viro 3-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation


    Alagic, Gorjan; Jordan, Stephen P.; Koenig, Robert; Reichardt, Ben W.


    The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-D topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem efficiently ...

  1. Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasti, Manuel Fernandez [Lab. de Optica Cuantica, Dep. de Fisica, Universidad A. Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico DF, Ap. Post. 55-534 (Mexico)


    The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system.

  2. On Invariants and Scalar Chiral Correlation Functions in { n} = 1 Superconformal Field Theories (United States)

    Knuth, Holger

    A general expression for the four-point function with vanishing total R-charge of antichiral and chiral superfields in { N} = 1 superconformal theories is given. It is obtained by applying the exponential of a simple universal nilpotent differential operator to an arbitrary function of two cross-ratios. To achieve this the nilpotent superconformal invariants according to Park are focused. Several dependencies between these invariants are presented, so that eight nilpotent invariants and 27 monomials of these invariants of degree d > 1 are left being linearly independent. It is analyzed, how terms within the four-point function of general scalar superfields cancel in order to fulfill the chiral restrictions.

  3. Global surgery formula for the Casson-Walker invariant (AM-140)

    CERN Document Server

    Lescop, Christine


    This book presents a new result in 3-dimensional topology. It is well known that any closed oriented 3-manifold can be obtained by surgery on a framed link in S 3. In Global Surgery Formula for the Casson-Walker Invariant, a function F of framed links in S 3 is described, and it is proven that F consistently defines an invariant, lamda (l), of closed oriented 3-manifolds. l is then expressed in terms of previously known invariants of 3-manifolds. For integral homology spheres, l is the invariant introduced by Casson in 1985, which allowed him to solve old and famous questions in 3-dimensional

  4. Emergence of spatiotemporal invariance in large neuronal ensembles in rat barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Jacobs


    Full Text Available Invariant sensory coding is the robust coding of some sensory information (e.g. stimulus type despite major changes in other sensory parameters (e.g. stimulus strength. The contribution of large populations of neurons (ensembles to invariant sensory coding is not well understood, but could offer distinct advantages over invariance in single cell receptive fields. To test invariant sensory coding in neuronal ensembles evoked by single whisker stimulation as early as primary sensory cortex, we recorded detailed spatiotemporal movies of evoked ensemble activity through the depth of rat barrel cortex using microelectrode arrays. We found that an emergent property of whisker evoked ensemble activity, its spatiotemporal profile, was notably invariant across major changes in stimulus amplitude (up to >200 fold. Such ensemble-based invariance was found for single whisker stimulation as well as for the integrated profile of activity evoked by the more naturalistic stimulation of the entire whisker array. Further, the integrated profile of whisker array evoked ensemble activity and its invariance to stimulus amplitude shares striking similarities to 'funneled' tactile perception in humans. We therefore suggest that ensemble-based invariance could provide a robust neurobiological substrate for invariant sensory coding and integration at an early stage of cortical sensory processing already in primary sensory cortex.

  5. Emergence of spatiotemporal invariance in large neuronal ensembles in rat barrel cortex (United States)

    Jacobs, Nathan S.; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Frostig, Ron D.


    Invariant sensory coding is the robust coding of some sensory information (e.g., stimulus type) despite major changes in other sensory parameters (e.g., stimulus strength). The contribution of large populations of neurons (ensembles) to invariant sensory coding is not well understood, but could offer distinct advantages over invariance in single cell receptive fields. To test invariant sensory coding in neuronal ensembles evoked by single whisker stimulation as early as primary sensory cortex, we recorded detailed spatiotemporal movies of evoked ensemble activity through the depth of rat barrel cortex using microelectrode arrays. We found that an emergent property of whisker evoked ensemble activity, its spatiotemporal profile, was notably invariant across major changes in stimulus amplitude (up to >200-fold). Such ensemble-based invariance was found for single whisker stimulation as well as for the integrated profile of activity evoked by the more naturalistic stimulation of the entire whisker array. Further, the integrated profile of whisker array evoked ensemble activity and its invariance to stimulus amplitude shares striking similarities to “funneled” tactile perception in humans. We therefore suggest that ensemble-based invariance could provide a robust neurobiological substrate for invariant sensory coding and integration at an early stage of cortical sensory processing already in primary sensory cortex. PMID:26217194

  6. Splitting the spectral flow and the SU(3) Casson invariant for spliced sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boden, Hans U.; Himpel, Benjamin


    We show that the SU(3) Casson invariant for spliced sums along certain torus knots equals 16 times the product of their SU(2) Casson knot invariants. The key step is a splitting formula for su(n) spectral flow for closed 3–manifolds split along a torus.......We show that the SU(3) Casson invariant for spliced sums along certain torus knots equals 16 times the product of their SU(2) Casson knot invariants. The key step is a splitting formula for su(n) spectral flow for closed 3–manifolds split along a torus....

  7. Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC


    This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects

  8. Conformal invariance and new exact solutions of the elastostatics equations (United States)

    Chirkunov, Yu. A.


    We fulfilled a group foliation of the system of n-dimensional (n ≥ 2) Lame equations of the classical static theory of elasticity with respect to the infinite subgroup contained in normal subgroup of main group of this system. It permitted us to move from the Lame equations to the equivalent unification of two first-order systems: automorphic and resolving. We obtained a general solution of the automorphic system. This solution is an n-dimensional analogue of the Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formula. We found the main Lie group of transformations of the resolving system of this group foliation. It turned out that in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases, which have a physical meaning, this system is conformally invariant, while the Lame equations admit only a group of similarities of the Euclidean space. This is a big success, since in the method of group foliation, resolving equations usually inherit Lie symmetries subgroup of the full symmetry group that was not used for the foliation. In the three-dimensional case for the solutions of the resolving system, we found the general form of the transformations similar to the Kelvin transformation. These transformations are the consequence of the conformal invariance of the resolving system. In the three-dimensional case with a help of the complex dependent and independent variables, the resolving system is written as a simple complex system. This allowed us to find non-trivial exact solutions of the Lame equations, which direct for the Lame equations practically impossible to obtain. For this complex system, all the essentially distinct invariant solutions of the maximal rank we have found in explicit form, or we reduced the finding of those solutions to the solving of the classical one-dimensional equations of the mathematical physics: the heat equation, the telegraph equation, the Tricomi equation, the generalized Darboux equation, and other equations. For the resolving system, we obtained double wave of a

  9. Generalized scale invariance, clouds and radiative transfer on multifractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)


    Recent systematic satellite studies (LANDSAT, AVHRR, METEOSAT) of cloud radiances using (isotropic) energy spectra have displayed excellent scaling from at least about 300m to about 4000km, even for individual cloud pictures. At first sight, this contradicts the observed diversity of cloud morphology, texture and type. The authors argue that the explanation of this apparent paradox is that the differences are due to anisotropy, e.g. differential stratification and rotation. A general framework for anisotropic scaling expressed in terms of isotropic self-similar scaling and fractals and multifractals is needed. Schertzer and Lovejoy have proposed Generalized Scale Invariance (GSI) in response to this need. In GSI, the statistics of the large and small scales of system can be related to each other by a scale changing operator T{sub {lambda}} which depends only on the scale ratio {lambda}{sub i} there is no characteristic size. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Transposition and Time-Scale Invariant Geometric Music Retrieval (United States)

    Lemström, Kjell

    This paper considers how to adapt geometric algorithms, developed for content-based music retrieval of symbolically encoded music, to be robust against time deformations required by real-world applications. In this setting, music is represented by sets of points in plane. A matching, pertinent to the application, involves two such sets of points and invariances under translations and time scalings. We give an algorithm for finding exact occurrences, under such a setting, of a given query point set, of size m, within a database point set, of size n, with running time O(mn 2logn); partial occurrences are found in O(m 2 n 2logn) time. The algorithms resemble the sweepline algorithm introduced in [1].

  11. Invariant integration in 2. -->. 3 processes in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplii, S.A.; Rekalo, M.P.


    The energy and angular distributions of the quark-antiquark pair QQ-bar (treated as a whole) which is produced in the processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-barg and gq..-->..QQ-barq, where g is the gluon, q = u,d,s are the light quarks, and Q are the heavy quarks, are found to lowest order in a perturbation expansion in the quark-gluon interaction constant. The interference of the two classes of diagrams responsible for QQ-bar pair production by one and two gluons does not vanish (in contrast to quantum electrodynamics). The technique of invariant integration developed in quantum electrodynamics is generalized to the case of quantum chromodynamics. This allows the analytic calculation of all contributions to the differential cross section of the processes qq-bar..-->..QQ-barg and gq..-->..QQ-barq, integrated over the final QQ-bar pair.

  12. Conformal Invariance and the Metrication of the Fundamental Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D


    We revisit Weyl's metrication (geometrization) of electromagnetism. We show that by making Weyl's proposed geometric connection be pure imaginary, not only are we able to metricate electromagnetism, an underlying local conformal invariance makes the geometry be strictly Riemannian and prevents observational gravity from being complex. Via torsion we achieve an analogous metrication for axial-vector fields. We generalize our procedure to Yang-Mills theories, and achieve a metrication of all the fundamental forces. Only in the gravity sector does our approach differ from the standard picture of fundamental forces, with our approach requiring that standard Einstein gravity be replaced by conformal gravity. We show that quantum conformal gravity is a consistent and unitary quantum gravitational theory, one that, unlike string theory, only requires four spacetime dimensions.

  13. Gauge-invariant inflaton in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Enqvist, Kari; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Mazumdar, Anupam


    We argue that all the necessary ingredients for successful inflation are present in the flat directions of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model. We show that out of many gauge-invariant combinations of squarks, sleptons, and Higgs bosons, there are two directions, LLe and udd, which are promising candidates for the inflaton. The model predicts more than 10(3) e-foldings, with an inflationary scale of H(inf) approximately O(1-10) GeV, provides a tilted spectrum with an amplitude of delta(H) approximately 10(-5) and a negligible tensor perturbation. The temperature of the thermalized plasma could be as low as T(rh) approximately O(1-10) TeV. Parts of the inflaton potential can be determined independently of cosmology by future particle physics experiments.

  14. Electroweak baryogenesis in the Z_3 -invariant NMSSM (United States)

    Akula, Sujeet; Balázs, Csaba; Dunn, Liam; White, Graham


    We calculate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the Z_3 -invariant Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model where the interactions of the singlino provide the necessary source of charge and parity violation. Using the closed time path formalism, we derive and solve transport equations for the cases where the singlet acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV) before and during the electroweak phase transition. We perform a detailed scan to show how the baryon asymmetry varies throughout the relevant parameter space. Our results show that the case where the singlet acquires a VEV during the electroweak phase transition typically generates a larger baryon asymmetry, although we expect that the case where the singlet acquires a VEV first is far more common for any model in which parameters unify at a high scale. Finally, we examine the dependence of the baryon asymmetry on the three-body interactions involving gauge singlets.

  15. Constant invariant solutions of the Poincare center-focus problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason


    Full Text Available We consider the classical Poincare problem $$ frac{dx}{dt}=-y-p(x,y,quad frac{dy}{dt}=x+q(x,y $$ where $p,q$ are homogeneous polynomials of degree $n geq 2$. Associated with this system is an Abel differential equation $$ frac{dho}{dheta}=psi_3ho^3 + psi_2ho^2 $$ in which the coefficients are trigonometric polynomials. We investigate two separate conditions which produce a constant first absolute invariant of this equation. One of these conditions leads to a new class of integrable, center conditions for the Poincare problem if $n geq 9$ is an odd integer. We also show that both classes of solutions produce polynomial solutions to the problem.

  16. Measurement invariance of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. (United States)

    Bunnell, Brian E; Joseph, Dana L; Beidel, Deborah C


    The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) is a commonly used self-report measure of social phobia that has demonstrated adequate reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. However, research has yet to address whether this measure functions equivalently in (a) individuals with and without a diagnosis of social phobia and (b) males and females. Evaluating measurement equivalence/invariance is necessary in order to determine that the construct of social anxiety is interpreted similarly across these populations. The results of the current investigation, using a series of nested factorial models proposed by Vandenberg and Lance (2000), provide evidence for strong equivalence across 420 individuals with and without diagnoses of social phobia and across male and female samples. Accordingly, these results provide psychometric justification for comparison of SPAI scores across the symptom continuum and sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen


    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  18. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: iso-dispersive contours. (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V


    A dispersive model of a gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens is introduced based on the idea of iso-dispersive contours. These contours have constant Abbe number and their shape is related to iso-indicial contours of the monochromatic geometry-invariant GRIN lens (GIGL) model. The chromatic GIGL model predicts the dispersion throughout the GRIN structure by using the dispersion curves of the surface and the center of the lens. The analytical approach for paraxial ray tracing and the monochromatic aberration calculations used in the GIGL model is employed here to derive closed-form expressions for the axial and lateral color coefficients of the lens. Expressions for equivalent refractive index and the equivalent Abbe number of the homogeneous equivalent lens are also presented and new aspects of the chromatic aberration change due to aging are discussed. The key derivations and explanations of the GRIN lens optical properties are accompanied with numerical examples for the human and animal eye GRIN lenses.

  19. Gauge-Invariant Perturbations in Hybrid Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena


    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representatio...

  20. Invariant classification of second-order conformally flat superintegrable systems (United States)

    Capel, J. J.; Kress, J. M.


    In this paper we continue the work of Kalnins et al in classifying all second-order conformally-superintegrable (Laplace-type) systems over conformally flat spaces, using tools from algebraic geometry and classical invariant theory. The results obtained show, through Stäckel equivalence, that the list of known nondegenerate superintegrable systems over three-dimensional conformally flat spaces is complete. In particular, a seven-dimensional manifold is determined such that each point corresponds to a conformal class of superintegrable systems. This manifold is foliated by the nonlinear action of the conformal group in three dimensions. Two systems lie in the same conformal class if and only if they lie in the same leaf of the foliation. This foliation is explicitly described using algebraic varieties formed from representations of the conformal group. The proof of these results rely heavily on Gröbner basis calculations using the computer algebra software packages Maple and Singular.