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Sample records for Macroinvertebrates, stream health, biotic integrity, Multimetric index, Colombo-Sri Jayewardenepura canal system

  1. Development of a Macroinvertebrate - based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI for Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura Canal System (A new approach to assess stream/ wetland health

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    N. Nilakarawasam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates have been identified as excellent indicators of stream (wetland health as they respond rapidly to environmental changers and provide short to medium term pollution history records. Current study was aimed to develop a Macroinvertebrate-based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI to monitor stream health of Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura canal system. Macroinvertebrates were sampled using a D-framed kick net from ten stations during the period of Nov 2008 to June 2009. Habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters also recorded. For the index development, those ten stations were grouped into two as ’Reference’ and ‘Degraded’ based on their habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters. Then 41vcandidate metrics were nominated for statistical analysis process. After considering their sensitivity to stream impairment, ability of showing exceptionally strong discrimination between reference and degraded sites and less redundancy, ten candidate metrics were selected for M-IBI development. Validity of the index was tested with a new independent data set. Scores acquired for these data set were positively correlated with DO values (r = 0.578. That concluded the potential of using M-IBI developed for biological monitoring and improving biotic integrity of streams and wetlands.

  2. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

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    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  3. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

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    Jun, Yung-Chul; Won, Doo-Hee; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Kong, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI) applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent) to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods. PMID:23202765

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A STREAM BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE INTEGRITY INDEX (SBMII) FOR WADEABLE STREAMS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

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    The Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrate Integrity Index (SBMII), a multimetric biotic index for assessing biological conditions of wadeable streams, was developed using seven macroinvertebrate metrics (Ephemeroptera richness, Plecoptera richness, Trichoptera richness, Collector-Filt...

  5. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

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    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  6. A multimetric approach for predicting the ecological integrity of New Zealand streams

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    Clapcott J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating multiple measures of stream health into a combined metric can provide a holistic assessment of the ecological integrity of a stream. The aim of this study was to develop a multimetric index (MMI of stream integrity based on predictive modelling of national data sets of water quality, macroinvertebrates, fish and ecosystem process metrics. We used a boosted regression tree approach to calculate an observed/expected score for each metric prior to combining metrics in a MMI based on data availability and the strength of predictive models. The resulting MMI provides a geographically meaningful prediction of the ecological integrity of rivers in New Zealand, but identifies limitations in data and approach, providing focus for ongoing research.

  7. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

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    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    the health and condition of individual fish based on dissection and internal examination. It helped to determine whether contaminant concentrations were high enough to adversely affect the health of individual fish. The benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index (HDMI), used in 1997 to 2000, is a method for assessing stream health based on macroinvertebrate data collected with Hester-Dendy artificial substrates. In 2003 it was replaced with the Multiple Habitat Sampling protocol, a SCDHEC method for collecting and analyzing benthic macroinvertebrate data from natural substrate. These two macroinvertebrate based methods were used in conjunction with the fish based IBI to provide a more comprehensive assessment of ecological conditions. Lastly, habitat data were collected from each stream to assist in determining whether ecological integrity was compromised by physical factors (e.g., erosion) or chemical factors (e.g., discharge of toxic materials). Fish from many SRS streams exhibited evidence of contamination as a result of current or former SRS operations. The most prevalent radiological contaminants were cesium-137 (highest in fish from Lower Three Runs followed by Steel Creek and Fourmile Branch), tritium (highest in fish from Fourmile Branch followed by Pen Branch, and the Savannah River swamp), and strontium (highest in fish from Fourmile Branch followed by Pen Branch). Radiological contaminants were also found in fish collected from the Savannah River near the mouths of contaminated SRS streams; however, contaminant levels were substantially lower than in fish from the streams themselves. Mercury levels were moderately elevated in fish from some streams, particularly Lower Three Runs, and in fish from the Savannah River. Despite the occurrence of contaminants, most SRS streams exhibited comparatively high biotic integrity (based on IBI, HDMI, and MHSP scores) and minimal levels of pathology among individual fish (e.g., presence of tumors or extreme thinness

  8. Using fish communities to assess streams in Romania: Initial development of an index of biotic integrity

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    Angermeier, P.L.; Davideanu, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multimetric biotic indices increasingly are used to complement physicochemical data in assessments of stream quality. We initiated development of multimetric indices, based on fish communities, to assess biotic integrity of streams in two physiographic regions of central Romania. Unlike previous efforts to develop such indices for European streams, our metrics and scoring criteria were selected largely on the basis of empirical relations in the regions of interest. We categorised 54 fish species with respect to ten natural-history attributes, then used this information to compute 32 candidate metrics of five types (taxonomic, tolerance, abundance, reproductive, and feeding) for each of 35 sites. We assessed the utility of candidate metrics for detecting anthropogenic impact based on three criteria: (a) range of values taken, (b) relation to a site-quality index (SQI), which incorporated information on hydrologic alteration, channel alteration, land-use intensity, and water chemistry, and (c) metric redundancy. We chose seven metrics from each region to include in preliminary multimetric indices (PMIs). Both PMIs included taxonomic, tolerance, and feeding metrics, but only two metrics were common to both PMIs. Although we could not validate our PMIs, their strong association with the SQI in each region suggests that such indices would be valuable tools for assessing stream quality and could provide more comprehensive assessments than the traditional approaches based solely on water chemistry.

  9. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON IN-STREAM BIOTIC INTEGRITY: USE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE METRICS TO IDENTIFY LANDSCAPE STRESSORS IN HEADWATER CATCHMENTS

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    The biotic integrity of streams is profoundly influenced by quantitative and qualitative features in the landscape of the surrounding catchment. In this study, aquatic macroinvertebrate metrics (e.g., relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and/or Plecoptera taxa, or t...

  10. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

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    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were

  11. Development of a benthic multimetric index for the Serra da Bocaina bioregion in Southeast Brazil

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    DF. Baptista

    Full Text Available Brazil faces a challenge to develop biomonitoring tools to be used in water quality assessment programs, but few multimetric indices were developed so far. This study is part of an effort to test and implement programs using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators in Rio de Janeiro State. Our aim was first to test the Multimetric Index for Serra dos Órgãos (SOMI for a different area - Serra da Bocaina (SB - in the same ecoregion. We sampled 27 streams of different sizes and altitudes in the SB region. Despite the environmental similarities, results indicated biological differences between reference sites of the two regions. Considering these differences, we decided to develop an index specific for the SB region, the Serra da Bocaina Multimetric Index (MISB. We tested twenty-two metrics for sensitivity to impairment and redundancy, and six metrics were considered valid to integrate the MISB: Family Richness, Trichoptera Richness, % Coleoptera, % Diptera, IBE-IOC index, EPT / Chironomidae ratio. A test of the MISB in eleven sites indicated it was more related to land-use and water physico-chemical parameters than with altitude or stream width, being a useful tool for the monitoring and assessment of streams in the bioregion.

  12. Assessing Ecosystem Integrity And Macroinvertebrates Community Structure Towards Conservation Of Small Streams In Tanzania

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    Fredrick Ojija

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to use biological indices such as Biological Monitoring Working Party BMWP Average Score Per Taxa ASPT and Hilsenhoff Family Biotic Index FBI in order to determine the ecosystem health and water quality of Nzovwe stream in Mbeya Tanzania. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Nzovwe stream using semi-quantitative techniques from March to June 2016. About 500 meters of Nzovwe stream was divided into 5 sampling sites each site was 100 meters apart. The macroinvertebrates were collected from all the possible microhabitats of each site using a 250m mesh size D- frame kick net. Macroinvertebrate specimens were preserved in the 70 ethyl alcohol in the polyethylene bottles. The samples were identified to the family level using standard identification keys. The BMWP score and ASPT score indicated good and moderate stream water quality respectively. The FBI showed the stream had possibility of some organic pollution. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index shows the sampling sites were moderately polluted or possibly impaired. Macroinvertebrates in pollution class II were abundant suggesting moderate pollution. Moreover the Midge Insects Diptera and Snail indicated the stream water quality or ecosystem health is between unimpaired and possibly impaired. Based on these results the study concludes that the stream ecosystem is moderately polluted and therefore the study recommends a regular stream monitoring.

  13. A direct-gradient multivariate index of biotic condition

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    Miranda, Leandro E.; Aycock, J.N.; Killgore, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Multimetric indexes constructed by summing metric scores have been criticized despite many of their merits. A leading criticism is the potential for investigator bias involved in metric selection and scoring. Often there is a large number of competing metrics equally well correlated with environmental stressors, requiring a judgment call by the investigator to select the most suitable metrics to include in the index and how to score them. Data-driven procedures for multimetric index formulation published during the last decade have reduced this limitation, yet apprehension remains. Multivariate approaches that select metrics with statistical algorithms may reduce the level of investigator bias and alleviate a weakness of multimetric indexes. We investigated the suitability of a direct-gradient multivariate procedure to derive an index of biotic condition for fish assemblages in oxbow lakes in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although this multivariate procedure also requires that the investigator identify a set of suitable metrics potentially associated with a set of environmental stressors, it is different from multimetric procedures because it limits investigator judgment in selecting a subset of biotic metrics to include in the index and because it produces metric weights suitable for computation of index scores. The procedure, applied to a sample of 35 competing biotic metrics measured at 50 oxbow lakes distributed over a wide geographical region in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, selected 11 metrics that adequately indexed the biotic condition of five test lakes. Because the multivariate index includes only metrics that explain the maximum variability in the stressor variables rather than a balanced set of metrics chosen to reflect various fish assemblage attributes, it is fundamentally different from multimetric indexes of biotic integrity with advantages and disadvantages. As such, it provides an alternative to multimetric procedures.

  14. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to measure environmental quality in warmwater streams of Wisconsin.

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    John Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.

  15. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil

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    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions.

  16. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil.

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    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions.

  17. Evaluation of Deposited Sediment and Macroinvertebrate Metrics Used to Quantify Biological Response to Excessive Sedimentation in Agricultural Streams

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    Sutherland, Andrew B.; Culp, Joseph M.; Benoy, Glenn A.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate which macroinvertebrate and deposited sediment metrics are best for determining effects of excessive sedimentation on stream integrity. Fifteen instream sediment metrics, with the strongest relationship to land cover, were compared to riffle macroinvertebrate metrics in streams ranging across a gradient of land disturbance. Six deposited sediment metrics were strongly related to the relative abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera and six were strongly related to the modified family biotic index (MFBI). Few functional feeding groups and habit groups were significantly related to deposited sediment, and this may be related to the focus on riffle, rather than reach-wide macroinvertebrates, as reach-wide sediment metrics were more closely related to human land use. Our results suggest that the coarse-level deposited sediment metric, visual estimate of fines, and the coarse-level biological index, MFBI, may be useful in biomonitoring efforts aimed at determining the impact of anthropogenic sedimentation on stream biotic integrity.

  18. Stream Health Sensitivity to Landscape Changes due to Bioenergy Crops Expansion

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    Nejadhashemi, A.; Einheuser, M. D.; Woznicki, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for bioenergy has increased due to uncertainty in oil markets, environmental concerns, and expected increases in energy consumption worldwide. To develop a sustainable biofuel production strategy, the adverse environmental impacts of bioenergy crops expansion should be understood. To study the impact of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health, the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to predict macroinvertebrate and fish stream health measures. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family Index of Biological Integrity (Family IBI), and Number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT taxa) were used as macroinvertebrate measures, while the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) was used for fish. A high-resolution biophysical model built using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to obtain water quantity and quality variables for input into the ANFIS stream health predictive models. Twenty unique crop rotations were developed to examine impacts of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health in the Saginaw Bay basin. Traditional intensive row crops generated more pollution than current landuse conditions, while second-generation biofuel crops associated with less intensive agricultural activities resulted in water quality improvement. All three macroinvertebrate measures were negatively impacted during intensive row crop productions but improvement was predicted when producing perennial crops. However, the expansion of native grass, switchgrass, and miscanthus production resulted in reduced IBI relative to first generation row crops. This study demonstrates that ecosystem complexity requires examination of multiple stream health measures to avoid potential adverse impacts of landuse change on stream health.

  19. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

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    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  20. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

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    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  1. Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates

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    Purcell, A.H.; Bressler, D.W.; Paul, M.J.; Barbour, M.T.; Rankin, E.T.; Carter, J.L.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

  2. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J.; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E.; Herrera, Roberto L.; Gonzalez-Solis, David

    2011-01-01

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. - Research Highlights: → An Index of Biotic Integrity based on fishes is proposed for streams of the Hondo River basin. → Twelve variables were

  3. Are the streams of the Sinos River basin of good water quality? Aquatic macroinvertebrates may answer the question

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    L. Bieger

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP". Three lower order streams (2nd order were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower, totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer. A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.

  4. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

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    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  5. Using macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to infer urban stream system condition: A case study in the central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Hubbart, Jason A.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the impacts of hydrologic alterations, pollutants, and habitat degradation on macroinvertebrate species assemblages is of critical value for managers wishing to categorize stream ecosystem condition. A combination of approaches including trait-based metrics and traditional bioassessments provides greater information, particularly in anthropogenic stream ecosystems where traditional approaches can be confounded by variously interacting land use impacts. Macroinvertebrates were collected from two rural and three urban nested study sites in central Missouri, USA during the spring and fall seasons of 2011. Land use responses of conventional taxonomic and trait-based metrics were compared to streamflow indices, physical habitat metrics, and water quality indices. Results show that biotic index was significantly different (p habitats in urban reaches contained 21 % more (p = 0.03) multivoltine organisms, which was positively correlated to the magnitude of peak flows (r2 = 0.91, p = 0.012) suggesting that high flow events may serve as a disturbance in those areas. Results support the use of macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to characterize urban stream system condition and highlight the need to better understand the complex interactions of trait-based metrics and anthropogenic aquatic ecosystem stressors.

  6. Inferring community properties of benthic macroinvertebrates in streams using Shannon index and exergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen Van; Cho, Woon-Seok; Kim, Hungsoo; Jung, Il Hyo; Kim, YongKuk; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Definition of ecological integrity based on community analysis has long been a critical issue in risk assessment for sustainable ecosystem management. In this work, two indices (i.e., Shannon index and exergy) were selected for the analysis of community properties of benthic macroinvertebrate community in streams in Korea. For this purpose, the means and variances of both indices were analyzed. The results found an extra scope of structural and functional properties in communities in response to environmental variabilities and anthropogenic disturbances. The combination of these two parameters (four indices) was feasible in identification of disturbance agents (e.g., industrial pollution or organic pollution) and specifying states of communities. The four-aforementioned parameters (means and variances of Shannon index and exergy) were further used as input data in a self-organizing map for the characterization of water quality. Our results suggested that Shannon index and exergy in combination could be utilized as a suitable reference system and would be an efficient tool for assessment of the health of aquatic ecosystems exposed to environmental disturbances.

  7. Evaluation of stream ecological integrity using litter decomposition and benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castela, Jose [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: jcccastela@gmail.com; Ferreira, Veronica [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: veronica@ci.uc.pt; Graca, Manuel A.S. [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail: mgraca@ci.uc.pt

    2008-05-15

    Biomonitoring programs to access the ecological integrity of freshwaters tend to rely exclusively on structural parameters. Here we evaluated stream ecological integrity using (a) benthic macroinvertebrate derived metrics and a biotic index as measures of structural integrity and (b) oak litter decomposition and associated fungal sporulation rates as measures of functional integrity. The study was done at four sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) along a downstream increasing phosphorus and habitat degradation gradient in a small stream. The biotic index, invertebrate metrics, invertebrate and fungal communities' structure and sporulation rates discriminated upstream and downstream sites. Decomposition rates classified sites S4 and S2 as having a compromised ecosystem functioning. Although both functional and structural approaches gave the same results for the most impacted site (S4), they were complementary for moderately impacted sites (S2 and S3), and we therefore support the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity. - This study supports the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity.

  8. Evaluation of stream ecological integrity using litter decomposition and benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castela, Jose; Ferreira, Veronica; Graca, Manuel A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs to access the ecological integrity of freshwaters tend to rely exclusively on structural parameters. Here we evaluated stream ecological integrity using (a) benthic macroinvertebrate derived metrics and a biotic index as measures of structural integrity and (b) oak litter decomposition and associated fungal sporulation rates as measures of functional integrity. The study was done at four sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) along a downstream increasing phosphorus and habitat degradation gradient in a small stream. The biotic index, invertebrate metrics, invertebrate and fungal communities' structure and sporulation rates discriminated upstream and downstream sites. Decomposition rates classified sites S4 and S2 as having a compromised ecosystem functioning. Although both functional and structural approaches gave the same results for the most impacted site (S4), they were complementary for moderately impacted sites (S2 and S3), and we therefore support the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity. - This study supports the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity

  9. Ecological assessment of the Tajan river using feeding groups of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharifinia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the best practical methods to understand ecological status of a water body and determine impacts of human intervention in reducing water quality is using benthic macroinvertebrates as assessment tools for monitoring their biological integrity and health. The Tajan River is one of the rivers of Caspian Southernsub-basin that drains the Caspian Sea. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken using Surber’s sampler (40 x 40 cm and 100µ mesh size in 45 day intervals with 3 replicates in each sampling site for a period of one year (May 2010 to May 2011. The collected organisms were preserved in 4% formalin solution and transferred to the laboratory for identification and counting. Six different functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate e.g. Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering, Predator, Collector-gathering /Scraper, Predator/Collector-gathering and Scraper were determined. Feeding groups of Collector-gathering, Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering /Scraper were relatively dominant in comparison to other groups. Groups of Collector-filtering and Collector-gathering were dominant in slightly and heavily polluted stations, respectively. In this study population structure measures including abundance, EPT percent and the EPT and EPT/CHIR indics were mearsured. Species diversity, species richness were also determined using Shannon- Weiner, Margalef and Jacardindics. The minimum and maximum values of Hilsenhoff biotic index were observedin stations 1 (4.29 and 5 (5.57, respectively. Moreover, the highest and lowest values of BMWP/ASPT were observed in station 1 (4.51 and 5 (3.25, respectively. Evaluation of indicators revealed less water quality at stations 2, 3 and 5 which located at the lowermost of fish farms and effluent of factory. This reduction might be implicated to the effluents of water damps from fish farms running into the stream as diversity and total abundance (% of sociable macroinvertebrates decreased and that of

  10. Measurement of the Ecological Integrity of Cerrado Streams Using Biological Metrics and the Index of Habitat Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusiano Florêncio dos Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated. Sampling included collections along stretches of 200 m of nine streams and measurements of abiotic variables (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and discharge and the Index of Habitat Integrity (HII. The values of the abiotic variables and the HII indicated that most of the streams have good ecological integrity, due to high oxygen levels and low concentrations of dissolved solids and electric conductivity. Two streams showed altered HII scores mainly related to small dams for recreational and domestic use, use of Cerrado natural pasture for cattle raising, and spot deforestation in bathing areas. However, this finding is not reflected in the biological metrics that were used. Considering all nine streams, only two showed satisfactory ecological quality (measured by Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP, total richness, and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness, only one of which had a low HII score. These results indicate that punctual measures of abiotic parameters do not reveal the long-term impacts of anthropic activities in these streams, including related fire management of pasture that annually alters the vegetation matrix and may act as a disturbance for the macroinvertebrate communities. Due to this, biomonitoring of low order streams in Cerrado ecosystems of the Northern Central Brazil by different biotic metrics and also physical attributes of the

  11. Macroinvertebrate Community Response to the Elimination of Concentrated Feedlot Runoff to a Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitgen, J. L.; Moren, M. M.

    2005-05-01

    During rainfall and snow melt events, a first order, cold-water stream was receiving varying amounts of liquefied manure from a concentrated feed lot. Stream restoration efforts included the implementation of best management practices to prevent further discharge of the water/manure mixture to the stream. Physical, chemical and biological data were collected pre-construction and two years post-construction of the containment system at a fixed location downstream of the feedlot. Hilsenhoff Biotic Index scores improved significantly, from 6.79 or "Fairly Poor" before the installation of the manure containment system, to 5.28 or "Good" after the installation of the manure containment system. Taxa richness improved from 25 to 34 and the EPT score improved from 0 to 4. Key words: macroinvertebrate, community response, manure, feedlot runoff, stream restoration

  12. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact

  13. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  14. Development and evaluation of the Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index (LMII for the China’s second largest interior lake (Dongting Lake was developed to assess the water quality status using algal and macroinvertebrate metrics. Algae and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 10 sections across 3 subregions of Dongting Lake. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics and selected ten for the LMII: Pampean diatom index, diatom quotient, trophic diatom index, relative abundance diatoms, Margalef index of algae, percent sensitive diatoms, % facultative individuals, % Chironomidae individuals, % predators individuals, and total number of macroinvertebrate taxa. We then tested the accuracy and feasibility of the LMII by comparing the correlation with physical-chemical parameters. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired sections and was strongly related to the major chemical and physical stressors (r = 0.766, P<0.001. The re-scored results from the 10 sections showed that the water quality of western Dongting Lake was good, while that of southern Dongting Lake was relatively good and whereas that of eastern Dongting Lake was poor. The discriminatory biocriteria of the LMII are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake. Additionally, more metrics belonging to habitat, hydrology, physics and chemistry should be considered into the LMII, so as to establish comprehensive assessment system which can reflect the community structure of aquatic organisms, physical and chemical characteristics of water environment, human activities, and so on.

  15. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  16. A benthic macroinvertebrate size spectra index for implementing the Water Framework Directive in coastal lagoons in Mediterranean and Black Sea ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, A.; Barbone, E.; Borja, A.; Brucet, S.; Pinna, M.; Quintana, X. D.; Reizopoulou, S.; Rosati, I.; Simboura, N.

    2012-01-01

    Size spectra show common patterns of variation among ecosystem types, functional guilds and taxonomic groups, as well as predictable responses to pressures. Here, we extend the size spectra approach to macroinvertebrate ecological status assessment in transitional waters, by developing, testing and validating a multi-metric index of size spectra sensitivity (ISS), which integrates size structure metrics with metrics describing the sensitivity of size classes to anthropogenic distu...

  17. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E; Herrera, Roberto L; González-Solís, David

    2011-01-15

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unmarried women's decisions on pregnancy termination: Qualitative interviews in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Pia; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2010-11-01

    In Sri Lanka pregnancy termination is very restricted by law and social norms. Premarital sex, and pregnancies are not generally accepted and unmarried pregnant women are vulnerable in their decision-making on pregnancy termination. The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances of becoming pregnant and factors considered in the decision-making for seeking pregnancy termination in a sample of unmarried women in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 unmarried women seeking pregnancy terminations at a reproductive health centre in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The interviews were later analysed using qualitative content analysis. Becoming pregnant in a love relationship was predominant in this sample. Awareness of contraceptives varied and initial reaction to the pregnancy involved strong contradictory emotions. Multiple interrelated factors were considered in the decision-making for termination. Family pressure was the most prominent factor followed by the partner's qualities and attitude towards the pregnancy, economic factors and own feelings, values and future fertility. The women described that their own emotional, religious and economic reasons for continuing the pregnancy were often outweighed by their responsibility to the family, male partner and unborn child. These unmarried women's sexual and reproductive rights were limited and for many the pregnancy termination was socially unsafe. They found themselves at the interface of two value systems. Modern values allow for relationships with men prior to marriage; whereas, traditional values did not. The limited possibilities to prevent pregnancies and little hope for support if continuing the pregnancy; made women seek pregnancy termination despite own doubts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of environmental quality and mesohabitat structure on a Biotic Integrity Index based on fish assemblages of cerrado streams from Rio Cuiabá basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NG Machado

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the Cerrado has been experiencing various antropic impacts that have brought about alterations to species composition, structure and functioning of aquatic habitats. Therefore, studies on negative impacts are useful to prevent future damage and restore environmental quality. The objectives of our study were: i to adapt an index of biotic integrity of streams in the Rio Cuiabá Basin and ii to analyze if the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI correlated with the environmental quality measured by the Index of Environmental Quality (IEQ and with the mesohabitat structure. We sampled 26 streams in sub-basins of the Cuiabá River. In each stream, we closed a stretch of 50 m with blockage nets and used electrofishing to capture fish. To obtain a measure of environmental quality in sampled units, we characterized the stream and its micro basin. For the analyses, we used the Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis test and Analysis of Multiple Regression. We collected 697 individuals distributed into 6 orders, 15 families and 49 species. The IBI followed changes on environmental quality measured by IEQ when we removed streams that present natural barriers from the analysis (r² = 0.4; r² = 0.58. Types of land use did not affect the biotic integrity (n = 26; df = 4; H = 4,860; p = 0.302, but natural and artificial barriers affected it (n = 26; df = 4; H = 11,027; p = 0.026. The IBI was not sensitive to variations in mesohabitat structure (F2,23 = 0.373; r² = 0.031; Axe 1 p = 0.620; Axe 2 p = 0.490. The IBI is certainly a reasonable instrument for evaluating changes in the environment, but we cannot ignore the fact that we were able to obtain the same result with any combinations of metrics. This makes its analysis and interpretation difficult.

  20. Oviposition and vertical dispersal of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilake, T A Hasini D G; Wickramasinghe, Mervyn B; de Silva, B G D Nissanka K

    2015-09-01

    The Colombo City in Sri Lanka is experiencing tremendous development and construction of multiple storey buildings and high rise apartments. The change in housing types and microhabitats might have altered the flight and breeding behaviour of Aedes mosquito population. This study was carried out to determine the vertical dispersal and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in the Colombo district, with respect to abiotic factors such as rainfall, humidity and wind speed. Hence, this study is of paramount importance, particularly for planning and implementation of control measures against Aedes mosquitoes. An ovitrap based study was carried out at four selected multiple storey buildings in four residential areas located in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from August to December 2013. Results were analyzed using four indices; ovitrap index, mean number of larvae, mean number of eggs and mean number of larvae per ovipaddle. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found in different elevations from ground floor to the highest floor (130 ft). There was a significant difference between height and ovitrap index (pAedes mosquitoes (pAedes mosquitoes are able to breed at any level of the buildings and not restricted by their height. The indices (mean number of larvae, mean number of eggs) representing the vertical dispersal with respect to abundance seemed to be statistically non-significant (p>0.05) with height which indicates high abundance of Aedes mosquitoes at higher floors. Abiotic factors also seemed to cause significant effect to the vertical dispersal of Aedes mosquitoes in high rise buildings.

  1. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J., E-mail: jschmitt@ecosur.mx; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E.; Herrera, Roberto L.; Gonzalez-Solis, David

    2011-01-15

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. - Research Highlights: {yields} An Index of Biotic Integrity based on fishes is proposed for streams of the Hondo River basin. {yields

  2. Do Karst Rivers “deserve” their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, Žrnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P. scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.

  3. Comparability among four invertebrate sampling methods and two multimetric indexes, Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, James F.; Roberts, James J.; Zuellig, Robert E.

    2018-05-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering and Colorado Springs Utilities, analyzed previously collected invertebrate data to determine the comparability among four sampling methods and two versions (2010 and 2017) of the Colorado Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index (MMI). For this study, annual macroinvertebrate samples were collected concurrently (in space and time) at 15 USGS surface-water gaging stations in the Fountain Creek Basin from 2010 to 2012 using four sampling methods. The USGS monitoring project in the basin uses two of the methods and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment recommends the other two. These methods belong to two distinct sample types, one that targets single habitats and one that targets multiple habitats. The study results indicate that there are significant differences in MMI values obtained from the single-habitat and multihabitat sample types but methods from each program within each sample type produced comparable values. This study also determined that MMI values calculated by different versions of the Colorado Benthic Macroinvertebrate MMI are indistinguishable. This indicates that the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment methods are comparable with the USGS monitoring project methods for single-habitat and multihabitat sample types. This report discusses the direct application of the study results to inform the revision of the existing USGS monitoring project in the Fountain Creek Basin.

  4. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Kevin W.; Burton, G. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: Dowex TM Optipore TM (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the Dowex TM treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach

  5. Cascade-pond System Health Assessment Based on Macroinvertebrate Indices and Its Relationship with Impervious Cover and Aquatic Buffer Zone in Urbanized Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cascade-pond system consists of six ponds located at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. Its catchment area is dominated by high density urban area with moderate to high imperviousness. Some of riparian buffers surrounds six ponds are also occupied by high imperviousness that may lead some ecohydrological problems i.e. water quality degradation, declining freshwater biodiversity and food web changes. The aim of this study is assessing the current state of cascade-pond system health. The assessment of macroinvertebrate indices is based on SingScore that have been developed by Public Utilities Board of Singapore for macroinvertebrate biotic index. Impervious cover data is obtained from high-resolution imageries and processed using ArcGIS 10.5. Qualitative statistics methods, Chi-squared test describes the relationship of macroinvertebrate indices with catchment area imperviousness and aquatic buffer zone. The health assessment based on macroinvertebrates indices shows that the lower ponds are relatively healthier than the upper one. There is also any significant relationship between macroinvertebrate indices with impervious cover based on chi square test and cross tabulation analysis.

  6. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    (87 percent). Less often used are tolerance values for metals (28 percent). Benthic data are infrequently modified (34 percent) prior to analysis. Fixed-count subsampling is used widely (83 percent), with the number of organisms sorted ranging from 100 to 600 specimens. Most programs include a step during sample processing to acquire rare taxa (79 percent). Programs calculate from 2 to more than100 different metrics (mean 20), and most formulate a multimetric index (87 percent). Eleven of the 112 metrics reported represent 50 percent of all metrics considered to be useful, and most of these are based on richness or percent composition. Biotic indices and tolerance metrics are most oftenused in the eastern U.S., and functional and habitat-type metrics are most often used in the western U.S. Sixty-nine percent of programs analyze their data in-house, typically performing correlations and regressions, and few use any form of data transformation (34 percent). Fifty-one percent of the programs use multivariate analyses, typically non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. All programs have electronic data storage. Most programs use the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (75 percent) for nomenclature and to update historical data (78 percent). State procedures represent a diversity of biomonitoring approaches which likely compromises comparability among programs. A national-state consensus is needed for: (1) developing methods for the identification of reference conditions and reference sites, (2) standardization in determining and reporting species richness, (3) testing and documenting both the theoretical and mechanistic basis of often-used metrics, (4) development of properly replicated point-source study designs, and (5) curation of benthic macroinvertebrate data, including reference and voucher collections, for successful evaluation of future environmental changes.

  7. Assessing the ecological status of the Cisadane River’s headwaters using benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, M.; Wardiatno, Y.; Anzani, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used in river health biomonitoring. In monitoring program biotic indices are now widely established in water quality monitoring around the world, including in the tropical countries. The aim of this study was to reveal the ecological status of Cisadane River’s headwaters in inside and outside of Mount Halimun-Salak National Park by using benthic macroinvertebrates. The research was conducted in the headwaters of Cisadane River located in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park. Macroinvertebrates were collected from four sites, i.e. inside the park (station 1, 2, 3, and 4) and from two sites outside the park (station 5 and 6). Collections were made twice a month, starting from April to June 2015 by means of Surber sampler (frame area 30x30 cm). A total of 65 genera from 38 families and 11 orders were found in the river. The results showed that based on diversity index, Lincoln Quality Index (LQI), Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number Average Level 2 (SIGNAL 2), stations located within national park were ecologically better than those outside national park. Rivers with well-preserved riverside vegetation, as in the national park area have greater ecological status.

  8. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  9. Evaluating macroinvertebrate community shifts in the confluence of freestone and limestone streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Hellmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are critical to ecosystem functioning through their regulation of many essential top-down and bottom-up ecosystem processes such as energy translocation, nutrient flow, and detrital decomposition. However, specific preferences by macroinvertebrates for certain ranges of abiotic and biotic characteristics mean that changes in these factors often create large differences in benthic community structure. Investigations into drivers of community structure have found distinct patterns of variation between ecosystems, but drivers of macroscale variation may differ from drivers of microscale variation. Such microscale variation in macroinvertebrate community structure as a function of abiotic conditions may be found in the confluence of two geologically distinct freshwater streams. Variation in the origin, underlying bedrock, and watershed of a stream results in drastically different physical and chemical characteristics and correspondingly distinct macroinvertebrate community structures. In areas where water from geologically distinct streams flows together, a mixing zone emerges with unique chemical and physical characteristics. There is little information on how invertebrate communities are structured within this mixing zone. To investigate this, we examined how the structure of the macroinvertebrate community changed downstream of the confluence. Up to thirty metres downstream, we found distinct stream sections that mirrored physical and chemical conditions found in limestone and freestone streams, and a mixing zone with emergent properties. These physical and chemical changes between sites were accompanied by shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition. Diversity indices indicated significantly higher diversity in freestone sites than in limestone sites or the mixing zone and there was a unique composition of genera in the mixing zone that were distinct from both limestone and freestone sites. Factors driving

  10. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Performance of biotic indices in comparison to chemical-based Water Quality Index (WQI) in evaluating the water quality of urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abdul Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul; Abas Kutty, Ahmad; Mahazar, Mohd Akmal; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Ab Hamid, Suhaila

    2018-04-19

    In order to evaluate the water quality of one of the most polluted urban river in Malaysia, the Penchala River, performance of eight biotic indices, Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP), BMWP Thai , BMWP Viet , Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), ASPT Thai , BMWP Viet , Family Biotic Index (FBI), and Singapore Biotic Index (SingScore), was compared. The water quality categorization based on these biotic indices was then compared with the categorization of Malaysian Water Quality Index (WQI) derived from measurements of six water physicochemical parameters (pH, BOD, COD, NH 3 -N, DO, and TSS). The river was divided into four sections: upstream section (recreational area), middle stream 1 (residential area), middle stream 2 (commercial area), and downstream. Abundance and diversity of the macroinvertebrates were the highest in the upstream section (407 individual and H' = 1.56, respectively), followed by the middle stream 1 (356 individual and H' = 0.82). The least abundance was recorded in the downstream section (214 individual). Among all biotic indices, BMWP was the most reliable in evaluating the water quality of this urban river as their classifications were comparable to the WQI. BMWPs in this study have strong relationships with dissolved oxygen (DO) content. Our results demonstrated that the biotic indices were more sensitive towards organic pollution than the WQI. BMWP indices especially BMWP Viet were the most reliable and could be adopted along with the WQI for assessment of water quality in urban rivers.

  12. Isonychia spp. and macroinvertebrate community responses to stressors in streams utilizing the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, Kevin W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wright State University, 127 Allyn Hall, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)], E-mail: custer.4@wright.edu; Burton, G. Allen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wright State University, 127 Allyn Hall, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Exposures of caged organisms in situ have proven to be a useful way to improve exposure realism and link to stressor effects in aquatic assessments of hazard or risk. A novel cage system, the benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation (BiTIE), was developed for benthic macroinvertebrates (surrogate species, resident populations and communities) to separate low and high flow effects, and major chemical classes of stressors in streams. Three resin types were used to separate the chemical stressors in the streams Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek, Ohio, USA: Dowex{sup TM} Optipore{sup TM} (non-polar organics), zeolite (ammonia), and polywool (control). Isonychia spp. sensitivity was compared to Chironomus tentans, and no significant differences were found (p > 0.05). Isonychia spp. growth (length) showed a stressor response in the zeolite treatments, and community testing revealed improved metric responses in the Dowex{sup TM} treatments. The BiTIE chamber system demonstrated stressor-response relationships using sublethal and multimetric endpoints. - Use of an indigenous aquatic insect and benthic macroinvertebrate communities allows for discerning the stressors in low and high flows with an in situ TIE approach.

  13. Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Ellawela, Amaya; Gunatilake, Saman B

    2012-08-03

    To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; 'High-achievers' (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and 'Low-achievers' (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ) with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable 'Honours degree at final MBBS' as the dependant factor. Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. 'High-achievers' were significantly younger than 'Low-achievers'. Significant proportion of 'High-achievers' were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of 'High-achievers' entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained 'Distinctions' at the GCE A/L English subject. 'High-achievers' demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity.The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a 'Distinction' for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non

  14. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  15. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  16. Development of a benthic multimetric index for biomonitoring of a neotropical watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Biotic indices are important tools for evaluating water quality in Biomonitoring Programmes of river basins. The objective of this study was to develop a Benthic Multimetric Index (BMI to evaluate the water quality in a neotropical catchment in southeastern Brazil. Thirty metrics were evaluated and six were selected to calculate the BMI: family richness, % Oligochaeta, % Chironomidae + Oligochaeta (% CHOL, % EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, % Collector-gatherers, and BMWP-CETEC biotic index. Sampling was carried in triplicate at 21 sampling sites (8 in the river channel and 13 in the tributaries during 4 annual collecting trips from June 2004 to November 2007, making a total of 945 samples. Scores (5, 3 or 1 were attributed to each chosen metric and were added up to establish the water quality criteria (a score of 6-12 - poor; 13-18 - intermediate; 19-24 - good; and 25-30 - very good water quality. Our results indicated that 48% of the sampling sites analysed in the catchment basin presented very good water quality, 14% good quality, 19% regular, and 19% poor water quality. This methodology proved to be an efficient tool for evaluating water quality in the Biomonitoring Programme of the Velhas River basin, and that it may serve to evaluate water quality in other river basins in South America.

  17. Assessing the performance of macroinvertebrate metrics in the Challhuaco-Ñireco System (Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Mauad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seven sites were examined in the Challhuaco-Ñireco system, located in the reserve of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, however part of the catchment is urbanized, being San Carlos de Bariloche (150,000 inhabitants placed in the lower part of the basin. Physico-chemical variables were measured and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during three consecutive years at seven sites from the headwater to the river outlet. Sites near the source of the river were characterised by Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera, whereas sites close to the river mouth were dominated by Diptera, Oligochaeta and Mollusca. Regarding functional feeding groups, collector-gatherers were dominant at all sites and this pattern was consistent among years. Ordination Analysis (RDA revealed that species assemblages distribution responded to the climatic and topographic gradient (temperature and elevation, but also were associated with variables related to human impact (conductivity, nitrate and phosphate contents. Species assemblages at headwaters were mostly represented by sensitive insects, whereas tolerant taxa such as Tubificidae, Lumbriculidae, Chironomidae and crustacean Aegla sp. were dominant at urbanised sites. Regarding macroinvertebrate metrics employed, total richness, EPT taxa, Shannon diversity index and Biotic Monitoring Patagonian Stream index resulted fairly consistent and evidenced different levels of disturbances at the stream, meaning that this measures are suitable for evaluation of the status of Patagonian mountain streams.

  18. Relative performance of three stream bed stability indices as indicators of stream health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnierz, Paul C; Holbrook, Christopher M

    2017-10-16

    Bed stability is an important stream habitat attribute because it affects geomorphology and biotic communities. Natural resource managers desire indices of bed stability that can be used under a wide range of geomorphic conditions, are biologically meaningful, and are easily incorporated into sampling protocols. To eliminate potential bias due to presence of instream wood and increase precision of stability values, we modified a stream bed instability index (ISI) to include measurements of bankfull depth (d bf ) and median particle diameter (D 50 ) only in riffles and increased the pebble count to decrease variability (i.e., increase precision) in D 50 . The new riffle-based instability index (RISI) was compared to two established indices: ISI and the riffle stability index (RSI). RISI and ISI were strongly associated with each other but neither was closely associated with RSI. RISI and ISI were closely associated with both a diatom- and two macrovertebrate-based stream health indices, but RSI was only weakly associated with the macroinvertebrate indices. Unexpectedly, precision of D 50 did not differ between RISI and ISI. Results suggest that RISI is a viable alternative to both ISI and RSI for evaluating bed stability in multiple stream types. With few data requirements and a simple protocol, RISI may also better conform to riffle-based sampling methods used by some water quality practitioners.

  19. Effects of Climate Change on Urban Rainwater Harvesting in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Fai A. Lo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to water-related issues due to rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure and changes in rainfall patterns. This study aims at assessing the impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting systems (RWH in the tropical urban city, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The future climate change projections are downscaled from global circulation models to the urban catchment scale using the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG, described in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, coupled with Inter Comparison Project (CMIP3 model results. Historical rainfall data from 1981–2010 is used to simulate long-term future rainfall data from 2011–2099. The percentage change of the rainfall is calculated. The rainfall patterns are analyzed based on the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Water requirements are calculated based on the selected scenario types. Rainfall and water demand data are incorporated into a water balance model. Climate change impacts for the selected RWH scenarios are calculated based on the water security analysis for each scenario. Analysis of the future rainfall data of Colombo reveals that several extreme weather events with very heavy rainfall may occur in the future. However, the frequency of these big events may not occur too often. Most of the selected global circulation models (GCMs in this study predict that there will be more rainfall towards the end of this century (2080-2099. Residential RWH systems will be more affected than non-residential systems. RWH systems in Colombo should include potential future climate changes in their future design and planning and be prepared for excess runoff and additional measures against potential overflow and urban floods.

  20. Multimetric index for assessing ecological condition of running waters in the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilio F. Baptista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a rapid multimetric index using benthic macrofauna as bioindicators of ecological conditions for the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 33698 macroinvertebrates were collected in 27 sites. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method that consists in sampling 20 m² of substrate collected in approximate proportion to the representation of all major habitat types in the reach. A subsampling procedure was used. The main steps followed to develop and test the index were: exclusion of unsuitable metrics using box-whisker plots, considering the degree of overlapping among interquartile limits (1º-3º and confirmed by Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05 using six reference rivers and six impaired rivers. From all the candidate potential metrics, 36 were considered suitable. After identifying redundant metrics, through Spearman correlation analysis, and considering practical application criteria, six core metrics were selected to compose the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Multimetric Index (PPPMI using the continuous method: Family richness, Shannon-Wiener family diversity, EPT family richness, %Diptera, %MOLD (Mollusca + Diptera and %Collectors. The sensitivity of the index was tested in 15 rivers using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the six environmental variables. The first axis of the PCA was highly correlated to the PPPMI scores (r = 0.703, p < 0.001. The PPPMI responded to a set of environmental variables associated to a gradient of human disturbance affecting the ecological condition of the waterbodies. This indicates that the PPPMI is an effective tool for biological monitoring and decision making in the hydrographic region of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto rivers.

  1. Permafrost thaw and intense thermokarst activity decreases abundance of stream benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Krista S; Lento, Jennifer; Culp, Joseph M; Lacelle, Denis; Kokelj, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    Intensification of permafrost thaw has increased the frequency and magnitude of large permafrost slope disturbances (mega slumps) in glaciated terrain of northwestern Canada. Individual thermokarst disturbances up to 40 ha in area have made large volumes of previously frozen sediments available for leaching and transport to adjacent streams, significantly increasing sediment and solute loads in these systems. To test the effects of this climate-sensitive disturbance regime on the ecology of Arctic streams, we explored the relationship between physical and chemical variables and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches in the Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Highly disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches differed with respect to taxonomic composition and invertebrate abundance. Minimally disturbed reaches were not differentiated by these variables but rather were distributed along a disturbance gradient between highly disturbed and undisturbed sites. In particular, there was evidence of a strong negative relationship between macroinvertebrate abundance and total suspended solids, and a positive relationship between abundance and the distance from the disturbance. Increases in both sediments and nutrients appear to be the proximate cause of community differences in highly disturbed streams. Declines in macroinvertebrate abundance in response to slump activity have implications for the food webs of these systems, potentially leading to negative impacts on higher trophic levels, such as fish. Furthermore, the disturbance impacts on stream health can be expected to intensify as climate change increases the frequency and magnitude of thermokarst. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  3. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  4. Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranasinghe Priyanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of

  5. Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos T; Giannakou, Urania; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use

  6. Limnological state index (LSI) to evaluate ecological conditions of the Canal del Dique wetlands, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla A, Gabriel A; Duarte Coy, Juliana; Vega Mora, Leonel

    2010-01-01

    Determining the ecological state or health of an ecosystem offers useful tools for its management and conservation. In Colombia, indexes of aquatic systems that combine in a single parameter the physical, chemical and biological variables have not been published, and the evaluation of water bodies' ecological state has been fragmentary or incomplete. In this work a limnological state index (LSI) for wetlands of the Canal del Dique, ecosystems under constant pressure by the human communities, is presented. For the construction of this multi-metric index, graphs of quality of the selected variables were constructed and values of importance were assigned to them. The theory of the multi-attributes was used to construct the LSI, which considers 12 variables. A principal components analysis was realized with these chosen parameters. A simplified version was designed (partial LSI - PLSI) in which four of the biological variables were excluded. Finally, an interpretation scale of the values obtained with these indices was built. The LSI and the PLSI were applied to wetlands of the Canal del Dique to establish their current ecological condition. Data show that the limnological state of most wetlands is acceptable, which suggests that these lentic ecosystems are within tolerable limits of function, although they are not exempt from deterioration processes.

  7. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  8. Identifying Watershed, Landscape, and Engineering Design Factors that Influence the Biotic Condition of Restored Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Doll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate, were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression analyses revealed correlations between design and landscape variables with macroinvertebrate metrics. The correlations were strengthened by adding watershed variables. Ridge regression was used to find the best-fit model for predicting dominant taxa from the “pollution sensitive” orders of Ephemeroptera (mayflies, Plecoptera (stoneflies, and Trichoptera (caddisflies, or EPT taxa, resulting in coefficient weights that were most interpretable relative to site selection and design parameters. Results indicate that larger (wider streams located in the mountains and foothills where there are steeper valleys, larger substrate, and undeveloped watersheds are expected to have higher numbers of dominant EPT taxa. In addition, EPT taxa numbers are positively correlated with accessible floodplain width and negatively correlated with width-to-depth ratio and sinuosity. This study indicates that both site selection and design should be carefully considered in order to maximize the resulting biotic condition and associated potential ecological uplift of the stream.

  9. Effects of Student-Induced Trampling on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in Agricultural Headwater Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Bossley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor education (OE stream classes provide students with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience with sampling methods for evaluating stream water quality. Trampling by students as a result of stream classes may disrupt the substrate and negatively impact aquatic macroinvertebrates. The impact of student-induced trampling in headwaters as a result of stream classes on aquatic macroinvertebrates has not been evaluated. Our aim was to document the short-term macroinvertebrate responses to an experimental disturbance that simulated the impacts of trampling by students in riffles within small headwater streams. We measured hydrologic variables, visually estimated substrate composition and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates within control and experimental riffles in three agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio one day prior to experimental disturbance, immediately after disturbance and one day after disturbance. Hydrologic variables and substrate type did not differ daily or between riffle types. Macroinvertebrate abundance, percentage of Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera and percentage of Leuctridae increased after experimental disturbance, while diversity, evenness, percentage of clingers and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS axis 1 site scores declined after disturbance. Macroinvertebrate diversity, percent clingers and NMS axis 1 site scores were lower in experimental riffles than control riffles. None of the macroinvertebrate response variables exhibited a significant interaction effect of day × riffle type that is indicative of an effect of the experimental disturbance. Our results suggest the one-time use of an undisturbed riffle within an agricultural headwater stream for an OE stream class is not likely to impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  10. A zone-specific fish-based biotic index as a management tool for the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Jan; Quataert, Paul; Stevens, Maarten; Ollevier, Frans; Volckaert, Filip A M; Van den Bergh, Ericia; Maes, Joachim

    2010-07-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are a valuable aid in communication by summarising complex information about the environment (Harrison and Whitfield, 2004). A zone-specific fish-based multimetric estuarine index of biotic integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were pre-classified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure classes were selected for further analysis. Thresholds for the good ecological potential (GEP) were defined from references. A modified trisection was applied for the other thresholds. The Z-EBI is defined by the average of the metric scores calculated over a one year period and translated into an ecological quality ratio (EQR). The indices integrate structural and functional qualities of the estuarine fish communities. The Z-EBI performances were successfully validated for habitat degradation in the various habitat zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimates of dengue force of infection in children in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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    Clarence C Tam

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk of primary infection among seronegative children. Over 50% of children had IgG antibodies to dengue virus and seroprevalence increased with age. The risk of primary infection was 14.1% per year (95% CI: 12.7%-15.6%, indicating that among initially seronegative children, approximately 1 in 7 experience their first infection within 12 months. There was weak evidence to suggest that the force of primary infection could be lower for children aged 6 years and above. We estimate that there are approximately 30 primary dengue infections among children <12 years in the community for every case notified to national surveillance, although this ratio is closer to 100:1 among infants. Dengue represents a considerable infection burden among children in urban Sri Lanka, with levels of transmission comparable to those in the more established epidemics of Southeast Asia.

  12. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  13. Wetland habitat disturbance best predicts metrics of an amphibian index of biotic integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Micacchion, Mick; Adams, Jean V.

    2015-01-01

    Regression and classification trees were used to identify the best predictors of the five component metrics of the Ohio Amphibian Index of Biotic Integrity (AmphIBI) in 54 wetlands in Ohio, USA. Of the 17 wetland- and surrounding landscape-scale variables considered, the best predictor for all AmphIBI metrics was habitat alteration and development within the wetland. The results were qualitatively similar to the best predictors for a wetland vegetation index of biotic integrity, suggesting that similar management practices (e.g., reducing or eliminating nutrient enrichment from agriculture, mowing, grazing, logging, and removing down woody debris) within the boundaries of the wetland can be applied to effectively increase the quality of wetland vegetation and amphibian communities.

  14. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Barbara; Hiby, Elly; Gilbert, Will; Obeyesekere, Nalinika; Bennani, Houda; Rushton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. Methodology/Principal Findings A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. Conclusions The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow

  15. A one health framework for the evaluation of rabies control programmes: a case study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Häsler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 ("baseline scenario" and the new comprehensive intervention measures ("intervention" for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders

  16. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... the mean weight-specific respiratory rate of macroinvertebrates declined by only 50%, from 400 to 3800 m. We suggest that this disproportionately large gap between availability and demand of oxygen at high altitudes may imply a potential oxygen deficiency for the fauna, and we discuss how oxygen deficiency...

  17. APPRAISING THE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED IMPACTS TO CHOOSE THE MODE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Madhuwanthi; Ashuboda Marasinghe; Shusaku Nomura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a model to evaluate the probability of choosing the mode of public transport with finding most significant aspects related to the characteristic of the journey, characteristic of the traveler and the personal behavior of the traveler. The study area was focused on eleven Divisional Secretariat Divisions of the Colombo Metropolitan Area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. This area has the most economically advanced functions as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The cu...

  18. Reach-scale stream restoration in agricultural streams of southern Minnesota alters structural and functional responses of macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Christine L.; Eggert, Susan L.; Magner, Joe; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that stream restoration at the reach scale may not increase stream biodiversity, raising concerns about the utility of this conservation practice. We examined whether reach-scale restoration in disturbed agricultural streams was associated with changes in macroinvertebrate community structure (total macroinvertebrate taxon richness, total macroinvertebrate density, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera [EPT] taxon richness, % abundance of EPT taxa) or secondary production (macroinvertebrate biomass over time). We collected macroinvertebrate samples over the course of 1 y from restored and unrestored reaches of 3 streams in southern Minnesota and used generalized least-square (GLS) models to assess whether measures of community structure were related to reach type, stream site, or sampling month. After accounting for effects of stream site and time, we found no significant difference in total taxon richness or % abundance of EPT taxa between restored and unrestored reaches. However, the number of EPT taxa and macroinvertebrate density were significantly higher in restored than in unrestored reaches. We compared secondary production estimates among study reaches based on 95th-percentile confidence intervals generated via bootstrapping. In each study stream, secondary production was significantly (2–3×) higher in the restored than in the unrestored reach. Higher productivity in the restored reaches was largely a result of the disproportionate success of a few dominant, tolerant taxa. Our findings suggest that reach-scale restoration may have ecological effects that are not detected by measures of total taxon richness alone.

  19. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy...... stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate...... the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence...

  20. The impact of episodic coal mine drainage pollution on benthic macroinvertebrates in streams in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCausland, A.; McTammany, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic coal mine drainage, caused by fluctuations in mine discharges relative to stream flow, has devastating effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Seven stream reaches in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania were identified as chronically, episodically or not impaired by mine drainage, and sampled seasonally for 1 year to determine the effect of episodic mine drainage on macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance fluctuated seasonally in episodic sites; it was lower in winter when discharge increased and higher in summer when discharges decreased and mine drainage made up a larger proportion of stream flow. Although we hypothesized that episodic streams would have higher macroinvertebrate richness than chronic streams, comparisons showed no differences in richness between treatments. Episodic pollution may result from undersized or poorly maintained passive treatment systems; therefore, intensive macroinvertebrate monitoring may be needed to identify streams being affected by episodic mine drainage because macroinvertebrate richness may be sensitive to water quality fluctuations. - Episodic coal mine pollution decreases benthic macroinvertebrate richness and density

  1. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Bioassessment in nonperennial streams: Hydrologic stability influences assessment validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, R. D.; Stein, E. D.; Schiff, K.; Ode, P.; Rehn, A.

    2011-12-01

    Nonperennial streams pose a challenge for bioassessment, as assessment tools developed in perennial streams may not work in these systems. For example, indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) developed in perennial streams may give improper indications of impairment in nonperennial streams, or may be unstable. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates from 12 nonperennial streams in southern California. In addition, we deployed loggers to obtain continuous measures of flow. 3 sites were revisited over 2 years. For each site, we calculated several metrics, IBIs, and O/E scores to determine if assessments were consistent and valid throughout the summer. Hydrology varied widely among the streams, with several streams drying between sampling events. IBIs suggested good ecological health at the beginning of the study, but declined sharply at some sites. Multivariate ordination suggested that, despite differences among sites, changes in community structure were similar, with shifts from Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera to Coleoptera and more tolerant organisms. Site revisits revealed a surprising level of variability, as 2 of the 3 revisited sites had perennial or near-perennial flow in the second year of sampling. IBI scores were more consistent in streams with stable hydrographs than in those with strongly intermittent hydrographs. These results suggest that nonperennial streams can be monitored successfully, but they may require short index periods and distinct metrics from those used in perennial streams. In addition, better approaches to mapping nonperennial streams are required.

  3. Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  4. Ecological and ecotoxicological responses in the assessment of the ecological status of freshwater systems: A case-study of the temporary stream Brejo of Cagarrão (South of Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, P; Matos, C; Alvarenga, P; Köck-Schulmeyer, M; Simões, I; Barceló, D; López de Alda, M J

    2018-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the integrated use of macroinvertebrate indexes and ecotoxicological parameters in the evaluation of the ecological status of a temporary stream with a strong agricultural influence. Water quality was analysed at two sampling sites along the stream, considering: chemical supporting parameters; hazardous substances (pesticides); benthic macroinvertebrate communities, through quality (Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party and Iberian Average Score Per Taxon) and multi-metric indices (Southern Portuguese Index of Invertebrates and Ecological Quality Ratio); and ecotoxicological responses using lethal and sub-lethal bioassays. The water chemical characterization showed high levels of organic matter and nutrients, mainly in the dry period ((biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ): 18.5-25.5mgL -1 , chemical oxygen demand (COD): 60.8-193.7mgL -1 ; total phosphorus (TP): 0.17-0.33mgL -1 )), which may compromise the support of biological life. In accordance with the physicochemical results, the stream had an ecological status less than good. Of the 25 pesticides analysed, only five, namely terbuthylazine, 2-methyl-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, bentazone, mecoprop and metolachlor were quantified. In general, the concentrations of pesticides detected were low, except at the source of the stream in January 2012 (sum of pesticides 2.29μgL -1 ), mainly due to the concentration of bentazone (1.77μgL -1 ), both values surpassing the European Commission threshold values. The analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed low levels of abundance and family diversity, with communities dominated by resistant groups to organic pollution and pesticides, such as the Chironomidae family. In general, the reproduction ecotoxicological results showed a very marked decrease in the number of juveniles per female. The Spearman correlation identified pesticides, namely MCPA (R=-0.89; p<0.05), as the main responsible for the observed effect. The results

  5. Health assessment using aqua-quality indicators of alpine streams (Khunjerab National Park), Gilgit, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salar; Gao, Junfeng; Begum, Farida; Rasool, Atta; Ismail, Muhammad; Cai, Yongjiu; Ali, Shaukat; Ali, Shujaat

    2017-02-01

    This preliminary research was conducted to evaluate the alpine stream health by using water quality as an indicator in Khunjerab National park of the Karakoram ranges located in Pak-China boarder Pakistan having altitude of 3660 m. This study investigated the stream health in the context of the presence or absence of sensitive species, their diversity, and their taxa richness. The water and macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 17 different locations from upstream and downstream of the river by using random sampling method. Macroinvertebrate samples were obtained using kick net (500-μm mesh size) and hand-picking method (NYSDEC). A total of 710 counts including 41 families of macroinvertebrates were recorded comprising of 7 orders including: Ephemeroptera (46%) being the most dominant group, Plecoptera (33%), Trichoptera (5%), Chironomidae (Diptera) (14%), Heteroptera (1%), and Coleoptera (1%). Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) were found in abundance at the main source, Qarchanai, Dhee, and Tourqeen Nullah, as compared to the other locations of the stream. The most dominant macroinvertebrate was Ephemeroptera whose relative abundance is Pi = 0.49 by using the Shannon index. However, different statistical tools, including principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), ANOVA, and linear regression model, show a strong correlation between water quality and macroinvertebrates. The overall results of the biological indicators showed better ecological health at downstream compared to upstream. This study will provide basic information and understanding about the macroinvertebrates for future researchers, and the data will be helpful for upcoming research programs on alpine streams for the discovery and occurrences of macroinvertebrates and associated fauna.

  6. Developing a Phytoplankton Biotic Index as an Indicator of Freshwater Inflow within a Subtropical Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, J. L.; Quigg, A.; Lucchese, A.; Preischel, H.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater inflows drive the water and sediment quality in coastal bays and estuaries influencing the ecosystem and health of the biological community. Phytoplankton accessory pigments (used as a proxy for major taxonomic groups) have been utilized to develop a biotic index of physical, chemical and biotic disturbances in Chesapeake Bay (USA) and other estuarine systems. In this study we have used the Chesapeake Bay - Phytoplankton Index of Biotic Integrity model as a guide in developing an index for Galveston Bay, TX (USA) as an indicator of sufficient freshwater inflow to a subtropical estuary. Multivariate statistical analyses were run using PRIMER-E+PERMANOVA to determine the correlations between phytoplankton accessory pigment concentrations and a suite of abiotic factors associated with freshwater inflow (salinity, DIN, PO4, secchi). Phytoplankton pigment concentrations and water quality parameters were collected across Galveston Bay on a monthly basis from 2008-2013. In the upper region of the bay nearest the river source Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae (winter (Dec-Feb)) and Chlorophyceae (winter and spring (Mar-May)) were significantly correlated to freshwater inflow and nutrient concentrations PO4 (p<0.05). Increased concentrations of Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae (summer (Jun-Aug)) were significantly correlated to lower concentrations of DIN (p<0.05). Near the mouth of the estuary there was a significant correlation between the increase in Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Dinophyceae with decreasing PO4 (p<0.05). Within the dynamic system of Galveston Bay we are working to apply a Phytoplankton Index of Biotic Integrity as a means of monitoring the biological health of this ecologically and economically important estuarine ecosystem.

  7. The correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal ranges of temperature of Colombo district, Sri Lanka 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. B. Ehelepola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal temperatures, ranging around different mean temperatures, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective: We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design: We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained daily maximum and minimum temperatures from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and 7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions: Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this.

  8. Development of index of biotic integrity expectations for the ecoregions of Indiana. I. Central corn belt plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987 mandate the development of biological criteria for evaluating the nation's surface waters. The requirements of Section 304(a) was implemented in Indiana to determine water resource degradation. A total of 197 headwater and wading stream sites were sampled in the Central Corn Belt Plain ecoregion in order to develop and calibrate an Index of Biotic Integrity for use in Indiana. Based on inherent variance within the ecoregion, sub-basins were established based on the concept of natural areas as recognized by Homoya et al. (1985). Site specific data; locality information; and species specific scoring criteria for tolerance classification, trophic guilds, and reproductive guilds are included in the appendix

  9. Development and Validation of an Aquatic Fine Sediment Biotic Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Christina D.; Minshall, G. Wayne; Danehy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fine Sediment Biotic Index (FSBI) is a regional, stressor-specific biomonitoring index to assess fine sediment (Plecoptera (5), Trichoptera (3), and Ephemeroptera (2) contained all but one of the species or species groups classified as extremely sensitive. Index validation with an independent data set of 255 streams found FSBI scores to accurately predict both high and low levels of measured fine sediment.

  10. Effects of logging on macroinvertebrates in streams with and without buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Erman, D C; Roby, K B

    1980-01-01

    The impact of logging with and without buffer strip protection on stream macroinvertebrates was examined through comparisons of community structure in commercially logged and control watersheds throughout northern California. A nonparametric test of community dissimilarities within matched blocks of two control and one or two treated stations showed significant (P < 0.05) logging effects on unprotected streams when Euclidean distance and mutual information were used as dissimilarity indices, but not when chord distance was used. Shannon diversity in unprotected streams was lower (P < 0.01) than in control (unlogged) streams; densities of total macroinvertebrate fauna and of Chironomidae, Baetis, and Nemoura were higher in unprotected streams than in controls (P <0.05). Streams with narrow buffer strips (<30 m) showed significant effects by the Euclidean distance test, but diversity varied widely and was not significantly different from that in either unprotected or control streams than in controls (P < 0.05). Macroinvertebrate communities in streams with wide buffers (greater than or equal to 30m) could not be distinguished from those of controls by either Euclidean distance or diversity; however, diversity in wide-buffered streams was significantly greater than in streams without buffer strips, indicating effective protection from logging effects.

  11. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  12. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  13. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Creek site indicated a statistically significant (phabitat characteristics were similar at the Bull Creek and Hogan Creek reaches. However, the Pauls Creek reach was distinguished from the other two sites by a lack of pools, greater bankfull widths, greater streamflow and velocity, and larger basin size. Historical changes in the stream channel in the vicinity of the Pauls Creek streamgage are evident in aerial photographs dating from 1936 to 2005 and could have contributed to stream-channel instability. The duration of this study likely was inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitat characteristics. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages differed by site and changed during the course of the study. Bull Creek, the best management practices site, stood out as the site having the poorest overall conditions and the greatest improvement in benthic macroinvertebrate communities during the study period. Richness and diversity metrics indicated that benthic macroinvertebrate community conditions at the Hogan Creek and Pauls Creek sites declined during the study, although the status was excellent based on the North Carolina Index of Biotic Integrity. Experiences encountered during this study exemplify the difficulties of attempting to assess the short-term effects of stream-improvement efforts on a watershed scale and, in particular, the difficulty of finding similar basins for a comparative study. Data interpretation was complicated by dry climatic conditions and unanticipated land disturbances that occurred during the study in each of the three study basins. For example, agricultural best management practices were implemented in the drainage basin of the control site prior to and during the study. An impoundment on Bull Creek upstream from the streamgaging station probably influenced water-quality conditions and streamflow. Road construction in the vicinity of the Pauls Creek site potentially masked changes related to stream-improvement efforts. In addition, stream

  14. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ► %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ► %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ► Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ► This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

  15. Spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of macroinvertebrate distributions and associated environmental drivers in subtropical Asian rivers is relatively scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system, the Dongjiang River Basin, in southeastern China. A total of 70 families and 9 classes of macroinvertebrates were identified from 74 sites sampled in January 2013. Our study has the following findings: (1 a distinct spatial differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities was present in the Dongjiang River Basin indicated by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which corresponded to the northern region (NR, middle region (MR, and southern region (SR gradient; (2 ANOVAs showed that diversity indices (total taxa, Margalef index and the Shannon diversity index, biotic indices (richness of EPT, percentage of EPT, and family biotic index and most of the studied environmental conditions (elevation, slope, steam order, water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, substrates, ammoniacal nitrogen, total phosphorus, percentage of urban land, percentage of rural land, and percentage of forest land differed significantly among the three regions and a degradation gradient was observed in the NR–MR–SR direction; (3 Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that NR sites were characterized by steep slope and coarse substrate, MR sites were characterized by high water temperatures and shallow slopes, and SR sites were primarily characterized by high total phosphorus and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; and (4 the Indicator Species Analysis, in conjunction with CCA analysis indicated that the most representative indicator taxon is Tipulidae for NR, Semisulcospira sp. for MR, and Branchiura sp. for SR.

  16. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  17. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in agricultural, mining, and urban tropical streams: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwedzi, Tongayi; Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda

    2016-06-01

    The study evaluated the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages to changes in water quality in different land-use settings in Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe. Four land-use categories were identified: forested commercial farming, communal farming, Great Dyke mining (GDM) and urban areas. Macroinvertebrate community structure and physicochemical variables data were collected in two seasons from 41 sites following standard methods. Although not environmentally threatening, urban and GDM areas were characterised by higher conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, magnesium and hardness. Chlorides, total phosphates, total nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium were significantly highest in urban sites whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was significantly higher in the forested commercial faming and GDM sites. Macroinvertebrate communities followed the observed changes in water quality. Macroinvertebrates in urban sites indicated severe pollution (e.g. Chironomidae) whilst those in forested commercial farming sites and GDM sites indicated relatively clean water (e.g. Notonemouridae). Forested watersheds together with good farm management practices are important in mitigating impacts of urbanisation and agriculture. Strategies that reduce oxygen-depleting substances must be devised to protect the health of Zimbabwean streams. The study affirms the wider applicability of the South African Scoring System in different land uses.

  18. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  19. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  20. Change does not happen overnight: a case study on stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guareschi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of day/night conditions on individual animal/plant species has been widely studied, but diel cycle studies of the entire stream macroinvertebrate community are extremely rare. This study explored potential dissimilarities between daytime and nighttime macroinvertebrate assemblages by extensive fieldwork conducted in the Lemme stream, a natural water course of NW Italy. Here numerous structural and functional metrics (richness, abundance, biomass, indicator taxa, composition, biomonitoring values and feeding groups were evaluated at the family level. Small-scale environmental variables were investigated to understand possible differences between macroinvertebrate assemblages in the daytime/nighttime. After collecting and identifying 21 459 organisms of 50 taxa, Chironomidae (Diptera was the most abundant under both day and night conditions. Our findings stressed that similar results and biological information on daytime/nighttime data were obtained. No marked differences could be related to various factors: heterotrophic condition of small-order streams, presence of aquatic predators under night and day conditions, absence of taxa with a specific phototaxis. Of all the environmental variables, velocity was always the most important in both situations, with some differences detected in the importance of the second variable (riverbed substrate diameter. This research, and future studies on different conditions and geographic areas, will contribute knowledge on stream macroinvertebrate diel activity, and provide useful information about efficient sampling strategies.

  1. Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Ratnayake, Himali Erandathie; Palmer, Paula; Matthews, David R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as illicit drugs were used as psychoactive substances. Ingredients of some of these compounds are not fully understood or regulated. Prevalence of cannabis use was 3.85% in males and 0.24% in females. Studying nonscience subjects for Advanced Level, doing sports, low academic performance, and peer smoking significantly increased the odds of using one or more substances (P substances were used by schoolchildren. More strategies to prevent further aggravation of these behaviors are needed. Constituents of some compounds are not understood and need further evaluation. Recognized high-risk groups can be targets for preventive and cessation programs.

  2. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the Da......We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...

  3. A comparison of different biotic indices based on benthic macro-invertebrates in italian lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MARZIALI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates samples were taken from Italian lakes with different geological, morphological and chemical characteristics. Thirty-two lowland small and large lakes sampled using a grab in soft substrate were selected to develop biotic indices. Diversity indices based on species numbers - abundances and indices using species sensitivity values were compared. The lakes selected were all situated in the Alpine Ecoregion below 800 m a.s.l. and had similar chemical composition but different levels of anthropogenic pressure. Lakes with data available in different years were included as separate lakes in the analysis; littoralsublittoral samples of large lakes were also separated from profundal samples yielding a total of 41 sites for analysis. Seven different biotic indices were compared: (1 Shannon diversity index (H, (2 weighted Shannon diversity index (Hw including in the calculation a sensitivity value assigned to each species, (3 a benthic quality index based on means of three different environmental variables, measuring trophic status, weighted by species abundances (BQITS, (4 an index based on weighted means using a larger set of environmental variables (BQIENV, (5 a modified BQITS, which included both species numbers and total abundance of individuals (BQIES, (6 an index calculated according to a rarefaction method (ES, (7 an index considering indicator species based on experts judgment (BQIEJ. The indices were compared with a trophic status index (TSI constructed by joining three environmental variables: O2% saturation in the hypolimnion during summer stratification, total phosphorous and transparency during full circulation. Comparisons were also made with another environmental stress index (ENI constructed on a larger number of variables. All the biotic indices had significant correlations with both TSI and ENI. BQIES, WFD compliant and well correlated with TSI and ENI, was selected to tentatively assign the investigated lakes

  4. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  5. Ecological health in the Nation's streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

  6. Development of a multimetric index based on macroinvertebrates for drainage ditch networks in agricultural areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drainage ditches are a prominent feature of many intensively managed agricultural areas. These small, shallow, line-shaped waterbodies could harbor a rich macroinvertebrate community, resembling that of natural small lentic ecosystems. Despite their high biodiversity potential, many ditch ecosystems

  7. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  8. Cryptic biodiversity in streams - a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecologists and entomologists have long known that species-level identifications were difficult, if not impossible, for many larval macroinvertebrates collected in streams. This study describes macroinvertebrate (primarily insect) communities from five coastal streams dist...

  9. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.

  10. Depauperate macroinvertebrates in a mine affected stream: Clean water may be the key to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Hose, G.C.; Turak, E.; Warden, B.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is frequently linked with changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages, but the relative contribution of water and sediment to toxicity is equivocal. We have shown that the macroinvertebrate fauna of Neubecks Ck, a mine impacted stream in New South Wales, Australia, was much poorer than in two reference streams. Multivariate RELATE analyses indicated that the patterns in the biological data were more strongly correlated with the concentrations of common metals in the surface water than the pore water of these streams. From this we hypothesised that the water was more toxic to the biota than the sediment and we tested this hypothesis with a sediment transplant experiment. Sediment from Neubecks Ck that was placed in reference streams retained high concentrations of metals throughout the experiment, yet supported a macroinvertebrate assemblage similar to that in the reference streams. Sediment from the reference streams that was placed in Neubecks Ck supported few, if any, animals. This indicates that water in Neubecks Ck is toxic to biota, but that sediment is able to support aquatic biota in clean water. Therefore, remediation should focus on improving water quality rather than sediment quality. - Macroinvertebrates colonise contaminated sediment in clean water

  11. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  12. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  13. Efficiency of Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI of macroinvertebrates in detecting aquatic pollution in an oxbow lake in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the efficiency of a macroinvertebrate-based Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI in detecting aquatic pollution in the Chhariganga oxbow lake in India. In this lake, calculated PTIs were compared with results from an array of physicochemical water and sediment parameters and to a macroinvertebrate diversity assessment conducted in parallel for the same lake. The obtained PTI values fell in a range (between 20 and 31 that are indicative of an absence of organic pollution according to the literature, and are normally reported for systems devoid of anthropogenic activity (for instance no monsoonal polluting jute retting activities. However, in the light of the results for the assessed water and sediment physicochemical parameters, and the support of diversity indexes of macroinvertebrates, using data from the same lake, it was possible to conclude that the obtained PTI values do not reflect the true pollution status of this oxbow lake. As PTI values and diversity indexes contradict each other in detecting pollution, it is advised to take both parameters into consideration when using macroinvertebrates to assess aquatic health.

  14. Effects of local land-use on riparian vegetation, water quality, and the functional organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Pablo; Bertrán, Carlos; Tapia, Jaime; Hauenstein, Enrique; Peña-Cortés, Fernando; Vergara, Carolina; Cerna, Cindy; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2017-12-31

    Land-use change is a principal factor affecting riparian vegetation and river biodiversity. In Chile, land-use change has drastically intensified over the last decade, with native forests converted to exotic forest plantations and agricultural land. However, the effects thereof on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. Closing this knowledge gap first requires understanding how human perturbations affect riparian and stream biota. Identified biological indicators could then be applied to determine the health of fluvial ecosystems. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of land-use change on the health of riparian and aquatic ecosystems by assessing riparian vegetation, water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and functional feeding groups. Twenty-one sites in catchment areas with different land-uses (i.e. pristine forests, native forests, exotic forest plantations, and agricultural land) were selected and sampled during the 2010 to 2012 dry seasons. Riparian vegetation quality was highest in pristine forests. Per the modified Macroinvertebrate Family Biotic Index for Chilean species, the best conditions existed in native forests and the worst in agricultural catchments. Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages significantly varied across land-use areas, with forest plantations and agricultural land having high nutrient concentrations, conductivity, suspended solids, and apparent color. Macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity was lowest for agricultural and exotic forest plantation catchments, with notable non-insect representation. Collector-gatherers were the most abundant functional feeding group, suggesting importance independent of land-use. Land-use areas showed no significant differences in functional feeding groups. In conclusion, anthropogenic land-use changes were detectable through riparian quality, water quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages, but not through functional feeding groups. These data, particularly the

  15. Effects of agricultural and urban impacts on macroinvertebrates assemblages in streams (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ubiratan Hepp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of agricultural and urban activities on the structure and composition of benthic communities of streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in streams influenced by urbanization and agriculture and in streams with no anthropogenic disturbances (reference streams. Organism density was superior in urban streams when compared with streams in the other two areas. The taxonomic richness and Shannon diversity index were higher in reference streams. The benthic fauna composition was significantly different among land uses. The classification and ordination analyses corroborated the results of variance analyses demonstrating the formation of clusters corresponding to streams with similar land use. Seasonality was also found to influence the benthic community, though in a lesser degree than land use.

  16. Short-term disturbance effects of outdoor education stream classes on aquatic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outdoor education stream classes provide students with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience with sampling methods for evaluating stream water quality. Student trampling as a result of stream classes may disrupt the substrate and negatively impact aquatic macroinvertebrates. The impact of stude...

  17. Development of a macrophyte-based index of biotic integrity for Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M.W.; Hatch, L.K.; Vondracek, B.; Valley, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional approaches for managing aquatic resources have often failed to account for effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biota that are not directly reflected by chemical and physical proxies of environmental condition. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a potentially effective assessment method to integrate ecological, functional, and structural aspects of aquatic systems. A macrophyte-based IBI was developed for Minnesota lakes to assess the ability of aquatic plant communities to indicate environmental condition. The index was developed using quantitative point intercept vegetation surveys for 97 lakes that represent a range of limnological and watershed characteristics. We followed an approach similar to that used in Wisconsin to develop the aquatic macrophyte community index (AMCI). Regional adaptation of the AMCI required the identification of species representative of macrophyte communities in Minnesota. Metrics and scaling methods were also substantially modified to produce a more empirically robust index. Regression analyses indicated that IBI scores reflected statewide differences in lake trophic state (R2 = 0.57, F = 130.3, df = 1, 95, p indicated a unique response of the IBI to human-induced stress separate from a response to natural lake characteristics. The IBI was minimally affected by differences in sample point density as indicated by Monte Carlo analyses of reduced sampling effort. Our analysis indicates that a macrophyte IBI calibrated for Minnesota lakes could be useful for identifying differences in environmental condition attributed to human-induced stress gradients. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  19. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: Buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardón, Marcelo; Duff, John H.; Ramírez, Alonso; Small, Gaston E.; Jackman, Alan P.; Triska, Frank J.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (∼ 6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ∼ 5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 μeq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 μeq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO 3 − was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe 2+ , and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 μeq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 μeq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and suggest that low

  20. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marcel Parreira de Castro

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation. Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna. Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches.

  1. Does diet influence consumer nutrient cycling? Macroinvertebrate and fish excretion in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McManamay; Jackson Webster; H. Valett; C. Dolloff

    2011-01-01

    Consumer nutrient cycling supplies limiting elements to autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in aquatic systems. However, the role of consumers in supplying nutrients may change depending on their diet and their own stoichiometry. We evaluated the stoichiometry, N and P excretion, and diets of the dominant macroinvertebrates and fish at 6 stream sites to determine...

  2. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-14

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  3. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  4. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  5. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  6. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  7. POP bioaccumulation in macroinvertebrates of alpine freshwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzotto, E.C.; Villa, S.; Vighi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study serves to investigate the uptake of POPs in the different trophic levels (scrapers, collectors, predators, shredders) of macroinvertebrate communities sampled from a glacial and a non-glacial stream in the Italian Alps. The presented results show that the contaminant concentrations in glacial communities are generally higher compared to those from non-glacial catchments, highlighting the importance of glaciers as temporary sinks of atmospherically transported pollutants. Moreover, the data also suggests that in mountain systems snow plays an important role in influencing macroinvertebrate contamination. The main chemical uptake process to the macroinvertebrates is considered to be bioconcentration from water, as similar contaminant profiles were observed between the different trophic levels. The role of biomagnification/bioaccumulation is thought to be absent or negligible. The enrichment of chemicals observed in the predators is likely to be related to their greater lipid content compared to that of other feeding groups. - Influence of POP release in glacial-fed streams, enhanced by global warming, on pristine aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Applying Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity in a soft bottom ecosystem in North of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustshenas, B; Savari, A; Nabavi, S M B; Kochanian, P; Sadrinasab, M

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was selected in an attempt to describe ecological health of soft bottom channels (Khowr-e Musa) in North of the Persian Gulf. Most of study area was found to be in degraded or severely degraded conditions. B-IBI scores were ranged between 1 and 3.86. Comparison ofmacrobenthos abundance and organic content between two developmental periods showed significant difference (p dredging. Choice of suitable management plans and metric controls could help to the salvage of the largest tidal channel complex in Persian Gulf.

  9. Epidemiology and symptomatology of depression in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional population-based survey in Colombo District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Harriet A; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Kovas, Yulia; Glozier, Nick; McGuffin, Peter; Sumathipala, Athula; Hotopf, Matthew

    2010-06-01

    It is important to understand the nature of depression in non-Western and lower-income countries, but little such research exists. This study aimed to examine the characteristic features of depression in Sri Lanka, and to identify environmental risk factors. Depression diagnoses, symptoms and impairment were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, in a population-based sample of 6014 twins and non-twins in the Colombo region of Sri Lanka (the CoTASS sample). Socio-demographic factors and environments were assessed via questionnaires. Lifetime-ever depression was reported in 6.6% of participants, rising to 11.2% if the functional impairment criterion was excluded. The symptom profile of depression and its socio-demographic associations were very comparable to those in Western and more economically developed countries, whether functional impairment was included in the definition or not. Standard of living was independently associated with depression, especially among men at the more deprived end of the distribution. Specific associations were found with both financial wellbeing and material characteristics of the home environment. The observational associations identified are cross-sectional, so do not necessarily imply causal links. Aside from a lower prevalence, depression is very similar in this predominantly urban Sri Lankan sample to higher-income, Western countries, and may be under-identified due to a relatively low cultural appropriateness of the assessment of impairment. Under Sri Lanka's cultural and environmental context, certain aspects of the material environment are associated with depression among certain segments of society, perhaps because of their particular link to social status and social networks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Level of health literacy and factors associated with it among school teachers in an education zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. B. H. Denuwara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy refers to people's competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. This study aimed to describe the level of health literacy and the factors associated with it among school teachers in an Education Zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study among 520 teachers measured health literacy using the selfadministered, culturally adapted Sinhalese translation of Health Literacy Survey-European Union (HLS-EU. Health literacy assessment was based on self-reported competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in the domains of disease prevention, healthcare and health promotion. Based on a score, respondents were divided into four levels of health literacy as 'inadequate', 'problematic', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' as well as into two levels as 'limited' and 'adequate'. Factors associated with 'limited' health literacy was determined by using univariate analysis and assessing their associations using chi square test. Multivariate analysis was also done using multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with limited health literacy controlled for confounding effects. A p value of 0.05 determined the significance. Results The response rate was 96.5%. Mean age was 43years (SD = +9.75, 81.7% (n = 410 were females and 66.1% (n = 332 were graduates. Only 3.6% (n = 18 taught the subject health while 18.3% (n = 92 taught science. 'Limited' health literacy was found in 32.5% (95% CI 28.4%–36.6% while 67.5% (95% CI 63.4%–71.6%, 61.2% (95% CI 56.9%-65.5% and 6.4% (95% CI 4.3%–8.5% showed 'adequate', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' levels, respectively. 'Problematic' and 'inadequate' health literacy were 31.5% (95% CI 27.4%-35.6% and 1% (95% CI 0.1%–1.9%. Univariate analysis showed not being a member of health club/welfare group (p = 0.002, having not done any special course on health (p = 0

  11. Level of health literacy and factors associated with it among school teachers in an education zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuwara, H M B H; Gunawardena, Nalika Sepali

    2017-07-06

    Health literacy refers to people's competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. This study aimed to describe the level of health literacy and the factors associated with it among school teachers in an Education Zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study among 520 teachers measured health literacy using the selfadministered, culturally adapted Sinhalese translation of Health Literacy Survey-European Union (HLS-EU). Health literacy assessment was based on self-reported competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in the domains of disease prevention, healthcare and health promotion. Based on a score, respondents were divided into four levels of health literacy as 'inadequate', 'problematic', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' as well as into two levels as 'limited' and 'adequate'. Factors associated with 'limited' health literacy was determined by using univariate analysis and assessing their associations using chi square test. Multivariate analysis was also done using multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with limited health literacy controlled for confounding effects. A p value of 0.05 determined the significance. The response rate was 96.5%. Mean age was 43years (SD = +9.75), 81.7% (n = 410) were females and 66.1% (n = 332) were graduates. Only 3.6% (n = 18) taught the subject health while 18.3% (n = 92) taught science. 'Limited' health literacy was found in 32.5% (95% CI 28.4%-36.6%) while 67.5% (95% CI 63.4%-71.6%), 61.2% (95% CI 56.9%-65.5%) and 6.4% (95% CI 4.3%-8.5%) showed 'adequate', 'sufficient' and 'excellent' levels, respectively. 'Problematic' and 'inadequate' health literacy were 31.5% (95% CI 27.4%-35.6%) and 1% (95% CI 0.1%-1.9%). Univariate analysis showed not being a member of health club/welfare group (p = 0.002), having not done any special course on health (p = 0.009), not getting an opportunity to participate

  12. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: Buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardón, Marcelo, E-mail: ardonsayaom@ecu.edu [Department of Biology and North Carolina Center for Biodiversity, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Duff, John H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Ramírez, Alonso [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Small, Gaston E. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Jackman, Alan P. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Triska, Frank J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Pringle, Catherine M. [Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (∼ 6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ∼ 5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 μeq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 μeq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe{sup 2+}, and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 μeq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 μeq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and

  13. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    ; some of these factors were strongly correlated with percent forest, percent urban, or percent agriculture. Total biovolume of periphyton was not strongly correlated with any of the land use, habitat, or water-quality factors assessed in the present study. Although algal growth typically increases with higher nutrient concentrations and less shading, the standing crop of periphyton on rocks can be reduced by herbivorous macroinvertebrates and fish, which may explain why total biovolume in Ozark streams was not strongly affected by water-quality (or other habitat) factors. A macroinvertebrate index and several macroinvertebrate metrics were adversely affected by increasing urban and agricultural land use and associated environmental factors. Factors most commonly affecting the index and metrics included factors associated with water quality, stream geometry, sediment, land-use percentages, and road density. In general, the macroinvertebrate index was higher (indicative of least disturbance) at sites with greater percentages of forest in their basins, lower percentages of urban land in their basins, and lower paved road density. Upstream wastewater-treatment plants affected several metrics. For example, three of the five lowest macroinvertebrate index scores, two of the five lowest percent predator values, and two of the five highest percent gatherer-collector values were at sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. The Ozark Highlands fish index of biotic integrity and several fish metrics were adversely affected by increasing urban and agricultural land use and associated factors. Factors affecting these metrics included factors associated with nutrients, sediment, and shading. In general, the fish index of biotic integrity was higher at sites with higher percentages of forest in their basins, lower percentages of urban land in their basins, higher unpaved road density, and lower paved and total road density. Upstream wastewater-treatment plants seemed to

  14. Effects of watershed and in-stream liming on macroinvertebrate communities in acidified tributaries to an Adirondack lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fuller, Randall L.

    2018-01-01

    Liming techniques are being explored as a means to accelerate the recovery of aquatic biota from decades of acid deposition in many regions. The preservation or restoration of native sportfish populations has typically been the impetus for liming programs, and as such, less attention has been given to its effects on other biological assemblages such as macroinvertebrates. Furthermore, the differing effects of various lime application strategies such as in-stream and watershed applications are not well understood. In 2012, a program was initiated using in-stream and aerial (whole-watershed) liming to improve water quality and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) recruitment in three acidified tributaries of a high-elevation Adirondack lake in New York State. Concurrently, macroinvertebrates were sampled annually between 2013 and 2016 at 3 treated sites and 3 untreated reference sites to assess the effects of each liming technique on this community. Despite improvements in water chemistry in all three limed streams, our results generally suggest that neither liming technique succeeded in improving the condition of macroinvertebrate communities. The watershed application caused an immediate and unsustained decrease in the density of macroinvertebrates and increase in the proportion of sensitive taxa. These changes were driven primarily by a one-year 71 percent reduction of the acid-tolerant Leuctra stoneflies and likely represent an initial chemistry shock from the lime application rather than a recovery response. The in-stream applications appeared to reduce the density of macroinvertebrates, particularly in one stream where undissolved lime covered the natural substrate. The close proximity of our study sites to the in-stream application points (50 and 1230 m) may partly explain these negative effects. Our results are consistent with prior studies of in-stream liming which indicate that this technique often fails to restore macroinvertebrate communities to a pre

  15. An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Ranagalage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA, Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017. In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative and NDBI (positive (p < 0.001 across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD, near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA.

  16. Effects of sea lamprey substrate modification and carcass nutrients on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a small Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to patch dynamics arising from interactions of physical and chemical disturbances across space and time. Anadromous fish, such as sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, migrate from the ocean and alter physical and chemical properties of recipient spawning streams. Sea lamprey disturb stream benthos physically through nest construction and spawning, and enrich food webs through nutrient deposition from decomposing carcasses. Sea lamprey spawning nests support greater macroinvertebrate abundance than adjacent reference areas, but concurrent effects of stream bed modification and nutrient supplementation have not been examined sequentially. We added carcasses and cleared substrate experimentally to mimic the physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment associated with lamprey spawning, and characterized effects on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. We found that areas receiving cleared substrate and carcass nutrients were colonized largely by Simuliidae compared to upstream and downstream control areas that were colonized largely by Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae, and Chironomidae. Environmental factors such as stream flow likely shape assemblages by physically constraining macroinvertebrate establishment and feeding. Our results indicate potential changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages from the physical and chemical changes to streams brought by spawning populations of sea lamprey.

  17. Development of a multimetric index for integrated assessment of salt marsh ecosystem condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jessica L.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Rocks, Erika N.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Grace, James B.; Skidds, Dennis; Stevens, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Tools for assessing and communicating salt marsh condition are essential to guide decisions aimed at maintaining or restoring ecosystem integrity and services. Multimetric indices (MMIs) are increasingly used to provide integrated assessments of ecosystem condition. We employed a theory-based approach that considers the multivariate relationship of metrics with human disturbance to construct a salt marsh MMI for five National Parks in the northeastern USA. We quantified the degree of human disturbance for each marsh using the first principal component score from a principal components analysis of physical, chemical, and land use stressors. We then applied a metric selection algorithm to different combinations of about 45 vegetation and nekton metrics (e.g., species abundance, species richness, and ecological and functional classifications) derived from multi-year monitoring data. While MMIs derived from nekton or vegetation metrics alone were strongly correlated with human disturbance (r values from −0.80 to −0.93), an MMI derived from both vegetation and nekton metrics yielded an exceptionally strong correlation with disturbance (r = −0.96). Individual MMIs included from one to five metrics. The metric-assembly algorithm yielded parsimonious MMIs that exhibit the greatest possible correlations with disturbance in a way that is objective, efficient, and reproducible.

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    Full Length Research Paper. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in Kashmir Himalaya, India. Shazia Habib1* and A.R. Yousuf2. 1Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. 2National Green Tribunal, Government of India, India. Received 31 December, 2013; ...

  19. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  20. Association between chronic periodontitis and oral health-related quality of life in Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of chronic periodontitis on oral health-related quality of life in Sri Lankan adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,400 participants, 35-60 years of age, residing in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Data were collected using two interviewer-administered questionnaires and an oral examination. The prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts increased with the increase in severity of chronic periodontitis. The most commonly experienced impacts were within the domain of physical pain. The adjusted Poisson regression model indicated that chronic periodontitis was significantly associated with the prevalence of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 48% and 69% higher in those with moderate and severe periodontitis, respectively, compared with those with no/mild periodontitis. Oral health-related quality of life deteriorates with the increase in severity of chronic periodontitis. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Multiple stress response of lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates is dependent on habitat type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Jensen, Tinna M.; Rasmussen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in the recent years...

  2. Macro Invertebrates As Bio Indicators Of Water Quality In Nzovwe Stream In Mbeya Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Nzovwe stream using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Biological monitoring working party BMWP scoring system was the index used to assess the ecosystem health of Nzovwe stream. A total of 584 aquatic macroinvertebrates were identified from Nzovwe stream. They belonged to 22 families. The most abundant taxa were Odonata 35.959 Hemiptera 25.514 Coleoptera 18.493 and Diptera 12.842. Whereas the least abundant taxa were Ephemeroptera and Gastropoda each constituting 1.028 of all macroinvertebrates. The most abundant macroinvertebrates were Dragonflies 27.226 Water striders 13.185 and Creeping water bugs 10.274 whereas the least abundant were Giant water bugs 0.514 and Backswimmers 0.514. The BMWP score of Nzovwe stream was 115. Based on this score the water of Nzovwe stream is neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic environment. Hence the Nzovwe stream is moderately polluted due to non-point source pollution from several sources. Moreover it was found that agricultural activities washing and bathing could alter physico-chemical parameters of the stream and hence changing the abundance of macroinvertebrates as well as the quality of water. This study therefore recommends that the source of pollutants should be controlled and the stream regularly monitored by the relevant authorities. Additionally biological indicators and their indices are suggested to be used in assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem.

  3. Cryptic biodiversity in streams: a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species-level identifications are difficult or impossible for many larval aquatic macroinvertebrates. We described the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities from 5 coastal streams in 3 neighboring catchments in southern California. We compared taxonomic identific...

  4. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  5. Compliance of secondary production and eco-exergy as indicators of benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages' response to canopy cover conditions in Neotropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Marden Seabra; Callisto, Marcos; Marques, João Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Riparian vegetation cover influences benthic assemblages structure and functioning in headwater streams, as it regulates light availability and autochthonous primary production in these ecosystems.Secondary production, diversity, and exergy-based indicators were applied in capturing how riparian cover influences the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) open canopy will determine the occurrence of higher diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages; (2) streams with open canopy will exhibit more complex benthic macroinvertebrate communities (in terms of information embedded in the organisms' biomass); (3) in streams with open canopy benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages will be more efficient in using the available resources to build structure, which will be reflected by higher eco-exergy values; (4) benthic assemblages in streams with open canopy will exhibit more secondary productivity. We selected eight non-impacted headwater streams, four shaded and four with open canopy, all located in the Neotropical savannah (Cerrado) of southeastern Brazil. Open canopy streams consistently exhibited significantly higher eco-exergy and instant secondary production values, exemplifying that these streams may support more complex and productive benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Nevertheless, diversity indices and specific eco-exergy were not significantly different in shaded and open canopy streams. Since all the studied streams were selected for being considered as non-impacted, this suggests that the potential represented by more available food resources was not used to build a more complex dissipative structure. These results illustrate the role and importance of the canopy cover characteristics on the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams, while autochthonous production appears to play a crucial role as food

  6. Social media-based civic engagement solutions for dengue prevention in Sri Lanka: results of receptivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Foo, Schubert; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Wimalaratne, Prasad

    2016-02-01

    This article focuses on a novel social media-based system that addresses dengue prevention through an integration of three components: predictive surveillance, civic engagement and health education. The aim was to conduct a potential receptivity assessment of this system among smartphone users in the city of Colombo, the epicenter of the dengue epidemic in the island country of Sri Lanka. Grounded in Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and using a convenience sampling approach, the cross-sectional survey assessed perceived severity (PSe), perceived susceptibility (PSu), perceived response efficacy (PRE), perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and intention-to-use (IU) among 513 individuals. The overall receptivity to the system was high with a score of >4.00 on a five-point scale. Participants belonging to younger, better educated and higher income groups reported significantly better perceptions of the efficaciousness of the system, were confident in their ability to use the system, and planned to use it in the future. PMT variables contributed significantly to regression models predicting IU. We concluded that a social media-based system for dengue prevention will be positively received among Colombo residents and a targeted, strategic health communication effort to raise dengue-related threat perceptions will be needed to encourage greater adoption and use of the system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nuclear methods in soil-plant aspects of sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an FAO/IAEA regional seminar for Asia and the Pacific held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 5-9 April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The document contains 24 papers presented at the FAO/IAEA Regional Seminar for Asia and the Pacific organized by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and agriculture and held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, between 5-9 April 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  9. Biotic diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at contrasting glacier-fed systems in Patagonia Mountains: The role of environmental heterogeneity facing global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia; Epele, Luis B; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Y; Omad, Guillermo H; Archangelsky, Miguel; Martínez, Oscar; Kutschker, Adriana M

    2018-05-01

    Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km 2 , Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km 2 , Baggilt system), are retreating. Longitudinal distribution of benthic invertebrates partially fitted to predictions for glacierized temperate systems, with Diamesinae spp. dominating at closest sites to the Cónico, and Orthocladiinae increasing downstream, but patterns were unclear at Torrecillas. Generalized Linear Model identified chlorophyll a and conductivity as having significant effect on richness and density respectively at Torrecillas; detritus biomass and gravel influenced species richness, and boulder percentage and water temperature affected density, at Baggilt. Canonical Correspondence Analyses integrating benthic biota and environmental variables revealed that a higher environmental heterogeneity at Baggilt, related with spatial dimension (unshaded/shaded reaches, wetland reaches), local resources (detritus, bryophytes) and temperature, probably explained the unexpected high richness in benthic assemblages (67 taxa). Environmental conditions imposed by the lake outlet (proglacial) at Torrecillas resulted in a less diverse community (31 taxa). Finally our results suggest that these isolated, small glacier-fed streams typical of the Patagonian landscape appear highly vulnerable to global warming. Endemic elements could disappear at upper segments being replaced by other species common at rhithral environments, which might increase local diversity (alfa diversity) but decrease regional diversity (gamma diversity). From an ecosystem perspective

  10. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-atlantic highlands watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Roger C; Wei, Xinchao; Fortney, Ronald; Hedrick, Lara B; Welsh, Stuart A; Anderson, James T; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  11. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...

  12. Spray drift of pesticides and stream macroinvertebrates: Experimental evidence of impacts and effectiveness of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, Lorraine [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.maltby@sheffield.ac.uk; Hills, Louise [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Impoverished stream communities in agricultural landscapes have been associated with pesticide contamination, but conclusive evidence of causality is rare. We address this deficiency by adopting an experimental approach to investigate the effects of the insecticides cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on benthic macroinvertebrates. Three treatments were established and a combination of biomarker, bioassay and biomonitoring approaches was employed to investigate, individual, population and community-level effects. Animals deployed during pesticide application had altered enzyme activity, depressed feeding rate and reduced survival, but these effects were only observed where pesticide was sprayed to the stream edge. There were no clear pesticide-related effects on macroinvertebrate community structure or on the population densities of individual species. Hence, short-term pesticide exposure did cause individual-level effects in stream macroinvertebrates, but these were not translated to effects at the population or community-level and were effectively mitigated by the adoption of a no-spray buffer zone. - Pulsed pesticide exposures via spray drift adversely affected stream invertebrates but did not cause population or community-level effects and were mitigated by no-spray buffer zones.

  13. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  14. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  15. An Integrated Model to Predict Corporate Failure of Listed Companies in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisansala Wijekoon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to develop an integrated model to predict corporate failure of listed companies in Sri Lanka. The logistic regression analysis was employed to a data set of 70 matched-pairs of failed and non-failed companies listed in the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE in Sri Lanka over the period 2002 to 2010. A total of fifteen financial ratios and eight corporate governance variables were used as predictor variables of corporate failure. Analysis of the statistical testing results indicated that model consists with both corporate governance variables and financial ratios improved the prediction accuracy to reach 88.57 per cent one year prior to failure. Furthermore, predictive accuracy of this model in all three years prior to failure is above 80 per cent. Hence model is robust in obtaining accurate results for up to three years prior to failure. It was further found that two financial ratios, working capital to total assets and cash flow from operating activities to total assets, and two corporate governance variables, outside director ratio and company audit committee are having more explanatory power to predict corporate failure. Therefore, model developed in this study can assist investors, managers, shareholders, financial institutions, auditors and regulatory agents in Sri Lanka to forecast corporate failure of listed companies.

  16. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  17. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  18. Effects of grade control structures on fish passage, biological assemblages, and hydraulic environments in western Iowa streams: a multidisciplinary review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.T.; Culler, M.E.; Dermisis, D.C.; Pierce, Clay; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Land use changes and channelization of streams in the deep loess region of western Iowa have led to stream channel incision, altered flow regimes, increased sediment inputs, decreased habitat diversity and reduced lateral connectivity of streams and floodplains. Grade control structures (GCSs) are built in streams to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries and biological communities. We review three complementary biological and hydraulic studies on the effects of GCS in these streams. GCS with steep (≥1:4 rise : run) downstream slopes severely limited fish passage, but GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) allowed greater passage. Fish assemblages were dominated by species tolerant of degradation, and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores were indicative of fair or poor biotic integrity. More than 50% of fish species had truncated distributions. After modification of GCS to reduce slopes and permit increased passage, IBI scores increased and several species were detected further upstream than before modification. Total macroinvertebrate density, biomass and taxonomic diversity and abundance of ecologically sensitive taxa were greater at GCS than in reaches immediately upstream, downstream or ≥1 km from GCS. A hydraulic study confirmed results from fish passage studies; minimum depths and maximum current velocities at GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) were more likely to meet minimum criteria for catfish passage than GCS with steeper slopes. Multidisciplinary approaches such as ours will increase understanding of GCS-associated factors influencing fish passage, biological assemblage structure and other ecological relationships in streams.

  19. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  1. Impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in relation to property value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmyer, Jay P.; Noblet, Raymond; Armbrust, Kevin L.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the potential impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems, the macroinvertebrate communities of six streams were assessed using a multimetric approach. Four streams flowed through residential neighborhoods of Peachtree City, GA, USA, with differing mean property values and two reference streams were outside the city limits. A series of correlation analyses were conducted comparing stream rank from water quality and physical stream parameters, habitat assessments, benthic macroinvertebrate metric, pesticide toxicity and metal toxicity data to determine relationships among these parameters. Significant correlations were detected between individual analyses of stream rank for pesticide toxicity, specific conductance, turbidity, temperature and dissolved oxygen with benthic macroinvertebrate metrics. - The macroinvertebrate communities of suburban streams may be influenced by the toxicity of the pesticides present in the water and sediment as well as select water quality parameters

  2. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    also showed that environmental variables such as depth, transparency/depth ratio, total P, chl-a, and TSM differed significantly between the two lagoons. In order to assess the ecological quality of the study sites, the functional ISD index has been applied. From the preliminary results it seems that ISD index, based on the biomass size structure of the macroinvertebrate communities, is more appropriate for the assessment of the ecological status for these particular ecosystems. The development of a monitoring team is essential for the protection and management of these ecologically important ecosystems. Further investigation is necessary to examine the relationships between benthic macroinvertebrates and aquatic macrophytes, the use of biotic indices to the evaluation for lagoonal ecosystems' ecological status and the relation between the hydrological processes and the biodiversity patterns of the biotic elements.

  3. Responses of macroinvertebrate community metrics to a wastewater discharge in the Upper Blue River of Kansas and Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy L.

    2015-01-01

    The Blue River Main wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharges into the upper Blue River (725 km2), and is recently upgraded to implement biological nutrient removal. We measured biotic condition upstream and downstream of the discharge utilizing the macroinvertebrate protocol developed for Kansas streams. We examined responses of 34 metrics to determine the best indicators for discriminating site differences and for predicting biological condition. Significant differences between sites upstream and downstream of the discharge were identified for 15 metrics in April and 12 metrics in August. Upstream biotic condition scores were significantly greater than scores at both downstream sites in April (p = 0.02), and in August the most downstream site was classified as non-biologically supporting. Thirteen EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) considered intolerant of degraded stream quality were absent at one or both downstream sites. Increases in tolerance metrics and filtering macroinvertebrates, and a decline in ratio of scrapers to filterers all indicated effects of increased nutrient enrichment. Stepwise regressions identified several significant models containing a suite of metrics with low redundancy (R2 = 0.90 - 0.99). Based on the rapid decline in biological condition downstream of the discharge, the level of nutrient removal resulting from the facility upgrade (10% - 20%) was not enough to mitigate negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities.

  4. Macroinvertebrate community structure and function along gradients of physical stream quality and pesticide contamination in Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes

    to stream are surface runoff and tile drainage giving rise to short pulses of acute contamination strongly coinciding with high levels of precipitation. Field studies indicate that macroinvertebrate community structure can be impacted by pesticides during spraying seasons in May and June, but also...

  5. Environmental clustering of lakes to evaluate performance of a macrophyte index of biotic integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Vondracek, Bruce; Hatch, Lorin K.

    2013-01-01

    Proper classification of sites is critical for the use of biological indices that can distinguish between natural and human-induced variation in biological response. The macrophyte-based index of biotic integrity was developed to assess the condition of Minnesota lakes in relation to anthropogenic stressors, but macrophyte community composition varies naturally across the state. The goal of the study was to identify environmental characteristics that naturally influence macrophyte index response and establish a preliminary lake classification scheme for biological assessment (bioassessment). Using a comprehensive set of environmental variables, we identified similar groups of lakes by clustering using flexible beta classification. Variance partitioning analysis of IBI response indicated that evaluating similar lake clusters could improve the ability of the macrophyte index to identify community change to anthropogenic stressors, although lake groups did not fully account for the natural variation in macrophyte composition. Diagnostic capabilities of the index could be improved when evaluating lakes with similar environmental characteristics, suggesting the index has potential for accurate bioassessment provided comparable groups of lakes are evaluated.

  6. Effects of extreme floods on macroinvertebrate assemblages in tributaries to the Mohawk River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Mirian R.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is forecast to bring more frequent and intense precipitation to New York which has motivated research into the effects of floods on stream ecosystems. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 13 sites in the Mohawk River basin during August 2011, and again in October 2011, following historic floods caused by remnants of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee. The annual exceedance probabilities of floods at regional flow-monitoring sites ranged from 0.5 to 0.001. Data from the first 2 surveys, and from additional surveys done during July and October 2014, were assessed to characterize the severity of flood impacts, effect of seasonality, and recovery. Indices of total taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness; Hilsenhoff's biotic index; per cent model affinity; and nutrient biotic index-phosphorus were combined to calculate New York State Biological Assessment Profile scores. Analysis of variance tests were used to determine if the Biological Assessment Profile, its component metrics, relative abundance, and diversity differed significantly (p ≤ .05) among the four surveys. Only total taxa richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity increased significantly, and abundance decreased significantly, following the floods. No metrics differed significantly between the July and August 2014 surveys which indicates that the differences denoted between the August and October 2011 surveys were caused by the floods. Changes in taxa richness, EPT richness, and diversity were significantly correlated with flood annual exceedance probabilities. This study increased our understanding of the resistance and resilience of benthic macroinvertebrate communities by showing that their assemblages were relatively impervious to extreme floods across the region.

  7. Relationships of sedimentation and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in headwater streams using systematic longitudinal sampling at the reach scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, S D; Voshell, J R; Dolloff, C A; Roghair, C N

    2010-02-01

    Investigating relationships of benthic invertebrates and sedimentation is challenging because fine sediments act as both natural habitat and potential pollutant at excessive levels. Determining benthic invertebrate sensitivity to sedimentation in forested headwater streams comprised of extreme spatial heterogeneity is even more challenging, especially when associated with a background of historical and intense watershed disturbances that contributed unknown amounts of fine sediments to stream channels. This scenario exists in the Chattahoochee National Forest where such historical timber harvests and contemporary land-uses associated with recreation have potentially affected the biological integrity of headwater streams. In this study, we investigated relationships of sedimentation and the macroinvertebrate assemblages among 14 headwater streams in the forest by assigning 30, 100-m reaches to low, medium, or high sedimentation categories. Only one of 17 assemblage metrics (percent clingers) varied significantly across these categories. This finding has important implications for biological assessments by showing streams impaired physically by sedimentation may not be impaired biologically, at least using traditional approaches. A subsequent multivariate cluster analysis and indicator species analysis were used to further investigate biological patterns independent of sedimentation categories. Evaluating the distribution of sedimentation categories among biological reach clusters showed both within-stream variability in reach-scale sedimentation and sedimentation categories generally variable within clusters, reflecting the overall physical heterogeneity of these headwater environments. Furthermore, relationships of individual sedimentation variables and metrics across the biological cluster groups were weak, suggesting these measures of sedimentation are poor predictors of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure when using a systematic longitudinal sampling design

  8. Colombo

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    W ith a population of approximately 647 0001, Colombo is the largest city and ... to the main network ... can be as small as 20 households or as large as seve- ... an integrated model of service delivery that could be .... low, medium or high.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of multiple stressors on stream invertebrates across watershed, reach and site scales: A structural equation modelling better informing on hydromorphological impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, B; Piffady, J; Valette, L; Souchon, Y; Usseglio-Polatera, P

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of our approach was to take into account the nested spatial scales driving stream functioning in the description of pressures/ecological status links by analysing the results of a hierarchical model. The development of this model has allowed us to answer the following questions: Does the consideration of the indirect links between anthropogenic pressures and stream ecological status modify the hierarchy of pressure types impacting benthic invertebrates? Do the different nested scales play different roles in the anthropogenic pressures/ecological status relationship? Does this model lead to better understanding of the specific role of hydromorphology in the evaluation of stream ecological status? To achieve that goal, we used the Partial Least Square (PLS) path modelling method to develop a structural model linking variables describing (i) land use and hydromorphological alterations at the watershed scale, (ii) hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale, (iii) nutrients-organic matter contamination levels at the site scale, and (iv) substrate characteristics at the sampling site scale, to explain variation in values of a macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index: the French I 2 M 2 . We have highlighted the importance of land use effects exerted on both hydromorphological and chemical characteristics of streams observed at finer scales and their subsequent indirect impact on stream ecological status. Hydromorphological alterations have an effect on the substrate mosaic structure and on the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter at site scale. This result implies that stream hydromorphology can have a major indirect effect on macroinvertebrate assemblages and that the hierarchy of impacts of anthropogenic pressures on stream ecological status generally described in the literature - often determining strategic restoration priorities - has to be re-examined. Finally, the effects of nutrients and organic matter on macroinvertebrate assemblages

  10. Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

  11. Adaptive COIN in Sri Lanka: What Contributed to the Demise of the LTTE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    significant socio -ethnic division in Sri Lankan society is between the numerical majority, the Sinhalese, and the numerical minority, the Sri Lankan...37 K. M. De Silva, Universal Franchise , 1931–1981: The Sri Lankan Experience (Colombo: Dept. of Information, Ministry of State...ethnic conflict due to socio -demographic electoral dynamics and constitutional constraints.118 This did not occur within the GoSL during the CFA period

  12. Macroinvertebrate community structure and function along gradients of physical stream quality and pesticide contamination in Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes

    to stream are surface runoff and tile drainage giving rise to short pulses of acute contamination strongly coinciding with high levels of precipitation. Field studies indicate that macroinvertebrate community structure can be impacted by pesticides during spraying seasons in May and June, but also...... was calculated for 1 km2 catchments (produced from topographical maps) on Funen, Denmark. The physical condition (substrate, meandering etc.) of 1st and 2nd order streams (based on existing data from the National Monitoring Programme and personal exploring) draining these catchments was, additionally, assessed...

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urbanization reduces and homogenizes trait diversity in stream macroinvertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Thomas R; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan

    2017-12-01

    More than one-half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition. We considered three levels of trait organization: individual traits, unique combinations of traits, and community metrics (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) and three levels of impervious surface coverage (low [10%]). The prevalence of an individual trait differed very little between low impervious surface and high impervious surface sites. The arrangement of trait combinations in community trait space for each ecoregion differed when impervious surface coverage was low, but the arrangement became more similar among ecoregions as impervious surface coverage increased. Furthermore, trait combinations that occurred only at low or medium impervious surface coverage were clustered in a subset of the community trait space, indicating that impervious surface affected the presence of only a subset of trait combinations. Functional richness declined with increasing impervious surface, providing evidence for environmental filtering. Community metrics that include abundance were also sensitive to increasing impervious surface coverage: functional divergence decreased while functional evenness increased. These changes demonstrate that increasing impervious surface coverage homogenizes the trait diversity of macroinvertebrate communities in streams, despite differences in initial community composition and stream geomorphology among ecoregions. Community

  15. Detrital processing in streams exposed to acidic precipitation in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, S.K.; Perry, S.A.; Perry, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Continuing high rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States may lead to long-term effects on stream communities, because sensitive catchments are continuing to lose anions and cations. A two-year study of the effects of pH and associated water chemistry variables on detrital processing in three streams with different bedrock geology in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia were investigated. Leaf pack processing rates and macroinvertebrate colonization and microbial biomass (ATP concentration) on the packs in the three stream were compared. It was found that macroinvertebrate and microbial communities differed both among streams that differed in their capacity to buffer the effects of acidic precipitation and among years in the same stream; these differences in biotic communities were not large enough to affect rates of leaf processing between the two years of the study, but they did significantly affect processing rates between acidic and circumneutral streams

  16. Psychosocial wellbeing and physical health among Tamil schoolchildren in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie; Richards, Justin; Surenthirakumaran, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders contribute to the global disease burden and have an increased prevalence among children in emergency settings. Good physical health is crucial for mental well-being, although physical health is multifactorial and the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Using Sri Lanka as a case study, we assessed the baseline levels of, and the association between, mental health and physical health in Tamil school children. We conducted a cross sectional study of mental and physical health in 10 schools in Kilinochchi town in northern Sri Lanka. All Grade 8 children attending selected schools were eligible to participate in the study. Mental health was assessed using the Sri Lankan Index for Psychosocial Stress - Child Version. Physical health was assessed using Body Mass Index for age, height for age Z scores and the Multi-stage Fitness Test. Association between physical and mental health variables was assessed using scatterplots and correlation was assessed using Pearson's R. There were 461 participants included in the study. Girls significantly outperformed boys in the MH testing t (459) = 2.201, p Tamil school children.

  17. Development of a new biotic index to assess freshwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new biotic index of species pollution value (SPV) and community pollution value (CPV) based on the correlation of protozoan communities with chemical water quality to assess freshwater pollution. Five hundred and twenty-three species of protozoa SPV were established based on the data of River Hangjiang and Lake Donghu. The present research was conducted in order to further consummate the biotic index. Protozoa of the water system in Changde City were collected from 16 stations using the PFU method and the water chemical parameters of the stations were analyzed. The results showed that CPV calculated from SPV had a close correlation with the degree of water pollution (p < 0.00001), which indicated that the method is reliable. By combining the data of River Hangjiang, Lake Donghu and Changde City, the final form of SPV was accomplished and the SPV list increased to 757. The ultimate water standard evaluated by CPV calculated from SPV was proposed. - A new biotic index of water quality based on protozoa is described

  18. Development of a new biotic index to assess freshwater pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jianguo [College of Food and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: jgjiang@scut.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    We developed a new biotic index of species pollution value (SPV) and community pollution value (CPV) based on the correlation of protozoan communities with chemical water quality to assess freshwater pollution. Five hundred and twenty-three species of protozoa SPV were established based on the data of River Hangjiang and Lake Donghu. The present research was conducted in order to further consummate the biotic index. Protozoa of the water system in Changde City were collected from 16 stations using the PFU method and the water chemical parameters of the stations were analyzed. The results showed that CPV calculated from SPV had a close correlation with the degree of water pollution (p < 0.00001), which indicated that the method is reliable. By combining the data of River Hangjiang, Lake Donghu and Changde City, the final form of SPV was accomplished and the SPV list increased to 757. The ultimate water standard evaluated by CPV calculated from SPV was proposed. - A new biotic index of water quality based on protozoa is described.

  19. Performance comparison of biotic indices measuring the ecological status base on soft-bottom macroinvertebrates: a study along the shallow Gomishan lagoon (Southeast Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabee Basatnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to test the suitability of some biotic indices for their application in Southeast Caspian Sea. For this purpose, the ecological quality of the Gomishan lagoon was assessed using three biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA during summer and autumn 2010. The results from the application of the biotic indices do not highlight a clear distinction between the stations. The results show that two of the indices (AMBI and BENTIX are very close in terms of diagnosis (good and high and seem to generally perform better than BOPA. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA based on abiotic parameters showed clear spatial and temporal differences in environmental variables. However, at this shallow sites with low human pressure and high water residence times, such benthic community composition can be associated with physical stress due to salinity increase and to changes in environmental characteristics, triggered by conventional seasonal variations. Natural variability of transitional waters is a crucial factor for a correct evaluation of the ecological condition of macroinvertebrate communities across the lagoonal system.

  20. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  1. Indicator value of lotic water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and their use in macroinvertebrate-based indices for water quality assessment purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccoli F. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive (WFD of the European Union includes benthic macroinvertebrates for the ecological assessment of running waters. The invertebrate-based Star-ICMi index, adopted in 2010, does not include Hydrachnidia (water mites in its complex formulation. However, Hydrachnidia are associated with many environmental variables and may be useful for stream ecological characterization. We have therefore assessed the bioindicator value of Hydrachnidia in streams of central Italy, and the ability of two mite-containing (the PTH and the newly formulated PTHfam indices and four mite-excluding biotic indices (Star-ICMi, BMWP, ASPT, and IBE to characterize 216 sites ranging from semipristine to impacted. Mite bioindicator value was high at family level. Index reliability was consistently low for the PTH and ASPT indices. Distribution of mite families across quality classes (QCs was fully separated only for the PTHfam index. QC assignment remained reliable at high index values (i.e., at high ecological status for the PTHfam and BMWP indices, while logarithmic correlations between the PTHfam and the other indices suggest that the latter may misrepresent sites in high, good, and moderate ecological status sensu WFD. Further studies on the PTHfam index are warranted in light of its simplicity, high reliability, and low sampling and taxonomic identification effort.

  2. Patterning and predicting aquatic macroinvertebrate diversities using artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.S.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Chon, T.S.; Lek, S.

    2003-01-01

    A counterpropagation neural network (CPN) was applied to predict species richness (SR) and Shannon diversity index (SH) of benthic macroinvertebrate communities using 34 environmental variables. The data were collected at 664 sites at 23 different water types such as springs, streams, rivers,

  3. Multi-metric model-based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hongki; Spencer, B. F.

    2014-04-01

    ABSTRACT The inspection and maintenance of bridges of all types is critical to the public safety and often critical to the economy of a region. Recent advanced sensor technologies provide accurate and easy-to-deploy means for structural health monitoring and, if the critical locations are known a priori, can be monitored by direct measurements. However, for today's complex civil infrastructure, the critical locations are numerous and often difficult to identify. This paper presents an innovative framework for structural monitoring at arbitrary locations on the structure combining computational models and limited physical sensor information. The use of multi-metric measurements is advocated to improve the accuracy of the approach. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed hybrid monitoring framework, particularly focusing on fatigue life assessment of steel structures.

  4. Short-term effects of visitor trampling on macroinvertebrates in karst streams in an ecotourism region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpinati, Suzana Cunha; Siqueira, Tadeu; Medina, Paulino Barroso; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments.

  5. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  6. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  7. A pilot health information management system for public health midwives serving in a remote area of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, E Shan S; Wimalaratne, Samantha R U; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2012-04-01

    We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) for Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka. We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 PHMs, which found that they spent most of their time managing health records. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was trialled by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area of the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, the PHMs all gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot system, they would like to continue using it to enhance their service and they wanted to see it expanded across the whole of Ratnapura district. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka.

  8. La Popala creek: quality analysis of water from some physical - chemical, microbiological variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan Valoyes, Wandy Yohanna; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The Popala creek supplies water to the people of Bolombolo in Venecia municipality in Antioquia, Colombia. In November 14th and 28th of 2009, four sampling station were located along the creek, to measure five sets of variables: physico- chemical, microbiological, aquatic macroinvertebrate, biological indicators and biotic index BMWP.Physico- chemical variables, aquatic macroinvertebrates and index BMWP indicate good environmental conditions in station 2, located about 150 m from the headwaters (station 1). On the other hand, Station 4, located near to the Cauca River, exhibits deterioration in water quality. Stations 3 and 4 displayed high levels of fecal coliforms. However, the samples taken from Bolombolo's water supply network indicate the water of the aqueduct is adequate for human consumption.

  9. Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a newly established health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunanayake, P; Goonerathne, L; Karunaweera, N D

    2017-09-01

    Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. Patients suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (n = 120) fulfilling at least two of six criteria (fever > 2 weeks, weight loss, tiredness affecting daily functions, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia) were studied using clinic-epidemiological, immunological and haematological parameters. Seven cases (four progressive, treated (group A) and 3 non- progressive, potentially asymptomatic and observed (group B) were identified. Clinical cases were treated with systemic sodium stibogluconate or amphotericin B and all were followed up at the leishmaniasis clinic of University of Colombo for 3 years with one case followed up for 9 years. All treated cases responded well to anti leishmanial treatment. Relapses were not noticed. Clinical features subsided in all non-progressive cases and did not develop suggestive clinical features or change of laboratory parameters. Visceral leishmaniasis cases have been originated from different districts within the country. Majority had a travel history to identified local foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is recognized as an emerging health threat in Sri Lanka. At least a proportion of locally identified strains of L. donovani possess the ability to visceralize. Apparent anti leishmanial sensitivity is encouraging. Timely efforts in disease containment will be important in which accurate understanding of transmission characteristics, increased professional and community awareness, improved diagnostics and availability of appropriate treatment regimens.

  10. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  11. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    account for about four-fifths of the country’s exports, including garments , textiles, gems, as well as agricultural goods. Tourism and repatriated...May 28, 2009. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 13 reform and privatization of state-owned industries in...port facilities in Gwadar, Pakistan; Chittagong, Bangladesh ; and Sittwe, Burma.75 Colombo was also

  12. Macroinvertebrate community responses to gravel augmentation in a high-gradient, Southeastern regulated river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS) and Virginia Pol

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread practice, it is essential to evaluate the biotic response to restoration projects in order to improve the efficacy of future applications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the response of the macroinvertebrate community to gravel addition in a high-gradient, regulated river in western North Carolina. We collected benthic macroinvertebrate samples from gravel-enhanced areas and unenhanced areas for 1 season before gravel addition, and for 4 seasons afterwards. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the responses of macroinvertebrates to gravel addition were generally specific to individual taxa or particular functional feeding groups and did not lead to consistent patterns in overall family richness, diversity, density, or evenness. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition were temporary and dependent upon site conditions and season. Correlations between macroinvertebrate response variables and substrate microhabitat variables existed with or without the inclusion of data from enhanced areas, which suggests that substrate-biotic relationships were present before gravel addition. A review of the current literature suggests that the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to substrate restoration are inconsistent and dependent upon site conditions and the degree habitat improvement of pre-restoration site conditions.

  13. Effect of thematic map misclassification on landscape multi-metric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindl, William J; Powell, Scott L; Hauer, F Richard

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in remote sensing and computational tools have increased our awareness of large-scale environmental problems, thereby creating a need for monitoring, assessment, and management at these scales. Over the last decade, several watershed and regional multi-metric indices have been developed to assist decision-makers with planning actions of these scales. However, these tools use remote-sensing products that are subject to land-cover misclassification, and these errors are rarely incorporated in the assessment results. Here, we examined the sensitivity of a landscape-scale multi-metric index (MMI) to error from thematic land-cover misclassification and the implications of this uncertainty for resource management decisions. Through a case study, we used a simplified floodplain MMI assessment tool, whose metrics were derived from Landsat thematic maps, to initially provide results that were naive to thematic misclassification error. Using a Monte Carlo simulation model, we then incorporated map misclassification error into our MMI, resulting in four important conclusions: (1) each metric had a different sensitivity to error; (2) within each metric, the bias between the error-naive metric scores and simulated scores that incorporate potential error varied in magnitude and direction depending on the underlying land cover at each assessment site; (3) collectively, when the metrics were combined into a multi-metric index, the effects were attenuated; and (4) the index bias indicated that our naive assessment model may overestimate floodplain condition of sites with limited human impacts and, to a lesser extent, either over- or underestimated floodplain condition of sites with mixed land use.

  14. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  15. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  16. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  18. ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING MACRO-INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS: A CASE STUDY OF BHALU KHOLA TRIBUTARY, BUDHIGANDAKI RIVER, GORKHA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Rana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Macroinvertebrates are widely considered as indicators of water quality. The present research work was conducted in Bhalu khola, a tributary of Budhigandaki River, Nepal, to identify water quality using macro invertebrates with Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS, and examine its applicability by comparing with Water Quality Index (WQI.The diversity of macro invertebrates in the studied river was high as depicted by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index. Altogether, 103 macro invertebrates were identified from 11 families and five orders. There were no dominant species, and most of the species were in clumped distribution. According to NEPBIOS index, river water was found to comply with the characteristics of WQ class I-II that means water quality of the river was good. Other indices such as Hilsenhoff and Lincoln quality index (LQI index also supported this result. Similarly, water quality index (WQI also showed similarity with NEPBIOS index, indicating water appropriate for drinking purpose. Thus, it is concluded that the macro invertebrates can be used as economic tools for determining water quality of streams and rivers as efficient water quality indicators.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 55-68

  19. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  20. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated assessment of river health based on the conditions of water quality,aquatic life and physical habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; ZHANG Nan; ZHANG Yuan; ZHENG Binghui

    2009-01-01

    The health conditions of Liao River were assessed using 25 sampling sites in April 2005, with water quality index, biotic index and physical habitat quality index.Based on the method of cluster analysis (CA) for water quality indices, it reveals that heavily polluted sites of Liao River are located at estuary and mainstream.The aquatic species surveyed were attached algae and benthic invertebrates.The result shows that the diversity and biomass of attached algae and benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) are degrading as the chemical and physical quality of water bodies deteriorating.Physiochemical parameters, BOD5, CODCr, TN, TP, NH3-N, DO, petroleum hydrocarbon and conductivity, were statistically analyzed with principal component analysis and correlation analysis.The statistical results were incorporated into the integrated assessing water quality index, combining fecal coliform count, attached algae diversity, B-IBI and physical habitat quality score, a comprehensive integrated assessing system of river ecological health was established.Based on the systimetic assesment, the assessed sites are categorized into 9 "healthy" and "sub-healthy" sites and 8 "sub-sick" and "sick" sites.

  2. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gero; Christmann, Nicole; Thiery, Ann-Cathrin; Martens, Dieter; Kubiniok, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites. The macroinvertebrate population was also surveyed in 16 of these streams. Evidence was found of 41 substances in total. Most dominant substances include atrazine, isoproturone, quinmerac and tebuconazol as well as metabolites of dimethenamid, chloridazon and metazachlor. At 9 of the 23 sampling points, over 10 plant protection products and metabolites were found. Only 17% of the water bodies investigated contained fewer than 5 substances. Around half of the bodies of water investigated show noticeably high concentrations of metabolites of plant protection products. Maximum concentrations exceeding environmental quality standards or the Health-oriented Guideline Values were measured for 13 substances at individual sampling points. Analysis of the biological data for only 4 of the water bodies investigated resulted in the Ecological Status Class (ESC) "good". All others fell short of the quality target, although they were classified as "good" or "very good" according to the Saprobic index. SPEAR pesticides as a measurement of the sensitivity of the biocoenosis to pesticides shows their influence in a few water bodies. Likewise, high toxic unit values have also been calculated, indicating the presence of toxic substances at relevant concentrations. However, an actual correlation between SPEAR pesticides and toxic unit could not be derived. Clearly in these very headwater streams other

  3. SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES OF NEW CALEDONIAN STREAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one sites located on 14 New Caledonian streams were surveyed four times between October 1996 and October 1997 in order to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. About 250 000 invertebrates representing 167 taxa were collected in the streams. Seventy-five percent of identified taxa and 67% of individuals were insects. Major spatial and temporal changes in the composition of the fauna were detected by multivariate analyses (ordination and classification. Overall, the number of individuals was significantly higher in the dry season (October than in the wetter seasons (January and June. However, a low temporal variability was detected in the structure of benthic communities during the sampling period. A cluster analysis based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of sites in relation with rock type, land use, and geographic characteristics. Several metrics (total invertebrate density, taxon richness, relative abundance of major invertebrate groups, diversity indices were used to characterize each group of sites. Forested streams, where the highest specific diversity occurred, represented the most speciose habitat for benthic fauna. A less rich and abundant fauna occurred in streams draining ultramafic rocks probably because of their low content in food resources and organic matter.

  4. Students' perception of school environment and life satisfaction at Sinhala-medium secondary schools in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Gunawardena, Nalika S; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nanri, Akiko; Rajapakse, Lalini; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between students' perception of physical and psychosocial school environment and satisfaction with life among secondary school students in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Data were collected from 20 Sinhala-medium secondary schools between January and February in 2010. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with students in grade seven (n = 342) and grade ten (n = 446). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to assess the associations between students'satisfaction with life measured by Cantril ladders, and scores of perceived physical and psychosocial school environment that focused on school cleanliness and attractiveness, relations with teachers and peers, satisfaction with school and bullying. Students in the highest quartile of school environment score were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction, compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio 2.32; 95% confidence interval 1.35-3.99). Odds ratio of high life satisfaction increased with increasing school environment scores (p for trendenvironment were significantly more likely to have high life satisfaction. Positive changes in the focused areas of school environment have the potential to lead to improved life satisfaction of students.

  5. Bioassessment tools in novel habitats: an evaluation of indices and sampling methods in low-gradient streams in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth; Ritter, Kerry; Rehn, Andy; Ode, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Biomonitoring programs are often required to assess streams for which assessment tools have not been developed. For example, low-gradient streams (slopeindices in the state were developed in high-gradient systems. This study evaluated the performance of three sampling methods [targeted riffle composite (TRC), reach-wide benthos (RWB), and the margin-center-margin modification of RWB (MCM)] and two indices [the Southern California Index of Biotic Integrity (SCIBI) and the ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E)] in low-gradient streams in California for application in this habitat type. Performance was evaluated in terms of efficacy (i.e., ability to collect enough individuals for index calculation), comparability (i.e., similarity of assemblages and index scores), sensitivity (i.e., responsiveness to disturbance), and precision (i.e., ability to detect small differences in index scores). The sampling methods varied in the degree to which they targeted macroinvertebrate-rich microhabitats, such as riffles and vegetated margins, which may be naturally scarce in low-gradient streams. The RWB method failed to collect sufficient numbers of individuals (i.e., >or=450) to calculate the SCIBI in 28 of 45 samples and often collected fewer than 100 individuals, suggesting it is inappropriate for low-gradient streams in California; failures for the other methods were less common (TRC, 16 samples; MCM, 11 samples). Within-site precision, measured as the minimum detectable difference (MDD) was poor but similar across methods for the SCIBI (ranging from 19 to 22). However, RWB had the lowest MDD for O/E scores (0.20 versus 0.24 and 0.28 for MCM and TRC, respectively). Mantel correlations showed that assemblages were more similar within sites among methods than within methods among sites, suggesting that the sampling methods were collecting similar assemblages of organisms. Statistically significant disagreements among methods were not detected, although O/E scores were higher

  6. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, C.; Fritz, Susanne; Marini, L.

    2010-01-01

    . This is surprising as EPT are bio-indicators of stream pollution and most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic dataset, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human...

  7. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  8. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  9. Architecture of portable electronic medical records system integrated with streaming media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shih, Chien-Chou

    2012-02-01

    Due to increasing occurrence of accidents and illness during business trips, travel, or overseas studies, the requirement for portable EMR (Electronic Medical Records) has increased. This study proposes integrating streaming media technology into the EMR system to facilitate referrals, contracted laboratories, and disease notification among hospitals. The current study encoded static and dynamic medical images of patients into a streaming video format and stored them in a Flash Media Server (FMS). Based on the Taiwan Electronic Medical Record Template (TMT) standard, EMR records can be converted into XML documents and used to integrate description fields with embedded streaming videos. This investigation implemented a web-based portable EMR interchanging system using streaming media techniques to expedite exchanging medical image information among hospitals. The proposed architecture of the portable EMR retrieval system not only provides local hospital users the ability to acquire EMR text files from a previous hospital, but also helps access static and dynamic medical images as reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed method protects property rights of medical images through information security mechanisms of the Medical Record Interchange Service Center and Health Certificate Authorization to facilitate proper, efficient, and continuous treatment of patients.

  10. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  11. Longitudinal zonation of macroinvertebrates in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream: do tropical glacial systems fit the temperate model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.; Andino, P.

    2010-01-01

    P>1. The ecology of glacier-fed streams at temperate latitudes has been intensely studied in recent years, leading to the development of a well-validated conceptual model on the longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrate communities downstream of the glacier margin (Freshwater Biology, 2001a...... of the equator in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our goal was to study the longitudinal distribution of the fauna in relation to environmental factors and to compare this with the conceptual model based on temperate-arctic glacier-fed streams. 3. Total density of invertebrates differed considerably at the two highest...... was numerous at the highest sites but became much less important further downstream. The Orthocladiinae were important both in numbers and species at all sites, while Diamesinae were numerous only in the middle of the reach studied and were completely absent from the upper three sites. The limited importance...

  12. The role of macroinvertebrates for conservation of freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Carolina; Ovando, Ximena M C; Loyola, Rafael; Izquierdo, Andrea; Romero, Fátima; Molineri, Carlos; Rodríguez, José; Rueda Martín, Paola; Fernández, Hugo; Manzo, Verónica; Miranda, María José

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. Argentinian-protected areas have been established mainly to protect vertebrates and plants in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to create a comprehensive biodiverse conservation plan, it is crucial to integrate both aquatic and terrestrial systems and to include macroinvertebrates. Here, we address this topic by proposing priority areas of conservation including invertebrates, aquatic ecosystems, and their connectivity and land uses. Northwest of Argentina. We modeled the ecological niches of different taxa of macroinvertebrates such as Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Acari, and Mollusca. Based on these models, we analyzed the contribution of currently established protected areas in the conservation of the aquatic biodiversity and we propose a spatial prioritization taking into account possible conflict regarding different land uses. Our analysis units were the real watersheds, to which were added longitudinal connectivity up and down the rivers. A total of 132 species were modeled in the priority area analyses. The analysis 1 showed that only an insignificant percentage of the macroinvertebrates distribution is within the protected areas in the North West of Argentina. The analyses 2 and 3 recovered similar values of protection for the macroinvertebrate species. The upper part of Bermejo, Salí-Dulce, San Francisco, and the Upper part of Juramento basins were identified as priority areas of conservation. The aquatic ecosystems need special protection and 10% or even as much as 17% of land conservation is insufficient for species of macroinvertebrates. In turn the protected areas need to combine the aquatic and terrestrial systems and need to include macroinvertebrates as a key group to sustain the biodiversity. In many cases, the land uses are in conflict with the conservation of biodiversity; however, it is possible to apply the

  13. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  14. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  15. Assessing the Effects of Hydromorphological Degradation on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Rivers: Examples, Constraints and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, N.; Sandin, L.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    data of 28 Swedish streams, whereas moderate (R2 0.43) relationships with more detailed measurements of morphology were found in 2 Danish studies (39 and 6 streams, respectively). Although evidence exists in the literature on the importance of physical features for in-stream biota in general......) scaling issues (spatial and temporal) when relating habitat surveys to macroinvertebrate assessments, and 3) the scope of commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment systems (mainly focusing on water chemistry perturbation, such as eutrophication and acidification). The need is urgent to develop refined......An extensive amount of literature on linkages between the in-stream physical environment and river benthic macroinvertebrates reports a number of relationships across multiple spatial scales. We analyzed data on different spatial scales to elucidate the linkages between different measurements...

  16. Predicted macroinvertebrate response to water diversion from a montane stream using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models and zero flow approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.

  17. Cleaning lateral morphological features of the root canal: the role of streaming and cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J P; Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Cooper, P R; van der Sluis, L W M; Walmsley, A D

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ultrasonic activation file type, lateral canal location and irrigant on the removal of a biofilm-mimicking hydrogel from a fabricated lateral canal. Additionally, the amount of cavitation and streaming was quantified for these parameters. An intracanal sonochemical dosimetry method was used to quantify the cavitation generated by an IrriSafe 25 mm length, size 25 file inside a root canal model filled with filtered degassed/saturated water or three different concentrations of NaOCl. Removal of a hydrogel, demonstrated previously to be an appropriate biofilm mimic, was recorded to measure the lateral canal cleaning rate from two different instruments (IrriSafe 25 mm length, size 25 and K 21 mm length, size 15) activated with a P5 Suprasson (Satelec) at power P8.5 in degassed/saturated water or NaOCl. Removal rates were compared for significant differences using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and/or Mann-Whitney U-tests. Streaming was measured using high-speed particle imaging velocimetry at 250 kfps, analysing both the oscillatory and steady flow inside the lateral canals. There was no significant difference in amount of cavitation between tap water and oversaturated water (P = 0.538), although more cavitation was observed than in degassed water. The highest cavitation signal was generated with NaOCl solutions (1.0%, 4.5%, 9.0%) (P streaming. The oscillatory velocities were higher inside the lateral canal 3 mm compared to 6 mm from WL and were higher for NaOCl than for saturated water, which in turn was higher than for degassed water. Measurements of cavitation and acoustic streaming have provided insight into their contribution to cleaning. Significant differences in cleaning, cavitation and streaming were found depending on the file type and size, lateral canal location and irrigant used. In general, the IrriSafe file outperformed the K-file, and NaOCl performed better than the other irrigants tested. The cavitation and

  18. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-07-01

    Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components - digitized surveillance, dynamic disease

  19. A bacterial community-based index to assess the ecological status of estuarine and coastal environments

    KAUST Repository

    Aylagas, Eva

    2016-10-23

    Biotic indices for monitoring marine ecosystems are mostly based on the analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Due to their high sensitivity to pollution and fast response to environmental changes, bacterial assemblages could complement the information provided by benthic metazoan communities as indicators of human-induced impacts, but so far, this biological component has not been well explored for this purpose. Here we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyze the bacterial assemblage composition of 51 estuarine and coastal stations characterized by different environmental conditions and human-derived pressures. Using the relative abundance of putative indicator bacterial taxa, we developed a biotic index that is significantly correlated with a sediment quality index calculated on the basis of organic and inorganic compound concentrations. This new index based on bacterial assemblage composition can be a sensitive tool for providing a fast environmental assessment and allow a more comprehensive integrative ecosystem approach for environmental management. © 2016.

  20. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ganga River System Biotic Score (GRSbios) index was applied to determine the ecological ... plemented and today the organic river pollution is gradually ... ing the chemical status of all the surface water in Europe .... 2.2 Sampling sites and approach. In total ...... an Integration of Engineering, Design and Management.

  1. Macroinvertebrate community change associated with the severity of streamflow alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Eng, Kenny; Nelson, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural streamflows play a critical role in stream ecosystems, yet quantitative relations between streamflow alteration and stream health have been elusive. One reason for this difficulty is that neither streamflow alteration nor ecological responses are measured relative to their natural expectations. We assessed macroinvertebrate community condition in 25 mountain streams representing a large gradient of streamflow alteration, which we quantified as the departure of observed flows from natural expectations. Observed flows were obtained from US Geological Survey streamgaging stations and discharge records from dams and diversion structures. During low-flow conditions in September, samples of macroinvertebrate communities were collected at each site, in addition to measures of physical habitat, water chemistry and organic matter. In general, streamflows were artificially high during summer and artificially low throughout the rest of the year. Biological condition, as measured by richness of sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and taxonomic completeness (O/E), was strongly and negatively related to the severity of depleted flows in winter. Analyses of macroinvertebrate traits suggest that taxa losses may have been caused by thermal modification associated with streamflow alteration. Our study yielded quantitative relations between the severity of streamflow alteration and the degree of biological impairment and suggests that water management that reduces streamflows during winter months is likely to have negative effects on downstream benthic communities in Utah mountain streams

  2. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC 50 -48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  3. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor[reg], based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH- dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed. - Toxicity of acid mine drainage was evaluated by macroinvertebrate bioassessment and a new on-line rapid behavioural toxicity test with Atyaephyra desmaresti (Crustacea)

  4. The use of aquatic macrophytes in monitoring and in assessment of biological integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P.M.; Scribailo, R.W.; Simon, T.P.; Gerhardt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic plant species, populations, and communities should be used as indicators of the aquatic environment, allowing detection of ecosystem response to different stressors. Plant tissues bioaccumulate and concentrate toxin levels higher than what is present in the sediments; and this appears to be related to organic matter content, acidification, and buffering capacity. The majority of toxicity studies, most of these with heavy metals, have been done with several Lemna species and Vallisneria americana. Organic chemicals reviewed include pesticides and herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other industrial contaminants. The use of aquatic plant communities as bioindicators of environmental quality was evaluated for specific characteristics and indices that may assess biological integrity. Indices such as the floristic quality index (FQI) and coefficient of conservatism (C) are pioneering efforts to describe the quality of natural areas and protect native biodiversity. Our case study in the Grand Calumet Lagoons found that 'least-impacted' sites had the greatest aquatic plant species richness, highest FQI and C values, and highest relative abundance. Lastly, we introduce the concepts necessary for the development of a plant index of biotic integrity. Development of reference conditions is essential to understanding aquatic plant community structure, function, individual health, condition, and abundance. Information on guild development and tolerance definition are also integral to the development of a multi-metric index.

  5. Impact of heated waters on water quality and macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolak Elzbieta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heated waters from coal-burning power stations on the water parameters and the occurrence of macroinvertebrates depends on the individual characteristics of the river to which the heated waters are discharged. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of heated water from the Ostrołęka Power Station on selected water properties and the macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River. Samples were collected in years: 2013-2016 along two river stretches: upstream and downstream of the canal. The water temperature was higher and the oxygen concentrations were lower at the downstream sites compared to the upstream sites of the canal. The values of conductivity, concentrations of nitrates, phosphates, chlorides and calcium were similar at the sampling sites. A total of 33 families of macrozoobenthos were found. The numbers of families were positively correlated with the temperature and conductivity and negatively correlated with oxygen. The heated waters were found to have no effect on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The inflow of heated waters increased the percentage of Gammaridae, represented by species Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841 and decreased the percentage of Chironomidae. The presence of the thermophilous bivalve Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1934 was noted downstream of the canal.

  6. Conventional versus asset approaches: comparative appraisal of socioeconomic indicators for oral health research among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Irosha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of different indicators of socioeconomic status for oral health research among Sri Lankan adolescents. Six indicators of socioeconomic status were assessed in terms of their relationship to 2 oral health outcomes. The sample consisted of 15-year-old students (n = 1218) selected from 48 schools in the Colombo district using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Data collection included oral examinations of students and questionnaires to both students and their parents. The correlations between the 6 indicators were low to moderate. The indicators of household material assets and parental educational status emerged as significant predictors of the 2 oral health outcomes. Therefore, it is concluded that indicators of material assets-namely, the family affluence scale and the asset index-could be used as optimal measures of socioeconomic status in oral health research among adolescents in Sri Lanka.

  7. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez-Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador. In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col, Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT and % EPT were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication.

  8. Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance gradient in a restored stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Muehlbauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dewatering disturbances are common in aquatic systems and represent a relatively untapped field of disturbance ecology, yet studying dewatering events along gradients in non-dichotomous (i.e. wet/dry terms is often difficult. Because many stream restorations can essentially be perceived as planned hydrologic manipulations, such systems can make ideal test-cases for understanding processes of hydrological disturbance. In this study we used an experimental drawdown in a 440 ha stream/wetland restoration site to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to dewatering and subsequent rewetting. The geomorphic nature of the site and the design of the restoration allowed dewatering to occur predictably along a gradient and decoupled the hydrologic response from any geomorphic (i.e. habitat heterogeneity effects. In the absence of such heterogeneous habitat refugia, reach-scale wetted perimeter and depth conditions exerted a strong control on community structure. The community exhibited an incremental response to dewatering severity over the course of this disturbance, which was made manifest not as a change in community means but as an increase in community variability, or dispersion, at each site. The dewatering also affected inter-species abundance and distributional patterns, as dewatering and rewetting promoted alternate species groups with divergent habitat tolerances. Finally, our results indicate that rapid rewetting – analogous to a hurricane breaking a summer drought – may represent a recovery process rather than an additional disturbance and that such processes, even in newly restored systems, may be rapid.

  9. Assessment of System of Rice Intensification (SRI and Conventional Practices under Organic and Inorganic Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejendra CHAPAGAIN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is a production system that involves the adoption of certain changes in management practices for rice cultivation that create a better growing environment for the crop. This system was compared with conventional practices and assessed under organic and inorganic management. SRI practices showed significant response in root number, number of effective tillers per hill, days to flowering and harvest index. In addition, SRI was found effective in minimizing pest and disease incidence, shortening the crop cycle, and improving plant stand. Grain yield was not different from conventional method. Except for harvest index and plant lodging percentage, there were no significant effects from management treatments. Synergistic responses were noted when SRI practices were combined with organic management for plant height, number of effective tillers per hill, days to flowering and to maturity. The improved panicle characteristics, lower plant lodging percentage and higher harvest index that ultimately led to comparable grain yields. Net returns increased approximately 1.5 times for SRI-organic management regardless of the added labor requirements for weed control. However, comparatively higher grain yield from conventional-inorganic methods underscore the need for further investigations in defining what constitutes an optimum set of practices for an SRI-organic system specifically addressing grain yield and weed management.

  10. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  11. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.

  12. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ladrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  13. Evidence for responses in water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in a strongly acidified mountain stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, F.; Horecký, J.; Senoo, T.; Kamasová, L.; Lamačová, Anna; Tátosová, J.; Hardekopf, D. W.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 9 (2017), s. 1049-1058 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidified mountain stream * macroinvertebrates * logging * hydrological patterns * recovery Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  14. Attitude Towards Health Information Privacy and Electronic Health Records Among Urban Sri Lankan Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Shaluni R; Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is planning to move towards an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. This research argues that the public preparedness should be considered in order to implement a functioning and an effective EHR system in a country. When asked about how concerned the participants were about the security of their health records, 40.5% stated they were concerned and 38.8% were very concerned. They were asked to rate the 'level of trust' they have on health institutes in Sri Lanka on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 lowest level of trust and 10 highest), 66.1% rated at level 5 or less.

  15. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  16. Effects of Ecohydraulic Bank Stabilization Structures on Bank Stability and Macroinvertebrate Community in Surabaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Setyo Rini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There were 18 accelerated erosion sites identified along 7 km of Surabaya River Fishery Sanctuary Area. A model of ecohydraulic bank stabilization was applied to reduce bank erosion in Surabaya River at Gresik Regency Indonesia. The model is combination of reprofiled and revegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and  addition of log groynes. Various native plant species were planted and naturally grown to establish multi-strata littoral vegetation structure. This study assessed effects of ecohydraulic bank stabilization on bank morphology, near bank velocity and littoral macroinvertebrate community during September 2014 to August 2016. The study found that rock toe enforcement, log groynes and reprofiled bank slope could stabilized the eroded bank, and littoral vegetation formation reduced near bank velocity at restored sites. There were 31 families of macroinvertebrate found in Surabaya River with high abundance of moderately pollution sensitive taxa Atyidae and pollution tolerant taxa Corixidae, Chironomidae and Tubificidae. The taxa richness, diversity index and abundance of sensitive and moderately sensitive macroinvertebrate group were increased after application of ecohydraulic bank stabilization at restored area. The results shown that ecohydraulic bank stabilization structure provides multi-benefits in improving bank stabilization against erosion and providing new micro-habitats for biotic community. Keywords:  ecohydraulic bank stabilization, macroinvertebrates, riparian restoration

  17. An early historic assemblage offshore of Godawaya, Sri Lanka: Evidence for early regional seafaring in South Asia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muthucumarana, R; Gaur, A.S.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Manders, M.; Rao, B.R; Bhushan, R; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    of Ceylon, Colombo. Parthesius R, Millar K, Devendra S, Green J (2003) Sri Lanka Maritime Archaeological Unit Report on the Avondster Project 2001 – 2002. The Netherlands Ray HP (2003) The Archaeology of Seafaring in South Asia. Cambridge University... and Mesopotamia, Part I: New WDS analysis. Archaeometry, 48(4):581-603. Somadeva R (2006) Urban origins in Southern Sri Lanka. Published by African and comparative Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and ancient History Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden...

  18. [Relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates during early frost period in a headwater stream in the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Hai Jun; Li, Ling; Nan, Xiao Fei; Zhang, Zhen Xing; Li, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Annually, about 70% of the streams in the Changbai Mountains are frosted during November to April, with manifest seasonal freeze-thaw characters. By using monoculture and mixing leaf litters of Tilia amurensis, Acer mono and Quecus mongolica, this research attempted to disentangle the relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of macroinvertebrates in the stream during early frost period. A 35-day investigation was carried out in a headwater stream of the Changbai Mountains. Nylon bags with two hole sizes (5 mm and 0.3 mm) were used to examine decomposition of the litters. The results showed that the mass losses were significantly different among the three kinds of leaf litters in monoculture, whose decomposition rates descended as A. mono, T. amurensis, and Q. mongolica, however, there existed no significant difference among the litter mixing. Mass losses in both mesh bags all showed little difference, except T. amurensis and the mixed litters. Litter mixing effects occurred in the coarse mesh bags with A. mono and Q. mongolica, but no mixture effects for others. Community structures of the macroinvertebrates colonizing in the litter bags differed with each other, but shredders' density had no significant difference among the three litters, and the mixing effects on shredders were poor. Our results implied that microbes play the major decomposers of leaf litters, and macroinvertebrates contribute little to the decomposition in the early frost period. Despite shredder's density is lower, they determine the mixing effects of litters. Macroinvertebrates are selective to food and habitats, however, due to the short term colonizing, and the influence of leaf litters on shredders is still unsure. Our results might contribute to understanding the cold season ecological processes and related management issues of headwater stream ecosystem.

  19. Social Media-Based Civic Engagement Solutions for Dengue Prevention in Sri Lanka: Results of Receptivity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Foo, Schubert; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Wimalaratne, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a novel social media-based system that addresses dengue prevention through an integration of three components: predictive surveillance, civic engagement and health education. The aim was to conduct a potential receptivity assessment of this system among smartphone users in the city of Colombo, the epicenter of the dengue…

  20. Offrir un choix aux agriculteurs pauvres: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des travaux de recherche appuyés par le CRDI et dirigés par Learning Initiatives on Reforms for Network Economies (LIRNEasia), à Colombo, au Sri Lanka, ont entre autres pour but de trouver des façons d'utiliser la téléphonie mobile et les technologies connexes pour améliorer les conditions de vie des pauvres. L'un des ...

  1. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P < 0.05 between the diversity of habitat index and the ecological and water quality index attributes in the streams of Jundiai demonstrated that diversity of habitat may be a good predictor of the environmental characteristics evaluated.

  2. An Approach to assess the Urban Management Performance of Municipalities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani Ranasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization tends bring out a number of problems, such as inadequate housing and urban services, increase land prices and construction costs, propagation of slums, pollution and deterioration of the urban environment. Currently, spatial development activities focusing on major cities of Sri Lanka are demanding urban infrastructure and services where municipalities are facing challenges on provision of the infrastructure and proper urban management too. This study seeks to identify the relevant criteria, indicators and a method for assessing the urban management performance of municipalities in Sri Lanka since specific measurement criteria and related indicators are not yet identified to evaluate urban management by the central government or local government levels. Based on Literature review, five criteria and 25 indicators were selected considering their applicability for the context of Sri Lanka. The Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator Method (FPPSI was applied to synthesize indicators and the Synthetic indicator has been used to show the performance of each criterion in terms of urban service delivery. Colombo Municipal Council (CMC, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Municipal Council (SJKMC and Moratuwa Municipal Council (MMC have been selected as the case studies for this research. Although selected cases are within Colombo Metropolitan Region, none of the municipalities were achieved the “High” or “Very High” level of synthetic indicator (SR>= 0.50 that shows the standard of municipal service delivery of Sri Lanka as a whole. This research lays the platform to evaluate the functional performance of Municipal Councils to guide the future scenario and to make decisions at the grass root level for managing the urbanization related issues in the country. Also this research helps the government to know the current trends of development impact and to take necessary policy level decisions to guide the economic growth in a correct

  3. Effect of sewage oxidation pond effluent on macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence on aquatic macroinvertebrates of sewage oxidation pond effluent discharge was investigated in a tropical forest stream in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A total of 858 individual macroinvertebrates were collected. They belong to 8 taxa which represent 5 orders. The number of taxa was low when compared to the findings in ...

  4. Fracked ecology: Response of aquatic trophic structure and mercury biomagnification dynamics in the Marcellus Shale Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher James; Lutz, Allison K; Kulig, Aaron D; Stanton, Mitchell R

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional natural gas development and hydraulic fracturing practices (fracking) are increasing worldwide due to global energy demands. Research has only recently begun to assess fracking impacts to surrounding environments, and very little research is aimed at determining effects on aquatic biodiversity and contaminant biomagnification. Twenty-seven remotely-located streams in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale basin were sampled during June and July of 2012 and 2013. At each stream, stream physiochemical properties, trophic biodiversity, and structure and mercury levels were assessed. We used δ15N, δ13C, and methyl mercury to determine whether changes in methyl mercury biomagnification were related to the fracking occurring within the streams' watersheds. While we observed no difference in rates of biomagnificaion related to within-watershed fracking activities, we did observe elevated methyl mercury concentrations that were influenced by decreased stream pH, elevated dissolved stream water Hg values, decreased macroinvertebrate Index for Biotic Integrity scores, and lower Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera macroinvertebrate richness at stream sites where fracking had occurred within their watershed. We documented the loss of scrapers from streams with the highest well densities, and no fish or no fish diversity at streams with documented frackwater fluid spills. Our results suggest fracking has the potential to alter aquatic biodiversity and methyl mercury concentrations at the base of food webs.

  5. Quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy S.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Stream quality in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, was assessed on the basis of land use, hydrology, stream-water and streambed-sediment chemistry, riparian and in-stream habitat, and periphyton and macroinvertebrate community data collected from 22 sites during 2002 through 2010. Stream conditions at the end of the study period are evaluated and compared to previous years, stream biological communities and physical and chemical conditions are characterized, streams are described relative to Kansas Department of Health and Environment impairment categories and water-quality standards, and environmental factors that most strongly correlate with biological stream quality are evaluated. The information is useful for improving water-quality management programs, documenting changing conditions with time, and evaluating compliance with water-quality standards, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions, and other established guidelines and goals. Constituent concentrations in water during base flow varied across the study area and 2010 conditions were not markedly different from those measured in 2003, 2004, and 2007. Generally the highest specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions in water occurred at urban sites except the upstream Cedar Creek site, which is rural and has a large area of commercial and industrial land less than 1 mile upstream on both sides of the creek. The highest base-flow nutrient concentrations in water occurred downstream from wastewater treatment facilities. Water chemistry data represent base-flow conditions only, and do not show the variability in concentrations that occurs during stormwater runoff. Constituent concentrations in streambed sediment also varied across the study area and some notable changes occurred from previously collected data. High organic carbon and nutrient concentrations at the rural Big Bull Creek site in 2003 decreased

  6. A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this

  7. BepiColombo MPO: Status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2014-04-01

    proximity to the bright Sun. For an in-depth study of the planet and its environment, it is therefore necessary to operate a spacecraft equipped with scientific instrumentation around the planet. On the other hand the thermal and radiation environment close to the Sun and close to the hottest planet in the solar system is extremely aggressive, which makes this mission technically very challenging. The BepiColombo mission will provide a rare opportunity to collect multi-point measurements in a planetary environment. This will be particularly important at Mercury because of short temporal and spatial scales in the Mercury's environment. It is foreseen that the orbits of MPO and MMO are selected in a way to allow close encounters of the two spacecraft throughout the mission. Such intervals are very important for the inter-calibration of similar instruments on the two spacecraft. They also provide scientifically valuable intervals to collect multi-point measurements in an environment where both spatial and temporal scales can be very short. In order to ensure the science and technical performance of the spacecraft intense on-ground testing has to be performed. The environment around Mercury imposes strong requirements on the spacecraft design, particularly to all elements that are exposed to Sun and Mercury. Recently, Proto Flight Models (PFM) of the two BepiColombo spacecraft are being integrated. Acceptance testing will be performed starting in Autumn 2014. The overall status of the BepiColombo mission will be given with special emphasis on the scientific return of its MPO payload complement

  8. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  9. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

    The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

    This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation

  10. Streamflow, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates of selected streams in Fairfax County, Virginia, 2007-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.

    2014-01-01

    few exceptions. Nitrogen concentrations in monthly samples were generally low and dominated by nitrate. Exceptions to the generally low N concentrations occurred at Captain Hickory Run, which had a median total N concentration of approximately 4.9 milligrams per liter (mg/L), compared to the network-wide median of approximately 1.7 mg/L, and at Popes Head Creek Tributary, where total N concentrations spiked to 6–8 mg/L during low-flow periods in August or September of each year. Phosphorus concentrations in monthly samples were generally low and dominated by the dissolved fraction. Two monitoring stations in the network, Flatlick Branch and Frog Branch, are notable for having median total P concentrations that were, on average, approximately three times greater than the median total P concentration of 0.02 mg/L observed at the other 12 stations in the network. Suspended-sediment and nutrient loads and yields were similar to those of urbanized watersheds in other studies, although the yields from these urbanized basins were greater than, or within, the upper quartile of yields observed throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Annual suspended-sediment loads ranged from 289–10,275 tons, with a median of 1,311 tons, and corresponding yields ranged from 107–2,827 tons per square mile (ton/mi2), with a median of 277 ton/mi2. Annual total N loads ranged from 8,014–36,413 pounds, with a median of 21,314 pounds, and corresponding yields ranged from 3,361–8,360 pounds per square mile (lb/mi2), with a median of 6,200 lb/mi2. Annual total P loads ranged from 380–6,558 pounds, with a median of 1,874 pounds, and corresponding yields ranged from 140–1,562 lb/mi2, with a median of 543 lb/mi2. Benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics indicated that streams throughout Fairfax County are generally of poor health. One station, Castle Creek, was an exception with results indicating relatively high quality aquatic health. Six additional monitoring stations were added to

  11. Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  12. Challenges in Establishing New Regulatory Body in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikkaduwa Liyanage, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka's involvement with Nuclear Science and Technology began in 1957 when it became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This was followed by the establishment of the Radioisotope Centre of the University of Colombo in 1962 and the establishment of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Authority Act no. 19 of 1969. The Atomic Energy Authority Act delegated two main responsibilities to the AEA, namely, promotion of the utilization of nuclear technology for the benefit of the people of Sri Lanka, and protection of workers engaged in using radiation and radioisotopes and the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Until 2014, the Atomic Energy Authority functioned as the national regulatory authority on use of radiation and radioisotopes, the national organization responsible for facilitating the use of nuclear technology in medical, industrial and agricultural sectors and as the focal point of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Sri Lanka. With the expansion of uses of radiation in Sri Lanka and commencement of use of high activity sources by the AEA for development and business activities, the need for an independent regulatory authority was realized. The importance of establishment of independent regulatory body for Sri Lanka was also emphasized by the IAEA in several advisory missions conducted in Sri Lanka and as results; a new Act on Atomic Energy was promulgated.

  13. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishk, Rania Mohammed; Mandour, Mohamed Fouad; Farghaly, Rasha Mohamed; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Nemr, Nader Attia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3%) developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%).

  14. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... for analysing and re-designing the MPC system in order to support lean improvement. We reflect on the current literature regarding value stream mapping, and use practical insights in order to develop and propose a two-dimensional value stream mapping tool that integrates the design of the MPC system within...... the material and information flow map....

  15. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Austria and Sri Lanka. A new attachment module for secondary target excitation with sample changer and vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Smolek, S.; Streli, C.; Waduge, V.A.; Seneviratne, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new secondary target attachment vacuum chamber was developed, designed and constructed at the Atomic Institute of Vienna Technical University X ray Laboratory and installed at the Atomic Energy Authorities, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The prerequisites were that the new system had to fit physically next to the Wobistrax TXRF spectrometer and to use the same existing X ray tube and an existing uplooking LN2 cooled Si(Li) detector. This new spectrometer replaces a simple secondary target system previously installed. The new system offers a 10 position sample changer integrated in a vacuum chamber. The secondary targets are exchangeable, and Mo, Zr, Ti, Al, KBr and Teflon as Barkla polarizer are available. The system is designed for the emission-transmission method for quantification but can also be used for air filter samples where the thin film model for the quantification is applicable

  16. Isolating the impact of sediment toxicity in urban streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Stephen; Pettigrove, Vincent; Carew, Melissa; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-01-01

    Several factors can contribute to the ecological degradation of stream catchments following urbanization, but it is often difficult to separate their relative importance. We isolated the impact of polluted sediment on the condition of an urban stream in Melbourne, Australia, using two complementary approaches. Using a rapid bioassessment approach, indices of stream condition were calculated based on macroinvertebrate field surveys. Urban stream reaches supported impoverished macroinvertebrate communities, and contained potentially toxic concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Using a field microcosm approach, a bioassay was carried out to assess sediment pollution effects on native macroinvertebrates. Sediment from urban sites substantially altered the microcosm macroinvertebrate community, most likely due to elevated heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Macroinvertebrate surveys combined with a bioassay approach based on field microcosms can help isolate the effect of stream pollutants in degraded ecosystems. - Field microcosms isolate the ecological impact of polluted sediment in an urban stream.

  17. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  18. Effect of thiram and of a hydrocarbon mixture on freshwater macroinvertebrate communities in outdoor stream and pond mesocosms: I. Study design, chemicals fate and structural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Marc; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassères, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Higher-tier ecological risk assessment (ERA) in mesocosms is commonly performed in lotic or lentic experimental systems. These systems differ in their physico-chemical and hydrological properties, leading to differences in chemical fate, community characteristics and potential recovery. This raises the issue of the relevance and sensitivity of community-level endpoints in different types of mesocosms. In this study, macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass estimates were used to assess the effects of a dithiocarbamate fungicide, thiram (35 and 170 µg l(-1)), and a petroleum middle distillate (PMD; 0.01, 0.4, 2 and 20 mg l(-1)) in outdoor stream and pond mesocosms. Streams were continuously treated during 3 weeks followed by a 2-month long post-treatment period. Ponds were treated weekly for 4 weeks, followed by a 10-month long post-treatment period. Taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrate communities was characterized using the α, β and γ components of taxa richness, Shannon and Gini-Simpson indices. Computations were based either on abundance or biomass data. Results clearly highlighted that the effects of chemicals depended on the exposure regime (for thiram) and type of system (for the PMD). Causes of the differences between streams and ponds in the magnitude and nature of effects include differential sensitivity of taxa dwelling in lentic and lotic systems and the influence of hydrology (e.g., drift from upstream) and mesocosm connectivity on recovery dynamics. This study also showed complementarities in the use of both types of mesocosms to improve the characterization of chemical effects on communities in ERA.

  19. Traditional Roots of Sri Aurobindo’s Integral Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Banerji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Aurobindo’s teachings on Integral Yoga are couched in a universal and impersonal language, and could be considered an early input to contemporary transpersonal psychology. Yet, while he was writing his principal works in English, he was also keeping a diary of his experiences and understandings in a personal patois that hybridized English and Sanskrit. A hermeneutic perusal of this text, The Record of Yoga, published by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, uncovers the semiotics of Indian yoga traditions, showing how Sri Aurobindo utilizes and furthers their discourse, and where he introduces new elements which may be considered “modern.” This essay takes a psycho-biographical approach to the life of Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950, tracing his encounters with texts and situated traditions of Indian yoga from the period of his return to India from England (1893 till his settlement in Pondicherry (1910, to excavate the traditional roots and modern ruptures of his own yoga practice, which goes to inform his non-sectarian yoga teachings.

  20. Integration of leprosy services into the General Health Service in Sri Lanka: overcoming challenges to implementation in a remote district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Thushanthi S; Wijesinghe, Pushpa Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lanka took a policy decision to integrate leprosy services into the general health services (GHS) in 1999. This paper aims to summarize the emergence of new, specific challenges and how they were overcome during the integration of leprosy services to the GHS in a remote, leprosy endemic district in Sri Lanka. In this article, the regional epidemiologist as the team leader describes the principles used for transition to an effective integrated model of leprosy services from a centralized leprosy control model in the district. In addition, rationale for integration is viewed from the epidemiological and operational perspectives. National and district leprosy epidemiological data from secondary sources are also reviewed for corroborating the effectiveness of integration. Challenges surfaced were mainly related to the transfer of ownership of the programme, selection of appropriate service providing institutions easily accessible to clients, sustainability of leprosy services at the GHS, ensuring participation of all stakeholders in capacity building programmes and co-ordination of patient care in the absence of a dermatologist in the district. An empowered district team leader with specified roles and responsibilities, his sound technical and managerial know how and ability to translate 'team work' concept to practice were found to be essential for successful implementation of integration. Decision-making powers at the district level and flexibility to introduce new, area-specific changes to the centrally prepared core activities of integration were also vital to overcome locally surfaced challenges.

  1. Linking Embeddedness and Macroinvertebrate Health in Two Southwest Ohio Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    some deeper thoughts on the inner workings of a stream ecosystem. Thanks are also due for the rest of the “Burton Lab” for donating some of your...reaches a critical value of stability for a given systems, the relatively stable layer of embedded substrate ( armour layer) will begin to break up

  2. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  3. Macroinvertebrate response to acid mine drainage: community metrics and on-line behavioural toxicity bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Gerhardt; L. Janssens de Bisthoven; A.M.V.M. Soares [University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal). Department of Biology

    2004-07-01

    The hypothesis is tested that toxicity of acid mine drainage can be detected by a selection of existing macroinvertebrate community and bioindicator metrices supplemented by toxicity tests with the local mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Girard and the shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti Millet. The behavioural responses of A. desmaresti to acid mine drainage were recorded in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor{reg_sign}, based on behaviour and survival as parameters. Bioassessment methods were based on community diversity, structure, function, and bioindicators and supplemented by chemical analysis (temperature, pH, metals). The Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for the Iberian Peninsula, the number of predators (Coleoptera, Hemiptera) and the number of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa differentiated the sites well. The on-line toxicity test revealed pH-dependent acute toxicity of the acid mine drainage for the shrimp (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=5.8) and a pH-dependent decrease in locomotory activity with the lowest-observed-response-times (LORTs) within 5 h of exposure. Shrimp were more sensitive to acid mine drainage than fish (LC{sub 50}-48 h: pH-AMD=4.9). A new multimetric index combining toxicity testing and bioassessment methods is proposed.

  4. Multimetric indices: How many metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multimetric indices (MMI’s) often include 5 to 15 metrics, each representing a different attribute of assemblage condition, such as species diversity, tolerant taxa, and nonnative taxa. Is there an optimal number of metrics for MMIs? To explore this question, I created 1000 9-met...

  5. Mercury in fish and macroinvertebrates from New York's streams and rivers: A compendium of data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Burns, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a list of existing data sets, from selected sources, containing mercury (Hg) concentration data in fish and macroinvertebrate samples that were collected from flowing waters of New York State from 1970 through 2014. Data sets selected for inclusion in this report were limited to those that contain fish and (or) macroinvertebrate data that were collected across broad areas, cover relatively long time periods, and (or) were collected as part of a broader-scale (e.g. national) study or program. In addition, all data sets listed were collected, processed, and analyzed with documented methods, and contain critical sample information (e.g. fish species, fish size, Hg species) that is needed to analyze and interpret the reported Hg concentration data. Fourteen data sets, all from state or federal agencies, are listed in this report, along with selected descriptive information regarding each data source and data set contents. Together, these 14 data sets contain Hg and related data for more than 7,000 biological samples collected from more than 700 unique stream and river locations between 1970 and 2014.

  6. Re-meandering of lowland streams: will disobeying the laws of geomorphology have ecological consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored streams was dominated by pebble, whereas the substrate in the channelized and natural streams was dominated by sand. In the natural streams a relationship was identified between slope and pebble/gravel coverage, indicating a coupling of energy and substrate characteristics. Such a relationship did not occur in the channelized or in the restored streams where placement of large amounts of pebble/gravel distorted the natural relationship. The analyses revealed, a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity in the natural streams. A similar relationship was not found in either the channelized or the restored streams, which we attribute to a de-coupling of the natural relationship between benthic community diversity and physical habitat diversity. Our study results suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers. Documentation of

  7. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunaratnam, K.

    1986-08-01

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ΔZ/ΔH and ΔD/ΔH ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ΔZ/ΔH ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ΔZ/ΔH ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  8. Aplicación de tres índices bióticos en el río San Juan, Andes, Colombia (Application of three biotic indexes in the river San Juan, Andes, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailedt Paola Murillo Torrentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante los meses de febrero, mayo, agosto y octubre del año 2014, se evaluó la calidad del agua del río San Juan. Para tal fin se establecieron seis puntos de muestreo donde se recolectaron muestras de agua y macroinvertebrados acuáticos para los análisis fisicoquímicos e hidrobiológicos. Se aplicaron y modificaron los índices bióticos EPT (efemerópteros, plecópteros, tricópteros, BMWP/Col (Biological Monitoring Working Party y ASPT (Average Score per Taxon basados en las comunidades de macroinvertebrados acuáticos capturados. Los resultados de las variables fisicoquímicas y los índices bióticos indican que las estaciones E1 y E2 son las que presentan menor grado de contaminación, en las demás estaciones disminuye considerablemente la calidad del agua debido a las actividades económicas desarrolladas en el sector y a su cercanías con el casco urbano del municipio de Andes. De los tres índices analizados, el ASPT modificado y adaptado al río San Juan es el que mejor se relaciona con las condiciones ambientales del río en tanto las características de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos recolectados y analizados en el trayecto objeto de estudio. (Abstract. During the months of February, May, August and October 2014, the water quality of the San Juan River was assessed. To this aim, six sampling points were established, where water samples and macroinvertebrates for physical-chemical and hydrobiological analysis were collected. Three biotic indexes were applied and one modified: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, BMWP / Col (Biological Monitoring Working Party and ASPT (Average Score per Taxon based on the captured communities of aquatic macroinvertebrates. The results of the physical-chemical variables and biotic indixes indicate that E1 and E2 stations are those with lower degree of contamination, other stations considerably decreased water quality due to economic activities around, and the short distance with the

  9. BepiColombo mission to be presented to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    After a competitive phase started in 2001, ESA has awarded Astrium the prime contract to build BepiColombo. The contract signature ceremony will take place in presence of the Prime Minister of Baden Württemberg (Germany), Dr. Guenther Oettinger, and will mark the kick-off of the industrial development of the spacecraft. BepiColombo will be launched in 2013. It consists of two spacecraft - an orbiter for planetary investigation, led by ESA, and one for magnetospheric studies, led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The satellite duo will reach Mercury in 2019 after a six-year journey towards the inner Solar System, to make the most extensive and detailed study of Mercury ever attempted. The press event will feature a thorough presentation of the mission and its objectives, as well as the technical challenges that Astrium will have to address. Such challenges derive from the difficulty of reaching, surviving and operating in the harsh environment of a planet so close to Sun, making of BepiColombo one of the most complex long-term planetary projects undertaken by ESA so far. Media interested to attend are invited to register by the reply form attached below. Visit of Prime Minister Guenther Oettinger and BepiColombo Contract Signature Event programme 18 January 2008, h 10:30 Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany Claude-Dornier-Straße, 88090 Immenstaad Building 8, Room "Meersburg" 10:30 Check-in 11:00 Welcome and introduction, Uwe Minne, Astrium, Director of Earth Observation and Science, Head of Friedrichshafen Site 11:05 BepiColombo in the context of the ESA Science Programme, Jacques Louet, ESA Head of Science Projects Departments 11:10 BepiColombo's scientific objectives, Johannes Benkhoff, ESA, BepiColombo Project Scientist 11:20 The BepiColombo mission, Jan van Casteren, ESA, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:30 BepiColombo's technical challenges, Rainer Best, Astrium, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:40 Q&A 12:00 Buffet lunch 13:00 Arrival of Prime

  10. Aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities of Prairie-Pothole wetlands and lakes under a changed climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Renton, David A.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities respond to changes in climate is important for biodiversity conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region and other wetland-rich landscapes. We sampled macroinvertebrate communities of 162 wetlands and lakes previously sampled from 1966 to 1976, a much drier period compared to our 2012–2013 sampling timeframe. To identify possible influences of a changed climate and predation pressures on macroinvertebrates, we compared two predictors of aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities: ponded-water dissolved-ion concentration and vertebrate-predator presence/abundance. Further, we make inferences of how macroinvertebrate communities were structured during the drier period when the range of dissolved-ion concentrations was much greater and fish occurrence in aquatic habitats was rare. We found that aquatic-macroinvertebrate community structure was influenced by dissolved-ion concentrations through a complex combination of direct and indirect relationships. Ion concentrations also influenced predator occurrence and abundance, which indirectly affected macroinvertebrate communities. It is important to consider both abiotic and biotic gradients when predicting how invertebrate communities will respond to climate change. Generally, in the wetlands and lakes we studied, freshening of ponded water resulted in more homogenous communities than occurred during a much drier period when salinity range among sites was greater.

  11. Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee

    2017-04-01

    In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.

  12. Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

    2010-01-01

    A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

  13. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations

  14. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners

  15. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli

    2008-05-03

    Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services

  16. Vertical integration models to prepare health systems for capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, D G

    1995-01-01

    Health systems will profit most under capitation if their vertical integration strategy provides operational stability, a strong primary care physician base, efficient delivery of medical services, and geographic access to physicians. Staff- and equity-based systems best meet these characteristics for success because they have one governance structure and a defined mission statement. Moreover, physician bonds are strong because these systems maximize physicians' income potential and control the revenue stream.

  17. THE STUDY OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE CATCHMENT AREAS OF THE RIVERS JIU, OLT AND IALOMIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daniela MITITELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of benthic invertebrates and their different sensitivity shown upon modifying the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems led to a frequent use of these group as bioindicators in different studies. The present study aims at presenting a list concerning the different macroinvertebrates identified in the larva stage in three watersheds (Jiu, Olt, Ialomiţa and establishing the water quality of the monitored sections using this benthic macroinvertebrates. The sample collecting points were represented by 23 stations. The abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. There were identified 15 groups in total. The most frequent were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae and others. The deterioration of water quality is marked by the decrease in the biotic index EPT/Ch value.

  18. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  19. Impact of pesticides on hyphomycetes leaf processing and macroinvertebrate shredding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Monberg, Rikke; Rasmussen, Jes; Baatrup-Pedersen, Annette

    , consequently impacting stream dwelling organism feeding on the organic material. The impact of pyrethroid insecticides on stream macroinvertebrates are well studied and increased mortality and drift rate along with decreased feeding activity are well known responses to even very low concentrations (10-100 ng...... organisms have the power to reduce organic matter breakdown and food quality for macroinvertebrates, thereby decreasing ecosystem decomposition rates. We exposed preconditioned leafs of beech (Fagus sylvatica) to the fungicide propiconazole (100, 1000 or 2000 μg/L) and/or the insecticide alpha...

  20. Trophic gradients of two minnow species with similar eco-type and their relations to water chemistry and multimetric biological integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyun Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine tolerance ranges and trophic gradients of two fish populations of Zacco koreanus (Zk and Zacco platypus (Zp in relation to chemical water quality and ecological stream health, based on the biological integrity metric (BIM model. Seventy-six streams and rivers were sampled for the analysis. The population of Zk had a narrow chemical tolerance with a low phosphorus limit (< 300 μg/L as total phosphorus, whereas the Zp population occurred within a high limit (up to 1,100 μg/L. Similar patterns in the two populations were shown in nitrogen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, and other parameters. The population of Zp had significantly (t=5.25, p<0.001 greater chemical tolerance than the population of Zk. The population of Zk had a positive functional relation (R2=0.43, p<0.001 with insectivore species, but the Zp population had negative linear function (R2=0.50, p<0.001, indicating a trophic difference in the food chain of two populations. Application of the biological integrity model indicated that the values of BIM, as an index of ecological health, were significantly greater (t=13.67, p<0.001 in the population of Zk than the population of Zp.

  1. Diversity and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a lotic environment in Midwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucas Bochini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diversity and abundance of an aquatic macroinvertebrate community in the Vargem Limpa stream located in Bauru, Midwestern São Paulo State, and characterized the water quality based on biological parameters. The sampling was carried out during the rain season (December, 2004. It was analyzed and identified 3,068 organisms belonging to 9 macroinvertebrate families. The system showed low richness and diversity of organisms in response to water quality.

  2. Tools for assessing European streams with macroinvertebrates: major results and conclusions from the STAR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Moog, O.

    2006-01-01

    This short paper summarises the information developed in the EU funded research project STAR on autecology databases, metrics, multimetrics and community approaches. For Europe the WFD implementation gave an important stimulus for the development of ecology based assessment techniques. Along with

  3. Investigating the influence of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate assemblages using Partial Cononical Correspondence Analysis (pCCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Gary; Kneale, Pauline E.

    This paper defines the spectrum of impairment to stream macroinvertebrates arising from urban runoff. Field sampling of stream sediments at 62 sites across Yorkshire, UK was used to investigate the influence of heavy metals and habitat on macroinvertebrate family distribution using partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis (pCCA). Increasing urbanization and trafficking was associated with increasing levels of metal pollution but, even when traffic is light, family numbers can be reduced by 50%. Industrial areas and motorway runoff depress macroinvertebrate numbers but drainage from streets with no off-road parking in residential areas can have similar impacts. The heavy metals in the sediment accounted for approximately 24% of the variation in macroinvertebrate community composition while the physical habitat variables used in RIVPACS (River InVertebrate Prediction And Classification System) (Wright, 2000) accounted for an additional 30%. Zinc and nickel were the main metal influences regardless of the time of sampling; at these sites copper is less than critical. Results agree with those reported in other studies in which families mainly from the orders Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly) and Tricoptera (caddisfly) displayed metal sensitivity in that they were absent from metal polluted streams. However, within each of these orders, a continuum of sensitivity is evident: this highlights the risks of generalising on orders rather than using family or indeed species data.

  4. MULTIMETRIC INDICES BASED ON VEGETATION DATA FOR ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL QUALITY OF A MAN-REGULATED LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bolpagni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A functional characterization of the littoral and shore vegetation was performed in the Lake Idro to assess its ecological quality and hydromorphological alteration. A detailed survey of hydro-hygrophilous vegetation was carried out in 2010-2012. Three multimetric indices were calculated: the MacroIMMI (the Italian macrophytic index for mid-size subalpine lakes with a maximum depth < 125 m, the SFI (Shorezone Functional Index, and the LHS (Lake Habitat Survey. The MacroIMMI (0.76 classified the lake in a good ecological status, although the dominant aquatic species were exotic (Elodea nuttallii and Lagarosiphon major. The SFI pointed out that the 50% of total shorelines displayed a very good or excellent conservation status; conversely, the LHS revealed high levels of morphological alteration coupled with rather good levels of habitat diversity, likely due to the high colonization rates of macrophytes along the lake shore. The lacustrine multimetric indices seem suitable for assessing the conservation status of mid-size lakes. However, for the present case-study, the metrics used require further implementation to suit the peculiarities of Italian subalpine lakes.

  5. Multistressor predictive models of invertebrate condition in the Corn Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the complex relations between multiple environmental stressors and ecological conditions in streams can help guide resource-management decisions. During 14 weeks in spring/summer 2013, personnel from the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency sampled 98 wadeable streams across the Midwest Corn Belt region of the USA for water and sediment quality, physical and habitat characteristics, and ecological communities. We used these data to develop independent predictive disturbance models for 3 macroinvertebrate metrics and a multimetric index. We developed the models based on boosted regression trees (BRT) for 3 stressor categories, land use/land cover (geographic information system [GIS]), all in-stream stressors combined (nutrients, habitat, and contaminants), and for GIS plus in-stream stressors. The GIS plus in-stream stressor models had the best overall performance with an average cross-validation R2 across all models of 0.41. The models were generally consistent in the explanatory variables selected within each stressor group across the 4 invertebrate metrics modeled. Variables related to riparian condition, substrate size or embeddedness, velocity and channel shape, nutrients (primarily NH3), and contaminants (pyrethroid degradates) were important descriptors of the invertebrate metrics. Models based on all measured in-stream stressors performed comparably to models based on GIS landscape variables, suggesting that the in-stream stressor characterization reasonably represents the dominant factors affecting invertebrate communities and that GIS variables are acting as surrogates for in-stream stressors that directly affect in-stream biota.

  6. Pollution evaluation in the Shahrood River: Do physico-chemical and macroinvertebrate-based indices indicate same responses to anthropogenic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Moslem; Mahmoudifard, Abbas; Imanpour Namin, Javid; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Shahrood River using water physico-chemical variables and macroinvertebrates data sets obtained over a period of 12 months between February 2012 and February 2013 at 8 sampling sites. Biotic indices i.e. FBI and BMWP based on macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical indices (MPI, HPI and NSF-WQI) were employed to evaluate the water quality status in connection with natural- and human-induced pressures. Based on physico-chemical indices, water quality was categorized as low polluted level and it is suitable for drinking purposes. The water quality based on biotic indices was related to the anthropic activities; a clear deterioration of the water quality was observed from upstream to downstream sites. The water quality along the river changed from very good (class I; reference sites) to good (class II; midstream sites) and turned into moderate (class III) and poor (class IV) quality (downstream sites). These findings indicate that biotic indices are more powerful indicators in assessing water quality than physico-chemical indices. Allocapnia, Glossosoma and Hesperoperla were exclusively related to least disturbed sites, and Naididae, Orthocladiinae and Ecdyonurus were found in sites showing notable degradation. Our results recommended that the use of macroinvertebrates could be employed as a cost-effective tool for biomonitoring and controlling of polluted riverine ecosystems in the Middle East. Finally, the results from this study may be useful not only for developing countries, but also for any organization struggling to use macroinvertebrate based indices with restricted financial resources and knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  8. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, Shannon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munoz, David [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  9. Combined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, Helena

    2017-12-01

    Flow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (>7indm -2 ); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  11. The occurrence of trace elements in bed sediment collected from areas of varying land use and potential effects on stream macroinvertebrates in the conterminous western United States, Alaska, and Hawaii, 1992-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, this study examines the occurrence of nine trace elements in bed sediment of varying mineralogy and land use and assesses the possible effects of these trace elements on aquatic-macroinvertebrate community structure. Samples of bed sediment and macroinvertebrates were collected from 154 streams at sites representative of undeveloped, agricultural, urban, mined, or mixed land-use areas and 12 intermediate-scale ecoregions within the conterminous western United States, Alaska, and Hawaii from 1992 to 2000. The nine trace elements evaluated during this study—arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)—were selected on the basis of potential ecologic significance and availability of sediment-quality guidelines. At most sites, the occurrence of these trace elements in bed sediment was at concentrations consistent with natural geochemical abundance, and the lowest concentrations were in bed-sediment samples collected from streams in undeveloped and agricultural areas. With the exception of Zn at sampling sites influenced by historic mining-related activities, median concentrations of all nine trace elements in bed sediment collected from sites representative of the five general land-use areas were below concentrations predicted to be harmful to aquatic macroinvertebrates. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were in bed sediment collected from mined areas. Median concentrations of Cu and Ni in bed sediment were similarly enriched in areas of mining, urban, and mixed land use. Concentrations of Cr and Ni appear to originate largely from geologic sources, especially in the western coastal states (California, Oregon, and Washington), Alaska, and Hawaii. In these areas, naturally high concentrations of Cr and Ni can exceed concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic macroinvertebrates

  12. Traversable wormholes without exotic matter in multimetric repulsive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We present a static, spherically symmetric, traversable wormhole solution to multimetric gravity which is sustained by only nonexotic matter, i.e., matter which satisfies all energy conditions. The possibility of this solution arises from the fact that under certain conditions the multimetric gravitational field equations reduce to the Einstein equations, but with a negative effective gravitational constant. We show that the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of this wormhole vanishes, so that it appears massless to observers in the asymptotically flat spacetime. We finally speculate on the feasibility of creating and maintaining this type of wormhole by an advanced civilization.

  13. Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Daniel C; Middleton, Jen A; Beesley, Leah; Close, Paul; Quinton, Belinda; Storer, Tim; Davies, Peter M

    2018-03-01

    The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in the flat, permeable urban landscape of Perth, Western Australia. Using a hierarchical multi-taxa model, we predicted the outcomes of stylized stream restoration strategies to increase the riparian integrity at the local scale or decrease the influences of imperviousness at the catchment scale. In the urban streams of Perth, we show that local-scale riparian restoration can influence the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages to a greater degree than managing the influences of catchment-scale imperviousness. We also observed an interaction between the effect of riparian integrity and imperviousness such that the effect of increased riparian integrity was enhanced at lower levels of catchment imperviousness. This study represents one of few conducted in flat, permeable landscapes and the first aimed at informing urban stream restoration in Perth, adding to the growing appreciation for heterogeneity of the Urban Stream Syndrome and its importance for urban stream restoration. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, M.S.; Farouk, M.A.; Ibrahiem, N.M.; El-Mongey, S.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg -1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238 U series and 40 K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l -1 for stream water. (author)

  15. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, M. S.; Farouk, M. A.; Ibrahiem, N. M.; El-Mongey, S. A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq 1-1 for stream water.

  16. Using molecular biomarkers and traditional morphometric measurements to assess the health of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from streams with elevated selenium in North-Eastern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lana L; Isaacs, Meghan A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Canadian fish-based environmental effects monitoring programs use individual and population-level endpoints to assess aquatic health. Impacts of coal mining and selenium (Se) exposure were assessed in slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) from reference streams located both inside and outside of a coal zone, and from 1 stream with a history of coal mining, using traditional environmental effects monitoring endpoints. In addition, physical characteristics of the streams and benthic macro-invertebrate communities were assessed. To determine whether the assessment of effects could be improved by including molecular markers, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were optimized for genes associated with reproduction (vtg, esr1, star, cyp19a1, and gys2), and oxidative and cellular stress (sod1, gpx, gsr, cat, and hsp 90). Water Se levels exceeded guidelines in the stream with historical mining (4 μg/L), but benthic macroinvertebrates did not exceed dietary thresholds (2-3 μg/g dry wt). Whole-body Se levels were above British Columbia's tissue guideline in fish from all streams, but only above the draft US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criterion (7.91 μg/g dry wt) at the reference stream inside the coal zone. Some markers of cellular and oxidative stress were elevated in fish liver at the exposed site (sod1, gpx), but some were lower (cat, sod1, gpx, gsr, hsp90) in the gonads of fish inside the coal zone. Some of the differences in gene expression levels between the reference and impacted sites were sex dependent. Based on benthic macroinvertebrate assessments, the authors hypothesize that traditional and molecular differences in slimy sculpin at impacted sites may be driven by food availability rather than Se exposure. The present study is the first to adapt molecular endpoints in the slimy sculpin for aquatic health assessments. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard G.; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O.; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A.; Graça, Manuel A. S.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Albariño, Ricardo J.; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A.; Boulton, Andrew J.; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G.; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C.; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S.; Gonçalves, José F.; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. PMID:27122551

  18. Risk assessment of imidacloprid use in forest settings on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Elizabeth P; Grant, Jerome F; Nichols, Rebecca J; Webster, R Jesse; Schwartz, John S; Bailey, Joseph K

    2017-11-01

    The isolated effects of a single insecticide can be difficult to assess in natural settings because of the presence of numerous pollutants in many watersheds. Imidacloprid use for suppressing hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in forests offers a rare opportunity to assess potential impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in relatively pristine landscapes. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed in 9 streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (southern Appalachian Mountains, USA). The streams flow through hemlock conservation areas where imidacloprid soil drench treatments were applied for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression. Sites were located upstream and downstream of the imidacloprid treatments. Baseline species presence data (pre-imidacloprid treatment) were available from previous sample collections at downstream sites. Downstream and upstream sites did not vary in numerous community measures. Although comparisons of paired upstream and downstream sites showed differences in diversity in 7 streams, higher diversity was found more often in downstream sites. Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups and life habits were similar between downstream and upstream sites. Downstream and baseline stream samples were similar. While some functional feeding group and life habit species richness categories varied, variations did not indicate poorer quality downstream communities. Imidacloprid treatments applied according to US Environmental Protection Agency federal restrictions did not result in negative effects to aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, which indicates that risks of imidacloprid use in forest settings are low. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3108-3119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Schuylkill River basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Schuylkill River Basin. These streams include Pigeon Creek (site 10), Stony Run (site 6), French Creek (sites 12-16), Pickering Creek (sites 1-5), Little Valley Creek (site 49), and Valley Creek (site 50). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  20. Lessons From the Implementation of Mo-Buzz, a Mobile Pandemic Surveillance System for Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Ernst, Kacey C; Foo, Schubert

    2017-10-02

    Approximately 128 countries and 3.9 billion people are at risk of dengue infection. Incidence of dengue has increased over the past decades, becoming a growing public health concern for countries with populations that are increasingly susceptible to this vector-borne disease, such as Sri Lanka. Almost 55,150 dengue cases were reported in Sri Lanka in 2016, with more than 30.40% of cases (n=16,767) originating from Colombo, which struggles with an outdated manual paper-based dengue outbreak management system. Community education and outreach about dengue are also executed using paper-based media channels such as pamphlets and brochures. Yet, Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the most affordable rates of mobile services in the world, with penetration rates higher than most developing countries. To combat the issues of an exhausted dengue management system and to make use of new technology, in 2015, a mobile participatory system for dengue surveillance called Mo-Buzz was developed and launched in Colombo, Sri Lanka. This paper describes the system's components and uptake, along with other similar disease surveillance systems. We developed Mo-Buzz and tested its feasibility for dengue. Two versions of the app were developed. The first was for use by public health inspectors (PHIs) to digitize form filling and recording of site visit information, and track dengue outbreaks on a real-time dengue hotspot map using the global positioning system technology. The system also provides updated dengue infographics and educational materials for the PHIs to educate the general public. The second version of Mo-Buzz was created for use by the general public. This system uses dynamic mapping to help educate and inform the general public about potential outbreak regions and allow them to report dengue symptoms and post pictures of potential dengue mosquito-breeding sites, which are automatically sent to the health authorities. Targeted alerts can be sent to users depending on

  1. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-08-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

  2. Substance advection by a steady 2D stream of the viscous fluid in a lengthy free-surfaced canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanjalic, K.; Nadolin, K.A.; Peeters, T.W.J; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Nicolayev, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    Spreading of a low-concentrated admixture in the 2D (length - depth) stream of the viscous fluid in an open lengthy canal is considered; the admixture's dissipation and diffusion are taken into account. Apart from being long, the canal is assumed to be low-sloping, with a given shape of the

  3. BepiColombo: Status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2013-09-01

    BepiColombo is an interdisciplinary mission to explore the planet Mercury through a partnership between ESA and Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). From their dedicated orbits two spacecraft, the ESA provided Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the JAXA provided Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will be studying the planet and its environment. Both spacecraft of BepiColombo will arrive at Mercury late 2023. The mission will address a comprehensive set of scientific questions in order to study the planet, its evolution and its surrounding environment. A suite of state-ofart scientific instruments, flying on the two spacecraft, allow a wide range of scientific questions to be addressed like understanding of the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star, the detailed study of Mercury's figure, its interior structure and composition, the investigation of the interior dynamics and origin of Mercury's magnetic field. Further science goals are trying to understand exo- and endogenic surface modifications, cratering, tectonics, and volcanism. The composition, origin and dynamics of Mercury's exosphere and Mercury's magnetosphere will be addressed by combined measurements of both spacecraft. Last but not least scientist believe that they can use BepiColombo also as a laboratory to test Einstein's theory of general relativity, by performing high accurate positioning measurements of the spacecraft. All in all measurements performed by the instruments on BepiColombo will provide clues on the origin and formation of terrestrial planets and help to answer fundamental questions like: "How do Earth-like planets form and evolve in the Universe?"

  4. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  5. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  6. Environmental quality of a stream can be better predicted by phylogenetic than by taxonomic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koperski Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indices of taxonomic diversity (TD and phylogenetic diversity (PD of the macrobenthos were compared to determine the efficient predictors of environmental quality (EQ in different types of watercourses in Poland. Archived data of 864 samples of benthic invertebrates identified to the family level were analysed on the basis of linear and non-linear multiply regression. The strengths of the correlations between two measures of EQ:BMWPpl (British Monitoring Working Party score system, Polish modification and MMI (Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and the values of taxonomic richness and three well-known TD indices: Shannon, Margalef and J' Evenness were compared to those for values of three PD indices, based on taxonomic distinctness. Taxonomic richness and all PD indices correlated more strongly with both measures of EQ than all TD indices. Correlations with both types of diversity indices were visibly stronger for BMWPpl when compared with MMI. We suggest that analysed indices of PD, especially MDis (mean phylogenetic distance between families in a sample, are related with EQ strongly enough to be taken into account as potential metrics in selection procedures of biological assessment.

  7. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Beaulieu, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    During August 2000, responses of biological communities (invertebrates, fish, and algae), physical habitat, and water chemistry to urban intensity were compared among 30 streams within 80 miles of Boston, Massachusetts. Sites chosen for sampling represented a gradient of the intensity of urban development (urban intensity) among drainage basins that had minimal natural variability. In this study, spatial differences were used as surrogates for temporal changes to represent the effects of urbanization over time. The degree of urban intensity for each drainage basin was characterized with a standardized urban index (0-100, lowest to highest) derived from land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. Multivariate and multimetric analyses were used to compare urban index values with biological, physical, and chemical data to determine how the data indicated responses to urbanization. Multivariate ordinations were derived for the invertebrate-, fish-, and algae-community data by use of correspondence analysis, and ordinations were derived for the chemical and physical data by use of principal-component analysis. Site scores from each of the ordinations were plotted in relation to the urban index to test for a response. In all cases, the primary axis scores showed the strongest response to the urban index, indicating that urbanization was a primary factor affecting the data ordination. For the multimetric analyses, each of the biological data sets was used to calculate a series of community metrics. For the sets of chemical and physical data, the individual variables and various combinations of individual variables were used as measured and derived metrics, respectively. Metrics that were generally most responsive to the urban index for each data set included: EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) taxa for invertebrates; cyprinid taxa for fish; diatom taxa for algae; bicarbonate, conductivity, and nitrogen for chemistry; and water depth and temperature

  8. Environmental conditions and biotic communities in Foz de Almargem and Salgados coastal lagoons, Algarve (South Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Susana Isabel Eusébio

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to compare environmental conditions and biotic communities of two choked coastal lagoons located in the Algarve region, Foz de Almargem and Salgados, with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution from wastewater discharges in water quality and biotic communities from different levels of the food chain, namely phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Both lagoons were seasonally connected to the sea, but most of the year they were isolated r...

  9. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  10. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandasena, Yatagama Lokuge S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2010-06-02

    Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  11. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  12. Application of the biotic index IBE-IOC for water quality assessment in wadeable streams in south-east Brazil Uso do índice biótico IBE-IOC para a avaliação da qualidade da água de riachos no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mugnai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This work presents the results of the first water quality assessment using the biotic index Índice Biótico Estendido - Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IBE-IOC for 1st to 4th order streams in the Serra dos Órgãos region, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The aims were to evaluate the sensitivity of IBE-IOC, verifying its ability to assess anthropogenic impacts over the stream gradient and along the year; METHODS: The sensitivity of the index was evaluated according to the degree of interquartile overlap in Box-and-Whisker plots; RESULTS: The index is able to distinguish different types of environmental integrity and different impacts by deforestation and organic pollution; CONCLUSIONS: Our results supported the recommendation of IBE-IOC as a useful tool for water quality assessment of wadeable streams in this region.OBJETIVO: Este trabalho apresenta o resultado do primeiro biomonitoramento de qualidade da água realizado através do uso do Índice Biótico Estendido - Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IBE-IOC, adaptado para riachos de 1ª a 4ª ordem da região da Serra dos Órgãos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo principal foi avaliar a sensibilidade do IBE-IOC verificando a capacidade de detecção de impactos de origem antropogênica ao longo do gradiente do rio e nas diferentes épocas do ano; MÉTODOS: A sensibilidade do índice foi avaliada de acordo com o grau de sobreposição do interquartil nos Box-and-Whisker plots; RESULTADOS: O índice tem capacidade de distinguir diferentes tipologias de integridade ambiental e diferentes tipos de impactos devidos ao desmatamento e poluição orgânica; CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados suportam a recomendação do IBE-IOC como ferramenta útil para o monitoramento de riachos nesta região.

  13. Foley catheter for cervical priming in induction of labour at University Obstetrics Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka: a clinical audit with a patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patabendige, M; Jayawardane, A

    2017-04-12

    Intracervical insertion of a Foley catheter (FC) has shown to be a safe, effective and relatively feasible mechanical method of cervical priming in induction of labour (IOL). We evaluated indications, effectiveness, patient acceptability and outcomes of FC use in IOL adhering to the ward protocol in our unit. A clinical audit with a patient satisfaction survey conducted between July and September 2013 in University Obstetric Unit, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Patients selected for IOL for obstetric reasons were primed with Foley as per ward protocol. All had singleton pregnancies with cephalic presentation, intact membranes and period of gestation of 37 weeks or above. Women with a history of more than one caesarean section or uterine surgery, low-lying placenta and fetal growth restriction were excluded. Subjects who had a Modified Bishop Score (MBS) of less than 3, a 16Fr FC was inserted into cervical canal. Catheter was left undisturbed until spontaneous expulsion or no longer than 48 h. In women with MBS of less than 6 at 48 h after FC insertion, 3 mg prostaglandin E2 vaginal tablet was used subsequently. Artificial membrane rupture with or without oxytocin was used if MBS of 6 or more and in women not in labour 24 h after prostaglandins. Patient satisfaction for Foley insertion was assessed with regards to the degree of comfort using a validated visual analogue scale (0-10). There were a total of 910 deliveries during the study period. Fifty-six women were primed with FC. Thirty-two (57%) were nulliparous. During induction of labour, 53(95%) reported mild or no discomfort. MBS of 6 or more was achieved in 36/56 (64%) Foley insertions. Twenty needed further intervention with prostaglandins. FC only group had 5 caesarean sections and 31 vaginal deliveries and Foley/prostaglandin group had 7 caesarean sections and 13 vaginal deliveries. Of the 24 women who were induced due to completion of 41 weeks of gestation with otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies, 17 had MBS >6

  14. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic

  15. How much is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Roy

    Full Text Available Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km(2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA. In 2007-2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments, we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions. Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and

  16. Do landfills affect the environmental quality of nearby streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When inappropriately disposed, solid waste may contaminate the soil, water and air, leading to severe negative impacts on biodiversity. The Brazilian National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS requires municipalities to ensure the environmental quality of landfills. Accordingly, our objective was to evaluate the community of aquatic insects in a stream with stretches downstream and upstream of a sanitary landfill. Our hypothesis was that there will be no differences in insect community between the stretches (downstream and upstream on the basis of the premise that landfills abiding by the PNRS do not cause environmental damage to nearby areas. There was no change in any aspect of the composition of the macroinvertebrate community as a result of the landfill. The only changes observed in the macroinvertebrate communities occurred between the dry and rainy seasons, which were related to the seasonality and consequent changes in the environmental conditions of the water over the year. Our study, although limited, showed primary and pioneering evidence that the PNRS can contribute positively to the conservation of the biotic quality of aquatic environments, further reinforcing the need for immediate implementation of the PNRS throughout the country.

  17. Effects of repeated insecticide pulses on macroinvertebrate drift in indoor stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Mohr, Silvia; Hübner, Verena; Schmiediche, Ronny; Schmiedling, Ina; Svetich-Will, Erkki; Schmidt, Ralf

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide contaminations via run-off or spray drift have been reported to result in the mass drift of macroinvertebrates as well as causing structural and functional changes of the corresponding stream sections. However, pesticide pulses in the field are associated with sudden increases in flow velocity, water turbidity, and changes in water temperature, which can also induce drift. Only through replicated community testing under highly controlled conditions can these effects be disentangled. In a stream mesocosm study, 12-h pulses of 12 μg/L imidacloprid were set three times at weekly intervals and are considered a "pulse series". Two pulse series of this neonicotinoid insecticide were run in both spring and summer with 4 treatment and 4 control stream mesocosms used in each pulse series. Prior to the start of the mesocosm experiment, both pulse concentration and duration had been screened for drift responses in larval Baetidae, Chironomidae and adult Gammarus roeseli in laboratory experiments. In the subsequent mesocosm study, each pulse caused a pronounced increase in the drift of insect larvae and gammarids. The drift response was taxon-specific, which was related to preferred habitat and exposure to other stressors like current velocity, in addition to imidacloprid sensitivity. Activity measurements employing a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor(®) revealed that in Baetis sp. the diurnal activity pattern became more pronounced even 12h after the pulse though with slightly decreased mean physical activity. Adult G. roeseli showed a drastic pulse by pulse decrease in physical activity which after the 3rd pulse lasted longer than 24h. In conclusion, drift is a sensitive, ecologically relevant endpoint and should be regarded when a specific risk assessment for lotic surface waters is done, e.g. in the context of a spatially explicit risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Current Knowledge on Moderate Malnutrition in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Peter Hiram Prasantha

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Many studied have been conducted on the nutritional status of children in Sri Lanka. Among which the Demographic and Health Surveys of the Ministry of Health, Government of Sri Lanka takes a leading position. Other studies have gone into details of different aspects of malnutrition in children In the Demographic and Health Surveys, 6,555 children have been studied in the 2007 survey and for all indices of nutrition, -2SD or below from the median are taken as the affected group. Comparing the data from 1993 onwards shows that there is a general reduction in both stunting and underweight . During 1–5 month age both these indices are less than 5% However after one year to 5 years a similar level of stunting (12.9 %) and wasted (14.1%) and underweight (26.9%) could be seen. In both males and females stunting was present in 12.9%, wasting males 14.4 and females 13.8 under weight males 26.5 and females 27.4. All indices shows that the in the Colombo metropolitan area the nutritional status is much better than in rural and estate sectors. In all sectors stunting and underweight has improved when compared to the 1993 data however weight for height i.e. wasting is poor when compared to 1993 data. An independent study conducted in 2002 showed that 16% of school girls in Colombo municipality area were under nourished and were 2% stunted. Another study conducted in the same year demonstrated that children of employed mothers are not receiving adequate amount of energy. A descriptive cross sectional study carried out in 2003 to assess the nutritional status of children of 1-5 years belonging to fishing families of Ambalangoda area, revealed that the prevalence of underweight was 31% while stunting and wasting were 23% and 11.3% respectively. Another study conducted in 2003 showed the association between parents ability to read and understand written material, father's habit of smoking and or alcohol consumption, frequent quarrels and family disputes with the three

  19. Effect of ultrasound streaming on the disinfection of flattened root canals prepared by rotary and reciprocating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de; Midena, Raquel Zanin; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Pereira, Thais Cristina; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de

    2017-01-01

    New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is the most used. To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US) in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture. Extracted human mandibular incisors (n=84) were used. Suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) were standardized and inserted along with the teeth immersed in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth. The contamination was made following a protocol during 5 days. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups: G1, ProTaper Universal; G2, ProTaper Universal with US; G3, BioRaCe; G4, BioRaCe with US; G5, Reciproc; and G6, Reciproc with US. Irrigation was performed with saline solution. After biomechanical preparation, microbiological samples were performed with sterilized paper points, which were diluted and spread on BHI agar; after 48 h, the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted for each sample. Groups using ultrasonic agitation presented a greater antibacterial effect than the other ones, even using saline solution as irrigant. The ProTaper Universal system showed the best antibacterial activity of the tested systems (median of 0 CFU/mL with and without surfactant or ultrasonic activation [PUI]). Even with PUI, Reciproc (median of 2.5 CFU/mL with PUI and 5 without it) could not reduce as many colonies as ProTaper Universal without US. The BioRaCe system had greater bacterial reduction when using US (median of 0 CFU/mL with PUI and 30 without it). US promoted greater reduction in the number of bacteria in the flattened root canals prepared with nickel-titanium mechanized systems. Regarding the instruments used, the ProTaper Universal system was the most effective in reducing the

  20. Effect of ultrasound streaming on the disinfection of flattened root canals prepared by rotary and reciprocating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI is the most used. Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture. Methodology: Extracted human mandibular incisors (n=84 were used. Suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 were standardized and inserted along with the teeth immersed in brain-heart infusion (BHI broth. The contamination was made following a protocol during 5 days. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups: G1, ProTaper Universal; G2, ProTaper Universal with US; G3, BioRaCe; G4, BioRaCe with US; G5, Reciproc; and G6, Reciproc with US. Irrigation was performed with saline solution. After biomechanical preparation, microbiological samples were performed with sterilized paper points, which were diluted and spread on BHI agar; after 48 h, the colony forming units (CFU/mL were counted for each sample. Results: Groups using ultrasonic agitation presented a greater antibacterial effect than the other ones, even using saline solution as irrigant. The ProTaper Universal system showed the best antibacterial activity of the tested systems (median of 0 CFU/mL with and without surfactant or ultrasonic activation [PUI]. Even with PUI, Reciproc (median of 2.5 CFU/mL with PUI and 5 without it could not reduce as many colonies as ProTaper Universal without US. The BioRaCe system had greater bacterial reduction when using US (median of 0 CFU/mL with PUI and 30 without it. Conclusions: US promoted greater reduction in the number of bacteria in the flattened root canals prepared with nickel-titanium mechanized systems. Regarding the instruments used, the Pro

  1. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J.; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Schmidt, Travis S.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters.

  2. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  3. Impacts of Sedimentation from Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds of the Allegheny National Forest of Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, K.; Harris, S.; Edenborn, H.M.; Sams, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fritz, Kelley'*, Steven Harris', Harry Edenborn2, and James Sams2. 'Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA 16214, 2National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236. Impacts a/Sedimentation/rom Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds a/the Allegheny National Forest a/Northwestern Pennsylvania - The Allegheny National Forest (ANF), located in northwestern Pennsy Ivania, is a multiuse forest combining commercial development with recreational and conservation activities. As such, portions of the ANF have been heavily logged and are now the subject of widespread oil and gas development. This rapid increase in oil and gas development has led to concerns about sediment runoff from the dirt and gravel roads associated with development and the potential impact on the aquatic biota of the receiving streams. We examined and compared the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in two adjacent watersheds of similar size and topography in the ANF; the Hedgehog Run watershed has no oil and gas development, while the adjacent Grunder Run watershed has extensive oil and gas development. In Hedgehog and Grunder Run, we collected monthly kicknet samples from riffles and glides at two sites from April to October 2010. At the same intervals, we measured standard water quality parameters, including conductivity and turbidity. Preliminary results have indicated much higher turbidity in Grunder Run, but little difference in the diversity and abundance of benthic macro invertebrates inhabiting the two streams.

  4. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.

  5. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah H; Ploubidis, George B; Sloggett, Andy; Church, Kathryn; Obure, Carol D; Birdthistle, Isolde; Sweeney, Sedona; Warren, Charlotte E; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH) service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs. Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya) and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure) and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients). The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration". These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  6. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah H Mayhew

    Full Text Available The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs.Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients. The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration".These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  7. Health Systems Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826

  8. Volunteer stream monitoring: Do the data quality and monitoring experience support increased community involvement in freshwater decision making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Storey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent freshwater policy reforms in New Zealand promote increased community involvement in freshwater decision making and management. Involving community members in scientific monitoring increases both their knowledge and their ability to discuss this knowledge with professionals, potentially increasing their influence in decision-making processes. However, these interactions rarely occur because, in particular, of perceptions that volunteer-collected data are unreliable. We assessed the agreement between volunteer (community group and local government (regional council data at nine stream sites across New Zealand. Over 18 months, community groups and regional council staff monitored, in parallel, a common set of water quality variables, physical habitat, periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates that are routinely used by regional councils for statutory state of environment reporting. Community groups achieved close agreement (correlations ≥ 0.89, bias < 1% with regional councils for temperature, electrical conductivity, visual water clarity, and Escherichia coli. For dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and pH, correlations were weaker (0.2, 0.53, and 0.4, respectively. Volunteer assessments of physical habitat were as consistent over time as those of councils. For visual assessments of thick periphyton growths (% streambed cover, volunteers achieved a correlation of 0.93 and bias of 0.1% relative to councils. And for a macroinvertebrate biotic index that indicates water and habitat quality, correlation was 0.88, bias was < 5%, and the average difference was 12% of the index score. Volunteers showed increased awareness of local freshwaters, understanding of stream ecosystems, and attentiveness to local and national freshwater issues. Most volunteers had shared their knowledge and interest with others in their community. Most groups had developed relationships with their regional council, and some volunteers became more interested in engaging in

  9. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  10. The Role of Regional Factors in Structuring Ouachita Mountain Stream Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren; J. Alan Clingenpeel

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - We used Basin Area Stream Survey data from the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest to evaluate the relationship between regional fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variability (both natural and anthropogenic). Data were collected for three years (1990-1992) from six hydrologically variable stream systems in...

  11. Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaroli, Riccardo; Ippolito, Alessio; Tolkkinen, Mari J; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo; Balistrieri, Laurie S; Schmidt, Travis S

    2018-04-01

    One of the primary goals of biological assessment of streams is to identify which of a suite of chemical stressors is limiting their ecological potential. Elevated metal concentrations in streams are often associated with low pH, yet the effects of these two potentially limiting factors of freshwater biodiversity are rarely considered to interact beyond the effects of pH on metal speciation. Using a dataset from two continents, a biogeochemical model of the toxicity of metal mixtures (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and quantile regression, we addressed the relative importance of both pH and metals as limiting factors for macroinvertebrate communities. Current environmental quality standards for metals proved to be protective of stream macroinvertebrate communities and were used as a starting point to assess metal mixture toxicity. A model of metal mixture toxicity accounting for metal interactions was a better predictor of macroinvertebrate responses than a model considering individual metal toxicity. We showed that the direct limiting effect of pH on richness was of the same magnitude as that of chronic metal toxicity, independent of its influence on the availability and toxicity of metals. By accounting for the direct effect of pH on macroinvertebrate communities, we were able to determine that acidic streams supported less diverse communities than neutral streams even when metals were below no-effect thresholds. Through a multivariate quantile model, we untangled the limiting effect of both pH and metals and predicted the maximum diversity that could be expected at other sites as a function of these variables. This model can be used to identify which of the two stressors is more limiting to the ecological potential of running waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Sri Lanka rabies virus isolates using nucleotide sequence analysis of nucleoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y T; Takahashi, H; Kameoka, Y; Shiino, T; Wimalaratne, O; Lodmell, D L

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-four suspected rabid brain samples from 2 humans, 24 dogs, 4 cats, 2 mongooses, I jackal and I water buffalo were collected in 1995-1996 in Sri Lanka. Total RNA was extracted directly from brain suspensions and examined using a one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) gene. Twenty-eight samples were found positive for the virus N gene by RT-PCR and also for the virus antigens by fluorescent antibody (FA) test. Rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in different regions of Sri Lanka were genetically homogenous. Sequences of 203 nucleotides (nt)-long RT-PCR products obtained from 16 of 27 samples were found identical. Sequences of 1350 nt of N genes of 14 RT-PCR products were determined. The Sri Lanka isolates under study formed a specific cluster that included also an earlier isolate from India but did not include the known isolates from China, Thailand, Malaysia, Israel, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Nepal, Philippines, Japan and from several other countries. These results suggest that one type of rabies virus is circulating among human, dog, cat, mongoose, jackal and water buffalo living near Colombo City and in other five remote regions in Sri Lanka.

  13. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  14. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    Measurement of ecosystem health is a very important but often difficult and sometimes fractious topic for applied ecologists. It is important because it can provide information about effects of various external influences like chemical, nuclear, and physical disturbance, and invasive species. Ecosystem health is also a measure of the rate or trajectory of degradation or recovery of systems that are currently suffering impact or those where restoration or remediation have taken place. Further, ecosystem health is the single best indicator of the quality of long term environmental stewardship because it not only provides a baseline condition, but also the means for future comparison and evaluation. Ecosystem health is difficult to measure because there are a nearly infinite number of variables and uncertainty as to which suites of variables are truly indicative of ecosystem condition. It would be impossible and prohibitively expensive to measure all those variables, or even all the ones that were certain to be valid indicators. Measurement of ecosystem health can also be a fractious topic for applied ecologists because there are a myriad of opinions as to which variables are the most important, most easily measured, most robust, and so forth. What is required is an integrative means of evaluating ecosystem health. All ecosystems are dynamic and undergo change either stochastically, intrinsically, or in response to external influences. The basic assumption about change induced by exogenous antropogenic influences is that it is directional and measurable. Historically measurements of surrogate parameters have been used in an attempt to quantify these changes, for example extensive water chemistry data in aquatic systems. This was the case until the 1980's when the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) (Karr et al. 1986), was developed. This system collects an array of metrics and fish community data within a stream ecosystem and develops a score or rating for the

  15. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 1: Genus-Level Relationships with Geomorphic Typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. N. Meissner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern river ecosystems undergo constant stress from disturbances such as bank stabilization, channelization, dams, and municipal, agricultural, and industrial water use. As these anthropogenic water requirements persist, more efficient methods of characterizing river reaches are essential. Benthic macroinvertebrates are helpful when evaluating fluvial health, because they are often the first group to react to contaminants that can then be transferred through them to other trophic levels. Hence, the purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model to differentiate instream macroinvertebrate habitats, and determine if the model is a viable method for stream evaluation. Through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models, the fluvial geomorphology of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan (SK was assessed. Four geomorphological characteristics of the river were isolated (sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width and clustered through Principle Component Analysis (PCA, yielding sets of river reaches with similar geomorphological characteristics, called typologies. These typologies were mapped to form a geospatial model of the river. Macroinvertebrate data were aligned to the locations of the typologies, revealing several relationships with the fluvial geomorphology. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis and post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons were completed with the macroinvertebrate data to pinpoint significant genera, as related to the geospatial model.

  16. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. - Highlights: ► Stream invertebrate communities are altered by exposure to wastewater effluent. ► Principal Response Curves indicate a dose-effect response to effluent treatment. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing effluent concentration and exposure time. ► Effluent concentrations as low as 5% have detectable ecological effects. - Exposure to treated effluent in a stream mesocosm caused a dose-dependent response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  17. Perception on the abortion laws in Sri Lanka: A community based study in the city of Colombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranga, M S; Silva, K T; Senanayake, L

    2016-12-30

    Abortion is legally permitted in Sri Lanka, only if it is performed to save the mother’s life. However, it is estimated that a large number of induced abortions take place in Sri Lanka. Knowledge and attitudes towards induced abortion in the society are key issues influencing the policy response towards changes in the law. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adults towards induced abortion in Sri Lanka. Six Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) and five to eight housing clusters from each GND were selected from Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat Division using multi stage stratified random sampling. Fifty households were systematically selected from each GND. An interview was scheduled among 743 residents aged between 19 to 49 years of age after receiving written informed consent. Only 11% of the respondents knew the situations in which abortion was legal in Sri Lanka. Approximately one tenth of the respondents (11%) did not agree with the current law which allows an induced abortion only to save the life of the mother. However, a majority agreed to legalization of abortion for rape (65%), incest (55%) and pregnancies with lethal fetal abnormalities (53%). Less than one tenth of respondents agreed with legalisation of induced abortion for other reasons such as con-traceptive failure (6%), poor economic conditions (7%) and, on request (4%). Although the society rejects abortion on request majority are in favour of allowing abortions for rape, incest and fetuses with lethal abnormalities.

  18. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  19. Canal shaping of different single-file systems in curved root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio D'Amario

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study compared maintenance of canal anatomy, occurrence of apical transportation, and working time observed after instrumentation with One Shape New Generation rotary system (Micro-Mega, with those observed after instrumentation with Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply-Maillefer reciprocating systems. Materials and methods: The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (curvature angles between 35° and 45° were selected. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and canal preparations were performed using One Shape, Reciproc, or WaveOne systems (size #25. A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and change in angle of curvature. Also, working time and instrument failures were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: During preparation, no file fractured. No statistically significant differences were found among groups. No system showed a significantly faster preparation time than others (P>0.05. All instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Conclusion: Both continuous rotary instrument and reciprocating systems did not have any influence on the presence of apical transportation or caused an alteration in angle of canal curvature. Keywords: canal curvature, canal straightening, endodontics, reciprocating motion, single file instrumentation

  20. Establishment of key grid-connected performance index system for integrated PV-ES system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Yuan, X. D.; Qi, Q.; Liu, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to further promote integrated optimization operation of distributed new energy/ energy storage/ active load, this paper studies the integrated photovoltaic-energy storage (PV-ES) system which is connected with the distribution network, and analyzes typical structure and configuration selection for integrated PV-ES generation system. By combining practical grid- connected characteristics requirements and technology standard specification of photovoltaic generation system, this paper takes full account of energy storage system, and then proposes several new grid-connected performance indexes such as paralleled current sharing characteristic, parallel response consistency, adjusting characteristic, virtual moment of inertia characteristic, on- grid/off-grid switch characteristic, and so on. A comprehensive and feasible grid-connected performance index system is then established to support grid-connected performance testing on integrated PV-ES system.

  1. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  2. Influence of rice field agrochemicals on the ecological status of a tropical stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen, E-mail: jr@bios.au.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Reiler, Emilie Marie [University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Carazo, Elizabeth; Matarrita, Jessie [Centro de Investigación en Contaminación Ambiental, Ciudad Universidad de Costa Rica Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San José (Costa Rica); Muñoz, Alejandro [Centro de Investigación en Contaminación Ambiental, Ciudad Universidad de Costa Rica Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San José (Costa Rica); Escuela de Biología, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San José (Costa Rica); Cedergreen, Nina [University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Many tropical countries contain a high density of protected ecosystems, and these may often be bordered by intensive agricultural systems. We investigated the chemical and ecological status of a stream connecting an area with conventional rice production and a downstream protected nature reserve; Mata Redonda. Three sites were sampled: 1) an upstream control, 2) in the rice production area and 3) a downstream site in Mata Redonda. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates and pesticides in water and sediments along with supporting physical and chemical data. Pesticide concentrations in water exceeded current safety thresholds at sites 2 and 3, especially during the rainy season, and sediment associated pesticide concentrations exceeded current safety thresholds in three of six samples. Importantly, the highest predicted pesticide toxicity in sediments was observed at site 3 in the Mata Redonda confirming that the nature reserve received critical levels of pesticide pollution from upstream sections. The currently used macroinvertebrate index in Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) and an adjusted version of the SPecies At Risk index (SPEAR) were not significantly correlated to any measure of anthropogenic stress, but the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) index was significantly correlated with the predicted pesticide toxicity (sumTU{sub D.magna}), oxygen concentrations and substrate composition. Our results suggest that pesticide pollution was likely involved in the impairment of the ecological status of the sampling sites, including site 3 in Mata Redonda. Based on our results, we give guidance to biomonitoring in Costa Rica and call for increased focus on pesticide transport from agricultural regions to protected areas. - Highlights: • Pesticides are transported via streams to protected downstream nature reserves. • Pesticide concentrations were highest during the rainy season due to flooded fields. • Pesticide concentrations in the protected area exceeded safety thresholds.

  3. Influence of rice field agrochemicals on the ecological status of a tropical stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Reiler, Emilie Marie; Carazo, Elizabeth; Matarrita, Jessie; Muñoz, Alejandro; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Many tropical countries contain a high density of protected ecosystems, and these may often be bordered by intensive agricultural systems. We investigated the chemical and ecological status of a stream connecting an area with conventional rice production and a downstream protected nature reserve; Mata Redonda. Three sites were sampled: 1) an upstream control, 2) in the rice production area and 3) a downstream site in Mata Redonda. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates and pesticides in water and sediments along with supporting physical and chemical data. Pesticide concentrations in water exceeded current safety thresholds at sites 2 and 3, especially during the rainy season, and sediment associated pesticide concentrations exceeded current safety thresholds in three of six samples. Importantly, the highest predicted pesticide toxicity in sediments was observed at site 3 in the Mata Redonda confirming that the nature reserve received critical levels of pesticide pollution from upstream sections. The currently used macroinvertebrate index in Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) and an adjusted version of the SPecies At Risk index (SPEAR) were not significantly correlated to any measure of anthropogenic stress, but the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) index was significantly correlated with the predicted pesticide toxicity (sumTU_D_._m_a_g_n_a), oxygen concentrations and substrate composition. Our results suggest that pesticide pollution was likely involved in the impairment of the ecological status of the sampling sites, including site 3 in Mata Redonda. Based on our results, we give guidance to biomonitoring in Costa Rica and call for increased focus on pesticide transport from agricultural regions to protected areas. - Highlights: • Pesticides are transported via streams to protected downstream nature reserves. • Pesticide concentrations were highest during the rainy season due to flooded fields. • Pesticide concentrations in the protected area exceeded safety thresholds.

  4. Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah-Azwa, S.; Ahmad A., K.

    2016-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was conducted at Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka. Five stations were selected with distance intervals of approximately 500 metres. Three replicates of benthic macroinvertebrate and water samples were taken. Results classified Air Terjun Asahan in class II, which indicated good water quality based on WQI recommended by the Department of Environment. A total of 1 phylum, 2 classes, 6 order, 30 families, and 2183 individuals were successfully sampled and recorded. The analysis showed that the average value of Shannon Diversity Index, H' (2.19), Pielou Evenness Index, J' (0.30), and Margaleff Richness Index, DMG (3.77) described that Air Terjun Asahan was in moderate condition and the distribution of macroinvertebrates was uniform between stations. Correlation test showed that the WQI had a strong relationship with the diversity indices involved. BMWP, and FBI showed that Air Terjun Asahan was in good water quality. CCA test was conducted to show environmental factors towards benthic macroinvertebrate distribution. The presence of Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Chironomidae with high abundance of the families showed the potential as biological indicators of a clean ecosystem.

  5. Physical integrity: the missing link in biological monitoring and TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Brenda; Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Perry, Jim

    2009-12-01

    The Clean Water Act mandates that the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of our nation's waters be maintained and restored. Physical integrity has often been defined as physical habitat integrity, and as such, data collected during biological monitoring programs focus primarily on habitat quality. However, we argue that channel stability is a more appropriate measure of physical integrity and that channel stability is a foundational element of physical habitat integrity in low-gradient alluvial streams. We highlight assessment tools that could supplement stream assessments and the Total Maximum Daily Load stressor identification process: field surveys of bankfull cross-sections; longitudinal thalweg profiles; particle size distribution; and regionally calibrated, visual, stream stability assessments. Benefits of measuring channel stability include a more informed selection of reference or best attainable stream condition for an Index of Biotic Integrity, establishment of a baseline for monitoring changes in present and future condition, and indication of channel stability for investigations of chemical and biological impairments associated with sediment discontinuity and loss of habitat quality.

  6. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Loinaz, Maria C; Thomsen, Nanna I; Olsson, Mikael E; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation activities to improve water quality and quantity in streams as well as stream management and restoration efforts are conducted in the European Union aiming to improve the chemical, physical and ecological status of streams. Headwater streams are often characterised by impairment of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities in the catchment). We aimed to identify the dominating anthropogenic stressors at the catchment scale causing ecological impairment of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and provide a rank-order of importance that could help in prioritising mitigation activities. We identified numerous chemical and hydromorphological impacts of which several were probably causing major ecological impairments, but we were unable to provide a robust rank-ordering of importance suggesting that targeted mitigation efforts on single anthropogenic stressors in the catchment are unlikely to have substantial effects on the ecological quality in these streams. The SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) index explained most of the variability in the macroinvertebrate community structure, and notably, SPEAR index scores were often very low (<10% SPEAR abundance). An extensive re-sampling of a subset of the streams provided evidence that especially insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in

  7. Recovery of stream communities from experimental selenium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, M.C.; Kuklinskal, B.; Ferkull, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Monticello, MN (United States); Allen, K.N.; Hermanutz, R.O.; Roush, T.H.; Hedtke, S.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of selenium on stream communities and their recovery from those effects were studied at MERS from 1987--1991. Selenium was dosed into two replicate streams each at concentrations of 30, 10, 2.5 and 0 (control) {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for 18, 30, and 12 months, respectively. Recovery was monitored for three (30) or two (1 0, 2.5) years following cessation of selenium dosing. Selenium rapidly accumulated in the sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates and fish during dosing. Selenium concentrations in sediment, macroinvertebrates, and plants were as high as 2X--4X, 2X--4X, and 1X--1OX the dosed concentration in the 30, 10, and 2.5 treatments, respectively. Selenium decreased relatively rapidly following cessation of dosing. By two years after dosing ceased, selenium concentrations in plants and macroinvertebrates were little different from the controls; selenium in sediment from the 30 and 10 streams was still higher than in the control streams two years after dosing ceased. The macroinvertebrate community changed little during the dosing and recovery period. Commonly used indices of community structure showed no effect of selenium dosing. The isopod Asellus and oligochaetes in the family Tubificidae decreased rapidly following the onset of selenium dosing; their recovery following cessation of dosing was slow.

  8. Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

  9. Universal health coverage and the health Sustainable Development Goal: achievements and challenges for Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha

    2016-09-01

    With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.

  10. An assessment of the impact of motorway runoff on a pond, wetland and stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriyaraj, K.; Shutes, R.B.E. [Middlesex University, London (United Kingdom). Urban Pollution Research Centre

    2001-07-01

    The impact of soil filtered runoff from a section of the M25 outer London motorway (constructed in 1981) on a pond, wetland and stream in a nature reserve was investigated by monitoring water, sediment. The tissues of the emergent plants Typha latifolia and Glyceria maxima collected from the pond were analysed for the heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. Macroinvertebrates were monitored in the stream and biotic indices applied to the data. The plant tissue concentrations for Typha and Glyceria show decreasing metal concentrations from root to rhizome to leaf. This trend has previously been reported for Typha exposed to runoff although the tissue concentrations are lower in this study with the exception of Cd in root tissue. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) for the stream at sites above and below the pond outlet are lower than the scores recorded by the Environment Agency for England and Wales at an upstream site above the Pond/Wetland. The sites have an Overall Quality Index of 'moderate water quality', and there is no evidence of a deterioration of biologically assessed water quality between them. The results of the study show the long-term impact on sediment of filtered road runoff discharges to a natural wetland and pond located in a nature reserve. The use of natural wetlands for the discharge of road runoff is inadvisable. Constructed wetlands in combination with other structures including settlement trenches and ponds should be considered as an alternative treatment option. (Author)

  11. BepiColombo MMO status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hajime; Maejima, Hironori

    2013-04-01

    BepiColombo is a ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution as well as to understand similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth. The baseline mission consists of two spacecraft, i.e. the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The two orbiters will be launched in 2015 by an Ariane-5 and arrive at Mercury in 2022. JAXA is responsible for the development and operation of MMO, while ESA is responsible for the development and operation of MPO as well as the launch, transport, and the insertion of two spacecraft into their dedicated orbits. The main objectives of MMO are to study Mercury's magnetic field and plasma environment around Mercury. MMO is designed as a spin-stabilized spacecraft to be placed in a 400 km x 12,000 km polar orbit. The spacecraft will accommodate instruments mostly dedicated to the study of the magnetic field, waves, and particles near Mercury. MMO Mechanical Test Model (MMO-MTM) was transported to ESA/ESTEC and stack level (MCS: Mercury Cruise System) mechanical environmental test was finished last September. MMO EM electrical model was transported to Astrium Friedrichshafen and electrical interface test was performed on Octorber. MMO stand alone Flight Model (FM) AIV was started from last October and continues until early next year. After standalone AIV, MMO will be trasported to ESA/ESTEC to attend stack level final AIV. 10th BepiColombo science working team (SWT) meeting, which discusses BepiColombo science related matters, will be held on Sep. 2013 at Lapland. In this paper, we will report the latest information of MMO project status.

  12. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2017-08-25

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  13. Impact of fishing with Tephrosia candida (Fabaceae) on diversity and abundance of fish in the streams at the boundary of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie

    2016-09-01

    Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may

  14. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    bioassays and certain chemical constituents such as pyrene and benzophenanthrene, both PAHs found in coal tar, were strongly correlated with measures of watershed urbanization. Hydrologic variability metrics indicated that as urban development increased, streams became flashier, with characteristic high flows having shorter duration. The hydrologic effects associated with urbanization were greatest during the fall and least apparent during the winter. No correlations were observed between increasing urbanization and stream temperature or changes in stream habitat. Algal, invertebrate, and fish communities exhibited statistically significant changes as watersheds became increasingly urban, with the strongest responses observed in the invertebrate community followed by fishes, then algal diatom communities. Invertebrate communities were the most responsive to increasing urbanization with Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera taxa, especially Plecoptera (stoneflies) responding negatively and most strongly to increasing urbanization. Invertebrate communities were influenced more significantly by water quality, although significant responses to altered hydrology also were noted. In terms of the fish community, the percentage of cyprinids present in the stream was the only Index of Biotic Integrity metric that responded negatively to increases in watershed urbanization. Fish community response to urbanization was intermediate relative to algae and invertebrates with respect to significant metric responses as well as the overall community response to increasing urbanization. Measures of hydrologic variability were the most influential environmental variables affecting the algal community. Although sites were originally chosen to represent a gradient of increasing urbanization, a cluster analysis performed on the component metrics of the urban index categorized sites into four distinct groups. Multivariate analysis based on nonmetric MDS and related analyses of data ma

  15. Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Alpine streams during annual snowmelt: investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Alumbaugh, Robert E; Cook, Michelle E

    2014-10-07

    Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.

  16. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@uts.edu.a [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Environmental Sustainability, Department of Environmental Science, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Marchant, Richard [Department of Entomology, Museum of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Schaefer, Ralf B. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Metzeling, Leon [EPA Victoria, Macleod, Victoria (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); Goonan, Peter [South Australia Environment Protection Authority, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC{sub p} value). However, at the PC{sub p} value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r{sup 2} {>=} 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  17. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Marchant, Richard; Schaefer, Ralf B.; Metzeling, Leon; Dunlop, Jason E.; Choy, Satish C.; Goonan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC p value). However, at the PC p value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r 2 ≥ 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  18. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-11-01

    Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of

  19. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN WESTERN FRANCE: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROUILHE M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In France, the distribution of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, is restricted, fragmented and mainly located in headwaters. To preserve this indigenous species, it is necessary to characterize its ecological requirements (water and habitat quality. With this aim in view, a two-year study is being conducted in the Deux-Sèvres department (Western France since November 2002. Nine brooks from four different catchments are monitored regularly; eight of the nine brooks harbour whiteclawed crayfish populations. Two sampling sites are surveyed per brook, the first being where the crayfish population is located and the second 2 to 3 km downstream. Physicochemical parameters (18 are measured twice monthly and biotic factors are estimated twice yearly. In this study, the I.B.G.N. (Indice Biologique Global Normalisé protocol based on the determination of macroinvertebrates was used as a biotic index of biological water quality. Results of this preliminary study on two brooks (Thouet and Verdonnière show that physico-chemical and biological data considered separately do not provide reliable information about A. pallipes ecological requirements. However, the use of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis to combine abiotic and biotic factors highlights a good correlation between these parameters. Organic matter appears to be a better discriminating factor than mineral matter affecting presence or absence of the whiteclawed crayfish.

  1. Unveiling Mercury's Mysteries with BepiColombo - an ESA/JAXA Mission to Explore the Innermost Planet of our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's MESSENGER mission has fundamentally changed our view of the innermost planet. Mercury is in many ways a very different planet from what we were expecting. Now BepiColombo has to follow up on answering the fundamental questions that MESSENGER raised and go beyond. BepiColombo is a joint project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in October 2018 and an arrival at Mercury in 2025. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment. BepiColombo will study and understand the composition, geophysics, atmosphere, magnetosphere and history of Mercury, the least explored planet in the inner Solar System. In addition, the BepiColombo mission will provide a rare opportunity to collect multi-point measurements in a planetary environment. This will be particularly important at Mercury because of short temporal and spatial scales in the Mercury's environment. The foreseen orbits of the MPO and MMO will allow close encounters of the two spacecrafts throughout the mission. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; The MMO comprises 5 instruments/instrument packages to the the study of the environment. The MPO will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will be testing Einstein's theory of general relativity. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will provide the detailed information necessary to understand Mercury and its magnetospheric environment and to find clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. The BepiColombo mission will complement and follow up the work of NASA's MESSENGER mission by

  2. Shifting stream planform state decreases stream productivity yet increases riparian animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venarsky, Michael P.; Walters, David M.; Hall, Robert O.; Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado Front Range (USA), disturbance history dictates stream planform. Undisturbed, old-growth streams have multiple channels and large amounts of wood and depositional habitat. Disturbed streams (wildfires and logging tested how these opposing stream states influenced organic matter, benthic macroinvertebrate secondary production, emerging aquatic insect flux, and riparian spider biomass. Organic matter and macroinvertebrate production did not differ among sites per unit area (m−2), but values were 2 ×–21 × higher in undisturbed reaches per unit of stream valley (m−1 valley) because total stream area was higher in undisturbed reaches. Insect emergence was similar among streams at the per unit area and per unit of stream valley. However, rescaling insect emergence to per meter of stream bank showed that the emerging insect biomass reaching the stream bank was lower in undisturbed sites because multi-channel reaches had 3 × more stream bank than single-channel reaches. Riparian spider biomass followed the same pattern as emerging aquatic insects, and we attribute this to bottom-up limitation caused by the multi-channeled undisturbed sites diluting prey quantity (emerging insects) reaching the stream bank (riparian spider habitat). These results show that historic landscape disturbances continue to influence stream and riparian communities in the Colorado Front Range. However, these legacy effects are only weakly influencing habitat-specific function and instead are primarily influencing stream–riparian community productivity by dictating both stream planform (total stream area, total stream bank length) and the proportional distribution of specific habitat types (pools vs riffles).

  3. BepiColombo: Overview and latest updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2012-09-01

    BepiColombo is an interdisciplinary mission to explore the planet Mercury through a partnership between ESA and Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). From their dedicated orbits two spacecraft, the ESA provided Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the JAXA provided Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), will be studying the planet and its environment. Both spacecraft of BepiColombo will be launched together in summer 2015. The mission will address a comprehensive set of scientific questions in order to study the planet, its evolution and its surrounding environment. A suite of state-of-art scientific instruments, flying on the two spacecraft, allow a wide range of scientific questions to be addressed like understanding of the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star, the detailed study of Mercury's figure, its interior structure and composition, the investigation of the interior dynamics and origin of Mercury's magnetic field. Further science goals are trying to understand exo- and endogenic surface modifications, cratering, tectonics, and volcanism. The composition, origin and dynamics of Mercury's exosphere and Mercury's magnetosphere will be addressed by combined measurements of both spacecraft. Last but not least scientist believe that they can use the BepiColombo also as a laboratory to test Einstein's theory of general relativity, by performing high accurate positioning measurements of the spacecraft. All in all measurements performed by the instruments on BepiColombo will provide clues on the origin and formation of terrestrial planets and help to answer fundamental questions like: "How do Earth-like planets form and evolve in the Universe?"

  4. Development and validation of a bacteria-based index of biotic integrity for assessing the ecological status of urban rivers: A case study of Qinhuai River basin in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Yi; Qian, Bao; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Cai, Wei; Wu, Hainan; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing human disturbance to urban rivers, the extinction and biodiversity losses of some macroorganism species decreased the accuracy of bioassessment. In this study, a novel index of biotic integrity based on bacteria (Ba-IBI) was first developed for Qinhuai River in Nanjing city, China. Thirty-two biofilm samples were collected along the river bank and the bacterial communities were identified by high-throughput sequencing. By the range, responsive, and redundancy tests, four core metrics were selected from the dataset of 78 candidate metrics, including Pielou's evenness index, proportion of Paenibacillus, proportion of OTUs tolerant to organic pollution and proportion of Nitrosomonas. The results showed that the Ba-IBI was able to effectively discriminate different impaired site groups, and had a good correlation with the index of water quality (r = 0.79, p river. Our study revealed that the Ba-IBI is an effective and reliable approach for assessing the ecological status of Qinhuai River basin, which can complement the existing ecological assessment approaches for urban rivers. Meanwhile, repeted surveys and field validations are still needed to further improve the applicability of the index in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITECLAWED CRAYFISH HABITAT BASED ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES: USEFULNESS FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDJEAN F.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.

  6. Macroinvertebrate short-term responses to flow variation and oxygen depletion: A mesocosm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Ana R; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Ferreira, Teresa; Hein, Thomas; Brito, António G; Feio, Maria João

    2017-12-01

    In Mediterranean rivers, water scarcity is a key stressor with direct and indirect effects on other stressors, such as water quality decline and inherent oxygen depletion associated with pollutants inputs. Yet, predicting the responses of macroinvertebrates to these stressors combination is quite challenging due to the reduced available information, especially if biotic and abiotic seasonal variations are taken under consideration. This study focused on the response of macroinvertebrates by drift to single and combined effects of water scarcity and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion over two seasons (winter and spring). A factorial design of two flow velocity levels - regular and low (vL) - with three levels of oxygen depletion - normoxia, medium depletion (dM) and higher depletion (dH) - was carried out in a 5-artificial channels system, in short-term experiments. Results showed that both stressors individually and together had a significant effect on macroinvertebrate drift ratio for both seasons. Single stressor effects showed that macroinvertebrate drift decreased with flow velocity reduction and increased with DO depletion, in both winter and spring experiments. Despite single stressors opposing effects in drift ratio, combined stressors interaction (vL×dM and vL×dH) induced a positive synergistic drift effect for both seasons, but only in winter the drift ratio was different between the levels of DO depletion. Stressors interaction in winter seemed to intensify drift response when reached lower oxygen saturation. Also, drift patterns were different between seasons for all treatments, which may depend on individual's life stage and seasonal behaviour. Water scarcity seems to exacerbate the oxygen depletion conditions resulting into a greater drifting of invertebrates. The potential effects of oxygen depletion should be evaluated when addressing the impacts of water scarcity on river ecosystems, since flow reductions will likely contribute to a higher oxygen

  7. Comparing spatial regression to random forests for large ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental data may be “large” due to number of records, number of covariates, or both. Random forests has a reputation for good predictive performance when using many covariates, whereas spatial regression, when using reduced rank methods, has a reputation for good predictive performance when using many records. In this study, we compare these two techniques using a data set containing the macroinvertebrate multimetric index (MMI) at 1859 stream sites with over 200 landscape covariates. Our primary goal is predicting MMI at over 1.1 million perennial stream reaches across the USA. For spatial regression modeling, we develop two new methods to accommodate large data: (1) a procedure that estimates optimal Box-Cox transformations to linearize covariate relationships; and (2) a computationally efficient covariate selection routine that takes into account spatial autocorrelation. We show that our new methods lead to cross-validated performance similar to random forests, but that there is an advantage for spatial regression when quantifying the uncertainty of the predictions. Simulations are used to clarify advantages for each method. This research investigates different approaches for modeling and mapping national stream condition. We use MMI data from the EPA's National Rivers and Streams Assessment and predictors from StreamCat (Hill et al., 2015). Previous studies have focused on modeling the MMI condition classes (i.e., good, fair, and po

  8. Mesohabitat mosaic in lowland braided rivers: Short-term variability of macroinvertebrate metacommunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burgazzi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Braided rivers are among the most variable and dynamic riverine systems. Changes in these environments are sudden and frequent, driven by the high hydrological variability. They host high levels of local heterogeneity, with many different habitats in close proximity establishing a mosaic of patches. This provides the conditions for high levels of biodiversity, with strong community variability in particular among the different habitats at the stream-reach level. Nevertheless, these systems are still poorly studied and their complexity is often not taken into account in biomonitoring protocols. We applied mixed effects modelling, spatial ordination techniques and beta-diversity partitioning (into nestedness and turnover components with the aim of improving the knowledge of braided rivers, investigating: i the organization of macroinvertebrate communities among the different habitats of a river reach, and ii the temporal variability of this organization (both among seasons and during summer. We predicted a differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities between distinct habitats within rivers, with this differentiation increasing during the low-flow period. We carried out our study in four braided rivers and streams of the Po River basin (Northern Italy sampling three different kinds of mesohabitats (main channel, secondary channel and pool in eight stations during seven campaigns from June 2015 to April 2016. We found a high variability of taxa richness, abundance and community structure among mesohabitats, with marginal ones accounting for the greater part of macroinvertebrate diversity. Secondary channels resulted as being the habitat hosting greater taxa diversity, with 10 exclusive taxa. Surprisingly the mesohabitat communities differed greatly during the seasonal phase, whereas their dissimilarity decreased during summer. This could be explained considering the summer flow reduction as a homogenizing force, leading to a general loss of the

  9. Quantifying biological integrity by taxonomic completeness: its utility in regional and global assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Charles P

    2006-08-01

    Water resources managers and conservation biologists need reliable, quantitative, and directly comparable methods for assessing the biological integrity of the world's aquatic ecosystems. Large-scale assessments are constrained by the lack of consistency in the indicators used to assess biological integrity and our current inability to translate between indicators. In theory, assessments based on estimates of taxonomic completeness, i.e., the proportion of expected taxa that were observed (observed/expected, O/E) are directly comparable to one another and should therefore allow regionally and globally consistent summaries of the biological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. However, we know little about the true comparability of O/E assessments derived from different data sets or how well O/E assessments perform relative to other indicators in use. I compared the performance (precision, bias, and sensitivity to stressors) of O/E assessments based on five different data sets with the performance of the indicators previously applied to these data (three multimetric indices, a biotic index, and a hybrid method used by the state of Maine). Analyses were based on data collected from U.S. stream ecosystems in North Carolina, the Mid-Atlantic Highlands, Maine, and Ohio. O/E assessments resulted in very similar estimates of mean regional conditions compared with most other indicators once these indicators' values were standardized relative to reference-site means. However, other indicators tended to be biased estimators of O/E, a consequence of differences in their response to natural environmental gradients and sensitivity to stressors. These results imply that, in some cases, it may be possible to compare assessments derived from different indicators by standardizing their values (a statistical approach to data harmonization). In situations where it is difficult to standardize or otherwise harmonize two or more indicators, O/E values can easily be derived from existing

  10. A predictive index of biotic integrity model for aquatic-vertebrate assemblages of Western U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of natural environmental and faunal differences and scientific perspectives, numerous indices of biological integrity (IBIs) have been developed at local state, and regional scales in the USA. These multiple IBIs, plus different criteria for judging impairment, hinder ri...

  11. Fractional-order mathematical model of an irrigation main canal pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomi N. Calderon-Valdez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fractional order model for an irrigation main canal is proposed. It is based on the experiments developed in a laboratory prototype of a hydraulic canal and the application of a direct system identification methodology. The hydraulic processes that take place in this canal are equivalent to those that occur in real main irrigation canals and the results obtained here can therefore be easily extended to real canals. The accuracy of the proposed fractional order model is compared by deriving two other integer-order models of the canal of a complexity similar to that proposed here. The parameters of these three mathematical models have been identified by minimizing the Integral Square Error (ISE performance index existing between the models and the real-time experimental data obtained from the canal prototype. A comparison of the performances of these three models shows that the fractional-order model has the lowest error and therefore the higher accuracy. Experiments showed that our model outperformed the accuracy of the integer-order models by about 25%, which is a significant improvement as regards to capturing the canal dynamics.

  12. SIMBIO-SYS for BepiColombo: status and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.; Formaro, R.; Mugnuolo, R.; Debei, S.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Dami, M.; Tommasi, L.; SIMBIO-SYS Team

    The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon+ science program. The BepiColombo mission is compose by two scientific satellites on, Mercury Magnetic Orbiter-MMO, realized by the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, devoted to the study of the planet environment and the other, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter realized by ESA, devoted to the detailed study of the Hermean surface and interior. The SIMBIOSYS instrument will provide all the science imaging capability of the Bepicolombo MPO spacecraft. It consists of three channels: the STereo imaging Channel (STC), with broad spectral band in the 400-950 nm range and medium spatial resolution (up to 50 m/px), that will provide Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface of the planet with an accuracy better than 80 m; the High Resolution Imaging Channel HRIC), with broad spectral bands in the 400-900 nm range and high spatial resolution (up to 5 m/px), that will provide high resolution images of about 20% of the surface, and the Visible and near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging channel (VIHI), with high spectral resolution (up to 6 nm) in the 400-2000 nm range and spatial resolution up to 100 m/px, it will provide the global covergae at 400 m/px with the spectral information. SIMBIO-SYS will provide unprecedented high-resolution images, the Digital Terrain Model of the entire surface, and the surface composition in wide spectral range, at resolutions and coverage higher than the MESSENGER mission with a full co-alignememt of the three channels. The main scientific objectives can be summarized as follows: Definition of the impact flux in the inner Solar System: based on the impact crater population records Understanding of the accretional model of an end member of the Solar System: based on

  13. Development of Ecogeomorphological (EGM Stream Design and Assessment Tools for the Piedmont of Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Helms

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves for reference streams in the Alabama piedmont. Twenty-one reference stream reaches were identified in the Tallapoosa drainage of Alabama, ranging from 0.2 to 242 km2 drainage area. Geomorphic surveys were conducted in each stream to measure riffle cross-sections and longitudinal profiles and related to drainage area to develop regional curves. Fish, crayfish, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from each surveyed reach and related to drainage area and geomorphic data to provide associated biological community endpoints. Bankfull channel cross-section area, width, mean depth, and estimated discharge were strongly correlated to watershed drainage area, similar to efforts in other areas of the Piedmont ecoregion. Multiple measures of fish assemblages and crayfish size were strongly predicted by drainage area and geomorphic dimensions. Macroinvertebrates showed no taxonomic and limited functional relationships with drainage area and geomorphic dimension. These tools, which integrate geomorphological and ecological conditions, can result in improved stream evaluations and designs increasing the effectiveness of stream restoration projects.

  14. Contribution of the private sector healthcare service providers to malaria diagnosis in a prevention of re-introduction setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Dharmawardana, Priyani; Epasinghe, Geethanee; Senanayake, Niroshana; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Premaratne, Risintha; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2016-10-18

    Sri Lanka is currently in the prevention of re-introduction phase of malaria. The engagement of the private sector health care institutions in malaria surveillance is important. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of diagnostic tests carried out, the number of positive cases identified and the referral system for diagnosis in the private sector and to estimate the costs involved. This prospective study of private sector laboratories within the Colombo District of Sri Lanka was carried out over a 6-month period in 2015. The management of registered private sector laboratories was contacted individually and the purpose of the study was explained. A reporting format was developed and introduced for monthly reporting. Forty-one laboratories were eligible to be included in the study and 28 participated by reporting data on a monthly basis. Excluding blood bank samples and routine testing for foreign employment, malaria diagnostic tests were carried out on 973 individuals during the 6-month period and nine malaria cases were identified. In 2015, a total of 36 malaria cases were reported from Sri Lanka. Of these, 24 (67 %) were diagnosed in the Colombo District and 50 % of them were diagnosed in private hospitals. An equal number of cases were diagnosed from the private sector and government sector in the Colombo District in 2015. The private sector being a major contributor in the detection of imported malaria cases in the country should be actively engaged in the national malaria surveillance system.

  15. Impacts of agricultural land use on biological integrity: A causal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riseng, C.M.; Wiley, M.J.; Black, R.W.; Munn, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural land use has often been linked to nutrient enrichment, habitat degradation, hydrologic alteration, and loss of biotic integrity in streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program sampled 226 stream sites located in eight agriculture-dominated study units across the United States to investigate the geographic variability and causes of agricultural impacts on stream biotic integrity. In this analysis we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop a national and set of regional causal models linking agricultural land use to measured instream conditions. We then examined the direct, indirect, and total effects of agriculture on biotic integrity as it acted through multiple water quality and habitat pathways. In our nation-wide model, cropland affected benthic communities by both altering structural habitats and by imposing water quality-related stresses. Regionspecific modeling demonstrated that geographic context altered the relative importance of causal pathways through which agricultural activities affected stream biotic integrity. Cropland had strong negative total effects on the invertebrate community in the national, Midwest, and Western models, but a very weak effect in the Eastern Coastal Plain model. In theWestern Arid and Eastern Coastal Plain study regions, cropland impacts were transmitted primarily through dissolved water quality contaminants, but in the Midwestern region, they were transmitted primarily through particulate components of water quality. Habitat effects were important in the Western Arid model, but negligible in the Midwest and Eastern Coastal Plain models. The relative effects of riparian forested wetlands also varied regionally, having positive effects on biotic integrity in the Eastern Coastal Plain andWestern Arid region models, but no statistically significant effect in the Midwest. These differences in response to cropland and riparian cover suggest that best management practices and

  16. Impacts of water development on aquatic macroinvertebrates, amphibians, and plants in wetlands of a semi-arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the macroinvertebrate and amphibian communities of 12 excavated and 12 natural wetlands in western North Dakota, USA, to assess the effects of artificially lengthened hydroperiods on the biotic communities of wetlands in this semi-arid region. Excavated wetlands were much deeper and captured greater volumes of water than natural wetlands. Most excavated wetlands maintained water throughout the study period (May to October 1999), whereas most of the natural wetlands were dry by June. Excavated wetlands were largely unvegetated or contained submergent and deep-marsh plant species. The natural wetlands had two well-defined vegetative zones populated by plant species typical of wet meadows and shallow marshes. Excavated wetlands had a richer aquatic macroinvertebrate community that included several predatory taxa not found in natural wetlands. Taxa adapted to the short hydroperiods of seasonal wetlands were largely absent from excavated wetlands. The amphibian community of natural and excavated wetlands included the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Scaphiopus bombifrons), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii woodhousii), and tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The plains spadefoot occurred only in natural wetlands while tiger salamanders occurred in all 12 excavated wetlands and only one natural wetland. Boreal chorus frogs and northern leopard frogs were present in both wetland types; however, they successfully reproduced only in wetlands lacking tiger salamanders. Artificially extending the hydroperiod of wetlands by excavation has greatly influenced the composition of native biotic communities adapted to the naturally short hydroperiods of wetlands in this semi-arid region. The compositional change of the biotic communities can be related to hydrological changes and biotic interactions, especially predation related to excavation.

  17. An ethnographic study of diabetes health beliefs and practices in Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, A A T D; Fongkaew, W; Turale, S; Wimalasekara, S W; Chanprasit, C

    2014-12-01

    Globally, type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent; however, unique cultural contexts in each country might affect these diabetes control behaviours. Diabetes is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka and little is known about the impact of sociocultural context on diabetes health behaviours. This first-time qualitative Sri Lankan study explored the health beliefs and practices of adults with diabetes to enhance current nursing care and medical treatment. An ethnographic approach was used to collect data through participant observations, in-depth interviews with 14 key informants in their homes and field notes. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Findings revealed unique, informative insights into sociocultural worlds of the participants from three Sinhalese, Tamils and Moor ethnic groups. Findings are described under five themes: gaining religious support, changing food habits is a struggle, exercising is challenging, Western medicine causes long-term consequences and Ayurveda/traditional treatments can cure. In Sri Lankans, the impact of sociocultural context on glycaemic control behaviours is significant and should be taken in consideration when health professionals provide care, treatment and health education. Study informants were selected from three ethnic groups and just two communities. Further in-depth research is required using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in individual groups. Culturally relevant policies and protocols for community care and treatment of people with diabetes are urgently required in Sri Lanka to enhance cultural treatment and care and reduce the epidemic of diabetes. These policies need to take into account traditional beliefs and practices of various ethnic groups. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Sri Lanka. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3. Technical report. Report prepared for the Governments of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, G G [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)

    1993-12-31

    At the request of the Government of Sri Lanka, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission, between November 10th and 17th 1990, to the Sri Lankan Atomic Energy Authority at Colombo. This included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to Sri Lanka and its on-going programmes. He engaged in a question and answer discussion meeting with representatives of the spice, and ornamental plants exporting trade in the presence of the Atomic Energy Authority Chairman, its chief food technologist, and a food science professor who serves on the Government`s Food Advisory Group. The expert assisted with the drafting of what should be the first national food irradiation regulation, and presented and discussed the draft at seminars presented separately to the National Food Advisory Group, and to the National food inspectors who would ultimately be responsible for implementing any such regulation. (author).

  19. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  20. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  1. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Everaert

    Full Text Available We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  2. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  3. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  4. How many doctors should we train for Sri Lanka? System dynamics modelling for training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, D

    2017-12-26

    Over the years, Sri Lanka has achieved remarkable health gains for the money spent on health. Currently about 1450 doctors enter the health system annually. While some advocate opening up of new medical schools to address an apparent shortage of doctors in the country, others argue against it. To identify the number of doctors Sri Lanka need. System dynamics, an analytical modelling approach and a methodology for studying complex feedback systems was used. Two sub models of “need” and “supply” were developed and simulated for a period of 15 years from 2017 to 2032 At present the doctor to population ratio is 1:671 and 91% of the need has been met. This study shows that currently there is a shortage of doctors in the country. However, the supply will match the need by 2025/26. Increasing the number of doctors, will result in oversupply of doctors towards the latter part of the next decade. There is no acute necessity to open up new Medical Schools. However comprehensive health workforce analysis needs to be done once in 5 years and the number of doctors to be trained, decided accordingly.

  5. Beyond cool: adapting upland streams for climate change using riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen M; Griffiths, Siân W; Ormerod, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Managed adaptation could reduce the risks of climate change to the world's ecosystems, but there have been surprisingly few practical evaluations of the options available. For example, riparian woodland is advocated widely as shade to reduce warming in temperate streams, but few studies have considered collateral effects on species composition or ecosystem functions. Here, we use cross-sectional analyses at two scales (region and within streams) to investigate whether four types of riparian management, including those proposed to reduce potential climate change impacts, might also affect the composition, functional character, dynamics and energetic resourcing of macroinvertebrates in upland Welsh streams (UK). Riparian land use across the region had only small effects on invertebrate taxonomic composition, while stable isotope data showed how energetic resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates in all functional guilds were split roughly 50:50 between terrestrial and aquatic origins irrespective of riparian management. Nevertheless, streams draining the most extensive deciduous woodland had the greatest stocks of coarse particulate matter (CPOM) and greater numbers of 'shredding' detritivores. Stream-scale investigations showed that macroinvertebrate biomass in deciduous woodland streams was around twice that in moorland streams, and lowest of all in streams draining non-native conifers. The unexpected absence of contrasting terrestrial signals in the isotopic data implies that factors other than local land use affect the relative incorporation of allochthonous subsidies into riverine food webs. Nevertheless, our results reveal how planting deciduous riparian trees along temperate headwaters as an adaptation to climate change can modify macroinvertebrate function, increase biomass and potentially enhance resilience by increasing basal resources where cover is extensive (>60 m riparian width). We advocate greater urgency in efforts to understand the ecosystem

  6. Comparison of radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel titanium or stainless-steel spreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both nickel titanium and stainless-steel spreaders are available. The obvious advantage of nickel titanium spreader over stainless steel spreaders is greater penetration in curved canals. Objective: To compare the radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel-titanium or stainless-steel spreaders in curved canals. Methods: In this experimental study the primary weight of 30 acrylic blocks with 45o degrees of apical curvature were measured by a scale (W1. After canals were prepared by step back master apical up to file #30 all blocks were weighed again (W2 and randomly divided in two groups of 15each. All canals were obturated by Cold lateral compaction technique (with nickel-titanium in one group and stainless-steel finger spreaders in another group. After all blocks were reweighed (W3, compaction index (W3-W2/W1-W2 was calculated. One radiograph was taken for each sample. Apical density of the apical third of each canal was measured by digital transmission densitometer. Data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Findings: Mean compaction index for nickel-titanium group was 7.67±2.38 and for stainless-steel group was 9.14±4.06. There was no significant difference between two groups. Mean radiographic density of obturation was 2.05±0.14 in nickel-titanium group and was 2.07±0.21 in stainless-steel group. There was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that nickel-titanium spreaders are not superior than stainless-steel spreaders in obturating curved canal.

  7. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil, a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997 and rainy (March, 1998 periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata, Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05; 31 = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31 = -3.0600; p < 0.01 between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxaand macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales, followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xingó. Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  8. The fluxgate magnetometer of the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Heyner, D.; Okrafka, K.; Carr, C.; Berghofer, G.; Anderson, B. J.; Balogh, A.; Baumjohann, W.; Cargill, P.; Christensen, U.; Delva, M.; Dougherty, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Horbury, T. S.; Lucek, E. A.; Magnes, W.; Mandea, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Matsushima, M.; Motschmann, U.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; O'Brien, H.; Richter, I.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Shibuya, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Sotin, C.; Stoll, B.; Tsunakawa, H.; Vennerstrom, S.; Vogt, J.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetometer (MAG) on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the joint European-Japanese BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury is a low-noise, tri-axial, dual-sensor, digital fluxgate instrument with its sensors mounted on a 2.8-m-long boom. The primary MPO/MAG science objectives are to determine the spatial and temporal structure of the magnetic field in the Hermean system, in particular the structure and origin of the intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury. MPO/MAG has a dynamic measurement range of ±2000nT with a resolution of 2 pT during operation along the near-polar orbit of the MPO spacecraft around Mercury. MPO/MAG is designed to provide measurements with rates between 0.5 and 128 vectors/s. In cooperation with its sister magnetometer instrument, MMO/MGF on board the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), MPO/MAG will be able to distinguish between temporal and spatial magnetic field variations in the magnetically closely coupled Hermean system.

  9. Assessing effects of water abstraction on fish assemblages in Mediterranean streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam, Lluis; Angermeier, Paul L.; Munne, Antoni; García-Berthou, Emili

    2010-01-01

    1. Water abstraction strongly affects streams in arid and semiarid ecosystems, particularly where there is a Mediterranean climate. Excessive abstraction reduces the availability of water for human uses downstream and impairs the capacity of streams to support native biota. 2. We investigated the flow regime and related variables in six river basins of the Iberian Peninsula and show that they have been strongly altered, with declining flows (autoregressive models) and groundwater levels during the 20th century. These streams had lower flows and more frequent droughts than predicted by the official hydrological model used in this region. Three of these rivers were sometimes dry, whereas there were predicted by the model to be permanently flowing. Meanwhile, there has been no decrease in annual precipitation. 3. We also investigated the fish assemblage of a stream in one of these river basins (Tordera) for 6 years and show that sites more affected by water abstraction display significant differences in four fish metrics (catch per unit effort, number of benthic species, number of intolerant species and proportional abundance of intolerant individuals) commonly used to assess the biotic condition of streams. 4. We discuss the utility of these metrics in assessing impacts of water abstraction and point out the need for detailed characterisation of the natural flow regime (and hence drought events) prior to the application of biotic indices in streams severely affected by water abstraction. In particular, in cases of artificially dry streams, it is more appropriate for regulatory agencies to assign index scores that reflect biotic degradation than to assign ‘missing’ scores, as is presently customary in assessments of Iberian streams.

  10. Promoting a functional macroinvertebrate approach in the biomonitoring of Italian lotic systems

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    Richard W. Merritt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over fifty years of research on freshwater macroinvertebrates has been driven largely by the state of the taxonomy of these organisms. Significant advances have been and continue to be made in developing ever more refined keys to macroinvertebrate groups. When advances in macroinvertebrate ecological research are restricted by the level of detail in identifications, then analysis by function is a viable alternative. The focus on function, namely adaptations of macroinvertebrates to habitats and the utilization of food resources, has facilitated ecological evaluation of freshwater ecosystems. This classification is based not on what insects eat, but how they obtain their food. These categories are called 'functional feeding groups', as the name implies, denoting their functional role when describing how and where they feed. This is the basis for the functional feeding group (FFG method that was initially developed in the early 1960s. Taxonomy is applied only to the level of detail that allows assignment to one of five functional feeding group categories: detrital shredders, scrapers, filtering collectors, gatherers, and predators. The aim of this short communication, originating from the presentation of R.W. Merritt at the Biomonitoring Symposium in Rome, 2015, is to promote the use of a functional approach in biomonitoring, especially in Italian and European lotic systems. Here, we present two case studies and we discuss the advantages of the method, especially considering the great availability of quantitative data on macroinvertebrates after the implementation of the WFD 2000/60. We are confident that the increase of functional assessment of ecosystem attributes could have important and direct repercussions in the understanding and management of running waters.

  11. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  13. Local environment rather than past climate determines community composition of mountain stream macroinvertebrates across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrria, Cesc; Bonada, Núria; Vellend, Mark; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sainz-Cantero, Carmen Elisa; Garrido, Josefina; Acosta, Raul; El Alami, Majida; Barquín, Jose; Derka, Tomáš; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Sáinz-Bariain, Marta; Filipe, Ana F; Vogler, Alfried P

    2017-11-01

    Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, S.

    1994-09-01

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett's initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream

  15. Occupational health issues in small-scale industries in Sri Lanka: An underreported burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Inoka K; Wijesinghe, Supun D; Senanayake, Sameera J; Herath, Hema D B; Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2016-10-17

    Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among workers in four selected small-scale industry categories in two districts of Sri Lanka. A small-scale industry was defined as a work setting with less than 20 workers. Cluster sampling using probability proportionate to size of workers was used. Eighty clusters with a cluster size of eight from each district were selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Our study surveyed 198 industries. Headache (2.2%, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and eye problems (2.1%, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) were the commonest general health issues detected. Back pain (4.8%, 95% CI 3.8-6.1) was the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal pain reported. Knee pain was the second highest (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.6). Most of the work-related musculoskeletal pain was either of short duration or long lasting. Work-related musculoskeletal pain was much more common than the general health issues reported. Health promotional programs at workplaces focusing ergonomics will benefit the workers at small-scale industries inSri Lanka.

  16. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  17. Health seeking narratives of unwell Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Melbourne Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Sophia; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant

    2018-03-01

    Sri Lankan Tamil refugees are among the largest group of refugees to resettle in Australia in the last decade. The aim of this study is to characterise the narratives of health-seeking among unwell Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Drawing on a qualitative, phenomenological perspective, we conducted in-depth interviews in Tamil and English with 12 participants who identified as being unwell for 6 months or more. Findings revealed three narratives of health-seeking: the search for the 'good life' that was lost or never experienced, seeking help from familiar channels in an unfamiliar context, and the desire for financial and occupational independence. These three narratives are undergirded by the metanarrative of a hope-filled recovery. These narratives of Tamil refugees' lived experience provide new insights into clinical care and health service delivery.

  18. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help‐seeking in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Sunera M.; Deane, Frank P.; McLeod, Hamish J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment.\\ud Aims: To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help‐seeking delay.\\ud Methods: Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale.\\ud Results: Stigma was positively related to help‐seeking delay for carer...

  19. Functional changes in littoral macroinvertebrate communities in response to watershed-level anthropogenic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya E Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Watershed-scale anthropogenic stressors have profound effects on aquatic communities. Although several functional traits of stream macroinvertebrates change predictably in response to land development and urbanization, little is known about macroinvertebrate functional responses in lakes. We assessed functional community structure, functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy and voltinism in macroinvertebrate communities sampled across the full gradient of anthropogenic stress in Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Functional diversity and voltinism significantly decreased with increasing development, whereas agriculture had smaller or non-significant effects. Functional community structure was affected by watershed-scale development, as demonstrated by an ordination analysis followed by regression. Because functional community structure affects energy flow and ecosystem function, and functional diversity is known to have important implications for ecosystem resilience to further environmental change, these results highlight the necessity of finding ways to remediate or at least ameliorate these effects.

  20. Sri Lanka's Health Unit Program: A Model of "Selective" Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Hewa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the health unit program developed in Sri Lanka in the early twentieth century was an earlier model of selective primary health care promoted by the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1980s in opposition to comprehensive primary health care advocated by the Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization. A key strategy of the health unit program was to identify the most common and serious infectious diseases in each health unit area and control them through improved sanitation, health education, immunization and treatment with the help of local communities. The health unit program was later introduced to other countries in South and Southeast Asia as part of the Rockefeller Foundation's global campaign to promote public health.

  1. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  2. Toxoplasmosis awareness, seroprevalence and risk behavior among pregnant women in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Nilmini; Herath, Rasika; Rupasinghe, Nawamalika; Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Samaranayake, Hasaranga; Kastuririratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, Nilanthi Renuka

    2016-03-01

    Primary gestational toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to the fetus with deleterious effects on the pregnancy. There is very little information regarding gestational toxoplasmosis in Sri Lanka. This survey was done to determine the prevalence and awareness of toxoplasmosis and to identify risk factors of infection among pregnant women in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Women attending obstetric clinics at the Colombo North Teaching Hospital in 2014 were tested for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) specific Immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM) subtypes using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test-Dip Strip(®). Disease awareness and risk behaviors of the participants were investigated. Of the 293 participants (mean age 27 years, SD ± 5.92), 38% were primigravidae with a mean gestational age of 16.2 weeks (SD 7). The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 12.3% (n = 36) and zero, respectively. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to determine risk factors of infection (cat-ownership, handling cats, consumption of meat, commercial meals and unwashed raw vegetables and fruits, handling soil and not washing hands after handling soil). On bivariate analysis, eating commercially prepared meals weekly or more was associated with toxoplasma seroprevalence with marginal statistical significance. On multivariate analysis, none of the considered risk factors were significant. Toxoplasma awareness was 4.4% (n = 13); health personnel (46.2%, n = 6) and media (53.8%, n = 7) being sources of information. Health education programs to increase awareness of toxoplasmosis is recommended at antenatal clinics.

  3. Steady-streaming effects on the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jenna; Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio; Lasheras, Juan

    2017-11-01

    With each heart beat the oscillatory blood supply to the rigid cranial vault produces a time-periodic variation of the intracranial pressure that drives the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) periodically in and out of the compliant spinal canal. We have recently conducted an analysis of this flow-structure interaction problem taking advantage of the small compliance of the dura membrane bounding externally the CSF and of the disparity of length scales associated with the geometry of the subarachnoid space. We have shown in an idealized geometry that the steady-streaming motion associated with this periodic flow, resulting from the nonlinear cumulative effects of convective acceleration, causes a bulk recirculation of CSF inside the spinal canal, which has been observed in many radiological studies. We extend here our study to investigate the possible contribution arising from the flow around the nerve roots protruding from the spinal cord, an effect that was neglected in our previous work. For this purpose, we consider the oscillatory motion around a cylindrical post confined between two parallel plates. For large values of the relevant Strouhal number we find at leading order a harmonic Stokes flow, whereas steady-streaming effects enter in the first-order corrections, which are computed for realistic values of the Womersley number and of the cylinder height-to-radius ratio.

  4. Consequences of parental corporal punishment on 12-year old children in the Colombo district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Newcombe, Peter A; Rajapakse, Lalini

    2008-03-01

    To study the association between parental corporal punishment and psychological maladjustment in children. Potential mediating variables of this association were explored. The relationship between corporal punishment and physical abuse was also investigated. DESIGN, SETTING AND SAMPLE: The children (N = 1226, 12-year olds) were selected from government schools in the Colombo district, using a stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered instruments, adapted and validated to the Sri Lankan context were used. The experience of parental corporal punishment was shown to be moderately, but significantly, associated with psychological maladjustment in children. This association was enhanced by the child witnessing or experiencing non-parent-to-child violence (eg. domestic, community, teacher and peer violence). The extent of the child's support network, the nature of the parent-child relationship and the child's attitude to corporal punishment did not significantly alter the association between corporal punishment and psychological maladjustment. Corporal punishment was also moderately, but significantly, associated with child physical abuse. Parental corporal punishment is associated with psychological harm for children; this association is further enhanced by other forms of violence in a child's life.

  5. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    2005-01-01

    -phenylindole, was used to stain larval gut contents. Quantitative estimates of different categories of food types were made by analyzing the gut contents of 95 An. culicifacies (26 second instars and 69 fourth instars) and 52 An. varuna (21 second instars and 31 fourth instars). Detritus was the most frequent......No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream...... food type, comprising >74% of the gut contents in both species. Other food types included bacteria (cocci and rods), filamentous algae, diatoms, and desmids. Overall, bacteria constituted a significantly higher proportion of the gut contents in An. culicifacies than in An varuna. Significantly more...

  6. Multi-scale streambed topographic and discharge effects on hyporheic at the stream network scale in confined streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandra Marzadri; Daniele Tonina; James A. McKean; Matthew G. Tiedemann; Rohan M. Benjankar

    2014-01-01

    The hyporheic zone is the volume of the streambed sediment mostly saturated with stream water. It is the transitional zone between stream and shallow-ground waters and an important ecotone for benthic species, including macro-invertebrates, microorganisms, and some fish species that dwell in the hyporheic zone for parts of their lives. Most hyporheic analyses are...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  8. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  9. GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN SOSIAL DAN KINERJA OPERASI PERUSAHAAN DALAM SRI-KEHATI INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Pujiningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There were many controversion arguments about the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSRin the company rule no 40, 2007. Moreover, in June 8, 2009, BEI and KEHATI Foundation published Indexof SRI-KEHATI. It consisted 25 of the best shares’ companies that had applied CSR. It was one of implementationsof GCG. Based on those reasons, there were three aims of this research. First, this research tested thesignificant influence of GCG to the level of CSR disclosure. Second, this paper examined the significant effectof GCG to the operational performance (ROA. The last aim was that the significant impact of GCG to theoperational performance (ROA by CSR. In this research,the proxy of GCG was the independent board ofdirectors and institutional ownership. Respondents participating in this research were companies in Index ofSRI-KEHATI. This research used purposive sampling method with 16 samples. Analysis used path analysisto examine three hypotheses. There were three result of this research. First, GCG did not have significantinfluence to the level of CSR disclosure. Second, GCG did not have significant influence to the operationalperformance (ROA. Third, GCG had significant influence to the ROA by CSR.

  10. A bacterial community-based index to assess the ecological status of estuarine and coastal environments

    KAUST Repository

    Aylagas, Eva; Borja, Á ngel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Michell, Craig; Irigoien, Xabier; Danovaro, Roberto; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    Biotic indices for monitoring marine ecosystems are mostly based on the analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Due to their high sensitivity to pollution and fast response to environmental changes, bacterial assemblages could complement

  11. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  12. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Sri Lanka. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Sri Lanka, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission, between November 10th and 17th 1990, to the Sri Lankan Atomic Energy Authority at Colombo. This included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to Sri Lanka and its on-going programmes. He engaged in a question and answer discussion meeting with representatives of the spice, and ornamental plants exporting trade in the presence of the Atomic Energy Authority Chairman, its chief food technologist, and a food science professor who serves on the Government's Food Advisory Group. The expert assisted with the drafting of what should be the first national food irradiation regulation, and presented and discussed the draft at seminars presented separately to the National Food Advisory Group, and to the National food inspectors who would ultimately be responsible for implementing any such regulation. (author)

  13. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  14. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates and the use of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in the impact assessment of peatland use on boreal stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mika L.; Daza Secco, Emmanuela; Nykänen, Hannu; Meissner, Kristian

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) can provide insights into carbon flow dynamics and trophic positions of consumers in food webs. SIA is used in this study, where we assess the possible changes in the basal resources of Finnish boreal stream ecosystems and differences in the impact of two forms of peatland use, forestry and peat mining. About 30% of the total land area of Finland is classified as peatland, of which about 55% has been drained for forestry and about 0.6% is in peat production. Unlike forestry, peat production is regionally less scattered and can thus have measurable local impacts although the total area of peat production is small. Three watersheds were used as study areas. Within each watershed, one stream drains a subcatchment affected only by peat mining, whereas the other stream flows through a subcatchment affected by forestry. The two subcatchment streams merge to form a single stream flowing into a lake. Studied watersheds were subject to no other forms of land use. In addition to the impacted sites, we used two pristine natural mire and two natural forest catchments as controls. We analysed the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) from benthic macroinvertebrates, stream bank soil, stream sediment, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream water. Samples for stable isotope analyses were collected in the summer of 2011 and samples for invertebrate community analyses in the autumn of 2011. Upon sampling we measured several physical parameters at each sampling site. In addition, stream water samples collected in summer and autumn 2012 were analysed for CH4 and CO2 gas concentrations and autumn gas samples also for their δ13C values. Our initial SIA results of invertebrates suggest some degree of discrimination between different sources of OM and possible effects on feeding habits, presumably due to the quality of the basal resources. We will explore this result further by examining not only taxonomical structure, but also the

  16. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  17. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  18. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS): A Study of Stakeholders and Their Relations in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…

  20. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  1. Challenges of the science data processing, analysis and archiving approach in BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa

    BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. It comprises two separate orbiters: the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). After approximately 7.5 years of cruise, BepiColombo will arrive at Mercury in 2024 and will gather data during a 1-year nominal mission, with a possible 1-year extension. The approach selected for BepiColombo for the processing, analysis and archiving of the science data represents a significant change with respect to previous ESA planetary missions. Traditionally Instrument Teams are responsible for processing, analysing and preparing their science data for the long-term archive, however in BepiColombo, the Science Ground Segment (SGS), located in Madrid, Spain, will play a key role in these activities. Fundamental aspects of this approach include: the involvement of the SGS in the definition, development and operation of the instrument processing pipelines; the production of ready-to-archive science products compatible with NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) standards in all the processing steps; the joint development of a quick-look analysis system to monitor deviations between planned and executed observations to feed back the results into the different planning cycles when possible; and a mission archive providing access to the scientific products and to the operational data throughout the different phases of the mission (from the early development phase to the legacy phase). In order to achieve these goals, the SGS will need to overcome a number of challenges. The proposed approach requires a flexible infrastructure able to cope with a distributed data processing system, residing in different locations but designed as a single entity. For this, all aspects related to the integration of software developed by different Instrument Teams and the alignment of their development schedules will need to be

  2. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eleanor Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that produces similar results is necessary in order to collect data from a wide variety of habitats.MethodsBoth kick and dredge nets were used to collect macroinvertebrate samples at 16 riverine sites in Zambia, ranging from backwaters and floodplain lagoons to fast flowing streams and rivers. The data were used to calculate ZISS, diversity (S: number of taxa present, and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT scores per site, using the two sampling methods to compare their sampling effectiveness. Environmental parameters, namely pH, conductivity, underwater photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature, alkalinity, flow, and altitude, were also recorded and used in statistical analysis. Invertebrate communities present at the sample sites were determined using multivariate procedures.ResultsAnalysis of the invertebrate community and environmental data suggested that the testing exercise was undertaken in four distinct macroinvertebrate community types, supporting at least two quite different macroinvertebrate assemblages, and showing significant differences in habitat conditions. Significant correlations were found for all three bioassessment score variables between results acquired using the two methods, with dredge-sampling normally producing lower scores than did the kick net procedures. Linear regression models were produced in order to correct each biological variable score collected by a dredge net to a score similar to that of one collected by kick net

  3. Outcome mapping for health system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsasis P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis,1 Jenna M Evans,2 David Forrest,3 Richard Keith Jones4 1School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada; 2Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; 3Global Vision Consulting Ltd, Victoria, Canada; 4R Keith Jones and Associates, Victoria, Canada Abstract: Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. Keywords: integrated care, integrated delivery systems, complex adaptive systems, social capital

  4. Ecological assessment of integrated bioenergy systems using the Sustainable Process Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotscheck, C.; Konig, F.; Obernberger, I.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass utilisation for energy production presently faces an uphill battle against fossil fuels. The use of biomass must offer additional benefits to compensate for higher prices: on the basis of a life cycle assessment (using BEAM to evaluate a variety of integrated bioenergy systems in connection with the Sustainable Process Index as a highly aggregated environmental pressure index) it is shown that integrated bioenergy systems are superior to fossil fuel systems in terms of environmental compatibility. The implementation of sustainability measures provides additional valuable information that might help in constructing and optimising integrated bioenergy systems. For a set of reference processes, among them fast pyrolysis, atmospheric gasification, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion and steam cycle (CS) and conventional hydrolysis, a detailed impact assessment is shown. Sensitivity analyses of the most important ecological parameters are calculated, giving an overview of the impacts of various stages in the total life cycle and showing 'what really matters'. Much of the ecological impact of integrated bioenergy systems is induced by feedstock production. It is mainly the use of fossil fuels in cultivation, harvesting and transportation as well as the use of fertilisers in short-rotation coppice production that impose considerable ecological pressure. Concerning electricity generation the most problematic pressures are due to gaseous emissions, most notably the release of NO x . Moreover, a rather complicated process (high amount of grey energy) and the use of fossil pilot fuel (co-combustion) leads to a rather weak ecological performance in contrast to other 100% biomass-based systems. (author)

  5. Macroinvertebrate communities evaluated prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, 2001-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Blaine County and The Nature Conservancy, evaluated the status of macroinvertebrate communities prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether 2014 remediation efforts to restore natural channel conditions in an impounded area of Silver Creek caused declines in local macroinvertebrate communities. Starting in 2001 and ending in 2016, macroinvertebrates were sampled every 3 years at two long-term trend sites and sampled seasonally (spring, summer, and autumn) in 2013, 2015, and 2016 at seven synoptic sites. Trend-site communities were collected from natural stream-bottom substrates to represent locally established macroinvertebrate assemblages. Synoptic site communities were sampled using artificial (multi-plate) substrates to represent recently colonized (4–6 weeks) assemblages. Statistical summaries of spatial and temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition at both trend and synoptic sites were completed.The potential effect of the restoration project on resident macroinvertebrate populations was determined by comparing the following community assemblage metrics:Total taxonomic richness (taxa richness);Total macroinvertebrate abundance (total abundance);Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness;EPT abundance;Simpson’s diversity; andSimpson’s evenness for periods prior to and following restoration.A significant decrease in one or more metric values in the period following stream channel restoration was the basis for determining impairment to the macroinvertebrate communities in Silver Creek.Comparison of pre-restoration (2001–13) and post‑restoration (2016) macroinvertebrate community composition at trend sites determined that no significant decreases occurred in any metric parameter for communities sampled in 2016. Taxa and EPT richness of colonized assemblages at synoptic sites

  6. Evaluation of Control and Adjustment Structures of the Shibab Main Canal Using HEC-RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    existing structures on the Shibab main canal. HEC-RAS model was prepared by United States army corps of engineers which is developed by the hydrologicengineering center.HEC-RAS analyzes river system and runs under the Windows operating system. This software package is of hydraulic analysis program series, where the user communicates with the system via a graphical user interface (GUI. The system is capable of performing steady and unsteady flow water surfaceprofile calculations. HEC-RAS software is designed to perform one dimensional hydraulic calculation for a full network of natural and synthetic channels. Visits were made before and after the beginning of irrigation, and during the Operation, in order to record the data of the flow and observe the way of utilization of canal, and existing structures. Then, the model was calibrated on the basis of depth and discharge measurement and simulation data in real condition of operation for 10 days impoundment during 21 to 30 April, and the Statistical parameter values:RMSE, EF, MBEand R2 were calculated. Then the objective functionwas evaluatedusingoperational performance indexes of adequacy, efficiency, equity and reliability of Molden and Gates regarding to HEC-RAS simulation results in unsteady condition. Results and Discussion: According to the simulation results in existing condition,theerror of delivery dischargeis equal to 0.54 while applying the management onthe adjustment structure of irrigation networkdeclined theerror to 0.42. By the canal routstructuremanagement in HEC-RAS model, on the basis of proposed operation option, according to existing operation condition, delivery discharge loss in comparison to the total discharge of the network 0.12 value decreases.Based on the simulation results, the mean percentage of improvementin performance indexes of adequacy,efficiency, equity and reliability, as well as objective functionofdelivery discharge are equal to 19.7, 20.90, 66.07, 65.24and54.81. Therefore based on

  7. Biotic interactions modify multiple-stressor effects on juvenile brown trout in an experimental stream food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Andreas; Salis, Romana K; Jones, Peter E; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e.g. trophic interactions). We conducted a field experiment using 128 flow-through stream mesocosms to examine the individual and combined effects of water abstraction, nutrient enrichment and elevated levels of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on survival, condition and gut content of juvenile brown trout and on benthic abundance of their invertebrate prey. Flow velocity reduction decreased fish survival (-12% compared to controls) and condition (-8% compared to initial condition), whereas effects of nutrient and DCD additions and interactions among these stressors were not significant. Negative effects of flow velocity reduction on fish survival and condition were consistent with effects on fish gut content (-25% compared to controls) and abundance of dominant invertebrate prey (-30% compared to controls), suggesting a negative metabolic balance driving fish mortality and condition decline, which was confirmed by structural equation modelling. Fish mortality under reduced flow velocity increased as maximal daily water temperatures approached the upper limit of their tolerance range, reflecting synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our study highlights the importance of indirect stressor effects such as those transferred through trophic interactions, which need to be considered when assessing and managing fish populations and stream food webs in multiple-stressor situations

  8. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  9. Examining the social status, risk factors and lifestyle changes of tuberculosis patients in Sri Lanka during the treatment period: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Madapathage Gayan Buddhika; Wickramasinghe, Sumudu Indika; Samaraweera, Sudath; De Silva, Pubudu; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, commonly seen in underdeveloped countries. The probability of contracting the disease is significantly higher among the economically vulnerable and the socially disadvantaged. Risk factors associated with TB can also change over time. In the Sri Lankan context, no study has explored how these factors impact patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore social status, associated risk factors and lifesty