WorldWideScience

Sample records for bzk-selected massive star-forming

  1. Massive star forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    We present a study of the earliest stages of massive star formation, in which we focus on Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) and young massive clusters. We present Very Large Array spectral line observations of ammonia (NH 3) and CCS toward four IRDCs. The NH3 lines provide diagnostics of the temperature and density structure within IRDCs. Based upon the NH 3 column density, IRDCs have masses of ˜ 103 to 10 4 M⊙ . We detect twenty NH3 clumps within four IRDCs, with radii regions are presented from the Near Infrared Imager (NIRIM) camera on the 3.5 m WIYN telescope. We report J, H, and K' band photometry in the clusters AFGL437, AFGL5180, and AFGL5142 and use these results to probe the stellar populations, extinction, and ages of the clusters. We find that all three clusters suffer significant extinction (AK ˜1), have ages ≤ 5 Myr, and are actively forming stars. We conclude that the properties of these embedded clusters are consistent with their evolving from IRDC clumps.

  2. Outflow and Accretion in Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2007-01-01

    In order to distinguish between the various components of massive star forming regions (i.e. infalling, outflowing and rotating gas structures) within our own Galaxy, we require high angular resolution observations which are sensitive to structures on all size scales. To this end, we present observations of the molecular and ionized gas towards massive star forming regions at 230 GHz from the SMA (with zero spacing from the JCMT) and at 22 and 23 GHz from the VLA at arcsecond or better resolution. These observations (of sources such as NGC7538, W51e2 and K3-50A) form an integral part of a multi-resolution study of the molecular and ionized gas dynamics of massive star forming regions (i.e. Klaassen & Wilson 2007). Through comparison of these observations with 3D radiative transfer models, we hope to be able to distinguish between various modes of massive star formation, such as ionized or halted accretion (i.e Keto 2003 or Klaassen et al. 2006 respectively).

  3. High Resolution CO Observations of Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q; Galván-Madrid, R; Liu, H-Y B

    2011-01-01

    Context. To further understand the processes involved in the formation of massive stars, we have undertaken a study of the gas dynamics surrounding three massive star forming regions. By observing the large scale structures at high resolution, we are able to determine properties such as driving source, and spatially resolve the bulk dynamical properties of the gas such as infall and outflow. Aims. With high resolution observations, we are able to determine which of the cores in a cluster forming massive stars is responsible for the large scale structures. Methods. We present CO observations of three massive star forming regions with known HII regions and show how the CO traces both infall and outflow. By combining data taken in two SMA configurations with JCMT observations, we are able to see large scale structures at high resolution. Results. We find large (0.26-0.40 pc), massive (2-3 M_sun) and energetic (13-17 \\times 10^44 erg) outflows emanating from the edges of two HII regions suggesting they are being ...

  4. On the massive star-forming capacity of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jose; Shore, Steven N.; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that photoionization is the self-limiting process for continued star formation, we estimate the maximum number of massive (OB) stars that can form within a molecular cloud. The most efficient cloud destruction mechanism in the early stages of H II region evolution is the evaporation of the cloud by stars located near the cloud boundary. The maximum number of OB stars is of order 1 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of average molecular gas, or 10 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of dense molecular gas. The resulting star-forming efficiencies within cloud complexes range from 2% to 16% depending on both the location of the stars in the cloud and the details of the initial mass function, with an overall value of about 5% for average molecular gas.

  5. ATLASGAL --- towards a complete sample of massive star forming clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Csengeri, T; Wyrowski, F; Schuller, F; Hoare, M G; Lumsden, S L; Mottram, J C; Thompson, M A; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Bronfman, L; Pfalzner, S; König, C; Wienen, M

    2014-01-01

    By matching infrared-selected, massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact HII regions in the RMS survey to massive clumps found in the submillimetre ATLASGAL survey, we have identified ~1000 embedded young massive stars between 280\\degr < $\\ell$ < 350\\degr and 10degr < $\\ell$ < 60\\degr with |b|<1.5degr. Combined with an existing sample of radio-selected methanol masers and compact HII regions, the result is a catalogue of ~1700 massive stars embedded within ~1300 clumps located across the inner Galaxy, containing three observationally distinct subsamples, methanol-maser, MYSO and HII-region associations, covering the most important tracers of massive star formation, thought to represent key stages of evolution. We find that massive star formation is strongly correlated with the regions of highest column density in spherical, centrally condensed clumps. We find no significant differences between the three samples in clump structure or the relative location of the embedded stars, which sug...

  6. Super massive black holes in star forming gaseous circumnuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    del Valle, Luciano; Molina, Juan; Cuadra, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Using N-body/SPH simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of SMBHs embedded in a star forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kilo parsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are significantly higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ULIRGs, thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migr...

  7. Studying cooling mechanisms in the massive star forming region IRAS 12326-6245

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedes, C.; Herpin, F.; Chavarria, L.; Wampfler, S.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Benz, A.; Bruderer, D.; Polehampton, E.; Melchior, M.

    2011-01-01

    The strong feedback processes of massive stars influence the surrounding ISM both locally and on large scales. An important question to be answered is the one of cooling and heating in massive star forming regions. There, heating is provided mostly by far-UV (FUV) and infra-red radiation. Cooling is

  8. Properties of massive star-forming clumps with infall motions

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yu-Xin; Esimbek, Jarken; Ji, Wei-Guang; Wu, Gang; Tang, Xin-Di; Komesh, Toktarkhan; Yuan, Ye; Li, Da-Lei; Baan, W A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to characterise high-mass clumps with infall motions. We selected 327 clumps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90-GHz (MALT90) survey, and identified 100 infall candidates. Combined with the results of He et al. (2015), we obtained a sample of 732 high-mass clumps, including 231 massive infall candidates and 501 clumps where infall is not detected. Objects in our sample were classified as pre-stellar, proto-stellar, HII or photo-dissociation region (PDR). The detection rates of the infall candidates in the pre-stellar, proto-stellar, HII and PDR stages are 41.2%, 36.6%, 30.6% and 12.7%, respectively. The infall candidates have a higher H$_{2}$ column density and volume density compared with the clumps where infall is not detected at every stage. For the infall candidates, the median values of the infall rates at the pre-stellar, proto-stellar, HII and PDR stages are 2.6$\\times$10$^{-3}$, 7.0$\\times$10$^{-3}$, 6.5$\\times$10$^{-3}$ and 5.5$\\times$10$^{-3}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respe...

  9. The Embedded Massive Star Forming Region RCW 38

    CERN Document Server

    Wolk, Scott J; Vigil, Miquela

    2008-01-01

    RCW~38 is a uniquely young ($<$1 Myr), embedded ($A_V \\sim 10$) stellar cluster surrounding a pair of early O stars ($\\sim$O5.5) and is one of the few regions within 2 kpc other than Orion to contain over 1000 members. X-ray and deep near-infrared observations reveal a dense cluster with over 200 X-ray sources and 400 infrared sources embedded in a diffuse hot plasma within a 1 pc diameter. The central O star has evacuated its immediate surroundings of dust, creating a wind bubble $\\sim$0.1 pc in radius that is confined by the surrounding molecular cloud, as traced by millimeter continuum and molecular line emission. The interface between the bubble and cloud is a region of warm dust and ionized gas, which shows evidence for ongoing star formation. Extended warm dust is found throughout a 2--3 pc region and coincides with extended X-ray plasma. This is evidence that the influence of the massive stars reaches beyond the confines of the O star bubble. RCW~38 appears similar in structure to RCW~49 and M~20 bu...

  10. Properties of massive star-forming clumps with infall motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Esimbek, Jarken; Ji, Wei-Guang; Wu, Gang; Tang, Xin-Di; Komesh, Toktarkhan; Yuan, Ye; Li, Da-Lei; Baan, W. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to characterize high-mass clumps with infall motions. We selected 327 clumps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90-GHz survey, and identified 100 infall candidates. Combined with the results of He et al., we obtained a sample of 732 high-mass clumps, including 231 massive infall candidates and 501 clumps where infall is not detected. Objects in our sample were classified as pre-stellar, proto-stellar, H II or photodissociation region (PDR). The detection rates of the infall candidates in the pre-stellar, proto-stellar, H II and PDR stages are 41.2 per cent, 36.6 per cent, 30.6 per cent and 12.7 per cent, respectively. The infall candidates have a higher H2 column density and volume density compared with the clumps where infall is not detected at every stage. For the infall candidates, the median values of the infall rates at the pre-stellar, proto-stellar, H II and PDR stages are 2.6 × 10-3, 7.0 × 10-3, 6.5 × 10-3 and 5.5 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, respectively. These values indicate that infall candidates at later evolutionary stages are still accumulating material efficiently. It is interesting to find that both infall candidates and clumps where infall is not detected show a clear trend of increasing mass from the pre-stellar to proto-stellar, and to the H II stages. The power indices of the clump mass function are 2.04 ± 0.16 and 2.17 ± 0.31 for the infall candidates and clumps where infall is not detected, respectively, which agree well with the power index of the stellar initial mass function (2.35) and the cold Planck cores (2.0).

  11. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star Forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Palouš, Jan; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate, and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T $\\sim$ 10$^4$ K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in s...

  12. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  13. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  14. The sizes of massive quiescent and star forming galaxies at z~4 with ZFOURGE and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Straatman, Caroline M S; Spitler, Lee R; Glazebrook, Karl; Tomczak, Adam; Allen, Rebecca; Brammer, Gabriel B; Cowley, Michael; van Dokkum, Pieter; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Papovich, Casey; Persson, S Eric; Quadri, Ryan F; Rees, Glen; Tilvi, Vithal; Tran, Kim-Vy; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    We study the rest-frame ultra-violet sizes of massive (~0.8 x 10^11 M_Sun) galaxies at 3.45 x, between 2star-forming galaxies at z~4 and their large rest-frame ultra-violet median sizes suggest that the formation phase of compact cores is very short and/or highly dust obscured.

  15. Properties of dense cores in clustered massive star-forming regions at high angular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Busquet, Gemma; Juarez, Carmen; Estalella, Robert; Tan, Jonathan C; Sepulveda, Inma; Ho, Paul T P; Zhang, Qizhou; Kurtz, Stan

    2013-01-01

    We aim at characterising dense cores in the clustered environments associated with massive star-forming regions. For this, we present an uniform analysis of VLA NH3(1,1) and (2,2) observations towards a sample of 15 massive star-forming regions, where we identify a total of 73 cores, classify them as protostellar, quiescent starless, or perturbed starless, and derive some physical properties. The average sizes and ammonia column densities are 0.06 pc and 10^15 cm^-2, respectively, with no significant differences between the starless and protostellar cores, while the linewidth and rotational temperature of quiescent starless cores are smaller, 1.0 km/s and 16 K, than those of protostellar (1.8 km/s, 21 K), and perturbed starless (1.4 km/s, 19 K) cores. Such linewidths and temperatures for these quiescent starless cores in the surroundings of massive stars are still significantly larger than the typical values measured in starless cores of low-mass star-forming regions, implying an important non-thermal compone...

  16. The protoplanetary disks in the nearby massive star forming region Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Wright, N J; Drew, J E; Gutermuth, R A; Hora, J L; Naylor, T; Aldcroft, T; Fruscione, A; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Kashyap, V L; King, R

    2013-01-01

    The formation of stars in massive clusters is one of the main modes of the star formation process. However, the study of massive star forming regions is hampered by their typically large distances to the Sun. One exception to this is the massive star forming region Cygnus OB2 in the Cygnus X region, at the distance of about 1400 pc. Cygnus OB2 hosts very rich populations of massive and low-mass stars, being the best target in our Galaxy to study the formation of stars, circumstellar disks, and planets in presence of massive stars. In this paper we combine a wide and deep set of photometric data, from the r band to 24 micron, in order to select the disk bearing population of stars in Cygnus OB2 and identify the class I, class II, and stars with transition and pre-transition disks. We selected 1843 sources with infrared excesses in an area of 1 degree x 1 degree centered on Cyg OB2 in several evolutionary stages: 8.4% class I, 13.1% flat-spectrum sources, 72.9% class II, 2.3% pre-transition disks, and 3.3% tran...

  17. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Hora, J. L.; Willis, S. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Saygac, A. T., E-mail: gsaral@cfa.harvard.edu [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective of locating a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color–color and color–magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49, we analyzed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with ≥7 members is found to be 52% for a cutoff distance of 96″, and the ratio of Class II/I objects is 2.1. We compared the W49 region to the G305 and G333 star-forming regions and concluded that W49 has the richest population, with seven subclusters of YSOs.

  18. Outflows in massive star forming regions: UV radiation and shocked cavity walls toward AFGL 2591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Steven; Rogers, Noah; Doty, Sandra; van der Tak, Floris; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Outflows can play an important role in regulating the star formation process. These outflows have the potential to deposit significant energy to large distances from the protostar through material motion and shocks, as well as via radiation through the subsequent outflow cavity. Herschel observations of high-J CO lines toward massive star-forming regions such as AFGL 2591 show line strengths that appear to be inconsistent with a spherical envelope. Following recent work on low-mass star forming regions, we construct a model whereby the excited molecular line emission originates in a shocked + UV irradiated outflow cavity wall. The validity of the cavity wall model in this context is considered. The observational data are then used to constrain the model, including the type of shocks, and relative strength of shocks versus radiation.

  19. X-ray and Radio Observations of the Massive Star Forming Region IRAS 20126+4104

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, Virginie A; Anderson, Crystal; Rosero, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    We present results of Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17 arcmin x 17 arcmin ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9'.2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al. (2007), namely I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio sources is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive we identified 88 NIR counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only 4 of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color-color analysis, and on the Besancon simulation of Galactic stellar populations (Robin et al. 2003), we estimate that about 90 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 46 YSOs within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive p...

  20. Millimetre spectral line mapping observations towards four massive star-forming H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanghuo; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Min; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jiangshui; Fan, Junhui; Zhu, Qingfeng; Li, Fei

    2017-04-01

    We present spectral line mapping observations towards four massive star-forming regions - Cepheus A, DR21S, S76E and G34.26+0.15 - with the IRAM 30-m telescope at the 2 and 3 mm bands. In total, 396 spectral lines from 51 molecules, one helium recombination line, 10 hydrogen recombination lines and 16 unidentified lines were detected in these four sources. An emission line of nitrosyl cyanide (ONCN, 140, 14-130, 13) was detected in G34.26+0.15, as the first detection in massive star-forming regions. We found that c-C3H2 and NH2D show enhancement in shocked regions, as suggested by the evidence of SiO and/or SO emission. The column density and rotational temperature of CH3CN were estimated with the rotational diagram method for all four sources. Isotope abundance ratios of 12C/13C were derived using HC3N and its 13C isotopologue, which were around 40 in all four massive star-forming regions and slightly lower than the local interstellar value (∼65). The 14N/15N and 16O/18O abundance ratios in these sources were also derived using the double isotopic method, which were slightly lower than in the local interstellar medium. Except for Cep A, the 33S/34S ratios in the other three targets were derived, which were similar to that in the local interstellar medium. The column density ratios of N(DCN)/N(HCN) and N(DCO+)/N(HCO+) in these sources were more than two orders of magnitude higher than the elemental [D]/[H] ratio, which is 1.5 × 10-5. Our results show that the later stage sources, G34.26+0.15 in particular, present more molecular species than earlier stage sources. Evidence of shock activity is seen in all stages studied.

  1. Young Stellar Objects in the Massive Star Forming Region: W49

    CERN Document Server

    Saral, Gozde; Willis, Sarah E; Koenig, Xavier P; Gutermuth, Robert A; Saygac, A Talat

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective to locate a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49 we analysed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with >7 memb...

  2. Outflow and Infall in a Sample of Massive Star Forming Regions II: Large Scale Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2008-01-01

    We present maps of seven sources selected from Klaassen & Wilson (2007a) in SiO (J=8-7) and HCO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+$ (J=4-3) which were obtained using HARP-B on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find that four out of our seven sources have infall signatures based on their HCO$^+$ emission profiles. From our maps, we have determined the extent of both the outflowing and infalling regions towards these sources, and constrained the amount of infalling and outflowing mass as well as the mass infall rate for each massive star forming region. From our SiO observations, we estimate the source luminosity required to shock the surroundings of these massive star forming regions and find luminosities similar to those of the HII regions themselves. We find that the ratio between our infall and outflow masses is less than one, suggesting high mass entrainment rates in the molecular outflows. We also find that the large scale molecular infall rate towards G10.6-0.4 is comparable to the small scale molecular infal...

  3. Evidence of Evolution in the Dense Cores in Massive Star Forming Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun Zhou; Jarken Esimbek; Ji-Xian Sun; Bing-Gang Ju; Jing-Jiang Sun

    2005-01-01

    The excitation of H2O masers usually needs very high density gas,hence it can serve as a marker of dense gas in HⅡ region. We selected a sample of H2O maser sources from Plume et al. (four with, and four without detected CS(J = 7 - 6) emission), and observed them in 13CO(J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0). C18O (J=1-0) emission was detected only in three of the sources with detected CS(J=7-6) emission. An analysis combined with some data in the literature suggests that these dense cores may be located at different evolutionary stages. Multi-line observation study may provide us clues on the evolution of massive star forming regions and the massive stars themselves.

  4. The Schmidt Law in Six Galactic Massive Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S.; Guzman, A.; Marengo, M.; Smith, H. A.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Allen, L.

    2015-08-01

    We present a census of young stars in five massive star-forming regions in the 4th Galactic quadrant, G305, G326-4, G326-6, G333 (RCW 106), and G351, and combine this census with an earlier census of young stars in NGC 6334. Each region was observed at J, H, and Ks with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager and combined with deep observations taken with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at the wavelengths 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We derived a five band point-source catalog containing >200,000 infrared sources in each region. We have identified a total of 2871 YSO candidates, 363 Class I YSOs, and 2508 Class II YSOs. We mapped the column density of each cloud using observations from Herschel between 160 and 500 μm and near-infrared extinction maps in order to determine the average gas surface density above AV > 2. We study the surface density of the YSOs and the star-formation rate as a function of the column density within each cloud and compare them to the results for nearby star-forming regions. We find a range in power-law indices across the clouds, with the dispersion in the local relations in an individual cloud much lower than the average over the six clouds. We find the average over the six clouds to be {{{Σ }}}{SFR}∼ {{{Σ }}}{gas}2.15+/- 0.41 and power-law exponents ranging from 1.77 to 2.86, similar to the values derived within nearby star-forming regions, including Taurus and Orion. The large dispersion in the power-law relations between individual Milky Way molecular clouds reinforces the idea that there is not a direct universal connection between Σgas and a cloud's observed star-formation rate.

  5. Gas-to-dust ratio in massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We present results of 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45~m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um, and 350 um and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived with N2 method by using the Ha and [NII]6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) x 10^{10} Msun by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived with the modified blackbody model (assuming the dust temperature of 35 K and the emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) x 10^{8} Msun. The resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for HI mass) at z~1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  6. Kinematic structure of massive star-forming regions - I. Accretion along filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Tackenberg, J; Henning, Th; Linz, H; Sakai, T; Ragan, S E; Krause, O; Nielbock, M; Hennemann, M; Pitann, J; Schmiedeke, A

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and far-infrared view on high-mass star formation, in particular with the results from the Herschel space observatory, has shed light on many aspects of massive star formation. However, these continuum studies lack kinematic information. We study the kinematics of the molecular gas in high-mass star-forming regions. We complemented the PACS and SPIRE far-infrared data of 16 high-mass star-forming regions from the Herschel key project EPoS with N2H+ molecular line data from the MOPRA and Nobeyama 45m telescope. Using the full N2H+ hyperfine structure, we produced column density, velocity, and linewidth maps. These were correlated with PACS 70micron images and PACS point sources. In addition, we searched for velocity gradients. For several regions, the data suggest that the linewidth on the scale of clumps is dominated by outflows or unresolved velocity gradients. IRDC18454 and G11.11 show two velocity components along several lines of sight. We find that all regions with a diameter larger than 1pc sho...

  7. On the Extreme Positive Feedback Star-Forming Mode from Massive and Compact Superstar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Munoz-Tunon, A R; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Munoz-Tunon, Ary Rodriguez Gonzalez & Casiana

    2005-01-01

    The force of gravity acting within the volume occupied by young, compact and massive superstar clusters, is here shown to drive in situ all the matter deposited by winds and supernovae into several generations of star formation. These events are promoted by radiative cooling which drains the thermal energy of the ejected gas causing its accumulation to then rapidly exceed the gravitational instability criterion. A detailed account of the integrated ionizing radiation and mechanical luminosity as a function of time is here shown to lead to a new stationary solution. In this, the mass deposition rate $\\dot M$, instead of causing a wind as in the adiabatic solution, turns into a positive feedback star-forming mode equal to the star formation rate. Some of the implications of this extreme positive feedback mode are discussed.

  8. Four Highly Luminous Massive Star Forming Regions in the Norma Spiral Arm II. Deep NIR imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chavarria, L; Garay, G; Escala, A; Bronfman, L; Lizano, S

    2009-01-01

    We present sensitive NIR (J, H and K) imaging observations toward four luminous massive star forming regions in the Norma Spiral Arm: G324.201+0.119, G328.307+0.432, G329.337+0.147 and G330.949-0.174. We identify three clusters of young stellar objects (YSO) based on surface density diagnostics. We also find that sources detected only in the H and K-bands and with colors corresponding to spectral types earlier than B2, are likely YSOs. We analyze the spatial distribution of stars of different masses and find signatures in two clusters of primordial mass segregation which can't be explained as due to incompleteness effects. We show that dynamic interactions of cluster members with the dense gas from the parent core can explain the observed mass segregation, indicating that the gas plays an important role in the dynamics of young clusters.

  9. An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing fascinating new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycles of massive stars and their effects on their surroundings. I present a Chandra tour of some of the most famous of these regions: M17, NGC 3576, W3, Tr14 in Carina, and 30 Doradus. Chandra highlights the physical processes that characterize the lives of these clusters, from the ionizing sources of ultracompact HII regions (W3) to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies (30 Dor). X-ray observations usually reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence (lower-mass) stars accompanying the OB stars that power these great HII region complexes, although in one case (W3 North) this population is mysteriously absent. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by soft diffuse X-rays (M17, NGC 3576), signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fas...

  10. Variations in H2O+/H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrowski, F; Herpin, F; Baudry, A; Bontemps, S; Chavarria, L; Frieswijk, W; Jacq, T; Marseille, M; Shipman, R; van Dishoeck, E F; Benz, A O; Caselli, P; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Liseau, R; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G J; Jørgensen, J K; Kristensen, L E; Larsson, B; Lis, D; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Tafalla, M; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Wampfler, S; Yıldız, U A; Black, J H; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Roelfsema, P; Dieleman, P; Beintema, D; De Jonge, A; Whyborn, N; Stutzki, J; Ossenkopf, V

    2010-01-01

    Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming regions to observationally study the relation between H2O and H2O+ . Nine out of ten sources show absorption from H2O+ in a range of environments: the molecular clumps surrounding the forming and newly formed massive stars, bright high-velocity outflows associated with the massive protostars, and unrelated low-density clouds along the line of sight. Column densities per velocity component of H2 O+ are found in the range of 10^12 to a few 10^13 cm-2 . The highest N(H2O+) column densities are found in the outflows of the sources. The ratios of H2O+/H2O are determined in a range from 0.01 to a few and are found to differ strongly between the observed environments with much lower ratios in the massive (proto)cluster e...

  11. Water maser kinematics in massive star-forming regions: Cepheus A and W75N

    CERN Document Server

    Torrelles, J M; Curiel, S; Gómez, J F; Anglada, G; Estalella, R

    2012-01-01

    VLBI multi-epoch water maser observations are a powerful tool to study the dense, warm shocked gas very close to massive protostars. The very high-angular resolution of these observations allow us to measure the proper motions of the masers in a few weeks, and together with the radial velocity, to determine their full kinematics. In this paper we present a summary of the main observational results obtained toward the massive star-forming regions of Cepheus A and W75N, among them: (i) the identification of different centers of high-mass star formation activity at scales of 100 AU; (ii) the discovery of new phenomena associated with the early stages of high-mass protostellar evolution (e.g., isotropic gas ejections); and (iii) the identification of the simultaneous presence of a wide-angle outflow and a highly collimated jet in the massive object Cep A HW2, similar to what is observed in some low-mass protostars. Some of the implications of these results in the study of high-mass star formation are discussed.

  12. Evolution of oxygen and nitrogen abundances and nitrogen production mechanism in massive star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing the observational data of 55,318 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) selected from the catalog of MPA-JHU emission-line measurements for the SDSS DR8, we investigate the galaxy downsizing effect of their O and N enrichments, and the nitrogen production mechanism in them. We show the redshift evolution of O and N abundances and specific star formation rates for different galaxy mass ranges, demonstrating the galaxy downsizing effect caused by less massive progenitors of less massive galaxies. The O and N abundances do not remain constant for different galaxy mass ranges, and the enrichment (and hence star formation) decreases with increasing galaxy stellar mass. We find evidence of the O enrichment for galaxies with stellar masses $M_{*}>10^{11.0} $ (in units of $M_{\\odot}$), i.e. $\\Delta({\\log}({\\rm O/H})) \\sim 0.10$ and $\\Delta({\\log}({\\rm N/H})) \\sim 0.28$ from redshift 0.023 to 0.30. Based on the evolutionary schematic model of N/O ratios in Coziol et al., who proposed the scheme that the production of ...

  13. Self-similar Fragmentation Regulated by Magnetic Fields in a Massive Star Forming Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hua-bai; Otto, Frank; Leung, Po Kin; Sridharan, T K; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Qiu, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Most molecular clouds are filamentary or elongated. Among those forming low-mass stars, their long axes tend to be either parallel or perpendicular to the large-scale (10-100 pc) magnetic field (B-field) in the surrounding inter cloud medium. This arises because, along the dynamically dominant B-fields, the competition between self-gravity and turbulent pressure will shape the cloud to be elongated either perpendicular or parallel to the fields. Recent study also suggested that, on the scales of 0.1-0.01 pc, fields are dynamically important within cloud cores forming massive stars. But whether the core field morphologies are inherited from the inter cloud medium or governed by cloud turbulence is under vigorous debate, so is the role played by B-fields in cloud fragmentation at 10 - 0.1 pc scales. Here we report B-field maps covering 100-0.01 pc scales inferred from polarimetric observations of a massive-star forming region, NGC 6334. First, the main filament also lies perpendicular to the ambient field. NGC ...

  14. On the kinematics of massive star forming regions: the case of IRAS 17233-3606

    CERN Document Server

    Leurini, S; Zapata, L; Beltran, M T; Schilke, P; Cesaroni, R

    2011-01-01

    Direct observations of accretion disks around high-mass young stellar objects would help to discriminate between different models of formation of massive stars. However, given the complexity of massive star forming regions, such studies are still limited in number. Additionally, there is still no general consensus on the molecular tracers to be used for such investigations. Because of its close distance and high luminosity, IRAS 17233-3606 is a potential good laboratory to search for traces of rotation in the inner gas around the protostar(s). Therefore, we selected the source for a detailed analysis of its molecular emission at 230 GHz with the SMA. We systematically investigated the velocity fields of transitions in the SMA spectra which are not affected by overlap with other transitions, and searched for coherent velocity gradients to compare them to the distribution of outflows in the region. Beside CO emission we also used high-angular H2 images to trace the outflow motions driven by the IRAS 17233-3606 ...

  15. CO observations of massive star forming regions at different evolutionary phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi; XU; Ye; SHEN; Zhiqiang; LI; Jingjing

    2006-01-01

    The 12CO (J=1-0), 13CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) emissions in 9 massive star forming regions, which are believed to be at different stages of massive star formation,were mapped with the 13.7 m millimeter wave telescope at Qinghai Station of Purple Mountain Observatory. Of the observed 9 sources, 13CO cores were detected in seven of them, and C18O cores in five of them. And only two sources associated with C18O cores and H2O masers showed the extended structures and strong outflows. This is the first detection of outflow associated with IRAS 22566+5828 in the observing field of S152/S153.The physical parameters of cores and outflows for these sources, derived from Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) analysis, are presented. These observing results suggest that the C18O cores will only appear when the gas density is high enough and the probability to have an outflow is very high when the clumps show the C18O and H2O maser simultaneously.

  16. Fragmentation in the massive star-forming region IRAS 19410+2336

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodón, J. A.; Beuther, H.; Schilke, P.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The core mass functions (CMFs) of low-mass star-forming regions are found to resemble the shape of the initial mass function (IMF). A similar result is observed for the dust clumps in high-mass star-forming regions, although on spatial scales of clusters that do not resolve the substructure that is found in these massive clumps. The region IRAS 19410+2336 is one exception, having been observed on spatial scales on the order of ~2500 AU, which are sufficient to resolve the clump substructure into individual cores. Aims: We investigate the protostellar content of IRAS 19410+2336 at high spatial resolution at 1.4 mm, determining the temperature structure of the region and deriving its CMF. Methods: The massive star-forming region IRAS 19410+2336 was mapped with the PdBI (BCD configurations) at 1.4 mm and 3 mm in the continuum and several transitions of formaldehyde (H2CO) and methyl cyanide (CH3CN). The H2CO transitions were also observed with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. Results: We detect 26 continuum sources at 1.4 mm with a spatial resolution as low as ~2200 AU, several of them with counterparts at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, distributed in two (proto)clusters. With the PdBI CH3CN and PdBI/IRAM 30 m H2CO emission, we derive the temperature structure of the region, ranging from 35 K to 90 K. Using these temperatures, we calculate the core masses of the detected sources, ranging from ~0.7 M⊙ to ~8 M⊙. These masses are strongly affected by the spatial filtering of the interferometer, which removes a common envelope with ~90% of the single-dish flux. Considering only the detected dense cores and accounting for binning effects as well as cumulative distributions, we derive a CMF, with a power-law index β = -2.3 ± 0.2. We resolve the Jeans length of the (proto)clusters by one order of magnitude, and only find a small velocity dispersion between the different subsources. Conclusions: Since we cannot unambiguously differentiate between protostellar and

  17. ISM Properties of a Massive Dusty Star-forming Galaxy Discovered at z ˜ 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandet, M. L.; Weiss, A.; De Breuck, C.; Marrone, D. P.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Cunningham, D. J. M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hayward, C. C.; Hezaveh, Y.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Menten, K. M.; Miller, T.; Murphy, E. J.; Narayanan, D.; Phadke, K. A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Spilker, J. S.; Sreevani, J.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery and constrain the physical conditions of the interstellar medium of the highest-redshift millimeter-selected dusty star-forming galaxy to date, SPT-S J031132-5823.4 (hereafter SPT0311-58), at z=6.900+/- 0.002. SPT0311-58 was discovered via its 1.4 mm thermal dust continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT)-SZ survey. The spectroscopic redshift was determined through an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm frequency scan that detected CO(6-5), CO(7-6), and [{{C}} {{I}}](2-1), and subsequently was confirmed by detections of CO(3-2) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and [{{C}} {{II}}] with APEX. We constrain the properties of the ISM in SPT0311-58 with a radiative transfer analysis of the dust continuum photometry and the CO and [{{C}} {{I}}] line emission. This allows us to determine the gas content without ad hoc assumptions about gas mass scaling factors. SPT0311-58 is extremely massive, with an intrinsic gas mass of {M}{gas}=3.3+/- 1.9× {10}11 {M}⊙ . Its large mass and intense star formation is very rare for a source well into the epoch of reionization.

  18. The parallax of W43: A massive star-forming complex near the galactic bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Immer, K. [Max-Plank-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-02-01

    We report trigonometric parallax measurements of masers in the massive star-forming complex W43 from Very Long Baseline Array observations as part of the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey. Based on measurements of three 12 GHz methanol maser sources (G029.86–00.04, G029.95–00.01, and G031.28+00.06) and one 22 GHz water maser source (G031.58+00.07) toward W43, we derived a distance of 5.49{sub −0.34}{sup +0.39} kpc to W43. By associating the masers with CO molecular clouds, and associating the clouds kinematically with CO longitude-velocity spiral features, we assign W43 to the Scutum spiral arm, close to the near end of the Galactic bar. The peculiar motion of W43 is about 20 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic Center and is very likely induced by the gravitational attraction of the bar.

  19. Molecular Emission in Dense Massive Clumps from the Star-Forming Regions S231-S235

    CERN Document Server

    Ladeyschikov, D A; Tsivilev, A P; Sobolev, A M

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with observations of star-forming regions S231-S235 in 'quasi-thermal' lines of ammonia (NH$_3$), cyanoacetylene (HC$_3$N) and maser lines of methanol (CH$_3$OH) and water vapor (H$_2$O). S231-S235 regions is situated in the giant molecular cloud G174+2.5. We selected all massive molecular clumps in G174+2.5 using archive CO data. For the each clump we determined mass, size and CO column density. After that we performed observations of these clumps. We report about first detections of NH$_3$ and HC$_3$N lines toward the molecular clumps WB89 673 and WB89 668. This means that high-density gas is present there. Physical parameters of molecular gas in the clumps were estimated using the data on ammonia emission. We found that the gas temperature and the hydrogen number density are in the ranges 16-30 K and 2.8-7.2$\\times10^3$ cm$^{-3}$, respectively. The shock-tracing line of CH$_3$OH molecule at 36.2 GHz is newly detected toward WB89 673.

  20. Water in massive star-forming regions: HIFI observations of W3 IRS5

    CERN Document Server

    Chavarria, L; Jacq, T; Braine, J; Bontemps, S; Baudry, A; Marseille, M; van der Tak, F; Pietropaoli, B; Wyrowski, F; Shipman, R; Frieswijk, W; van Dishoeck, E F; Cernicharo, J; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Benz, A O; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G A; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Hartogh, P; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G J; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Jørgensen, J K; Kristensen, L E; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Szczerba, J Stutzki R; Tafalla, M; Tielens, A; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Wampfler, S F; Willem, J; Yıldız, U A

    2010-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of the water molecule in the massive star-forming region W3 IRS5. The o-H17O 110-101, p-H18O 111-000, p-H2O 22 202-111, p-H2O 111-000, o-H2O 221-212, and o-H2O 212-101 lines, covering a frequency range from 552 up to 1669 GHz, have been detected at high spectral resolution with HIFI. The water lines in W3 IRS5 show well-defined high-velocity wings that indicate a clear contribution by outflows. Moreover, the systematically blue-shifted absorption in the H2O lines suggests expansion, presumably driven by the outflow. No infall signatures are detected. The p-H2O 111-000 and o-H2O 212-101 lines show absorption from the cold material (T ~ 10 K) in which the high-mass protostellar envelope is embedded. One-dimensional radiative transfer models are used to estimate water abundances and to further study the kinematics of the region. We show that the emission in the rare isotopologues comes directly from the inner parts of the envelope (T > 100 K) where water ices in the dust mantles ...

  1. Outflow and Infall in a Sample of Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2007-01-01

    We present single pointing observations of SiO, HCO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+$ from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope towards 23 massive star forming regions previously known to contain molecular outflows and ultracompact HII regions. We detected SiO towards 14 sources and suggest that the non-detections in the other nine sources could be due to those outflows being older and without ongoing shocks to replenish the SiO. We serendipitously detected SO$_2$ towards 17 sources in the same tuning as HCO$^+$. We detected HCO$^+$ towards all sources, and suggest that it is tracing infall in nine cases. For seven infall candidates, we estimate mass infall rates between 1$\\times10^{-2}$ and 2$\\times10^{-5}$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. Seven sources show both SiO detections (young outflows) and HCO$^+$ infall signatures. We also find that the abundance of H$^{13}$CO$^+$ tends to increase along with the abundance of SiO in sources for which we could determine abundances. We discuss these results with respect to current theories ...

  2. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J

    2005-04-07

    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase.

  3. Molecular Gas and Dust in the Massive Star Forming Region S 233 IR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Qing Mao; Qin Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The massive star forming region S 233 IR is observed in the molecular lines CO J = 2-1, 3-2, NH3 (1,1), (2,2) and the 870μm dust continuum. Four submillimeter continuum sources, labelled SMM 1-4, are revealed in the 870μm dust emission. The main core, SMM1, is found to be associated with a deeply embedded near infrared cluster in the northeast; while the weaker source SMM2 coincides with a more evolved cluster in the southwest. The best fit spectral energy distribution of SMM1 gives an emissivity ofβ = 1.6, and temperatures of 32 K and 92 K for the cold- and hot-dust components. An SMM1 core mass of 246 M⊙ and a total mass of 445 M⊙ are estimated from the 870 μm dust continuum emission.SMM1 is found to have a temperature gradient decreasing from inside out, indicative of the presence of interior heating sources. The total outflow gas mass as traced by the CO J - 3-2 emission is estimated to be 35 M⊙. Low velocity outflows are also found in the NH3 (1,1) emission. The non-thermal dominant NH3 line width as well as the substantial core mass suggest that the SMM1 core is a "turbulent,massive dense core", in the process of forming a group or a cluster of stars. The much higher star formation efficiency found in the southwest cluster supports the suggestion that this cluster is more evolved than the northeast one. Large near infrared photometric variations found in the source PCS-IR93, a previously found highly polarized nebulosity, indicate an underlying star showing the FU Orionis type of behavior.

  4. The Properties of the Massive Star-forming Galaxies with an Outside-in Assembly Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enci; Kong, Xu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lixin; Lin, Lin; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Previous findings show that massive ({M}* > {10}10 {M}⊙ ) star-forming (SF) galaxies usually have an “inside-out” stellar mass assembly mode. In this paper, we have for the first time selected a sample of 77 massive SF galaxies with an “outside-in” assembly mode (called the “targeted sample”) from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. For comparison, two control samples are constructed from the MaNGA sample matched in stellar mass: a sample of 154 normal SF galaxies and a sample of 62 quiescent galaxies. In contrast to normal SF galaxies, the targeted galaxies appear to be smoother and more bulge-dominated and have a smaller size and higher concentration, star formation rate, and gas-phase metallicity as a whole. However, they have a larger size and lower concentration than quiescent galaxies. Unlike the normal SF sample, the targeted sample exhibits a slightly positive gradient of the 4000 Å break and a pronounced negative gradient of Hα equivalent width. Furthermore, the median surface mass density profile is between those of the normal SF and quiescent samples, indicating that the gas accretion of quiescent galaxies is not likely to be the main approach for the outside-in assembly mode. Our results suggest that the targeted galaxies are likely in the transitional phase from normal SF galaxies to quiescent galaxies, with rapid ongoing central stellar mass assembly (or bulge growth). We discuss several possible formation mechanisms for the outside-in mass assembly mode.

  5. Distribution of water in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Herpin, F.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Following our past study of the distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region, we aim here at characterizing the large-scale distribution of water in this active region of massive star formation made of individual objects in different evolutionary phases. We investigate possible variations of the water abundance as a function of evolution. Methods: We present Herschel/PACS (4'× 4') continuum maps at 89 and179 μm encompassing the whole region (Hii region and the infrared dark cloud, IRDC) and an APEX/SABOCA (2'× 2') map at 350 μm of the IRDC. New spectral Herschel/HIFI maps toward the IRDC region covering the low-energy water lines at 987 and 1113 GHz (and their H218O counterparts) are also presented and combined with HIFI pointed observations toward the G327 hot core region. We infer the physical properties of the gas through optical depth analysis and radiative transfer modeling of the HIFI lines. Results: The distribution of the continuum emission at 89 and 179 μm follows the thermal continuum emission observed at longer wavelengths, with a peak at the position of the hot core and a secondary peak in the Hii region, and an arch-like layer of hot gas west of this Hii region. The same morphology is observed in the p-H2O 111-000 line, in absorption toward all submillimeter dust condensations. Optical depths of approximately 80 and 15 are estimated and correspond to column densities of 1015 and 2 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, for the hot core and IRDC position. These values indicate an abundance of water relative to H2 of 3 × 10-8 toward the hot core, while the abundance of water does not change along the IRDC with values close to some 10-8. Infall (over at least 20″) is detected toward the hot core position with a rate of 1-1.3 × 10-2M⊙ /yr, high enough to overcome the radiation pressure that is due to the stellar luminosity. The source structure of the hot core region appears complex, with a cold outer gas envelope in

  6. The G305 star-forming complex: Embedded Massive Star Formation Discovered by Herschel Hi-GAL

    CERN Document Server

    Faimali, A; Hindson, L; Urquhart, J S; Pestalozzi, M; Carey, S; Shenoy, S; Veneziani, M; Molinari, S; Clark, J S

    2012-01-01

    We present a Herschel far-infrared study towards the rich massive star- forming complex G305, utilising PACS 70, 160 {\\mu}m and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m observations from the Hi-GAL survey of the Galactic plane. The focus of this study is to identify the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, by combining far-infrared data with radio continuum, H2O maser, methanol maser, MIPS, and Red MSX Source survey data available from previous studies. By applying a frequentist technique we are able to identify a sample of the most likely associations within our multi-wavelength dataset, that can then be identified from the derived properties obtained from fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs). By SED modelling using both a simple modified blackbody and fitting to a comprehensive grid of model SEDs, some 16 candidate associations are identified as embedded massive star-forming regions. We derive a two-selection colour criterion from this sample of log(F70/F500)\\geq 1 and log(F160/F350)\\geq 1.6 t...

  7. The Comparison of Physical Properties Derived from Gas and Dust in a Massive Star-Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Battersby, Cara; Dunham, Miranda; Ginsburg, Adam; Longmore, Steve; Darling, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in massive star-forming regions by comparing physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC, G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH3 on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH3 abundance, 4.6 x 10^-8. In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T_dust ~ 11.6 +/- 0.2 K vs. T_gas ~ 15.2 +/- 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (~0.5 Myr) or that these observat...

  8. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  9. Evidence for Wide-Spread AGN Driven Outflows in the Most Massive z~1-2 Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, R; Rosario, D; Lang, P; Lutz, D; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, E; Wuyts, S; Bandara, K; Bender, R; Berta, S; Kurk, J; Mendel, T; Tacconi, L J; Wilman, D; Beifiori, A; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Buschkamp, P; Chan, J; Carollo, C M; Davies, R; Eisenhauer, F; Fabricius, M; Fossati, M; Kriek, M; Kulkarni, S; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Momcheva, I; Naab, T; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sharples, R M; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; van Dokkum, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) z~1-3 star-forming galaxies (Forster Schreiber et al.), by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS^3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Ha, [NII], and [SII] lines ~ 450-5300 km/s), with large [NII]/Ha ratios, above log(M*/Msun) ~ 10.9, with 66+/-15% of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z~1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as lar...

  10. Sulfur-Bearing Molecules In Massive Star-Forming Regions: Observations Of OCS, CS, H2S and SO

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jiangshui; Li, Di

    2015-01-01

    We studied sulfur chemistry of massive star-forming regions through single-dish submillimeter spectroscopy. OCS, O13CS, 13CS, H2S and SO transitions were observed toward a sample of massive star-forming regions with embedded UCH II or CH II regions. These sources could be divided into H II-hot core and H II-only sources based on their CH3CN emission. Our results show that the OCS line of thirteen sources is optically thick, with optical depth ranging from 5 to 16. Column densities of these molecules were computed under LTE conditions. CS column densities were also derived using its optically thin isotopologue 13CS. H2S is likely to be the most abundant gas-phase sulfuretted molecules in hot assive cores. Both the column density and abundance of sulfur-bearing molecules decrease significantly from H II-hot core to H II-only sources. Ages derived from hot core models appear to be consistent with star-formation theories, suggesting that abundance ratios of [CS]/[SO], [SO]/[OCS] and [OCS]/[CS] could be used as ch...

  11. Age Gradients in the Stellar Populations of Massive Star Forming Regions Based on a New Stellar Chronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K; Naylor, Tim; Povich, Matthew S; Luhman, Kevin L; Garmire, Gordon P

    2014-01-01

    A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, AgeJX. Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the Lx - Mass relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence evolutionary models to estimate ages. AgeJX is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older pre-main sequence stars. The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The AgeJX method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over a hundred subclusters in 15 MSFRs; me...

  12. On the onset of secondary stellar generations in giant star-forming regions and massive star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-09-10

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ∼ 10{sup 4} K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ∼ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  13. Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Menten, K. M.; Indebetouw, R.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yuan, Y.; Li, D. L.; He, Y. X.

    2017-03-01

    kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 and NH3(2, 2)/(1, 1) shows a drastic difference, however. In the star-forming region N159W, the gas temperature derived from the NH3(2, 2)/(1, 1) line ratio is 16 K (Ott et al. 2010, ApJ, 710, 105), which is only half the temperature derived from para-H2CO and the dust. Furthermore, ammonia shows a very low abundance in a 30'' beam. Apparently, ammonia only survives in the most shielded pockets of dense gas that are not yet irradiated by UV photons, while formaldehyde, less affected by photodissociation, is more widespread and also samples regions that are more exposed to the radiation of young massive stars. A correlation between the gas kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO and infrared luminosity, represented by the 250 μm flux, suggests that the kinetic temperatures traced by para-H2CO are correlated with the ongoing massive star formation in the LMC. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A16

  14. A CATALOG OF METHANOL MASERS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. III. THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Ruiz, A. I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis E. Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840, México (Mexico); Kurtz, S. E.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Hofner, P. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We present an interferometric survey of the 44 GHz class I methanol maser transition toward a sample of 69 sources consisting of high-mass protostellar object (HMPO) candidates and ultracompact (UC) H ii regions. We found a 38% detection rate (16 of 42) in the HMPO candidates and a 54% detection rate (13 of 24) for the regions with ionized gas. This result indicates that class I methanol maser emission is more common toward the more evolved young stellar objects of our sample. Comparing with similar interferometric data sets, our observations show narrower linewidths, likely due to our higher spatial resolution. Based on a comparison between molecular outflow tracers and the maser positions, we find several cases where the masers appear to be located at the outflow interface with the surrounding core. Unlike previous surveys, we also find several cases where the masers appear to be located close to the base of the molecular outflow, although we cannot discard projection effects. This and other surveys of class I methanol masers not only suggest that these masers may trace shocks at different stages, but also that they may even trace shocks arising from a number of different phenomena occurring in star-forming regions: young/old outflows, cloud–cloud collisions, expanding H ii regions, among others.

  15. Chemical segregation toward massive hot cores: The AFGL2591 star forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez-Serra, I; Viti, S; Martin-Pintado, J; de Wit, W -J

    2012-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations (0.5"x0.3") carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the AFGL2591 high-mass star forming region. Our SMA images reveal a clear chemical segregation within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 hot core, where different molecular species (Type I, II and III) appear distributed in three concentric shells. This is the first time that such a chemical segregation is ever reported at linear scales <3000 AU within a hot core. While Type I species (H2S and 13CS) peak at the AFGL2591 VLA 3 protostar, Type II molecules (HC3N, OCS, SO and SO2) show a double-peaked structure circumventing the continuum peak. Type III species, represented by CH3OH, form a ring-like structure surrounding the continuum emission. The excitation temperatures of SO2, HC3N and CH3OH (185+-11 K, 150+-20 K and 124+-12 K, respectively) show a temperature gradient within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 envelope, consistent with previous observations and modeling of the source. By combining the H2S, SO2 and CH3OH imag...

  16. A Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray: Mid-Infrared Observations and Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Luhman, Kevin L; Getman, Konstantin V; Busk, Heather S; Feigelson, Eric D

    2013-01-01

    Spitzer IRAC observations and stellar photometric catalogs are presented for the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in the Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX). MYStIX is a multiwavelength census of young stellar members of twenty nearby (d < 4 kpc), Galactic, star-forming regions that contain at least one O star. All regions have data available from the Spitzer Space Telescope, consisting of GLIMPSE or other published catalogs for eleven regions and results of our own photometric analysis of archival data for the remaining nine regions. This paper seeks to construct deep and reliable catalogs of sources from the Spitzer images. Mid-infrared study of these regions faces challenges of crowding and high nebulosity. Our new catalogs typically contain fainter sources than existing Spitzer studies, which improves the match rate to Chandra X-ray sources that are likely to be young stars, but increases the possibility of spurious point-source detections, especially peaks in the nebulosity. IRAC color-color diagrams ...

  17. Gas-to-dust ratios in massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    We present results of 12CO(J = 2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 μm and Herschel/SPIRE in 250 μm and 350 μm, and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived by the N2 method using the Hα and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular-gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) × 1010 M⊙ by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and a CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived from the modified blackbody model (assuming a dust temperature of 35 K and an emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) × 108 M⊙. Resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for H I mass) at z ˜ 1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  18. Water in massive star-forming regions with Herschel Space Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Jacq, T.; Baudry, A.; Braine, J.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    High-mass stars formation process is much less understood than the low-mass case: short timescales, high opacities and long distance to the sources challenge the study of young massive stars. The instruments on board the Heschel Space Observatory permit us to investigate molecular species at high sp

  19. Radio and infrared recombination studies of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiyoshi, T; Caswell, J L; Moore, T J T; Lumsden, S L; Aitken, D K; Roche, P F; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Smith, Craig H.; Caswell, James L.; Moore, Toby J. T.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Aitken, David K.; Roche, Patrick F.

    2006-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution radio and near-infrared hydrogen recombination line observations of the southern massive star-forming region G333.6-0.2. The 3.4-cm continuum peak is found slightly offset from the infrared source. The H90alpha spectra show for the first time a double peak profile at some positions. The complex velocity structure may be accounted for by champagne outflows, which may also explain the offset between the radio and infrared sources. The 2.17-um Brackett gamma image and H90alpha map are combined to construct an extinction map which shows a trend probably set by the blister nature of the HII region. The total number of Lyman continuum photons in the central 50-arcsec is estimated to be equivalent to that emitted by up to 19 O7V stars.

  20. Age gradients in the stellar populations of massive star forming regions based on a new stellar chronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Luhman, Kevin L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Naylor, Tim [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, Age {sub JX} . Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the L{sub X} -M relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models to estimate ages. Age {sub JX} is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older PMS stars. The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The Age {sub JX} method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over 100 subclusters in 15 MSFRs; median subcluster ages range between 0.5 Myr and 5 Myr. The important science result is the discovery of age gradients across MYStIX regions. The wide MSFR age distribution appears as spatially segregated structures with different ages. The Age {sub JX} ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed populations. The NIR color index J – H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters.

  1. The structure and early evolution of massive star forming regions - Substructure in the infrared dark cloud SDC13

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, Catherine; Peretto, Nicolas; Zhang, Qizhou; Traficante, Alessio; Avison, Adam; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    Investigations into the substructure of massive star forming regions are essential for understanding the observed relationships between core mass distributions and mass distributions in stellar clusters, differentiating between proposed mechanisms of massive star formation. We study the substructure in the two largest fragments (i.e. cores) MM1 and MM2, in the infrared dark cloud complex SDC13. As MM1 appears to be in a later stage of evolution than MM2, comparing their substructure provides an insight in to the early evolution of massive clumps. We report the results of high resolution SMA dust continuum observations towards MM1 and MM2. Combining these data with Herschel observations, we carry out RADMC-3D radiative transfer modelling to characterise the observed substructure. SMA continuum data indicates 4 sub-fragments in the SDC13 region. The nature of the second brightest sub-fragment (B) is uncertain as it does not appear as prominent at the lower MAMBO resolution or at radio wavelengths. Statistical a...

  2. Kinetic temperature of massive star forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yeh, C. C.; König, C.; Yuan, Y.; He, Y. X.; Li, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. For a general understanding of the physics involved in the star formation process, measurements of physical parameters such as temperature and density are indispensable. The chemical and physical properties of dense clumps of molecular clouds are strongly affected by the kinetic temperature. Therefore, this parameter is essential for a better understanding of the interstellar medium. Formaldehyde, a molecule which traces the entire dense molecular gas, appears to be the most reliable tracer to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature. Aims: We aim to determine the kinetic temperature with spectral lines from formaldehyde and to compare the results with those obtained from ammonia lines for a large number of massive clumps. Methods: Three 218 GHz transitions (JKAKC = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO were observed with the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) toward 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202 ratios. Results: The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO (321-220/303-202) line ratios range from 30 to 61 K with an average of 46 ± 9 K. A comparison of kinetic temperature derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and the dust emission indicates that in many cases para-H2CO traces a similar kinetic temperature to the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust associated with the HII regions. Distinctly higher temperatures are probed by para-H2CO in the clumps associated with outflows/shocks. Kinetic temperatures obtained from para-H2CO trace turbulence to a higher degree than NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) in the massive clumps. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO lines are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperature. The massive clumps are significantly influenced by supersonic non-thermal motions. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only

  3. Massive envelopes and filaments in the NGC 3603 star forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, C A; Galvan-Madrid, R; Koribalski, B S

    2015-01-01

    The formation of massive stars and their arrival on the zero-age main-sequence occurs hidden behind dense clouds of gas and dust. In the giant Hii region NGC 3603, the radiation of a young cluster of OB stars has dispersed dust and gas in its vicinity. At a projected distance of 2:5 pc from the cluster, a bright mid-infrared (mid-IR) source (IRS 9A) had been identified as a massive young stellar object (MYSO), located on the side of a molecular clump (MM2) of gas facing the cluster. We investigated the physical conditions in MM2, based on APEX sub-mm observations using the SABOCA and SHFI instruments, and archival ATCA 3 mm continuum and CS spectral line data. We resolved MM2 into several compact cores, one of them closely associated with IRS 9A. These are likely infrared dark clouds as they do not show the typical hot-core emission lines and are mostly opaque against the mid-IR background. The compact cores have masses of up to several hundred times the solar mass and gas temperatures of about 50 K, without ...

  4. Kinetic temperature of massive star forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, X D; Menten, K M; Zheng, X W; Esimbek, J; Zhou, J J; Yeh, C C; König, C; Yuan, Y; He, Y X; Li, D L

    2016-01-01

    For a general understanding of the physics involved in the star formation process, measurements of physical parameters such as temperature and density are indispensable. The chemical and physical properties of dense clumps of molecular clouds are strongly affected by the kinetic temperature. Therefore, this parameter is essential for a better understanding of the interstellar medium. Formaldehyde, a molecule which traces the entire dense molecular gas, appears to be the most reliable tracer to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature.We aim to determine the kinetic temperature with spectral lines from formaldehyde and to compare the results with those obtained from ammonia lines for a large number of massive clumps.Three 218 GHz transitions (JKAKC=303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO were observed with the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) toward 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temp...

  5. A distance limited sample of massive star forming cores from the RMS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Maud, L T; Moore, T J T; Mottram, J C; Urquhart, J S; Cicchini, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyse C$^{18}$O ($J=3-$2) data from a sample of 99 infrared-bright massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact HII regions that were identified as potential molecular-outflow sources in the Red MSX source (RMS) survey. We extract a distance limited (D $<$ 6 kpc) sample shown to be representative of star formation covering the transition between the source types. At the spatial resolution probed, Larson-like relationships are found for these cores, though the alternative explanation, that Larson's relations arise where surface-density-limited samples are considered, is also consistent with our data. There are no significant differences found between source properties for the MYSOs and HII regions, suggesting that the core properties are established prior to the formation of massive stars, which subsequently have little impact at the later evolutionary stages investigated. There is a strong correlation between dust-continuum and C$^{18}$O-gas masses, supporting the interpretation that both trace t...

  6. The RMS Survey: Ammonia and water maser analysis of massive star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Figura, C C; Moore, T J T; Lumsden, S L; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D; Mottram, J C; Davies, B; Dunham, M K

    2011-01-01

    The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey has identified a sample of ~1200 massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), compact and ultra compact HII regions from a sample of ~2000 MSX and 2MASS colour selected sources. We have used the 100 m Green Bank telescope to search for 22-24 GHz water maser and ammonia (1,1), (2,2) and (3,3) emission towards ~600 RMS sources located within the northern Galactic plane. We have identified 308 H2O masers which corresponds to an overall detection rate of ~50%. Abridged: We detect ammonia emission towards 479 of these massive young stars, which corresponds to ~80%. Ammonia is an excellent probe of high density gas allowing us to measure key parameters such as gas temperatures, opacities, and column densities, as well as providing an insight into the gas kinematics. The average kinetic temperature, FWHM line width and total NH3 column density for the sample are approximately 22 K, 2 km/s and 2x10^{15} cm^{-2}, respectively. We find that the NH3 (1,1) line width and kinetic temperature are ...

  7. Near-Infrared Observations of the Massive Star Forming Region IRAS 23151+5912

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Peng Chen; Yong-Qiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared images and K-band spectroscopy of the massive starforming region IRAS 23151+5912 are presented.The JHK' images reveal an embedded infrared cluster associated with infrared nebula,and the H2(2.12μm)narrowband image provides for the first time evidence of outflow activity associated with the cluster.That the cluster is young can be shown by the high percentage of infrared excess sources and the outflow activity.We suggest an age of the cluster of ~ 106 yr.Eight young stars are found in the bright nebular core around IRAS 23151+5912.By the color-magnitude diagrams of the cluster,we found five high-mass YSOs and four intermediate-mass YSOs in the cluster.Eight H2 emission features are discovered in the region with a scattered and non-axisymmetric distribution,indicating the existence of multiple outflows driven by the cluster.Diffuse H2 emission detected to the north and to the west of the cluster may result from UV leakage of the cluster.Brγ,H2,and CIV emission lines are found in the K-band spectrum of the brightest source,NIRS 19,indicating the presence of envelope,stellar wind,and shock in the circumstellar environment.We have estimated an O7-O9spectral type for the central massive YSO(20 ~ 30M⊙),with an age of less than 1×106 yr.

  8. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: HI observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Hjorth, J; Krumholz, M R; Tanvir, N R; Kamphuis, P; Burlon, D; Baes, M; Basa, S; Berta, S; Ceron, J M Castro; Crosby, D; D'Elia, V; Elliott, J; Greiner, J; Hunt, L K; Klose, S; Koprowski, M P; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Rasmussen, J; Rossi, A; Savaglio, S; Schady, P; Sollerman, J; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), among the most energetic events in the Universe, are explosions of massive and short-lived stars, so they pinpoint locations of recent star formation. However, several GRB host galaxies have recently been found to be deficient in molecular gas (H2), believed to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line-of-sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought, with star formation being potentially directly fuelled by atomic gas (or with very efficient HI-to-H2 conversion and rapid exhaustion of molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low metallicity gas near the onset of star forma...

  9. The molecular environment of the massive star forming region NGC 2024: Multi CO transition analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, M; Simon, R; Wieching, G; Volgenau, N H; Bielau, F; Graf, U U; Guesten, R; Honingh, C E; Jacobs, K; Rabanus, D; Stutzki, J; Wyrowski, F

    2009-01-01

    NGC 2024, a sites of massive star formation, have complex internal structures caused by cal heating by young stars, outflows, and stellar winds. These complex cloud structures lead to intricate emission line shapes. The goal of this paper is to show that the complex line shapes of 12 CO lines in NGC 2024 can be explained consistently with a model, whose temperature and velocity structure are based on the well-established scenario of a PDR and the Blister model. We present velocity-resolved spectra of seven CO lines ranging from J=3 to J=13, and we combined these data with CO high-frequency data from the ISO satellite. We find that the bulk of the molecular cloud associated with NGC 2024 consists of warm (75 K) and dense (9e5 cm-3) gas. An additional hot (~ 300 K) component, located at the interface of the HII region and the molecular cloud, is needed to explain the emission of the high-J CO lines. Deep absorption notches indicate that very cold material (20 K) exists in front of the warm material, too. A temp...

  10. Different Evolutionary Stages in the Massive Star Forming Region S255 Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Bik, A; Vasyunina, T; Jiang, Z; Puga, E; Linz, H; Rodon, J A; Henning, Th; Tamura, M

    2010-01-01

    To understand evolutionary and environmental effects during the formation of high-mass stars, we observed three regions of massive star formation at different evolutionary stages that reside in the same natal molecular cloud. Methods. The three regions S255IR, S255N and S255S were observed at 1.3 mm with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and followup short spacing information was obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. Near infrared (NIR) H + K-band spectra and continuum observations were taken for S255IR with VLT-SINFONI to study the different stellar populations in this region. The combination of millimeter (mm) and near infrared data allow us to characterize different stellar populations within the young forming cluster in detail. While we find multiple mm continuum sources toward all regions, their outflow, disk and chemical properties vary considerably. The most evolved source S255IR exhibits a collimated bipolar outflow visible in CO and H2 emission, the outflows from the youngest region S255S are still small...

  11. Microstructure and kinematics of H2O masers in the massive star forming region IRAS 06061+2151

    CERN Document Server

    Motogi, K; Sorai, K; Habe, A; Honma, M; Imai, H; Yamauchi, A; Kobayashi, H; Fujisawa, K; Omodaka, T; Takaba, H; Shibata, K M; Minamidani, T; Wakamatsu, K; Sudou, H; Kawai, E; Koyama, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have made multi-epoch VLBI observations of H2O maser emission in the massive star forming region IRAS 06061+2151 with the Japanese VLBI network (JVN) from 2005 May to 2007 October. The detected maser features are distributed within an 1\\arcsec$\\times$1\\arcsec (2000 au$\\times$2000 au at the source position) around the ultra-compact H {\\small\\bf II} region seen in radio continuum emission. Their bipolar morphology and expanding motion traced through their relative proper motions indicate that they are excited by an energetic bipolar outflow. Our three-dimensional model fitting has shown that the maser kinematical structure in IRAS 06061+2151 is able to be explained by a biconical outflow with a large opening angle ($>$ 50\\degr). The position angle of the flow major axis coincides very well with that of the large scale jet seen in 2.1$\\:\\mu\\rmn{m}$ hydrogen emission. This maser geometry indicates the existence of dual structures composed of a collimated jet and a less collimated massive molecular flow. We hav...

  12. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period distribution observed in few Myr-old OB binaries.

  13. CH+(1-0) and 13CH+(1-0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, J.; de Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, J. H.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Boulanger, F.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Giesen, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Perault, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Menten, K.; Geballe, T. R.; Schlemmer, S.; Shipman, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Philipp, S.; Cros, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Samoska, L. A.; Klein, K.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ and its isotopologue 13CH+ toward the remote massive star-forming regions W33A, W49N, and W51 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. Both lines are seen only in absorption against the du

  14. 12 GHz methanol maser outflow from the massive star-forming region: G35.20-0.74

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Zeng Yan; Bo Zhang; Zheng-Hong Tang; Xing-Wu Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We report the internal proper motions of 12 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming region G35.20-0.74 observed with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at four epochs spanning about 1.5 yr.Two groups of maser features were detected,groups A and B,and the latter that had a V-shaped spatial distribution is likely tracing the north outflow in G35.20-0.74.We present a three-dimensional model for the kinematics of these masers,by assuming the interstellar medium was blown by the stellar wind from the driving source (G35.2N) of the outflow.Adopting a position angle of ~ 81° for the main axis of the outflow from previous studies,we estimate an inclination of 35° ± 5.5°,a velocity of 8.1 ± 0.7 km s-1 for the stellar wind along the main axis and an expansion speed gradient of 0.05 ± 0.016 km s-1 AU-1.From the model,we derive the age of the north outflow in G35.20-0.74 to be ~ 1.6 × 104 yr.

  15. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2. II. Integrated Stellar Properties and the Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analysed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalogue of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to 1 Msun (excluding A and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. (2000) isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 (+0.75/-1.0) and 5.25 (+1.5/-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 My...

  16. New PARSEC evolutionary tracks of massive stars at low metallicity: testing canonical stellar evolution in nearby star forming dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jing; Rosenfield, Philip; Slemer, Alessandra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Bianchi, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    We extend the {\\sl\\,PARSEC} library of stellar evolutionary tracks by computing new models of massive stars, from 14\\Msun to 350\\Msun. The input physics is the same used in the {\\sl\\,PARSEC}~V1.1 version, but for the mass-loss rate which is included by considering the most recent updates in literature. We focus on low metallicity, $Z$=0.001 and $Z$=0.004, for which the metal poor dwarf irregular star forming galaxies, Sextans A, WLM and NCG6822, provide simple but powerful workbenches. The models reproduce fairly well the observed CMDs but the stellar colour distributions indicate that the predicted blue loop is not hot enough in models with canonical extent of overshooting. In the framework of a mild extended mixing during central hydrogen burning, the only way to reconcile the discrepancy is to enhance the overshooting at the base of the convective envelope (EO) during the first dredge-UP. The mixing scales required to reproduce the observed loops, EO=2\\HP or EO=4\\HP, are definitely larger than those derive...

  17. Deciphering the ionized gas content in the massive star forming complex G75.78+0.34

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Shepherd, Debra; Lizano, Susana; Franco, Jose; Garay, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond observations toward the massive star forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H2O and CH3OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40alpha and H30alpha). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) HII region with an electron density 3.7x10^4 cm^{-3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCHII region (EAST), located 6 arcsec to the east of the cometary UCHII region, with an electron density 1.3x10^5 cm^{-3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located 2 arcsec to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 Msun. The CORE source is resolved in...

  18. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  19. Probing the Dragonfish star-forming complex: the ionizing population of the young massive cluster Mercer 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, D.; Najarro, F.; Borissova, J.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Hanson, M. M.; Trombley, C.; Figer, D. F.; Davies, B.; Garcia, M.; Kurtev, R.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Herrero, A.

    2016-05-01

    It has recently been claimed that the nebula, Dragonfish, is powered by a superluminous but elusive OB association. However, systematic searches in near-infrared photometric surveys have found many other cluster candidates in this region of the sky. Among these, the first confirmed young massive cluster was Mercer 30, where Wolf-Rayet stars were found.We perform a new characterization of Mercer 30 with unprecedented accuracy, combining NICMOS/HST and VVV photometric data with multi-epoch ISAAC/VLT H- and K-band spectra. Stellar parameters for most of spectroscopically observed cluster members are found through precise non-LTE atmosphere modeling with the CMFGEN code. Our spectrophotometric study for this cluster yields a new, revised distance of d = (12.4 ± 1.7) kpc and a total of QHMc30 ≈ 6.70 × 1050 s-1 Lyman ionizing photons. A cluster age of (4.0 ± 0.8) Myr is found through isochrone fitting, and a total mass of (1.6 ± 0.6) × 104M⊙ is estimated, thanks to our extensive knowledge of the post-main-sequence population. As a consequence, membership of Mercer 30 to the Dragonfish star-forming complex is confirmed, allowing us to use this cluster as a probe for the whole complex, which turns out to be extremely large (~400 pc across) and located at the outer edge of the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm (~11 kpc from the Galactic center). The Dragonfish complex hosts 19 young clusters or cluster candidates (including Mercer 30 and a new candidate presented in this work) and an estimated minimum of nine field Wolf-Rayet stars. All these contributions account for, at least 73% of the ionization of the Dragonfish nebula and leaves little or no room for the alleged superluminous OB association; alternative explanations are discussed. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programs IDs 179.B-2002, 081.D-0471, 083.D-0765, 087.D-0957, and 089.D-0989.

  20. ONE PLANE FOR ALL: MASSIVE STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES LIE ON THE SAME MASS FUNDAMENTAL PLANE AT z ∼ 0 AND z ∼ 0.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezanson, Rachel [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Franx, Marijn [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Scaling relations between galaxy structures and dynamics have been studied extensively for early- and late-type galaxies, both in the local universe and at high redshifts. The abundant differences between the properties of disky and elliptical, or star-forming and quiescent, galaxies seem to be characteristic of the local universe; such clear distinctions begin to disintegrate as observations of massive galaxies probe higher redshifts. In this paper we investigate the existence of the mass fundamental plane of all massive galaxies (σ ≳ 100 km s{sup –1}). This work includes local galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.07) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in addition to 31 star-forming and 72 quiescent massive galaxies at intermediate redshift (z ∼ 0.7) with absorption-line kinematics from deep Keck-DEIMOS spectra and structural parameters from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. In two-parameter scaling relations, star-forming and quiescent galaxies differ structurally and dynamically. However, we show that massive star-forming and quiescent galaxies lie on nearly the same mass fundamental plane, or the relationship between stellar mass surface density, stellar velocity dispersion, and effective radius. The scatter in this relation (measured about log σ) is low: 0.072 dex (0.055 dex intrinsic) at z ∼ 0 and 0.10 dex (0.08 dex intrinsic) at z ∼ 0.7. This 3D surface is not unique: virial relations, with or without a dependence on luminosity profile shapes, can connect galaxy structures and stellar dynamics with similar scatter. This result builds on the recent finding that mass fundamental plane has been stable for early-type galaxies since z ∼ 2. As we now find that this also holds for star-forming galaxies to z ∼ 0.7, this implies that these scaling relations of galaxies will be minimally susceptible to progenitor biases owing to the evolving stellar populations, structures, and dynamics of galaxies through cosmic time.

  1. Monsters In The Dark: Exploring The Star-Forming Hosts Of Massive, Dust-Obscured Quasars At Z 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, Clare; Banerji, Manda; Hewett, Paul; DES Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We perform the first population study of luminous, but heavily-reddened quasars in the rest-frame UV at z = 1.5 - 2.7 - a peak epoch of both star formation and black hole accretion. We find resolved, blue emission in the DES imaging, consistent with a star forming host galaxy. Via SED fitting, we derive instantaneous SFRs for the sample and find a trend between quasar luminosity and SFR.

  2. Extended High Circular Polarization in the Orion Massive Star Forming Region: Implications for the Origin of Homochirality in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We present a wide-field (~6'x6') and deep near-infrared (Ks band: 2.14 micro m) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (~0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth.

  3. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We present a wide-field (approximately 6' x 6') and deep near-infrared (K(s) band: 2.14 mum) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (approximately 0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth.

  4. Narrow He II emission in star-forming galaxies at low metallicity. Stellar wind emission from a population of Very Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gräfener, G

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study star-forming galaxies with HeII emission at moderate redshifts have been found to occur in two modes, distinguished by the width of their HeII emission lines. Broad HeII emission has been attributed to stellar emission from a population of evolved Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars while narrow HeII emission has been attributed to nebular emission excited by a population of very hot PopIII stars formed in pockets of pristine gas at moderate redshifts. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the origin of the narrow HeII emission, namely very massive stars (VMS) at low metallicity (Z) which form strong but slow WR-type stellar winds due to their proximity to the Eddington limit. We estimate the expected HeII line fluxes and equivalent widths based on wind models for VMS and population synthesis models, and compare the results with recent observations of star-forming galaxies at moderate redshifts. The observed HeII line strengths and equivalent widths are in line with what is expected for a po...

  5. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z=3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Martis, Nicholas S; Brammer, Gabriel B; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Skelton, Rosalind E; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval $0.2 \\le z \\le 3.0$. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass, and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with $\\log{(M_{\\rm star}/M_{\\odot})} \\gtrsim 10.3$ at $z\\gtrsim2$. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at $\\log{(M_{\\rm star}/M_{\\odot})} \\gtrsim 10.0-10.5$, being a factor of $\\sim$3-5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at $\\lo...

  6. The growth of typical star-forming galaxies and their super massive black holes across cosmic time since z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Calhau, João; Stroe, Andra; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Lehmer, Bret; Harrison, Chris; Thomson, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here we explore a sample of Ha-selected star-forming galaxies from the HiZELS survey and use the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the COSMOS field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z=2.23 to z=0. Typical star-forming galaxies at z~1-2 have black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of 0.001-0.01 Msun/yr and star formation rates (SFRs) of ~10-40 Msun/yr, and thus grow their stellar mass much quicker than their black hole mass (~3.3 orders of magnitude faster). However, ~3% of the sample (the sources detected directly in the X-rays) show a significantly quicker growth of the black hole mass (up to 1.5 orders of magnitude quicker growth than the typical sources). BHARs fall from z=2.23 to z=0, with the decline resembling that of star formation rate de...

  7. Four highly luminous massive star forming regions in the Norma Spiral Arm.: I. Molecular gas and dust observations

    CERN Document Server

    Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; May, Jorge; Chavarria, Luis; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2009-01-01

    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations, made with the SEST telescope, towards four young high-mass star forming regions associated with highly luminous (L> 6x10^5 Lsun) IRAS sources (15290-5546, 15502-5302, 15567-5236 and 16060-5146). Molecular emission was mapped in lines of CS (J=2-1, 3-2 and 5-4), SiO (J=2-1 and 3-2), CH3OH (Jk=3k-2k and 2k-1k), and C34S (J=3-2). In addition, single spectra at the peak position were taken in the CO, 13CO and C18O (J=1-0) lines. We find that the luminous star forming regions are associated with molecular gas and dust structures with radii of typically 0.5 pc, masses of ~5x10^3 Msun, column densities of ~5x10^{23} cm^{-2}, molecular hydrogen densities of typically ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and dust temperatures of ~40 K. The 1.2 mm dust continuum observations further indicate that the cores are centrally condensed, having radial density profiles with power-law indices in the range 1.6-1.9. We find that under these conditions dynamical friction by the gas plays an imp...

  8. Narrow He II emission in star-forming galaxies at low metallicity. Stellar wind emission from a population of very massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Context. In a recent study, star-forming galaxies with He ii λ1640 emission at moderate redshifts between 2 and 4.6 have been found to occur in two modes that are distinguished by the width of their He ii emission lines. Broad He ii emission has been attributed to stellar emission from a population of evolved Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. The origin of narrow He ii emission is less clear but has been attributed to nebular emission excited by a population of very hot Pop III stars formed in pockets of pristine gas at moderate redshifts. Aims: We propose an alternative scenario for the origin of the narrow He ii emission, namely very massive stars (VMS) at low metallicity (Z), which form strong but slow WR-type stellar winds due to their proximity to the Eddington limit. Methods: We estimated the expected He ii line fluxes and equivalent widths based on wind models for VMS and Starburst99 population synthesis models and compared the results with recent observations of star-forming galaxies at moderate redshifts. Results: The observed He ii line strengths and equivalent widths are in line with what is expected for a population of VMS in one or more young super-clusters located within these galaxies. Conclusions: In our scenario the two observed modes of He ii emission originate from massive stellar populations in distinct evolutionary stages at low Z (~0.01 Z⊙). If this interpretation is correct, there is no need to postulate the existence of Pop III stars at moderate redshifts to explain the observed narrow He ii emission. An interesting possibility is the existence of self-enriched VMS with similar WR-type spectra at extremely low Z. Stellar He ii emission from such very early generations of VMS may be detectable in future studies of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The fact that the He ii emission of VMS is largely neglected in current population synthesis models will generally affect the interpretation of the

  9. Constraint on the Gas-to-Dust Ratio in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Iono, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We carried out 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward three star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45m radio telescope. These galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um and 350 um, and their gas metallicity, derived from optical emission line ratios based on near infrared spectroscopic observations, is close to the solar metallicity. Although weak signal-like features of CO were seen, we could not detect significant CO emission. The dust mass and the upper limits on the molecular gas mass are (3.4-6.7) x 10^{8} Msun and (9.7-14) x 10^{10} Msun, respectively. The upper limits on the gas-to-dust ratios at z~1.4 are 150-410 which are comparable to the gas-to-dust ratios in local galaxies with similar gas metallicity. A line stacking analysis enables us to detect a significant CO emission and to derive an average molecular gas mass of 1.3 x 10^{11} Msun and gas-to-dust ratio of 250. This gas-to-dust ratio is also near that in local galaxies with solar metall...

  10. The dust properties and physical conditions of the interstellar medium in the LMC massive star forming complex N11

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Albrecht, M; Galliano, F; Cormier, D; Lebouteiller, V; Lee, M Y; Madden, S C; Bolatto, A; Bot, C; Hughes, A; Israel, F; Meixner, M; Oliviera, J M; Paradis, D; Pellegrini, E; Roman-Duval, J; Rubio, M; Sewiło, M; Fukui, Y; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T

    2015-01-01

    We combine Spitzer and Herschel data of the star-forming region N11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to produce detailed maps of the dust properties in the complex and study their variations with the ISM conditions. We also compare APEX/LABOCA 870um observations with our model predictions in order to decompose the 870um emission into dust and non-dust (free-free emission and CO(3-2) line) contributions. We find that in N11, the 870um can be fully accounted for by these 3 components. The dust surface density map of N11 is combined with HI and CO observations to study local variations in the gas-to-dust mass ratios. Our analysis leads to values lower than those expected from the LMC low-metallicity as well as to a decrease of the gas-to-dust mass ratio with the dust surface density. We explore potential hypotheses that could explain the low observed gas-to-dust mass ratios (variations in the XCO factor, presence of CO-dark gas or of optically thick HI or variations in the dust abundance in the dense regions). We f...

  11. EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization in massive star-forming regions III. The flux-limited sample

    CERN Document Server

    Surcis, G; van Langevelde, H J; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Bartkiewicz, A; Blasi, M G

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical simulations and observations at different angular resolutions have shown that magnetic fields have a central role in massive star formation. Like in low-mass star formation, the magnetic field in massive young stellar objects can either be oriented along the outflow axis or randomly. Measuring the magnetic field at milliarcsecond resolution (10-100 au) around a substantial number of massive young stellar objects permits determining with a high statistical significance whether the direction of the magnetic field is correlated with the orientation of the outflow axis or not. In late 2012, we started a large VLBI campaign with the European VLBI Network to measure the linearly and circularly polarized emission of 6.7 GHz methanol masers around a sample of massive star-forming regions. This paper focuses on the first seven observed sources, G24.78+0.08, G25.65+1.05, G29.86-0.04, G35.03+0.35, G37.43+1.51, G174.20-0.08, and G213.70-12.6. For all these sources, molecular outflows have been detected in the...

  12. Trigonometric Parallaxes of Massive Star-Forming Regions: VII. G9.62+0.20 and the Expanding 3 KPC-ARM

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, A; Moscadelli, L; Dame, T M; Menten, K M; Brunthaler, A; Zheng, X W; Xu, Y

    2009-01-01

    We report a trigonometric parallax of 12 GHz methanol masers associated with the massive star forming region G9.62+0.20, corresponding to a distance of 5.2+-0.6 kpc. With a local standard of rest velocity of about 2 km/s, the region's kinematic distances of 0.5 and 16 kpc differ greatly from the distance derived here. Our measurement of the peculiar motion of the star forming region shows a very large deviation from a circular Galactic orbit: 41 km/s radially outward from the Galactic center and 60 km/s counter to Galactic rotation. The combination of its radial velocity and distance places G9.62+0.20 in the inner region of the Galaxy close to the Expanding Near 3 kpc-Arm, where the bulge/bar potential has strong gravitational influence. We also map the distribution of 12 GHz methanol masers, locate them with respect to a hypercompact H II region, and compare our data with the periodic flare phenomenon reported previously for this source.

  13. Trigonometric Parallaxes of Massive Star Forming Regions: V. G23.01-0.41 and G23.44-0.18

    CERN Document Server

    Brunthaler, A; Menten, K M; Zheng, X W; Moscadelli, L; Xu, Y

    2008-01-01

    We report trigonometric parallaxes for the massive star-forming regions G23.01-0.41 and G23.44-0.18, corresponding to distances of 4.59 [+0.38/-0.33] kpc and 5.88 [+1.37/-0.93] kpc, respectively. The distance to G23.01-0.41 is smaller than its near kinematic distance assuming a standard model of the Milky Way and less than half of its far kinematic distance, which has usually been assumed. This places it in the Crux-Scutum spiral arm. The distance to G23.44-0.18 is close to its near kinematic distance and most likely places it in the Norma spiral arm near the end of the Galactic bar. Combining the distance and proper motions with observed radial velocities gives the location and full space motion of the star forming regions. We find large deviations from circular Galactic orbits for these sources: both sources show peculiar motions of 20 to 30 km/s counter to Galactic rotation and toward the Galactic center. These large peculiar motions might be the result of gravitational perturbations from the Galactic bar.

  14. A quality check of the $AKARI$ mid-infrared all-sky diffuse map toward the massive star-forming regions NGC 6334 and NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Toru; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission toward a region including the massive star-forming regions of NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We use the NANTEN $^{12}$CO($J$ = 1--0) data and the $AKARI$ 9 $\\mu$m All-Sky diffuse map in order to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the $AKARI$ data. We confirm that the overall CO distribution shows a good spatial correspondence with the PAH emission, and their intensities exhibit a good power-law correlation with a spatial resolution down to 4$'$ over the region of 10$^\\circ$$\\times$10$^\\circ$. We also reveal poorer correlation for small scale structures between the two quantities toward NGC 6357, due to strong UV radiation from local sources. Larger scatter in the correlation toward NGC 6357 indicates higher ionization degree and/or PAH excitation than that of NGC 6334.

  15. Irradiated shocks in the W28 A2 massive star-forming region: a site for cosmic rays acceleration?

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, A; Gerin, M; Guesten, R

    2015-01-01

    The formation of massive stars play a crucial role in galaxies from numerous points of view. The protostar generates a strong ultraviolet radiation field that ionizes its surroundings, and it drives powerful shock waves in the neighbouring medium in the form of jets and bipolar outflows, whose structure can be partially organized by local, strong magnetic field. Such an ejection activity locally modifies the interstellar chemistry, contributing to the cycle of matter. It also significantly participates to the energetic balance of galaxies. In the latter stages of massive star formation, the protostar is surrounded by an ultra-compact HII region, and irradiates its bipolar outflows, where an intrinsically strong magnetic field structure is associated to the generally high densities. In the HII region, or in the bipolar outflows, the question of in situ cosmic rays acceleration can then be raised by the simultaneous presence of strong magnetic fields, significant ionization of the matter, and mechanical energy ...

  16. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brammer, G., E-mail: forster@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS{sup 3D}spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s{sup –1}), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  17. Tracing PDR properties and structure in the closest massive low metallicity star-forming region: 30 Doradus in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevance, M.; Madden, S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Carlson, L.; Cormier, D.; Galliano, F.; Lee, M.-Y.; Wu, R.

    2014-12-01

    More complete knowledge of galaxy evolution requires understanding the process of star formation and interaction between the interstellar radiation field and the ISM in galactic environments traversing a wide range of physical parameter space. Here we focus on the impact of star formation on the surrounding low metallicity ISM. Indeed, lowering the metal abundance, as is the case of some galaxies of the early universe, results in an overall lower galactic dust reservoir, hence, less shielding for the formation of the molecular gas necessary for star formation to proceed. A convenient laboratory to zoom into the various phases of the ISM to study the effects of low metallicity on the ISM properties, is our nearest neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has a metallicity 1/2 that of solar. The goal is to construct a comprehensive, self-consistent picture of the density, radiation field, and ISM structure in the vicinity of one of the most massive star clusters in our local neighborhood, R136.

  18. Trigonometric Distance and Proper Motion of IRAS 20056+3350: Massive Star Forming Region on the Solar Circle

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Ross A; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shizugami, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H2O masers. Our distance of D = 4.69 +0.65-0.51 kpc, which is more than two times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm, and proximal to the Solar circle. Using our distance we re-evaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS and sub-millimetre continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 x 10^4 Lo, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of 16 Mo. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be ($\\mu_{\\alpha}\\cos\\delta$, $\\mu_{\\delta}$) = ($-2.62\\pm0.33$, $-5.65\\pm0.52$) mas yr$^{-1}$ from the group motion of...

  19. X-Ray Emission from Young Stars in the Massive Star Forming Region IRAS 20126+4104

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Crystal Nicole; Shepherd, Debra; Creech-Eakman, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    We present a $40\\,$ks Chandra observation of the IRAS$\\,$20126+4104 core region. In the inner $6^{\\prime\\prime}$ two X-ray sources were detected, which are coincident with the radio jet source I20S and the variable radio source I20Var. No X-ray emission was detected from the nearby massive protostar I20N. The spectra of both detected sources are hard and highly absorbed, with no emission below $3\\,$keV. For I20S, the measured $0.5-8\\,$keV count rate was $4.3\\,$cts$\\,$ks$^{-1}$. The X-ray spectrum was fit with an absorbed 1T APEC model with an energy of kT$\\,=10\\,$keV and an absorbing column of N$_H = 1.2\\times 10^{23}\\,$cm$^{-2}$. An unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about $1.4\\times 10^{32}\\,$erg$\\,$s$^{-1}$ was estimated. The spectrum shows broad line emission between 6.4 and 6.7\\, keV, indicative of emission from both neutral and highly ionized iron. The X-ray lightcurve indicates that I20S is marginally variable; however, no flare emission was observed. The variable radio source I20Var was detected with a co...

  20. Probing the Dragonfish star-forming complex: the ionizing population of the young massive cluster Mercer 30

    CERN Document Server

    de la Fuente, D; Borissova, J; Alegría, S Ramírez; Hanson, M M; Trombley, C; Figer, D F; Davies, B; Garcia, M; Kurtev, R; Urbaneja, M A; Smith, L C; Lucas, P W; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The Dragonfish Nebula has been recently claimed to be powered by a superluminous but elusive OB association. Instead, systematic searches in near-infrared photometric surveys have found many other cluster candidates on this sky region. Among these, the first confirmed young massive cluster was Mercer 30, where Wolf-Rayet stars were found. We perform a new characterization of Mercer 30 with unprecedented accuracy, combining NICMOS/HST and VVV photometric data with multi-epoch ISAAC/VLT H- and K-band spectra. Stellar parameters for most of spectroscopically observed cluster members are found through precise non-LTE atmosphere modeling with the CMFGEN code. Our spectrophotometric study for this cluster yields a new, revised distance of d = (12.4 +- 1.7) kpc and a total of Q = 6.70 x 10^50 Lyman ionizing photons. A cluster age of (4.0 +- 0.8) Myr is found through isochrone fitting, and a total mass of (1.6 +- 0.6) x 10^4 Msol is estimated thanks to our extensive knowledge of the post-main-sequence population. As ...

  1. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z~2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful AGN-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, N M Förster; Newman, S F; Kurk, J D; Lutz, D; Tacconi, L J; Wuyts, S; Bandara, K; Burkert, A; Buschkamp, P; Carollo, C M; Cresci, G; Daddi, E; Davies, R; Eisenhauer, F; Hicks, E K S; Lang, P; Lilly, S J; Mainieri, V; Mancini, C; Naab, T; Peng, Y; Renzini, A; Rosario, D; Griffin, K Shapiro; Shapley, A E; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Vergani, D; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, E; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (> 10^11 Msun) z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Halpha and forbidden [NII] and [SII] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km/s, [NII]/Halpha ratio ~ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2 - 3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~ 60 Msun/yr and mass loading of ~ 3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detecte...

  2. Identification of dusty massive stars in star-forming dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group with mid-IR photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Britavskiy, N E; Mehner, A; Boyer, M L; McQuinn, K B W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the statistics of spectroscopically confirmed evolved massive stars in the Local Group enables the investigation of the mass loss phenomena that occur in these stars in the late stages of their evolution. We aim to complete the census of luminous mid-IR sources in star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies of the Local Group. To achieve this we employed mid-IR photometric selection criteria to identify evolved massive stars, such as red supergiants (RSGs) and luminous blue variables (LBVs), by using the fact that these types of stars have infrared excess due to dust. The method is based on 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m photometry from archival ${\\it Spitzer}$ Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies. We applied our criteria to 4 dIrr galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A, and WLM, selecting 79 point sources, which we observed with the VLT/FORS2 spectrograph in multi-object spectroscopy mode. We identified 13 RSGs, of which 6 are new discoveries, also 2 new emission line stars, and 1 candidate yellow...

  3. Trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350: a massive star-forming region on the solar circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Ross A.; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Kôrimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shizugami, Makoto, E-mail: RossBurns88@MilkyWay.sci.Kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshi-ga-oka, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H{sub 2}O masers. Our distance of D=4.69{sub −0.51}{sup +0.65} kpc, which is 2.8 times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm and proximal to the solar circle. Using our distance, we reevaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS, and the submillimeter continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of ≥16 M {sub ☉}. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (–2.62 ± 0.33, –5.65 ± 0.52) mas yr{sup –1} from the group motion of H{sub 2}O masers, and use our results to estimate the angular velocity of Galactic rotation at the Galactocentric distance of the Sun, Ω{sub 0} = 29.75 ± 2.29 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}, which is consistent with the values obtained for other tangent point and solar circle objects.

  4. WFCAM, Spitzer-IRAC and SCUBA observations of the massive star forming region DR21/W75: II. Stellar content and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M S N; Grave, J M C; Froebrich, B F D

    2006-01-01

    Wide field near-infrared observations and Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC observations of the DR21/W75 star formation regions are presented. The photometric data are used to analyse the extinction, stellar content and clustering in the entire region by using standard methods. A young stellar population is identified all over the observed field, which is found to be distributed in embedded clusters that are surrounded by a distributed halo population extending over a larger projected area. The Spitzer/IRAC data are used to compute a spectral index value, "alpha", for each YSO in the field. We use these data to separate pure photospheres from disk excess sources. We find a small fraction of sources with "alpha" in excess of 2 to 3 (plus a handful with "alpha"~4), which is much higher than the values found in the low mass star forming region IC348 ("alpha" < 2). The sources with high values of "alpha" spatially coincide with the densest regions of the filaments and also with the sites of massive star formation. ...

  5. Gas Fraction and Depletion Time of Massive Star Forming Galaxies at z~3.2: No Change in Global Star Formation Process out to z>3

    CERN Document Server

    Schinnerer, E; Sargent, M T; Karim, A; Oesch, P A; Magnelli, B; LeFevre, O; Tasca, L; Civano, F; Cassata, P; Smolcic, V

    2016-01-01

    The observed evolution of the gas fraction and its associated depletion time in main sequence (MS) galaxies provides insights on how star formation proceeds over cosmic time. We report ALMA detections of the rest-frame $\\sim$300$\\mu$m continuum observed at 240 GHz for 45 massive ($\\rm \\langle log(M_{\\star}(M_{\\odot}))\\rangle=10.7$), normal star forming ($\\rm \\langle log(sSFR(yr^{-1}))\\rangle=-8.6$), i.e. MS, galaxies at $\\rm z\\approx3.2$ in the COSMOS field. From an empirical calibration between cold neutral, i.e. molecular and atomic, gas mass $\\rm M_{gas}$ and monochromatic (rest-frame) infrared luminosity, the gas mass for this sample is derived. Combined with stellar mass $\\rm M_{\\star}$ and star formation rate (SFR) estimates (from {\\sc MagPhys} fits) we obtain a median gas fraction of $\\rm \\mu_{gas}=M_{gas}/M_{\\star}=1.65_{-0.19}^{+0.18}$ and a median gas depletion time $\\rm t_{depl.}(Gyr)=M_{gas}/SFR=0.68_{-0.08}^{+0.07}$; correction for the location on the MS will only slightly change the values. The ...

  6. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z {approx} 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Davis, M.; Newman, S. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Omont, A., E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [IAP, CNRS and Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z {approx} 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M{sub *}(M{sub Sun })) {>=} 10.4 and log(SFR(M{sub Sun }/yr)) {>=} 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M{sub *} -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of {approx}0.33 at z {approx} 1.2 and {approx}0.47 at z {approx} 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z {approx} 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a {approx}0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z {approx} 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M{sub *}, gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z {approx} 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  7. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-11-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After ˜10 Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of 0.39 pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass ˜ 105 M⊙. We also test that binary dynamics is robust against the details of the SNa feedback employed in the simulations, while gas dynamics is not. We finally highlight the importance of the SNa time-scale on our results.

  8. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...

  9. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow.

  10. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. III. Evidence for positive metallicity gradients in z~1.2 star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Queyrel, J; Kissler-Patig, M; Epinat, B; Amram, P; Garilli, B; Fevre, O Le; Moultaka, J; Paioro, L; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Perez-Montero, E

    2011-01-01

    A key open issue for galaxy evolution and formation models is the understanding of the different mechanisms of galaxy assembly at various cosmic epochs. The aim of this study is to derive the global and spatially-resolved metal content in high-redshift galaxies. Using VLT/SINFONI IFU spectroscopy of a first sample of 50 galaxies at z~1.2 in the MASSIV survey, we are able to measure the Ha and [NII]6584 emission lines. Using the N2 ratio as a proxy for oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium, we measure the metallicity of the sample galaxies. We develop a tool to extract spectra in annular regions of these galaxies, leading to a spatially-resolved estimate of the oxygen abundance in each galaxy. We derive a metallicity gradient for 26 galaxies in our sample and discover a significant fraction of galaxies with a "positive" gradient. Using a simple chemical evolution model, we derive infall rates of pristine gas onto the disks. Seven galaxies display a positive gradient at a high confidence level. Four out o...

  11. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArTéMiS

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ph.; Revéret, V.; Könyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tigé, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which filaments of ~0.1 pc width form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because the resolution of Herschel is insufficient to resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. Aims: In an effort to characterize the inner width of filaments in high-mass star-forming regions, we imaged the central part of the NGC 6334 complex at a resolution higher by a factor of >3 than Herschel at 350 μm. Methods: We used the large-format bolometer camera ArTéMiS on the APEX telescope and combined the high-resolution ArTéMiS data at 350 μm with Herschel/HOBYS data at 70-500 μm to ensure good sensitivity to a broad range of spatial scales. This allowed us to study the structure of the main narrow filament of the complex with a resolution of 8″ or inner width remains as narrow as W ~ 0.15 ± 0.05 pc all along the filament length, within a factor of Belt. Conclusions: While it is not completely clear whether the NGC 6334 filament will form massive stars in the future, it is two to three orders of magnitude denser than the majority of filaments observed in Gould Belt clouds, and has a very similar inner width. This points to a common physical mechanism for setting the filament width and suggests that some important structural properties of nearby clouds also hold in high-mass star-forming regions. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in ESO program

  12. Distances to star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The determination of accurate distances to star-forming regions are discussed in the broader historical context of astronomical distance measurements. We summarize recent results for regions within 1 kpc and present perspectives for the near and more distance future.

  13. Active star-forming galaxies in the X ray foreground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Padovani, P.

    1989-01-01

    Star forming galaxies were discovered as a component of the X-ray background (XRB) in the Einstein deep surveys. Such star forming galaxies may be largely powered by superluminous Population 1 massive X-ray binaries (MXRB), formed in the wake of star formation in regions of low metallicity. The star forming galaxies with moderate numbers of MXRB may evolve into the infrared starburst galaxies found at low redshifts using IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and may also be related to those galaxies identified with sub-mJy radio sources. A conservative contribution to the XRB of at least approximately 15 percent, without evolution is estimated. It is shown that moderate evolution leads to a contribution at least equalling that of quasars. Above 3 keV, star forming galaxies may dominate the XRB.

  14. The faintest star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P

    2003-01-01

    I briefly report on the X-ray detection of 10 radio sub-mJy sources in the 2 Ms Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field North region. These sources follow the same radio/X-ray luminosities relation which holds for nearby galaxies. Making use of this relation, X-ray number counts from star forming galaxies are predicted from the deep radio Log N-Log S's.

  15. Dynamical evolution of star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J; Goodwin, Simon P; Meyer, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    We model the dynamical evolution of star forming regions with a wide range of initial properties. We follow the evolution of the regions' substructure using the Q-parameter, we search for dynamical mass segregation using the Lambda_MSR technique, and we also quantify the evolution of local density around stars as a function of mass using the Sigma_LDR method. The amount of dynamical mass segregation measured by Lambda_MSR is generally only significant for subvirial and virialised, substructured regions - which usually evolve to form bound clusters. The Sigma_LDR method shows that massive stars attain higher local densities than the median value in all regions, even those that are supervirial and evolve to form (unbound) associations. We also introduce the Q-Sigma_LDR plot, which describes the evolution of spatial structure as a function of mass-weighted local density in a star forming region. Initially dense (>1000 stars pc^{-2}), bound regions always have Q >1, Sigma_LDR > 2 after 5Myr, whereas dense unbound...

  16. Merger Signatures in the Dynamics of Star-forming Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Lanz, Lauranne; Martínez-Galarza, Juan R.; Sanders, D. B.; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of integral field spectrographs and millimeter interferometers has revealed the internal dynamics of many hundreds of star-forming galaxies. Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ˜0.2-0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can be approximately twice as long for equal-mass mergers of massive gas-rich disk galaxies designed to be analogs of z ˜ 2-3 submillimeter galaxies. Merger signatures are most apparent after the second passage and before the black holes coalescence, but in some cases they persist up to several hundred Myr after coalescence. About 20%-60% of the simulated galaxies are not identified as mergers during the strong interaction phase, implying that galaxies undergoing violent merging process do not necessarily exhibit highly asymmetric kinematics in their star-forming gas. The lack of identifiable merger signatures in this population can lead to an underestimation of merger abundances in star-forming galaxies, and including them in samples of star-forming disks may bias the measurements of disk properties such

  17. ATLASGAL: Chemical evolution of star forming clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Although massive stars are few in number, they impact their host molecular clouds, clusters, and galaxies in profound ways, playing a vital role in regulating star formation in their host galaxy. Understanding the formation of these massive stars is critical to understanding this evolution, but their rapid early development causes them to reach the main sequence while still shrouded in their natal molecular cloud. Many studies have investigated these regions in a targeted manner, but a full understanding necessitates a broader view at all stages of formation across many star forming regions.We have used mid-infrared continuum surveys to guide selection of a statistically large sample of massive dust clumps from the 10,000 such clumps identified in the ATLASGAL Compact Source Catalogue (CSC), ensuring that all stages of the evolutionary process are included. A final sample of 600 fourth-quadrant sources within 1 degree of the Galactic plane were observed with the Mopra telescope with an 8 GHz bandwidth between 85.2 and 93.4 GHz.We present an overview of our results. We have identified over 30 molecular lines, seven of which with detected hyperfine structure, as well as several mm-radio recombination line transitions. Source velocities indicate that these regions trace the Crux-Scutum, Norma, and Carina Sagitarius arms. We have performed an analysis of linewidth and line intensity ratios, correlating these with star formation stages as identified by IR brightness at the 70 and 24 μm bands, and present several molecular pairs whose linewidth and intensity might serve as significant tracers of the evolutionary stage of star formation. We comment on the results of PCA analysis of the measured parameters for the overall population and the star formation stage subgroups with an eye toward characterising early stellar development through molecular line observations.

  18. The very wide-field gzK galaxy survey - I. Details of the clustering properties of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Onoue, Masafusa

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of clustering analysis on z ˜ 2 star-forming galaxies. By combining our data with data from publicly available archives, we collect g-, zB/z- and K-band imaging data over 5.2 deg2, which represents the largest area BzK/gzK survey. We apply colour corrections to translate our filter set to those used in the original BzK selection for the gzK selection. Because of the wide survey area, we obtain a sample of 41 112 star-forming gzK galaxies at z ˜ 2 (sgzK galaxies) down to KAB error than that in previous studies. The large amount of data enables us to determine ACFs differentially depending on the luminosity of the subset of the data. The mean halo mass of faint sgzK galaxies (22.0 = (1.32^{+0.09}_{-0.12}) × 10^{12} h^{-1} M⊙, whereas bright sgzK galaxies (18.0 ≤ K ≤ 21.0) were found to reside in dark haloes with a mass of = (3.26^{+1.23}_{-1.02}) × 10^{13} h^{-1} M⊙.

  19. The very wide-field $gzK$ galaxy survey -- I. Details of the clustering properties of star-forming galaxies at $z \\sim 2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Toshikawa, Jun; Onoue, Masafusa

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of clustering analysis on the $z \\sim 2$ star-forming galaxies. By combining our data with data from publicly available archives, we collect $g$-, $\\zb / z$-, and $K$-band imaging data over 5.2 deg$^{2}$, which represents the largest area BzK/gzK survey. We apply colour corrections to translate our filter-set to those used in the original BzK selection for the gzK selection. Because of the wide survey area, we obtain a sample of 41,112 star-forming gzK galaxies at $z \\sim 2$ (sgzKs) down to $\\KAB < 23.0$, and determine high-quality two-point angular correlation functions (ACFs). Our ACFs show an apparent excess from power-law behaviour at small angular scale $(\\theta \\la 0.01^{\\circ})$, which corresponds the virial radius of a dark halo at $z \\sim 2$ with a mass of $\\sim 10^{13} \\Msun$. We find that the correlation lengths are consistent with the previous estimates over all magnitude range; however, our results are evaluated with a smaller margin of error than that in previous studie...

  20. Spectroscopic studies of star forming regions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of studies of star forming regions, carried out at the Konkoly Observatory in the last two decades. The studies involved distance determination of star-forming dark clouds, search for candidate pre-main sequence stars, and determination of the masses and ages of the candidates by spectroscopic follow-up observations. The results expanded the list of the well-studied star forming regions in our galactic environment. Data obtained by this manner may be useful in a...

  1. HST/WFC3 Confirmation of the Inside-Out Growth of Massive Galaxies at 0Star Forming Progenitors at z\\sim3

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F; Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Williams, Rik J; Holden, Bradford P; Stefanon, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We study the structural evolution of massive galaxies by linking progenitors and descendants at a constant cumulative number density of n_c=1.4x10^{-4} Mpc^{-3} to z\\sim3. Structural parameters were measured by fitting Sersic profiles to high resolution CANDELS HST WFC3 J_{125} and H_{160} imaging in the UKIDSS-UDS at 1

  2. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArT\\'eMiS

    CERN Document Server

    André, Ph; Könyves, V; Arzoumanian, D; Tigé, J; Gallais, P; Roussel, H; Pennec, J Le; Rodriguez, L; Doumayrou, E; Dubreuil, D; Lortholary, M; Martignac, J; Talvard, M; Delisle, C; Visticot, F; Dumaye, L; De Breuck, C; Shimajiri, Y; Motte, F; Bontemps, S; Hennemann, M; Zavagno, A; Russeil, D; Schneider, N; Palmeirim, P; Peretto, N; Hill, T; Minier, V; Roy, A; Rygl, K L J

    2016-01-01

    Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which ~ 0.1 pc-wide filaments form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because Herschel data cannot resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. We used the bolometer camera ArTeMiS on the APEX telescope to map the central part of the NGC6334 complex at a factor of > 3 higher resolution than Herschel at 350 microns. Combining ArTeMiS data with Herschel data allowed us to study the structure of the main filament of the complex with a re...

  3. The IRAS 08589-4714 star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Saldaño, H P; Gómez, M; Cappa, C E; Duronea, N U; Rubio, M

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the IRAS 08589-4714 star-forming region. This region harbors candidate young stellar objects identified in the WISE and Herschel images using color index criteria and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The SEDs of some of the infrared sources and the 70 microns radial intensity profile of the brightest source (IRS 1) are modeled from Herschel fluxes using the one-dimensional radiative transfer DUSTY code. For these objects, we estimate the envelope masses, sizes, densities, and luminosities which suggest that they are very young, massive and luminous objects at early stages of the formation process. Color-color diagrams in the bands of WISE and 2MASS are used to identify potential young objects in the region. Those identified in the bands of WISE would be contaminated by the emission of PAHs. We use the emission distribution in the infrared at 70 and 160 microns, to estimate the dust temperature gradient. This suggests that the nearby massive star-forming region RCW 38, located ~ ...

  4. Classifying Star Forming Cores through Chemical Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, J.; Foster, J.

    2011-05-01

    The chemical makeup of Infrared Dark Clouds may offer a method to classify star forming cores. This study uses the molecular line maps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey, observed using the 22-m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The relative abundances of the four molecules, N2H+, HNC, HCN and HCO+ are calculated for each of 500 cores to determine the chemical signatures of star forming cores in their early evolutionary stages, as deduced from Spitzer data. Cores are classified as prestellar, protostellar, or HII regions. Initial findings indicate that sources with relatively strong N2H+ lines are prestellar, whereas weak N2H+ lines may designate protostellar or HII regions. These chemical anomalies, where the N2H+ lines are either very prominent or weak are rare, suggesting that these are short-lived chemical phases.

  5. Terahertz ammonia absorption as a probe of infall in high-mass star forming clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrowski, F; Menten, K M; Wiesemeyer, H; Klein, B

    2012-01-01

    Cloud contraction and infall are the fundamental processes of star formation. While "blue-skewed" line profiles observed in high- mass star forming regions are commonly taken as evidence of infall by an ever increasing number of studies, their interpretation offers many pitfalls. Detecting infall via redshifted absorption in front of continuum sources is a much more direct and reliable method but so far mostly restricted toward absorption in the centimeter toward strong HII regions. Here we present a novel approach by probing absorption of rotational ammonia transitions in front of the strong dust emission of massive star-forming regions. A carefully selected sample of three regions with different stages of evolution is selected to study infall through the evolution of massive star-forming clumps. Redshifted absorption is detected toward all three sources and infall rates between 3-10x10-3 Msol yr-1 are derived.

  6. Physical environment of massive star-forming region W42

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Ojha, D K; Anandarao, B G; Mallick, K K; Mayya, Y D

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of multi-wavelength observations from various datasets and Galactic plane surveys to study the star formation process in the W42 complex. A bipolar appearance of W42 complex is evident due to the ionizing feedback from the O5-O6 type star in a medium that is highly inhomogeneous. The VLT/NACO adaptive-optics K and L' images (resolutions ~0".2-0".1) resolved this ionizing source into multiple point-like sources below ~5000 AU scale. The position angle ~15 deg of W42 molecular cloud is consistent with the H-band starlight mean polarization angle which in turn is close to the Galactic magnetic field, suggesting the influence of Galactic field on the evolution of the W42 molecular cloud. Herschel sub-millimeter data analysis reveals three clumps located along the waist axis of the bipolar nebula, with the peak column densities of ~3-5 x10^{22} cm^{-2} corresponding to visual extinctions of AV ~32-53.5 mag. The Herschel temperature map traces a temperature gradient in W42, revealing regions ...

  7. Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Caitlin M; Cooray, Asantha

    2014-01-01

    Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 10$^{13}$ L$_{\\odot}$ with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrare...

  8. The Star-Forming Main Sequence at Low Galaxy Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Patton, David R.; Besla, Gurtina; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Liss, Sandra; Pearson, Sarah; Privon, George C.; Putman, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    We present an investigation of the star-forming main sequence at the low mass end. The relation between galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate has been well-studied in the recent literature for a range of redshifts and galaxy type, but almost all of these studies are limited to galaxies with stellar masses above the dwarf galaxy range ( 109 Msun ). Our work, based on the panchromatic TiNy Titans survey of interacting dwarf galaxies, shows that dwarf galaxies extend the well-established main sequence at z=0 down to lower masses. Furthermore, like their more massive counterparts, dwarf mergers appear on an elevated main sequence with higher star formation rates for a given stellar mass. Finally we show that star formation is enhanced to a greater extent in low mass galaxy mergers than for higher mass systems.

  9. The metallicity of circumnuclear star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, A I; Castellanos, M; Hägele, G F

    2006-01-01

    We present a spectrophotometric study of circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) in the early type spiral galaxies: NGC 2903, NGC 3351 and NGC 3504, all of them of over solar metallicity according to standard empirical calibrations. A detailed determination of their abundances is made after careful subtraction of the very prominent underlying stellar absorption. It is found that most regions show the highest abundances in HII region-like objects. The relative N/O and S/O abundances are discussed. In is also shown that CNSFR, as a class, segregate from the disk HII region family, clustering around smaller ``softness parameter" -- \\eta' -- values, and therefore higher ionizing temperatures.

  10. Are Gamma-Ray Bursts in Star Forming Regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B

    1997-01-01

    The optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 970508 (z = 0.835) was a few hundred times more luminous than any supernova. Therefore, a name `hypernova' is proposed for the whole GRB/afterglow event. There is tentative evidence that the GRBs: 970228, 970508, and 970828 were close to star forming regions. If this case is strengthened with future afterglows then the popular model in which GRBs are caused be merging neutron stars will have to be abandoned, and a model linking GRBs to cataclysmic deaths of massive stars will be favored. The presence of X-ray precursors, first detected with Ginga, is easier to understand within a framework of a `dirty' rather than a `clean' fireball. A very energetic explosion of a massive star is likely to create a dirty fireball, rather than a clean one. A specific speculative example of such an explosion is proposed, a microquasar. Its geometrical structure is similar to the `failed supernova' of Woosley (1993a): the inner core of a massive, rapidly rotating star collapses i...

  11. Star-forming protoclusters associated with methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, V; Hill, T; Pestalozzi, M R; Purcell, C R; Garay, G; Walsh, A; Longmore, S N

    2004-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of five methanol maser sites which are not directly associated with a strong ($>100$ mJy) radio continuum source: G 31.28+0.06, G 59.78+0.06, G 173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G 188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL5180) and G 192.60-0.05 (S255IR). These radio-quiet methanol maser sites are often interpreted as precursors of ultra-compact \\ion{H}{ii} regions or massive protostar sites. In this work, the environment of methanol masers is probed from mid-IR to millimetre wavelengths at angular resolutions of $8''-34''$. Spectral energy distribution (SED) diagrams for each site are presented, together with mass and luminosity estimates. Each radio-quiet maser site is always associated with a massive ($>50$ M$_{\\odot}$), deeply embedded ($A_v>40$ mag) and very luminous ($>10^4$ S L$_{\\odot}$) molecular clump, with $L_{total}{\\propto}M_{gas}^{0.75}$. These physical properties characterise massive star-forming clumps in earlier evolutionary phases than \\ion{H}{ii} regions. In addition, colder gas c...

  12. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  13. Characteristic structure of star-forming clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a new way to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). It gives expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are models of spherical collapse. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the ...

  14. Star-Forming Complexes in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, B G

    2004-01-01

    Star complexes are the largest globular regions of star formation in galaxies. If there is a spiral density wave, nuclear ring, tidal arm, or other well-defined stellar structure, then gravitational instabilities in the gaseous component produce giant cloud complexes with a spacing of about three times the width. These gas complexes form star complexes, giving the familiar beads on a string of star formation along spiral arms, or nuclear hotspots in the case of a ring. Turbulence compression, supernovae, and self-gravitational contraction inside the giant clouds produce a nearly scale-free structure, including giant molecular clouds that form OB associations and molecular cloud cores that form clusters. Without stellar density waves or similar structures, random gravitational instabilities form flocculent spirals and these fragment into star complexes, OB associations and star clusters in the same way. The largest coherent star-forming regions are the flocculent arms themselves. At the core of the hierarchy a...

  15. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  16. Multiline Study of Galactic Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjea, B.; Kramer, C.; Jakob, H.; Stutzki, J.

    We present first results of observations with SMART at KOSMA of selected Galactic star forming regions in mid-J (4-3) and (7-6) rotational transitions of CO and the two fine structure transitions of C I at 492 and 810 GHz. The aim of this study is to understand the interplay of the physical and chemical structure of the interstellar matter and the UV radiation field from the stars within the molecular clouds by observing the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). During this ongoing observational programme, regions around Orion BN/KL, W3, S106, S140 have been observed. Here we present the first results of observations of the W3 region (Jakob et al. 2002). These observations will be combined with existing observations of the emission due to low-J transitions of CO and other tracers of PDRs. The database of intensities of different lines from each of these regions will be used to derive a self-consistent interpretation using the PDR model developed by Störzer, Stutzki, & Sternberg (1996).

  17. Modelling the chemistry of star forming filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of star forming filaments incorporating - to our knowledge - the largest chemical network used to date on-the-fly in a 3D-MHD simulation. The network contains 37 chemical species and about 300 selected reaction rates. For this we use the newly developed package KROME (Grassi et al. 2014). We combine the KROME package with an algorithm which allows us to calculate the column density and attenuation of the interstellar radiation field necessary to properly model heating and ionisation rates. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using such a complex chemical network in 3D-MHD simulations on modern supercomputers. We perform simulations with different strengths of the interstellar radiation field and the cosmic ray ionisation rate. We find that towards the centre of the filaments there is gradual conversion of hydrogen from H^+ over H to H_2 as well as of C^+ over C to CO. Moreover, we find a decrease of the dust temperature towards the centre of the filaments in agreement with recent...

  18. Circumnuclear Star Forming Activity in NGC 3982

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-Nai Zhang; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Yi-Peng Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 3982 using optical,infrared and X-ray data acquired by SDSS,Spitzer and Chandra.Our main results are as follows:(1) A simple stellar population synthesis on the nuclear and circumnuclear SDSS spectra gives unambiguous evidence of young stellar components in both the nuclear and circumnuclear regions.(2) The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectrum of the central region (~3") shows a power-law continuum,a silicate emission feature at 9.7 μm,and significant PAH emission features at 7.7,8.6,11.3 and 12.7/zm,suggesting the coexistence of AGN and starburst activities in the central region of NGC 3982.(3) We estimate the star formation rate (SFR) of the circumnuclear (~5"-20") region from the Ha luminosity to be for the active nucleus of NGC 3982 from radio to X-ray,and obtain a bolometric luminosity of Lbol=4.5×1042 erg s-1,corresponding to an Eddington ratio (Lbol/LEdd) of 0.014.The HST image of NGC 3982 shows a nuclear mini-spiral between the circumnuclear starforming region and the nucleus,which could be the channel through which gas is transported to the supermassive black hole from the circumnuclear star-forming region.

  19. Lithopanspermia in star-forming clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C; Spergel, David N

    2005-08-01

    This paper considers the lithopanspermia hypothesis in star-forming groups and clusters, where the chances of biological material spreading from one solar system to another is greatly enhanced (relative to action in the field) because of the close proximity of the systems and lower relative velocities. These effects more than compensate for the reduced time spent in such crowded environments. This paper uses approximately 300,000 Monte Carlo scattering calculations to determine the cross sections for rocks to be captured by binaries and provides fitting formulae for other applications. We assess the odds of transfer as a function of the ejection speed v (eject) and number N(.) of members in the birth aggregate. The odds of any given ejected meteoroid being recaptured by another solar system are relatively low, about 1:10(3)-10(6) over the expected range of ejection speeds and cluster sizes. Because the number of ejected rocks (with mass m > 10 kg) per system can be large, N (R) approximately 10(16), virtually all solar systems are likely to share rocky ejecta with all of the other solar systems in their birth cluster. The number of ejected rocks that carry living microorganisms is much smaller and less certain, but we estimate that N (B) approximately 10(7) rocks can be ejected from a biologically active solar system. For typical birth environments, the capture of life-bearing rocks is expected to occur N (bio) asymptotically equal to 10-16,000 times (per cluster), depending on the ejection speeds. Only a small fraction (f (imp) approximately 10(4)) of the captured rocks impact the surfaces of terrestrial planets, so that N (lps) asymptotically equal to 10(3)-1.6 lithopanspermia events are expected per cluster (under favorable conditions). Finally, we discuss the question of internal versus external seeding of clusters and the possibility of Earth seeding young clusters over its biologically active lifetime.

  20. The ISO View of Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, George

    1999-01-01

    ISO studies of normal galaxies in the local Universe have revealed basic new properties whose significant implications for the star formation process and cosmology are only starting to be understood. This review will touch on the general results of a statistical nature, and provide a quick summary of the profusion of exciting results on individual objects. In the mid-infrared, PHT-S has established that the spectra of star forming galaxies between 6 and-13microns are dominated by the Aromatic Features in Emission (AFE), and show little variation as a function of the heating intensity. The Carriers of the AFE (CAFE) are thus a universal component of dust with standard properties, and contribute between 10 and 25% of the total dust luminosity. In addition to AFE, the spectra show a low-level continuum detectable at wavelengths longer than 3.5microns whose origin is still under investigation. The mid-infrared colors formed as the ratio of flux densities in the 6.75micron and the 15micron bands of ISO-CAM remain essentially constant and near unity for quiescent and mildly active galaxies. As dust heating increases further, the 15micron flux increases steeply compared to 6.75microns, indicating that dust heated to 100Kgalaxy become more active in star formation, its [CII] flux weakens relative to total dust emission while the [OI] does not. This behavior has attracted much interest because it extrapolates to the most active galaxies, making them weaker in [CII] than previously expected. Several explanations for the effect have been advanced, and will be discussed in this review. Spectroscopy with SWS has measured molecular hydrogen in galaxies, providing a powerful handle on the warm molecular gas content. SWS and CAM-CVF studies targeting ionic fine-structure lines have demonstrated their value as diagnostics of the radiation field.

  1. The Structure of the Interstellar Medium of Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical methods for including stellar feedback in galaxy-scale simulations. We include heating by SNe (I & II), gas recycling and shock-heating from O-star & AGB winds, HII photoionization, and radiation pressure from stellar photons. The energetics and time-dependence are taken directly from stellar evolution models. We implement these in simulations with pc-scale resolution, modeling galaxies from SMC-like dwarfs and MW analogues to massive z~2 starburst disks. Absent feedback, gas cools and collapses without limit. With feedback, the ISM reaches a multi-phase steady state in which GMCs continuously form, disperse, and re-form. Our primary results include: (1) Star forming galaxies generically self-regulate at Toomre Q~1. Most of the volume is in diffuse hot gas with most of the mass in dense GMC complexes. The phase structure and gas mass at high densities are much more sensitive probes of stellar feedback physics than integrated quantities (Toomre Q or gas velocity dispersion). (2) Di...

  2. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kassin, Susan A; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J; Gardner, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z=1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma_g) and increase in ordered rotation (Vrot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma_g and Vrot with r...

  3. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassin, Susan A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Brooks, Alyson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gardner, Jonathan P., E-mail: kassin@stsci.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  4. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  5. Global Properties of Local Star Forming Galaxies (ADP 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitherer, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We performed an archival study of the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) Astro-2 database. Nineteen spectra of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies were retrieved, reprocessed, and analyzed. The spectra cover the wavelength region 912- 1800 A, providing access to the domain of peak luminosity from a young stellar population. We created an atlas of galaxy spectra documenting the continuum and line properties with an emphasis on the relatively unexplored spectral region below 1200 A. The dust obscuration law was derived from a comparison of the HUT spectra with synthetic population models. The law is similar to the commonly adopted starburst reddening curve at longer wavelengths and approaches the Milky Way law near the Lyman break. A simple power-law parameterization is given, which allows users to express the reddening law in terms of the stellar or nebular color excess at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths. We studied the effect of time-dependent dust obscuration on synthetic ultraviolet line profiles of a young stellar population. If the youngest and most massive stars are more obscured than the older, less massive stars, the C IV 1550 and other stellar wind lines are significantly diluted with respect to a simple foreground screen model for the dust. We propose to use stellar wind lines as a probe of the dust-obscuration model instead of the previously employed nebular emission lines. Since purely stellar diagnostics are utilized, uncertain assumptions on the nebular properties are unnecessary. Photoionization models demonstrate that the C IV 1550 emission is typically dominated by stellar winds and nebular contamination is negligible. A first comparison with the galaxy sample observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope favors a dust geometry affecting ionizing and nonionizing stars equally. We point out the need for higher quality data for a more rigorous comparison. The Hubble Space Telescope is capable of obtaining such data in the future.

  6. Do O-stars form in isolation?

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Around 4% of O-stars are observed in apparent isolation, with no associated cluster, and no indication of having been ejected from a nearby cluster. We define an isolated O-star as a star > 17.5 M_\\odot in a cluster with total mass 10 M_\\odot) stars. We show that the fraction of apparently isolated O-stars is reproduced when stars are sampled (randomly) from a standard initial mass function and a standard cluster mass function of the form N(M) \\propto M^-2. This result is difficult to reconcile with the idea that there is a fundamental relationship between the mass of a cluster and the mass of the most massive star in that cluster. We suggest that such a relationship is a typical result of star formation in clusters, and that `isolated O-stars' are low-mass clusters in which massive stars have been able to form.

  7. The evolution of superbubbles and the detection of Lyman $\\alpha$ in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Kunth, D; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R J; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergey A.; Kunth, Daniel; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The detection of Ly alpha emission in star-forming galaxies in different shapes and intensities (always smaller than predicted for case B recombination) has puzzled the astronomical community for more than a decade. Here we use two dimensional calculations to follow the evolution of superbubbles and of the H II regions generated by the output of UV photons from massive stars. We show the impact caused by massive star formation in the ISM of different galaxies and we look at the conditions required to detect Ly alpha emission from a nuclear H II region, and the variety of profiles that may be expected as a function of time.

  8. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    in two multi-epoch infrared surveys: the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV). In order to further investigate the nature of the selected variable stars, we use photometric information arising from public surveys at near- to far-infrared wavelengths. In addition we have performed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up for a large subset of the samples arising from GPS and VVV. We analyse the widely separated two-epoch K-band photometry in the 5th, 7th and 8th data releases of the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We find 71 stars with ΔK > 1 mag, including 2 previously known OH/IR stars and a Nova. Even though the mid-plane is mostly excluded from the dataset, we find the majority (66%) of our sample to be within known star forming regions (SFRs), with two large concentrations in the Serpens OB2 association (11 stars) and the Cygnus-X complex (27 stars). The analysis of the multi-epoch K-band photometry of 2010-2012 data from VVV covering the Galactic disc at |b| related to outbursts events cannot be confirmed from our data. Adding the GPS and VVV spectroscopic results, we find that between 6 and 14 objects are new additions to the FUor class from their close resemblance to the near-infrared spectra of FUors, and at least 23 more objects are new additions to the eruptive variable class. For most of these we are unable to classify them into any of the original definitions for this variable class. In any case, we are adding up to 37 new stars to the eruptive variable class which would double the current number of known objects. We note that most objects are found to be deeply embedded optically invisible stars, thus increasing the number of objects belonging to this subclass by a much larger factor. In general, objects in our samples which are found to be likely eruptive variable stars show a mixture of characteristics that can be attributed to both of the optically-defined classes. This agrees well with the recent

  9. Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Monge, A; Cesaroni, R; Walmsley, C M; Codella, C; Beltran, M T; Pestalozzi, M; Molinari, S

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion, with bipolar outflows playing a fundamental role. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease of the SiO line intensity as the object evolves. The present study aims at characterizing the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time, and at studying the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with massive YSOs. We used the IRAM30m telescope to map 14 massive star-forming regions in the SiO(2-1), SiO(5-4) and HCO+(1-0) outflow lines, and in several dense gas and hot core tracers. Hi-GAL data was used to improve the spectral energy distributions and the L/M ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO. We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all the sources, and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs. We find an increase of the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolve...

  10. The impact of magnetic fields on the IMF in star-forming clouds near a supermassive black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocuk, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.; Cazaux, S.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in the centers of galaxies is thought to yield massive stars with a possibly top-heavy stellar mass distribution. It is likely that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the distribution of stellar masses inside star-forming molecular clouds. In this context, we explore the effects o

  11. Young Stellar Populations in MYStIX Star Forming Regions: Candidate Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Romine, Gregory; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A; Povich, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog (MIRES) and Chandra-based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1,109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few 'false positives' from contaminating populations. But the limite...

  12. The global chemical properties of high-mass star forming clumps at different evolutionary stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Esimbek, Jarken; He, Yu-Xin; Li, Da-Lei; Tang, Xin-Di; Ji, Wei-Guang; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Wei-Hua

    2016-06-01

    A total of 197 relatively isolated high-mass star-forming clumps were selected from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey data and their global chemical evolution investigated using four molecular lines, N2H+ (1--0), HCO+ (1--0), HCN (1-0), and HNC (1-0). The results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios I(HCO+)/I(HNC), I(HCN)/I(HNC), I(N2H+)/I(HCO+), and I(N2H+)/ I(HCN) are promising tracers for evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. The global averaged column densities and abundances of N2H+, HCO+, HCN, and HNC increase as clumps evolve. The global averaged abundance ratios X(HCN)/X(HNC) could be used to trace evolution of high-mass star forming clumps, X(HCO+)/X(HNC) is more suitable for distinguishing high-mass star-forming clumps in prestellar (stage A) from those in protostellar (stage B) and HII/PDR region (stage C). These results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios between HCN (1-0), HNC (1-0), HCO+ (1--0) and N2H+ (1--0) are more suitable for tracing the evolution of high-mass star forming clumps. We also studied the chemical properties of the target high-mass star-forming clumps in each spiral arm of the Galaxy, and got results very different from those above. This is probably due to the relatively small sample in each spiral arm. For high-mass star-forming clumps in Sagittarius arm and Norma-Outer arm, comparing two groups located on one arm with different Galactocentric distances, the clumps near the Galactic Center appear to be younger than those far from the Galactic center, which may be due to more dense gas concentrated near the Galactic Center, and hence more massive stars being formed there.

  13. GEOMETRY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SDSS, 3D-HST, AND CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.; Chang, Yu-Yen; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Koo, D. C.; Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, H. C.; Brammer, G.; Kassin, S. A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Skelton, R. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, K. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Momcheva, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Dekel, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ceverino, D. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Franx, M., E-mail: vdwel@mpia.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 AA Leiden (Netherlands); and others

    2014-09-01

    We determine the intrinsic, three-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0 < z < 2.5, as inferred from their observed projected axis ratios. In the present-day universe, star-forming galaxies of all masses 10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} are predominantly thin, nearly oblate disks, in line with previous studies. We now extend this to higher redshifts, and find that among massive galaxies (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z ≲ 2. Lower-mass galaxies at z > 1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z ∼ 1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks.

  14. Low Gas Fractions Connect Compact Star-Forming Galaxies to their z ~ 2 Quiescent Descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Spilker, Justin S; Marrone, Daniel P; Weiner, Benjamin J; Whitaker, Katherine E; Williams, Christina C

    2016-01-01

    Early quiescent galaxies at z~2 are known to be remarkably compact compared to their nearby counterparts. Possible progenitors of these systems include galaxies that are structurally similar, but are still rapidly forming stars. Here, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the CO(1-0) line towards three such compact, star-forming galaxies at z~2.3, significantly detecting one. The VLA observations indicate baryonic gas fractions >~5 times lower and gas depletion times >~10 times shorter than normal, extended massive star-forming galaxies at these redshifts. At their current star formation rates, all three objects will deplete their gas reservoirs within 100Myr. These objects are among the most gas-poor objects observed at z>2, and are outliers from standard gas scaling relations, a result which remains true regardless of assumptions about the CO-H2 conversion factor. Our observations are consistent with the idea that compact, star-forming galaxies are in a rapid state of transition t...

  15. Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Kong; Wei Zhang; Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple color selection based on B-, z- and K-band photometry, BzK =(z - K)AB - (B - z)AB -0.2, we picked out 52 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5(sBzKs) from a K-band selected sample (KVega < 22.0) in an area of ~ 5.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). We develop a new photometric redshift method, and the error in our photometric redshifts is less than 0.02(1 + z). From the photometric redshift distribution, we find the BzK color criterion can be used to select star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with KVega < 22.0. Down to KVega < 22.0, the number counts of sBzKs increase linearly with the K magnitude; the sBzKs are strongly clustered, and most of them have irregular morphologies on the ACS images. They have a median reddening of E(B -V) ~ 0.28, an average star formation rate of ~ 36 M⊙ yr-1 and a typical stellar mass of ~ 1010M⊙. The UV criterion for the galaxies at z~2 can select most of the faint sBzKs in the UDF, but it does not work well for bright, massive, highly-reddened, actively star-forming galaxies.

  16. GALSPEC: A Tool for Computing the Spectra of Star-Forming Galaxies of Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, S. R.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T. M.; Lindler, D. J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet spectral region is rich in diagnostics of star formation in galaxies; it gives information not only about the star-forming complex, but also about the dust and circumstellar gas. We have therefore developed a tool, called GALSPEC, for computing far-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies. The user controls the process through a graphical user interface (GUI) by specifying the input parameters for the stars, dust, and gas. GALSPEC computes the integrated spectrum of a star-forming complex, given the rate of star formation, metallicity (0.2 Z(sub \\odot) or 0.5 Z(sub \\odot)), and IMF upper mass limit. To compute the integrated spectrum, GALSPEC makes use of a library of stellar spectra composed of observed spectra from HST and model spectra calculated with the TLUSTY/SYNSPEC program (Hubeny & Lanz 1995). GALSPEC then applies wavelength-dependent extinction according to Calzetti's starburst extinction law. The mechanical luminosity from massive stars and supernovae sweeps up interstellar material thereby forming an expanding shell with a central cavity. GALSPEC computes the absorption spectrum of the shell using the CLOUDSPEC program (Hubeny 2000), a combination of Ferland's CLOUDY program and SYNSPEC.

  17. Merger Signatures in the Dynamics of Star-forming Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Smith, Howard A; Ashby, Matthew L N; Lanz, Lauranne; Martínez-Galarza, Juan R; Sanders, D B; Zezas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ~0.2-0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can...

  18. Accretion phenomena in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cignoni, M.; Ciotti, L.; Cusano, F.; Nipoti, C.; Sacchi, E.; Paris, D.; Romano, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.

  19. A Weak Lensing View of the Downsizing of Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Koshida, Shintaro; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Sakurai, Junya; Tait, Philip J.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Daigo; Usuda, Tomonori; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Zahid, Harus J.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a weak lensing view of the downsizing of star-forming galaxies based on cross-correlating a weak lensing (κ) map with a predicted map constructed from a redshift survey. Moderately deep and high-resolution images with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam covering the 4 {\\deg }2 DLS F2 field provide a κ map with 1 arcmin resolution. A dense complete redshift survey of the F2 field including 12,705 galaxies with R≤slant 20.6 is the basis for construction of the predicted map. The zero-lag cross-correlation between the κ and predicted maps is significant at the 30σ level. The width of the cross-correlation peak is comparable to the angular scale of rich clusters at z˜ 0.3, the median depth of the redshift survey. Slices of the predicted map in δ z=0.05 redshift bins enable exploration of the impact of structure as a function of redshift. The zero-lag normalized cross-correlation has significant local maxima at redshifts coinciding with known massive X-ray clusters. Even in slices where there are no known massive clusters, there is a significant signal in the cross-correlation originating from lower mass groups that trace the large-scale of the universe. Spectroscopic {D}n4000 measurements enable division of the sample into star-forming and quiescent populations. In regions surrounding massive clusters of galaxies, the significance of the cross-correlation with maps based on star-forming galaxies increases with redshift from 5σ at z = 0.3 to 7σ at z=0.5; the fractional contribution of the star-forming population to the total cross-correlation signal also increases with redshift. This weak lensing view is consistent with the downsizing picture of galaxy evolution established from other independent studies. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in Star-forming Galaxies at z1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Ly, Chun; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5 in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [O II] lambda 3727 emitters at z approximately equal to 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H alpha emission line in 115 galaxies, [O III] lambda 5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H Beta, [N II] lambda 6584, and [S II]lambda lambda 6716, 6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [O II] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. We find a tight correlation between H alpha and [O II], which suggests that [O II] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. The line ratios of H alpha / [O II] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [O II] emitters have strong [O III] emission lines. The [O III]/[O II] ratios are larger than normal star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, suggesting a higher ionization parameter. Less massive galaxies have larger [O III]/[O II] ratios. With evidence that the electron density is consistent with local galaxies, the high ionization of galaxies at high redshifts may be attributed to a harder radiation field by a young stellar population and/or an increase in the number of ionizing photons from each massive star.

  1. How Do Star-Forming Galaxies at Z>3 Assemble Their Masses?

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Wiklind, Tommy; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark E; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grogin, Norman; Papovich, Casey; Messias, Hugo; Guo, Yicheng; Lin, Lihwai

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how star-forming galaxies typically assemble their masses at high redshift. Using the deep multi-wavelength coverage of the GOODS dataset, we measure stellar mass of a large sample of star-forming galaxies at z~4 and 5, and make a robust determination of stellar mass function (SMF). We report a broad correlation between stellar mass and UV luminosity, such that more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, more massive. However, the correlation has a substantial intrinsic scatter evidenced by a non-negligible number of UV-faint but massive galaxies. Furthermore, the low-mass end of the SMF does not rise as steeply as the UV luminosity function (alpha_UVLF} -(1.7-1.8), alpha_SMF -(1.3-1.4)) of the same galaxies. In a smooth formation scenario where star formation (SF) is sustained at the observed rates for a long time, these galaxies would have accumulated more mass (by a factor of ~3) than observed and therefore the SMF would mirror more closely that of the UVLF. The relatively shallow slope of th...

  2. The angular momentum distribution and baryon content of star forming galaxies at z~1-3

    CERN Document Server

    Burkert, A; Genzel, R; Lang, P; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Bandara, K; Beifiori, A; Bender, R; Brammer, G; Chan, J; Davies, R; Dekel, A; Fabricius, M; Fossati, M; Kulkarni, S; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Naab, T; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sharples, R M; Sternberg, A; Wilman, D; Wuyts, E

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the angular momenta of massive star forming galaxies (SFGs) at the peak of the cosmic star formation epoch (z~0.8-2.6). Our sample of ~360 log(M*/Msun) ~ 9.3-11.8 SFGs is mainly based on the KMOS^3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys of H\\alpha\\ kinematics, and collectively provides a representative subset of the massive star forming population. The inferred halo scale, angular momentum distribution is broadly consistent with that theoretically predicted for their dark matter halos, in terms of mean spin parameter ~ 0.037 and its dispersion ($\\sigma_{log(\\lambda)}$~0.2). Spin parameters correlate with the disk radial scale, and with their stellar surface density, but do not depend significantly on halo mass, stellar mass, or redshift. Our data thus support the long-standing assumption that on average the specific angular momentum of early disks reflects that of their dark matter halos (jd = jDM), despite the fact that gas enters the virial radius with substantially higher angular momentum, requiring subsequ...

  3. Colors, Star formation Rates, and Environments of Star forming and Quiescent Galaxies at the Cosmic Noon

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, Robert; Hopkins, Philip F; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the SFRs, stellar masses, galaxy colors, and dust extinctions of galaxies in massive (10^12.5-10^13.5 M_sun) halos at z~2 in high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations as part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. The simulations do not model feedback from AGN but reproduce well the observed relations between stellar and halo mass and between stellar mass and SFR. About half of the simulated massive galaxies at z~2 have broad-band colors classifying them as `quiescent', and the fraction of quiescent centrals is steeply decreasing towards higher redshift, in agreement with observations. However, our simulations do not reproduce the reddest of the quiescent galaxies observed at z~2. While simulated quiescent galaxies are less dusty than star forming galaxies, their broad band colors are often affected by moderate levels of interstellar dust. The star formation histories of the progenitors of z~2 star forming and quiescent galaxies are typically bursty, especially at early t...

  4. A spectral and photometric study of 102 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, A S; Piskunov, A E; Kharchenko, N V; Bruevich, V V; Ezhkova, O V; Guslyakova, S A; Lang, V; Shimanovskaya, E V; Efremov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of complexes of young massive star clusters (YMCs), embedded in extragalactic giant HII regions, based on the coupling of spectroscopic with photometric and spectrophotometric observations of about 100 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 783, NGC 2336, NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678). The complete observational database has been observed and accumulated within the framework of our comprehensive study of extragalactic star forming regions. The current paper presents the last part of either unpublished or refreshed photometric and spectrophotometric observations of the galaxies NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678. We derive extinctions, chemical abundances, continuum and line emissions of ionised gas, ages and masses for cluster complexes. We find the young massive cluster complexes to have ages no greater than 10 Myr and masses between 10^4Msol and 10^7Msol, and the extinctions A(V) vary between ~ 0 and 3 mag, while the impact of the nebular emissio...

  5. Hα Kinematics of High-z Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Patrick; Casey, Caitlin; Hung, Chao-Ling; Cooray, Asantha R.; Sanders, David B.; Fu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Dusty Star Forming Galaxies (DSFGs) have the highest star formation rates in the Universe, but compared with other star forming galaxies at z > ~1 they are difficult to characterize, physically. Their low number density and extreme dust obscuration has led to very few kinematic studies of DSFGs at optical wavelengths. We present a rest-frame optical kinematic analysis of 5 DSFGs at z ~1.5 using long slit spectroscopy obtained with MOSFIRE at Keck Observatory. From our high signal-to-noise spectra we simultaneously fit Hα, [NII] λ6548, and [NII] λ6583 along each slit to generate position-velocity diagrams. We infer the kinematic disturbances and derive dynamical masses in order to compare with other derived quantities such as fractional obscuration, stellar and gas fractions, and dust characteristics.

  6. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  7. Dust and Nebular Emission in Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Panuzzo, P; Granato, G L; Silva, L; Danese, L; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Bressan, Alessandro; Granato, Gian Luigi; Silva, Laura; Danese, Luigi

    2001-01-01

    Star forming galaxies exhibit a variety of physical conditions, from quiescent normal spirals to the most powerful dusty starbursts. In order to study these complex systems, we need a suitable tool to analyze the information coming from observations at all wavelengths. We present a new spectro-photometric model which considers in a consistent way starlight as reprocessed by gas and dust. We discuss preliminary results to interpret some observed properties of VLIRGs.

  8. A kinematic study of the Lupus star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Bertout, C.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the southern star-forming region located in Lupus that constitutes one of the richest associations of T Tauri stars. Based on the convergent point (CP) method combined with a k-NN analysis we identify 109 pre-main sequence stars in this region that define the Lupus association of comoving stars, and derive individual distances for all group members.

  9. Lyman-alpha emission in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Huchra, John P.; Geller, Margaret J.; O'Brien, Paul; Wilson, Robert

    1988-01-01

    IUE observations of five blue, low-metallicity, star-forming galaxies sufficiently redshifted to permit detection of Lyman-alpha are reported. The galaxies with metallicities 0.1 time solar or more have weak or absent Lyman-alpha emission. There is evidence for increasing Lyman-alpha emission with decreasing metallicity. The reduction of Lyman-alpha fluxes from recombination values is attributed to absorption of multiply scattered Lyman-alpha by dust.

  10. The sub-galactic and nuclear main sequences for local star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, A.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS) relating star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR) and stellar mass density (Σ⋆) for distinct regions within star-forming galaxies, including their nuclei. We use a sample of 246 nearby star-forming galaxies from the 'Star Formation Reference Survey and demonstrate that the SGMS holds down to ˜1 kpc scales with a slope of α = 0.91 and a dispersion of 0.31 dex, similar to the well-known main sequence (MS) measured for globally integrated SFRs and stellar masses. The SGMS slope depends on galaxy morphology, with late-type galaxies (Sc-Irr) having α = 0.97 and early-type spirals (Sa-Sbc) having α = 0.81. The SGMS constructed from subregions of individual galaxies has on average the same characteristics as the composite SGMS from all galaxies. The SGMS for galaxy nuclei shows a dispersion similar to that seen for other subregions. Sampling a limited range of SFR-M⋆ space may produce either sublinearity or superlinearity of the SGMS slope. For nearly all galaxies, both SFR and stellar mass peak in the nucleus, indicating that circumnuclear clusters are among the most actively star-forming regions in the galaxy and the most massive. The nuclear SFR also correlates with total galaxy mass, forming a distinct sequence from the standard MS of star formation. The nuclear MS will be useful for studying bulge growth and for characterizing feedback processes connecting AGN and star formation.

  11. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  12. Infrared Observations of Star-Forming Dwarf Galaxies with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J. L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Salzer, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties of a sample of actively star-forming dwarf galaxies (MB >-18) drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. Nearby actively star-forming dwarf galaxies are possible analogs to the high redshift star-forming systems that serve as galactic building blocks in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. These galaxies are gas-rich, metal-poor systems undergoing bursts of star formation in the local universe. A subset of such objects from the line-flux limited objective-prism survey of Salzer et al. (2001) lie in the NOAO Bootes field, and have therefore been observed by Spitzer as part of the IRAC Shallow Survey. We use the IRAC data to measure the stellar mass in these galaxies. In addition, we examine whether these metal-poor dwarf galaxies show warm dust emission, and examine whether it traces the star formation as it does in normal disk galaxies. J. L. Rosenberg would like to acknowledge the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellowship for support of this work. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  13. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  14. HOW DO STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z > 3 ASSEMBLE THEIR MASSES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wiklind, Tommy [ALMA/ESO, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de Astronomia, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-10

    We investigate how star-forming galaxies typically assemble their masses at high redshift. Taking advantage of the deep multi-wavelength coverage of the GOODS data set, we select two of the largest samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies based on their UV colors and measure stellar mass of individual galaxies. We use template-fitting photometry to obtain optimal estimates of the fluxes in lower-resolution ground-based and Spitzer images using prior information about galaxy positions, shapes, and orientations. By combining the data and realistic simulations to understand measurement errors and biases, we make a statistically robust determination of stellar mass function (SMF) of the UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4 and 5. We report a broad correlation between stellar mass and UV luminosity, such that more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more massive. However, we show that the correlation has a substantial intrinsic scatter, particularly for UV-faint galaxies, evidenced by the fact there is a non-negligible number of UV faint but massive galaxies. Furthermore, we find that the low-mass end of the SMF does not rise as steeply as the UV luminosity function ({alpha}{sub UVLF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.7-1.8) while {alpha}{sub SMF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.3-1.4)) of the same galaxies. In a smooth and continuous formation scenario where star formation rates (SFRs) are sustained at the observed rates for a long time, these galaxies would have accumulated more stellar mass (by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 3) than observed and therefore the SMF would mirror more closely that of the UV luminosity function. The relatively shallow slope of the SMF is due to the fact that many of the UV-selected galaxies are not massive enough, and therefore are too faint in their rest-frame optical bands, to be detected in the current observations. Our results favor a more episodic formation history in which SFRs of low-mass galaxies vary significantly over cosmic time

  15. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P-O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ˜35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ˜5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35-90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10-10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10-9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  16. High Circular Polarization in the Star Forming Region NGC 6334: Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, François; Chrysostomou, A.; Gledhill, T.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J.

    The amino-acids which form the building blocks of biological proteins are all left-handed molecules. By contrast, when these molecules are made in the laboratory equal numbers of the right and left-handed versions are made. This homochirality found in biological material may then well be a prerequisite for the origin of life and a number of processes have been proposed to produce the required enantiomeric excess in prebiotic organic molecules. We report here on the detection of high degrees of circular polarisation in the star forming complex NGC 6334, in the constellation Scorpius. This important finding suggests the widespread nature of a potentially efficient process to produce biomolecules with large chiral excess, namely selective (asymmetric) photolysis by circularly polarised light. The mechanism, well known in the laboratory, was first suggested to take place in a star forming region by Bailey et al. (1998) (Science, 281, 672; and this conference), following our discovery of high degrees of near-infrared circular polarisation in the Orion molecular cloud, OMC-1. NGC 6334 is a giant HII region and molecular cloud similar to Orion. These two detections of large circular polarisation, among the small number of sources surveyed so far, lead us to suggest that selective photolysis by circular polarisation may be quite widespread in massive star formation regions.

  17. Cosmic dichotomy in the hosts of rapidly star-forming systems at low and high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, Manuela; Negrello, Mattia; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Danese, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a compilation of clustering results taken from the literature for galaxies with highly enhanced (SFR [30-10^3] Msun/yr) star formation activity observed in the redshift range z=[0-3]. We show that, irrespective of the selection technique and only very mildly depending on the star forming rate, the clustering lengths of these objects present a sharp increase of about a factor 3 between z~1 and z~2, going from values of ~5 Mpc to about 15 Mpc and higher. This behaviour is reflected in the trend of the masses of the dark matter hosts of star-forming galaxies which increase from ~10^11.5 Msun to ~10^13.5 Msun between z~1 and z~2. Our analysis shows that galaxies which actively form stars at high redshifts are not the same population of sources we observe in the more local universe. In fact, vigorous star formation in the early universe is hosted by very massive structures, while for z~1 a comparable activity is encountered in much smaller systems, consistent with the down-sizing scenario. The ...

  18. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P

    2005-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We present a Chandra tour of several high-mass star-forming regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of high-mass stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of stellar sources powering great HII region complexes, suffused by both hard and soft diffuse X-ray structures caused by fast O-star winds thermalized in wind-wind collisions or by termination shocks against the surrounding media. Finally, we examine the effects of the deaths of high-mass stars that remained close to their birthplaces, exploding as supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created. We present new X-ray results on W51 IRS2E and 30 Doradu...

  19. The Structural Evolution of Milky Way-like Star Forming Galaxies since z~1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter G; van der Wel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammer, Gabriel; Skelton, Rosalind E; Momcheva, Ivelina; Whitaker, Katherine E; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    We follow the structural evolution of star forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to z~1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HST survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of z=0 SFGs with stellar mass M=10^{10.5} Msun are ~2 times less massive at z~1. This late-time stellar mass assembly is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at z~0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of ~1.4 since z~1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r_e M^{0.29}. While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges ...

  20. Observation of HCN hyperfine line anomalies towards low- and high-mass star-forming cores

    CERN Document Server

    Loughnane, R M; Thompson, M A; Lo, N; O'Dwyer, B; Cunningham, M R; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20121.x

    2013-01-01

    HCN is becoming a popular choice of molecule for studying star formation in both low- and high-mass regions and for other astrophysical sources from comets to high-redshift galaxies. However, a major and often overlooked difficulty with HCN is that it can exhibit non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) behaviour in its hyperfine line structure. Individual hyperfine lines can be strongly boosted or suppressed. In low-mass star-forming cloud observations, this could possibly lead to large errors in the calculation of opacity and excitation temperature, while in massive star-forming clouds, where the hyperfine lines are blended due to turbulent broadening, errors will arise in infall measurements that are based on the separation of the peaks in a self-absorbed profile. The underlying line shape cannot be known for certain if hyperfine anomalies are present. We present a first observational investigation of these anomalies across a range of conditions and transitions by carrying out a survey of low-mass sta...

  1. First detections of the key prebiotic molecule PO in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Beltrán, M T; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P; Martín-Pintado, J; Cesaroni, R

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, especially the P-O bond, which is key for the formation of the backbone of the deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected towards the envelope of evolved stars, and never towards star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO towards two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30m telescope. PN has also been detected towards the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during the cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches 35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of 5x10^{4} yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35-90 K. The observed molec...

  2. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, M; Bell, T; Phillips, T G; Schilke, P; Comito, C; Rolffs, R; van der Tak, F; Ceccarelli, C; Aarts, H; Bacmann, A; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E A; Blake, G; Boogert, A; Bottinelli, S; Cabrit, S; Caselli, P; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Coutens, A; Crimier, N; Demyk, K; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Goldsmith, P; Helmich, F; Hennebelle, P; Henning, T; Herbst, E; Hily-Blant, P; Jacq, T; Kahane, C; Kama, M; Klotz, A; Kooi, J; Langer, W; Lefloch, B; Loose, A; Lord, S; Lorenzani, A; Maret, S; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Ossenkopf, V; Pacheco, S; Pagani, L; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Risacher, C; Salez, M; Saraceno, P; Schuster, K; Stutzki, J; Tielens, X; van der Wiel, M; Vastel, C; Viti, S; Wakelam, V; Walters, A; Wyrowski, F; Yorke, H

    2010-01-01

    We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of H2O-16, H2O-18, and H2O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze these observations to obtain insights into physical processes in this region. We identify three main gas components (hot core, cold foreground, and outflow) in NGC 6334 I and derive the physical conditions in these components. The hot core, identified by the emission in highly excited lines, shows a high excitation temperature of 200 K, whereas water in the foreground component is predominantly in the ortho- and para- ground states. The abundance of water varies between 4 10^-5 (outflow) and 10^-8 (cold foreground gas). This variation is most likely due to the freeze-out of water molecules onto dust grains. The H2O-18/H2O-17 abundance ratio is 3.2, which is consistent with the O-18/O-17 ratio determined from CO isotopologues. The or...

  3. Correlations among Multi-Wavelength Luminosities of Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Y Q; Lou, Yu-Qing; Bian, Fu-Yan

    2004-01-01

    It has been known for two decades that a tight correlation exists between far-infrared (FIR) and radio (1.4 and 4.8 GHz) global fluxes/luminosities from galaxies, which may be explained in terms of massive star formation activities in these galaxies. For this very reason, a correlation might also exist between X-ray and FIR/radio global luminosities of galaxies. We analyze data from {\\it ROSAT} All-Sky Survey and {\\it IRAS} to show that such correlation does indeed exist between FIR (42.5$-122.5\\mu$m) and soft X-ray (0.1$-$2.4keV) luminosities in active star-forming galaxies (ASFGs).In order to establish a physical connection between the $L_{\\rmX}-L_{\\rm FIR}$ correlation and global star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies, we empirically derive both $L_{\\rm X}-L_{\\rm B}$ and $L_{\\rm FIR}-L_{\\rm B}$ relations. Futhermore, we propose a relation between soft X-ray luminosity and SFR in star-forming galaxies. To further understand the $L_{\\rm X}-L_{\\rm FIR}$ relation, we construct an empirical model in which both F...

  4. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  5. Water vapor in high-mass star-forming regions and PDRs : Tracing the dynamics and chemistry with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Yunhee

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars play a major role in the interstellar energy budget and the shaping of the galactic environment. The water molecule is thought to be a sensitive tracer of physical conditions in star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations between hot and cold regions. Herschel/HIFI

  6. A Multi-line Study of Atomic Carbon and Carbon Monoxide in the Galactic Star- forming Region W3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, H.; Kramer, C.; Mookerjea, B.; Jeyakumar, S.; Stutzki, J.

    We present results from simultaneous observations of the fine structure line emissions of neutral carbon (C I) at 492 and 809 GHz from selected Galactic star forming regions. These observations include the first results using the the newly installed SMART (SubmilliMeter Array Receiver at Two wavelengths) on KOSMA. The regions observed were selected in order to cover a range of strengths of the incident UV radiation from the exciting star/stars and also densities of the interstellar medium. Extended maps of C I emission from massive star forming regions including W3, S106 and Orion BN/KL have been observed. Simultaneous observation of the two C I lines ensures better relative calibration. The results from these observations will be combined with observed intensities of low-J and mid-J CO and C+ lines and analyzed using radiation transfer based models for Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs).

  7. The Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in local Star-Forming Galaxies Scenario and Connection with Primeval Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kunth, D; Terlevich, R J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the Lyan alpha emission in local star-forming galaxies. In most cases as already shown by the IUE, the emission is absent or much weaker than expected. This occurs because Lyman alpha photons can be resonantly scattered by the neutral gas and destroyed by even very low amounts of dust. However new Hubble Space Telescope observations (HST) indicate that other factors such as the velocity structure of the gas play a crucial role. Gas flows are likely to occur as powered by the kinetic energy released via stellar winds and supernova. We propose a scenario based on the hydrodynamics of superbubbles powered by massive bursts of star formation that naturally accounts for the variety of Lyman alpha line detections in star-forming galaxies. We caution with the attempts to derive the co-moving star formation rate at high redshift from Lyman alpha emission searches.

  8. In-Situ View of Star-forming Galaxies at Cosmic Noon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.

    2015-08-01

    Building on the ever-growing body of multiwavelength extragalactic surveys, spatially- and spectrally-resolved studies are providing new and unique insights into the physical and dynamical processes that drive the star formation and mass assembly of galaxies since as early as a few billion years after the Big Bang. I will present recent key progress in our understanding of galaxy evolution from state-of-the-art optical, near-IR, and submillimeter observations of massive star-forming galaxies around the peak epoch of cosmic star formation density, with an emphasis on high redshift disks. I will discuss implications on the star formation properties, feedback mechanisms, and early life cycle of z ~ 1 - 3 galaxies, and will highlight current challenges and emerging science questions.

  9. Star clusters in a nuclear star-forming ring: The disappearing string of pearls

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisanen, Petri; Randriamanakoto, Zara

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star-forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural 2D decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circum-nuclear environment, they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a "pearls-on-a-string" formation scenario suggesting bar driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down-turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at time-scales of just several Myr. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circum-nuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems.

  10. Modelling the chemical evolution of star forming filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, D.; Walch, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present simulations of star forming filaments incorporating - to our knowledge - the largest chemical network used to date on-the-fly in a 3D-MHD simulation. The network contains 37 chemical species and about 300 selected reaction rates. For this we use the newly developed package KROME (Grassi et al. [4]). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using such a complex chemical network in 3D-MHD simulations on modern supercomputers. We perform simulations with different strengths of the interstellar radiation field and the cosmic ray ionisation rate and find chemical and physical results in accordance with observations and other recent numerical work.

  11. Modelling the chemical evolution of star forming filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of star forming filaments incorporating - to our knowledge - the largest chemical network used to date on-the-fly in a 3D-MHD simulation. The network contains 37 chemical species and about 300 selected reaction rates. For this we use the newly developed package KROME (Grassi et al. 2014). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using such a complex chemical network in 3D-MHD simulations on modern supercomputers. We perform simulations with different strengths of the interstellar radiation field and the cosmic ray ionisation rate and find chemical and physical results in accordance with observations and other recent numerical work.

  12. Gas Inflow and Metallicity Drops in Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ceverino, Daniel; Muñoz-Tuñon, Casiana; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Gas inflow feeds galaxies with low metallicity gas from the cosmic web, sustaining star formation across the Hubble time. We make a connection between these inflows and metallicity inhomogeneities in star-forming galaxies, by using synthetic narrow-band images of the Halpha emission line from zoom-in AMR cosmological simulations of galaxies with stellar masses of $M \\simeq 10^9 $Msun at redshifts z=2-7. In $\\sim$50\\% of the cases at redshifts lower than 4, the gas inflow gives rise to star-forming, Halpha-bright, off-centre clumps. Most of these clumps have gas metallicities, weighted by Halpha luminosity, lower than the metallicity in the surrounding interstellar medium by $\\sim$0.3 dex, consistent with observations of chemical inhomogeneities at high and low redshifts. Due to metal mixing by shear and turbulence, these metallicity drops are dissolved in a few disc dynamical times. Therefore, they can be considered as evidence for rapid gas accretion coming from cosmological inflow of pristine gas.

  13. The Circumnuclear Star-forming Activities along the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Peng, Z; Shi, Lei; Gu, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhixin

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the circumnuclear star-forming activity along the Hubble sequence, we cross-correlate the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) to derive a large sample of 1015 galaxies with both morphological and spectral information. Among these, 385 sources are classified as star-forming galaxies and the SDSS fibre covered the circumnuclear regions (0.2 $-$ 2.0 kpc). By using the spectral synthesis method to remove the contribution from the underlying old stellar population, we measure the emission lines fluxes accurately which are then used to estimate the star formation rates(SFRs). Our main findings are that: (1) Early-type spirals show much larger H$\\alpha$ luminosities and hence higher SFRs, they also suffer more extinctions than late-type ones. The equivalent widths (EWs) of H$\\alpha$ emission lines show the similar trend, however, the very late types (Sdm $\\sim$ Irr) do have large fractions of high EWs. (2) We confirm that D$_n...

  14. IROCKS: Spatially resolved kinematics of z~1 star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mieda, Etsuko; Larkin, James E; Armus, Lee; Juneau, Stephanie; Salim, Samir; Murray, Norman

    2016-01-01

    We present results from IROCKS (Intermediate Redshift OSIRIS Chemo-Kinematic Survey) for sixteen z~1 and one z~1.4 star-forming galaxies. All galaxies were observed with OSIRIS with the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Keck Observatory. We use rest-frame nebular Ha emission lines to trace morphologies and kinematics of ionized gas in star-forming galaxies on sub-kiloparsec physical scales. We observe elevated velocity dispersions (sigma > 50 km/s) seen in z > 1.5 galaxies persist at z~1 in the integrated galaxies. Using an inclined disk model and the ratio of v/sigma, we find that 1/3 of the z~1 sample are disk candidates while the other 2/3 of the sample are dominated by merger-like and irregular sources. We find that including extra attenuation towards HII regions derived from stellar population synthesis modeling brings star formation rates (SFR) using Ha and stellar population fit into a better agreement. We explore properties of compact Ha sub-component, or "clump," at z~1 and find that they fo...

  15. Uncovering the monster stars in W49: the most luminous star-forming region in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiwei; Bik, Arjan; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    As a part of the LOBSTAR project (Luci OBservations of STARburst regions), which aims at understanding the stellar content of some of the most massive star-forming regions, we present our result on the high-mass stellar content of W49. K-band spectra of the candidate massive stars from VLT/ISAAC and LBT/LUCI provide us with reliable spectral types of dozens of massive stars in this HII region.The first results show that this region hosts several of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Two most brightest stars, one in the core of the central cluster and one in W49 South, were identified as very massive stars (M > 100 M⊙). Their K-band spectra exhibit strong stellar wind features, and they are classified as O2-3.5If* supergiant stars. After comparison to the Geneva evolutionary models, the mass range of W49nr1 was estimated to be between 100 M⊙ and 180 M⊙. Additionally we find 12 O stars with spectral types between O7V and O3V and masses from 25 M⊙ to 125 M⊙, respectively.These results allow us to derive the fundamental parameters of the cluster (mass, age) as well as the total energy output in the form of ionising photons. This will enable us to study the feedback effects of this extreme star forming region in great detail. To our surprise, two young stellar objects with infrared excess feature showing CO emission lines in their spectra are identified. This suggests that circumstellar disks can survive even in this extreme environment. Finally the spatial distribution of the massive stars is analysed to discuss the star formation history and identify potential runaway stars. The extreme properties of this region makes it a good template for more extreme star formation outside our galaxy.

  16. The quenched mass portion of star-forming galaxies and the origin of the star formation sequence slope

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Observationally, a massive disk galaxy can harbor a bulge component that is comparably inactive as a quiescent galaxy (QG). It has been speculated that the quenched component contained in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is the reason why the star formation main sequence (MS) has a shallow slope at high masses. In this paper, we present a toy model to quantify the quenched mass portion of SFGs ($f_{\\rm Q}$) at fixed stellar mass ($M_{\\ast}$) and to reconcile the MS slopes both in the low and the high mass regimes. In this model, each SFG is composed by a star-forming plus a quenched component. The mass of the star-forming component ($M_{\\rm SF}$) correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) following a relation SFR $\\propto M_{\\rm SF}^{\\alpha_{\\rm SF}}$, where $\\alpha_{\\rm SF}\\sim 1.0$ . The quenched component contributes to the stellar mass but does not to the SFR. It is thus possible to quantify $f_{\\rm Q}$ based on the departure of the observed MS slope $\\alpha$ from $\\alpha_{\\rm SF}$. Adopting the redshift-d...

  17. The Swift/UVOT catalogue of NGC4321 star forming sources: A case against density wave theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Kawata, Daisuke; Page, Mat; Hoversten, Erik A

    2012-01-01

    We study the star forming regions in the spiral galaxy NGC4321, taking advantage of the spatial resolution (2.5 arcsec FWHM) of the Swift/UVOT camera and the availability of three UV passbands in the region 1600-3000 A, in combination with optical and IR imaging from SDSS, KPNO/Ha and Spitzer/IRAC, to obtain a catalogue of 787 star forming regions out to three disc scale lengths. We determine the properties of the young stellar component and its relationship with the spiral arms. The Ha luminosities of the sources have a strong decreasing radial trend, suggesting more massive star forming regions in the central part of the galaxy. When segregated with respect to NUV-optical colour, blue sources have a significant excess of flux in the IR at 8 micron, revealing the contribution from PAHs, although the overall reddening of these sources stays below E(B-V)=0.2 mag. The distribution of distances to the spiral arms is compared for subsamples selected according to Ha luminosity, NUV-optical colour, or ages derived ...

  18. The impact of magnetic fields on the IMF in star-forming clouds near a supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S; Spaans, M; Cazaux, S

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in the centers of galaxies is thought to yield massive stars with a possibly top-heavy stellar mass distribution. It is likely that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the distribution of stellar masses inside star-forming molecular clouds. In this context, we explore the effects of magnetic fields, with a typical field strength of 38 {\\mu}G, such as in RCW 38, and a field strength of 135 {\\mu}G, similar to NGC 2024 and the infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06, on the initial mass function (IMF) near (\\leq 10 pc) a 10^7 solar mass black hole. Using these conditions, we perform a series of numerical simulations with the hydrodynamical code FLASH to elucidate the impact of magnetic fields on the IMF and the star-formation efficiency (SFE) emerging from an 800 solar mass cloud. We find that the collapse of a gravitationally unstable molecular cloud is slowed down with increasing magnetic field strength and that stars form along the field lines. The total number of stars formed during the simulations...

  19. On the Metallicity of Star-forming Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F; Silich, S A; Kunth, D; Cerviño, M; Legrand, Francois; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Kunth, Daniel; Cervino, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We construct three extreme different scenarios of the star formation histories applicable to a sample of dwarf galaxies, based either on their present metallicity or their luminosity. The three possible scenarios imply different mechanical energy input rates and these we compare with the theoretical lower limits established for the ejection of processed matter out of dwarf galaxies. The comparison strongly points at the existence of extended gaseous haloes in these galaxies, acting as the barrier that allows galaxies to retain their metals and enhance their abundance. At the same time our findings strongly point at a continuous star-forming process, rather than to coeval bursts, as the main contributors to the overall metallicity in our galaxy sample.

  20. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forming galaxies of different morphological type and activity class using a sample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for a wide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presented in the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overall characteristics according to morphology and activity class and in the form of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption and emission features of individual objects. The data support the picture based on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of the Astronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubble class have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiral galaxies of earlier Hubble class.

  1. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  2. Recent progress in understanding the hot and warm gas phases in the halos of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, D K; Colbert, E J M; Hoopes, C G; Weaver, K A

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution we present a few selected examples of how the latest generation of space-based instrumentation -- NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) -- are finally answering old questions about the influence of massive star feedback on the warm and hot phases of the ISM and IGM. In particular, we discuss the physical origin of the soft thermal X-ray emission in the halos of star-forming and starburst galaxies, its relationship to extra-planar H-alpha emission, and plasma diagnostics using FUSE observations of O VI absorption and emission.

  3. KMOS3D: Dynamical Constraints on the Mass Budget in Early Star-forming Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Genzel, Reinhard; Burkert, Andreas; Bandara, Kaushala; Beifiori, Alessandra; Belli, Sirio; Bender, Ralf; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Ric; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Kulkarni, Sandesh K.; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Mendel, J. Trevor; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Naab, Thorsten; Nelson, Erica J.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Seitz, Stella; Tacconi, Linda J.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Übler, Hannah; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wilman, David J.; Wuyts, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We exploit deep integral-field spectroscopic observations with KMOS/Very Large Telescope of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6\\lt z\\lt 2.6 to dynamically constrain their mass budget. Our sample consists of massive (≳ {10}9.8 {M}⊙ ) galaxies with sizes {R}e≳ 2 {kpc}. By contrasting the observed velocity and dispersion profiles with dynamical models, we find that on average the stellar content contributes {32}-7+8 % of the total dynamical mass, with a significant spread among galaxies (68th percentile range {f}{star}˜ 18 % {--}62 % ). Including molecular gas as inferred from CO- and dust-based scaling relations, the estimated baryonic mass adds up to {56}-12+17 % of the total for the typical galaxy in our sample, reaching ˜ 90 % at z\\gt 2. We conclude that baryons make up most of the mass within the disk regions of high-redshift star-forming disk galaxies, with typical disks at z\\gt 2 being strongly baryon-dominated within R e . Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed among the galaxies in our sample, larger than what can be accounted for by the formal uncertainties in their respective measurements. In both cases, the mass fractions correlate most strongly with measures of surface density. High-{{{Σ }}}{star} galaxies feature stellar mass fractions closer to unity, and systems with high inferred gas or baryonic surface densities leave less room for additional mass components other than stars and molecular gas. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, and 096.A-0025.

  4. Radio and infrared study of the star-forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the star-forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus X region. Near-infrared K-band data are used to revisit the cluster/stellar group identified in previous studies. Radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a H II region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0-B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model, where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with a non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus X region show the presence of six Class I young stellar objects inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be ∼175 and 30 M⊙. The mass-radius relation and the surface density of the clumps mean that they do not qualify as massive star-forming sites. An overall picture of a runaway star ionizing the cloud and a triggered population of intermediate-mass, Class I sources located towards the cloud centre emerges from this multiwavelength study. Variation in the dust emissivity spectral index is shown to exist in this region and is seen to have an inverse relation with the dust temperature.

  5. An all-sky sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Kerton, Charles R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Arvidsson, Kim [Trull School of Sciences and Mathematics, Schreiner University, 2100 Memorial Boulevard, Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions that are color selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5° using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory, along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 M {sub ☉} of stars. These low-mass diffuse star clusters contain ∼65-250 stars for a typical initial mass function, including one or more mid-B stars as their most massive constituents. Using infrared spectral energy distributions we identify young stellar objects near each region and assign probable masses and evolutionary stages to the protostars. The total infrared luminosity lies in the range 190-960 L {sub ☉}, consistent with the sum of the luminosities of the individually identified young stellar objects.

  6. Young open clusters in the galactic star forming region NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; di Carlo, Elisa; Brand, Jan; Beltrán, Maria Teresa; Marconi, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    NGC6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters (OC). These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds (GMC). We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the OC Pismis24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby GMCs. We seek evidence of triggered star formation propagating from the clusters. We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep IRAC/Spitzer MIR photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). NGC6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) OC with a Salpeter-like IMF and a few thousand members. A comparison bet...

  7. An Ultraviolet Study of Star-Forming Regions in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of star-forming (SF) regions in the nearest large spiral galaxy M31. We use GALEX far-UV (1344-1786 \\AA, FUV) and near-UV (1771-2831 \\AA, NUV) imaging to detect young massive stars and trace the recent star formation across the galaxy. The FUV and NUV flux measurements of the SF regions, combined with ground-based data for estimating the reddening by interstellar dust from the massive stars they contain, are used to derive their ages and masses. The GALEX imaging, combining deep sensitivity and entire coverage of the galaxy, provides a complete picture of the recent star formation in M31 and its variation with environment throughout the galaxy. The FUV and NUV measurements are sensitive to detect stellar populations younger than a few hundred Myrs. We detected 894 SF regions, with size > 1600 pc^{2} above an average FUV flux limit of ~ 26 ABmag arcsecond^{-2}, over the whole 26 kpc galaxy disk. We derive the star-formation history of M31 within this time span. The star formati...

  8. Characterizing Dust Attenuation in Local Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Andrew; Calzetti, Daniela; Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2017-01-01

    The dust attenuation for a sample of ~10000 local (z ≤ 0.1) star forming galaxies is constrained as a function of their physical properties. We utilize aperture-matched multi-wavelength data from the UV-to-NIR, available from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, to ensure that regions of comparable size in each galaxy are being analyzed. We characterize the dust attenuation through the slope of the UV flux density and the Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ). The observed relationship between these quantities is similar to the local starburst relation and is not seen to vary strongly with galactic properties. We derive the total attenuation curve over the range 1250 Å < λ < 28500 Å and find that a single attenuation curve is effective for characterizing the majority of galaxies in our sample. This attenuation curve is slightly lower in the far-UV than local starburst galaxies, by roughly 15%, but appears similar at longer wavelengths and has a normalization of RV = 3.7±0.4 (V-band). This indicates that a single attenuation curve is reasonable for wide application in the local Universe.

  9. [OI] disk emission in the Taurus star forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M; Vicente, S; Podio, L; Woitke, P; Menard, F; Thi, W -F; Gudel, M; Liebhart, A

    2014-01-01

    The structure of protoplanetary disks is thought to be linked to the temperature and chemistry of their dust and gas. Whether the disk is flat or flaring depends on the amount of radiation that it absorbs at a given radius, and on the efficiency with which this is converted into thermal energy. The understanding of these heating and cooling processes is crucial to provide a reliable disk structure for the interpretation of dust continuum emission and gas line fluxes. Especially in the upper layers of the disk, where gas and dust are thermally decoupled, the infrared line emission is strictly related to the gas heating/cooling processes. We aim to study the thermal properties of the disk in the oxygen line emission region, and to investigate the relative importance of X-ray (1-120 Angstrom) and far-UV radiation (FUV, 912-2070 Angstrom) for the heating balance there. We use [OI] 63 micron line fluxes observed in a sample of protoplanetary disks of the Taurus/Auriga star forming region and compare it to the mode...

  10. Radio Observations of Star Forming Galaxies in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, C; Cai, Z-Y; Negrello, M; De Zotti, G; Perrotta, F; Danese, L

    2014-01-01

    We have combined determinations of the epoch-dependent star formation rate (SFR) function with relationships between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission to work out detailed predictions for the counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies detected by planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) surveys. The evolving SFR function comes from recent models fitting the far-infrared (FIR) to millimeter-wave luminosity functions and the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions up to z=10, extended to take into account additional UV survey data. We used very deep 1.4 GHz number counts from the literature to check the relationship between SFR and synchrotron emission, and the 95 GHz South Pole Telescope (SPT) counts of dusty galaxies to test the relationship between SFR and free-free emission. We show that the SKA will allow us to investigate the SFRs of galaxies down to few Msun/yr up to z=10, thus extending by more than two orders of magnitude the high-z SFR functions derived from Herschel sur...

  11. The mode of gas accretion onto star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, F; Fraternali, F; Nipoti, C; Ciotti, L; Londrillo, P

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that galaxies like ours sustain their star formation by transferring gas from an extensive corona to the star-forming disc. The transfer is effected by the galactic fountain -- cool clouds that are shot up from the plane to kiloparsec heights above the plane. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability strips gas from these clouds. If the pressure and the the metallicity of the corona are high enough, the stripped gas causes a similar mass of coronal gas to condense in the cloud's wake. Hydrodynamical simulations of cloud-corona interaction are presented. These confirm the existence of a critical ablation rate above which the corona is condensed, and imply that for the likely parameters of the Galactic corona this rate lies near the actual ablation rate of clouds. In external galaxies trails of HI behind individual clouds will not be detectable, although the integrated emission from all such trails should be significant. Parts of the trails of the clouds that make up the Galaxy's fountain should be observab...

  12. Dynamical evolution of star forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$ and thus assess the virial state ($\\sigma / \\sigma_{\\rm vir}$) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25 - 50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions ar...

  13. The MZ relation for local star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Zhong; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation with a large sample of 53,444 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at $0.0441.0$ and log$(L_{\\rm O\\ III})>39.7$, we find that metallicity evolution is shown well, and that SFR evolution still is shown well under the latter luminosity threshold, but the evolution is not observed under the former one; (4) the evolution of the MZ relation seems to disappear at about $\\rm log(M_{*}/M_\\odot)>10.0$ after applying the luminosity threshold of log$(L_{\\rm H \\alpha})>41.0$ or log$(L_{\\rm O\\ III})>39.7$; (5) we find $\\alpha =0.09$ and $\\alpha =0.07$ in the equation ($\\mu={\\rm log}M_{*}-\\alpha \\rm log(SFR)$) for log$(L_{\\rm H \\alpha})>41.0$ and log$(L_{\\rm O\\ III})>39.7$ samples, respectively, and these imply that the evolution of the MZ relation may have a weaker dependence on SFR in our sample.

  14. Locating Star-Forming Regions in Quasar Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J E; Shemmer, O; Netzer, H; Gronwall, C; Lutz, Dieter; Ciardullo, R; Sturm, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations are motivated by recent evidence for a close relationship between black hole growth and the stellar mass evolution in its host galaxy. We use narrow-band [O II] $\\lambda$3727, H$\\beta$, [O III] $\\lambda$5007 and Pa$\\alpha$ images, taken with the WFPC2 and NICMOS instruments, to map the morphology of line-emitting regions, and, after extinction corrections, diagnose the excitation mechanism and infer star-formation rates. Significant challenges in this type of work are the separation of the quasar light from the stellar continuum and the quasar-excited gas from the star-forming regions. To this end, we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light. Our primary result is the detection of extended line-emitting regions with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 kpc and distributed symmetrically aroun...

  15. The Mean Star-Forming Properties of QSO Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; Lutz, D; Netzer, H; Trump, J R; Silverman, J D; Schramm, M; Lusso, E; Berta, S; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Genzel, R; Lilly, S; Magnelli, B; Mainieri, V; Maiolino, R; Merloni, A; Mignoli, M; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Salvato, M; Santini, P; Tacconi, L J; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) occur in galaxies in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are growing substantially through rapid accretion of gas. Many popular models of the co-evolutionary growth of galaxies and SMBHs predict that QSOs are also sites of substantial recent star formation, mediated by important processes, such as major mergers, which rapidly transform the nature of galaxies. A detailed study of the star-forming properties of QSOs is a critical test of such models. We present a far-infrared Herschel/PACS study of the mean star formation rate (SFR) of a sample of spectroscopically observed QSOs to z~2 from the COSMOS extragalactic survey. This is the largest sample to date of moderately luminous AGNs studied using uniform, deep far-infrared photometry. We study trends of the mean SFR with redshift, black hole mass, nuclear bolometric luminosity and specific accretion rate (Eddington ratio). To minimize systematics, we have undertaken a uniform determination of SMBH properties, as well as an anal...

  16. VLBA Changes Picture of Famous Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Using the supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), astronomers have made the most precise measurement ever of the distance to a famous star-forming region. The measurement -- to the heavily studied Orion Nebula -- changes scientists' understanding of the characteristics of the young stars in the region. Parallax Diagram Trigonometric Parallax method determines distance to star by measuring its slight shift in apparent position as seen from opposite ends of Earth's orbit. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Star Track Apparent track of star GMR A in the Orion Nebula Cluster, showing shift caused by Earth's orbital motion and star's movement in space. CREDIT: Sandstrom et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Images for Larger Files "This measurement is four times more precise than previous distance estimates. Because our measurement reduces the distance to this region, it tells us that the stars there are less bright than thought before, and changes the estimates of their ages," said Geoff Bower, an astronomer at the University of California at Berkeley. Bower, along with Karin Sandstrom, J.E.G. Peek, Alberto Bolatto and Richard Plambeck, all of Berkeley, published their findings in the October 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The scientists determined the distance to a star called GMR A, one of a cluster of stars in the Orion Nebula, by measuring the slight shift in the star's apparent position in the sky caused by the Earth's motion around the Sun. Observing the star when the Earth is on opposite sides of its annual orbit allows astronomers to measure the angle of this small shift and thus provides a direct trigonometric calculation of its distance. "By using this technique, called parallax, we get a direct measurement that does not depend on various assumptions that are required to use less-direct methods," Bower said. "Only a telescope with the remarkable ability to see fine detail that is provided by the VLBA is

  17. Outflows and complex stellar kinematics in SDSS star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cicone, Claudia; Marconi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of star formation-driven outflows by using a large spectroscopic sample of ~160,000 local "normal" star forming galaxies, drawn from the SDSS, spanning a wide range of star formation rates and stellar masses. The galaxy sample is divided into a fine grid of bins in the M_*-SFR parameter space, for each of which we produce a composite spectrum by stacking together the SDSS spectra of the galaxies contained in that bin. We exploit the high signal-to-noise of the stacked spectra to study the emergence of faint features of optical emission lines that may trace galactic outflows and would otherwise be too faint to detect in individual galaxy spectra. We adopt a novel approach that relies on the comparison between the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LoSVD) of the ionised gas (as traced by the [OIII]5007 and Halpha+[NII]6548,6583 emission lines) and the LoSVD of the stars, which are used as a reference tracing virial motions. Significant deviations of the gas kinematics from the st...

  18. Formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The detection of complex organic molecules related with prebiotic chemistry in star-forming regions allows us to investigate how the basic building blocks of life are formed. Aims: Ethylene glycol (CH2OH)2 is the simplest sugar alcohol and the reduced alcohol of the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (CH2OHCHO). We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of (CH2OH)2, CH2OHCHO and other chemically related complex organic species (CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH) towards the chemically rich massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. Methods: We analyzed multiple single-dish (Green Bank Telescope and IRAM 30 m) and interferometric (Submillimeter Array) spectra towards G31.41+0.31, covering a range of frequencies from 45 to 258 GHz. We fitted the observed spectra with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities. We compared our findings in G31.41+0.31 with the results found in other environments, including low- and high-mass star-forming regions, quiescent clouds and comets. Results: We report for the first time the presence of the aGg' conformer of (CH2OH)2 towards G31.41+0.31, detecting more than 30 unblended lines. We also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as CH2OHCHO, CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH. The high angular resolution images show that the (CH2OH)2 emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the 1.3 mm continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like (CH2OH)2 or CH2OHCHO, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that (CH2OH)2 is more abundant than CH2OHCHO in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar regions. Comparing different star-forming regions we find evidence of an increase of the (CH2OH)2/CH2OHCHO abundance ratio with the luminosity of the source. The CH3OCH3/CH3OCHO and (CH2OH)2/C2H5OH ratios are nearly constant with

  19. Water in massive star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpin, F.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Bontemps, S.; van Dishoeck, E.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case. Water, one of the most important molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth, and especially could be

  20. A Catalog of Methanol Masers in Massive Star-forming Regions. III. The Molecular Outflow Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Ruiz, A I; Araya, E D; Hofner, P; Loinard, L

    2016-01-01

    We present an interferometric survey of the 44 GHz class I methanol maser transition toward a sample of 69 sources consisting of High Mass Protostellar Object candidates and Ultracompact (UC) H II regions. We found a 38% detection rate (16 of 42) in the HMPO candidates and a 54% detection rate (13 of 24) for the regions with ionized gas. This result indicates that class I methanol maser emission is more common toward more evolved young stellar objects of our sample. Comparing with similar interferometric data sets, our observations show narrower linewidths, likely due to our higher spatial resolution. Based on a comparison between molecular outflow tracers and the maser positions, we find several cases where the masers appear to be located at the outflow interface with the surrounding core. Unlike previous surveys, we also find several cases where the masers appear to be located close to the base of the molecular outflow, although we can not discard projection effects. This and other surveys of class I methan...

  1. Outflows in massive star forming regions: UV radiation and shocked cavity walls toward AFGL 2591

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doty, Steven; Rogers, Noah; Doty, Sandra; van der Tak, Floris; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-01-01

    Outflows can play an important role in regulating the star formation process. These outflows have the potential to deposit significant energy to large distances from the protostar through material motion and shocks, as well as via radiation through the subsequent outflow cavity. Herschel observation

  2. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. XIV. Physical Properties of Massive Starless and Star Forming Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, Brian E; Battersby, Cara; Rosolowsky, Erik W; Ginsburg, Adam G; Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P; Pestalozzi, Michele R; Dunham, Miranda K; Evans, Neal J; Bally, John; Glenn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We sort $4683$ molecular clouds between $10^\\circ1$ dex) progressions when sorted by star formation indicator. The median starless clump candidate is marginally sub-virial ($\\alpha \\sim 0.7$) with $>75\\%$ of clumps with known distance being gravitationally bound ($\\alpha 10^3$ M$_\\odot$) starless clumps to be $0.37 \\pm 0.08 \\ {\\rm Myr} \\ (M/10^3 \\ {\\rm M}_\\odot)^{-1}$; the majority ($M<450$ M$_\\odot$) have phase-lifetimes longer than their average free-fall time.

  3. Locating star-forming regions in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Eracleous, M.; Shemmer, O.; Netzer, H.; Gronwall, C.; Lutz, Dieter; Ciardullo, R.; Sturm, Eckhard

    2014-02-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations are motivated by recent evidence for a close relationship between black hole growth and the stellar mass evolution in its host galaxy. We use narrow-band [O II]λ3727, Hβ, [O III]λ5007 and Paα images, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and NICMOS instruments, to map the morphology of line-emitting regions, and, after extinction corrections, diagnose the excitation mechanism and infer star-formation rates. Significant challenges in this type of work are the separation of the quasar light from the stellar continuum and the quasar-excited gas from the star-forming regions. To this end, we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light. Our primary result is the detection of extended line-emitting regions with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 kpc and distributed symmetrically around the nucleus, powered primarily by star formation. We determine star-formation rates of the order of a few tens of M⊙ yr-1. The host galaxies of our target quasars have stellar masses of the order of 1011 M⊙ and specific star-formation rates on a par with those of M82 and luminous infrared galaxies. As such they fall at the upper envelope or just above the star-formation mass sequence in the specific star formation versus stellar mass diagram. We see a clear trend of increasing star-formation rate with quasar luminosity, reinforcing the link between the growth of the stellar mass of the host and the black hole mass found by other authors.

  4. HerMES: Cosmic Infrared Background Anisotropies and the Clustering of Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Viero, M P; Zemcov, M; Addison, G; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Casey, C M; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; De Zotti, G; Dowell, C D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivision, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Peason, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Schulz, B; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Xu, C K

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500um (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling ~ 70 deg^2 made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy dI / I = 14 +- 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and non-linear (1-halo) regimes to unprecedented levels; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k_theta ~ 0.1 arcmin^-1 (l ~ 2200). New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources --- suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least...

  5. A weak lensing view of the downsizing of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Dell'Antonio, Ian P; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Koshida, Shintaro; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Sakurai, Jyunya; Tait, Philip J; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Daigo; Usuda, Tomonori; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Zahid, Harus J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a weak lensing view of the downsizing of star forming galaxies based on cross correlating a weak lensing ($\\kappa$) map with a predicted map constructed from a redshift survey. Moderately deep and high resolution images with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam covering the 4 deg^2 DLS F2 field provide a $\\kappa$ map with 1 arcmin resolution. A dense complete redshift survey of the F2 field including 12,705 galaxies with $R\\leq20.6$ is the basis for construction of the predicted map. The zero-lag cross-correlation between the \\kappa and predicted maps is significant at the $30\\sigma$ level. The width of the cross-correlation peak is comparable with the angular scale of rich cluster at $z\\sim0.3$, the median depth of the redshift survey. Slices of the predicted map in $\\delta{z} = 0.05$ redshift bins enable exploration of the impact of structure as a function of redshift. The zero-lag normalised cross-correlation has significant local maxima at redshifts coinciding with known massive X-ray clusters. Even in sl...

  6. An Infrared/X-ray Survey for New Members of the Taurus Star-Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; Allen, P R; Cruz, K L

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M=4-7 M_Jup). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy d...

  7. A multiwavelength study of the star forming region IRAS 18544+0112

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, M E; Cichowolski, S; Rubio, M; Castelletti, G; Dubner, G

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at investigating the molecular and infrared components in the massive young stellar object (MYSO) candidate IRAS 18544+0112. The purpose is to determine the nature and the origin of this infrared source. To analyze the molecular gas towards IRAS 18544+0112, we have carried out observations in a 90" x 90" region around l = 34.69, b = -0.65, using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in the 12CO J=3-2, 13CO J=3-2, HCO+ J=4-3 and CS J=7-6 lines with an angular resolution of 22". The infrared emission in the area has been analyzed using 2MASS and Spitzer public data. From the molecular analysis, we find self-absorbed 12CO J=3-2 profiles, which are typical in star forming regions, but we do not find any evidence of outflow activity. Moreover, we do not detect either HCO+ J=4-3 or CS J=7-6 in the region, which are species normally enhanced in molecular outflows and high density envelopes. The 12CO J=3-2 emission profile suggests the presence of expanding gas in the region. The Spitze...

  8. The star forming region Monoceros R2 as a gamma-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Josep; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J; Sánchez-Ayaso, Estrella; Munar-Adrover, Pere; Sánchez-Sutil, Juan R; Romero, Gustavo E; Paredes, Josep M; Combi, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Context. After the release of the gamma-ray source catalog produced by the Fermi satellite during its first two years of operation, a significant fraction of sources still remain unassociated at lower energies. In addition to well-known high-energy emitters (pulsars, blazars, supernova remnants, etc.) theoretical expectations predict new classes of gamma-ray sources. In particular, gamma-ray emission could be associated with some of the early phases of stellar evolution, but this interesting possibility is still poorly understood. Aims. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibility of the Fermi gamma-ray source 2FGL J0607.5-0618c being associated with the massive star forming region Monoceros R2. Methods. A multi-wavelength analysis of the Monoceros R2 region is carried out using archival data at radio, infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. The resulting observational properties are used to estimate the physical parameters needed to test the different physical scenarios. Results. We confirm the 2FG...

  9. The Stellar Mass Distribution in the Giant Star Forming Region NGC 346

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Nota, A; Tosi, M; Gallagher, J; Smith, L J; Angeretti, L; Meixner, M; Oey, M S; Walterbos, R; Pasquali, A

    2007-01-01

    Deep F555W and F814W Hubble Space Telescope ACS images are the basis for a study of the present day mass function (PDMF) of NGC346, the largest active star forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We find a PDMF slope of Gamma=-1.43+/-0.18 in the mass range 0.8-60 Mo, in excellent agreement with the Salpeter Initial Mass Function (IMF) in the solar neighborhood. Caveats on the conversion of the PDMF to the IMF are discussed. The PDMF slope changes, as a function of the radial distance from the center of the NGC 346 star cluster, indicating a segregation of the most massive stars. This segregation is likely primordial considering the young age (~3 Myr) of NGC346, and its clumpy structure which suggests that the cluster has likely not had sufficient time to relax. Comparing our results for NGC346 with those derived for other star clusters in the SMC and the Milky Way (MW), we conclude that, while the star formation process might depend on the local cloud conditions, the IMF does not seem to be affect...

  10. H2D+ in the high mass star-forming Region Cygnus-X

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Thushara; Kauffmann, Jens; Zhang, Qizhou; Thompson, Mark; Lis, Darek

    2012-01-01

    H2D+ is a primary ion which dominates the gas-phase chemistry of cold dense gas. Therefore it is hailed as a unique tool in probing the earliest, prestellar phase of star formation. Observationally, its abundance and distribution is however just beginning to be understood in low-mass prestellar and cluster-forming cores. In high mass star forming regions, H2D+ has been detected only in two cores, and its spatial distribution remains unknown. Here we present the first map of the 372 GHz ortho-H2D+ and N2H+ 4-3 transition in the DR21 filament of Cygnus-X with the JCMT, and N2D+ 3--2 and dust continuum with the SMA. We have discovered five very extended (<= 34000 AU diameter) weak structures in H2D+ in the vicinity of, but distinctly offset from embedded protostars. More surprisingly, the H2D+ peak is not associated with either a dust continuum or N2D+ peak. We have therefore uncovered extended massive cold dense gas that was undetected with previous molecular line and dust continuum surveys of the region. Th...

  11. A very young star forming region detected by the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, O; Tóth, L V; Klaas, U; Haas, M; Stickel, M; Vavrek, R

    2003-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the star forming region ISOSS J 20298+3559, which was identified by a cross-correlation of cold compact sources from the 170 micron ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) database coinciding with objects detected by the MSX, 2MASS and IRAS infrared surveys. ISOSS J 20298+3559 is associated with a massive dark cloud complex (M ~ 760 M$_{\\odot}$) and located in the Cygnus X giant molecular cloud. We derive a distance of 1800 pc on the basis of optical extinction data. The low average dust temperature (T ~ 16 K) and large mass (M ~ 120 M$_{\\odot}$) of the dense inner part of the cloud, which has not been dispersed, indicates a recent begin of star formation. The youth of the region is supported by the early evolutionary stage of several pre- and protostellar objects discovered across the regio n: I) Two candidate Class 0 objects with masses of 8 and 3.5 M$_{\\odot}$, II) a gravitationally bound, cold (T ~ 12 K) and dense (n(H$_{2}$) \\~ 2 x 10$^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$) cloud core with a m...

  12. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Montmerle, T; Broos, P; Chu, Y H; Garmire, G; Getman, K

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra/ACIS images of several high-mass star-forming regions. The massive stellar clusters powering these HII regions are resolved at the arcsecond level into hundreds of stellar sources, similar to those seen in closer young stellar clusters. However, we also detect diffuse X-ray emission on parsec scales that is spatially and spectrally distinct from the point source population. For nearby regions (e.g. M17 and Rosette) the emission is soft, with plasma temperatures less than 10 million degrees, in contrast to what is seen in more distant complexes (e.g. RCW49, W51). This extended emission most likely arises from the fast O-star winds thermalized either by wind-wind collisions or by a termination shock against the surrounding media. We have established that only a small portion of the wind energy and mass appears in the observed diffuse X-ray plasma; in the blister HII regions, we suspect that most of it flows without cooling into the low-density interstellar medium through blow-outs or fissures...

  13. The formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Cesaroni, R; Fontani, F; Codella, C; Zhang, Q

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of the simplest sugar alcohol, ethylene glycol (EG), the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (GA), and other chemically related complex organic species towards the massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. We have analyzed multiple single dish and interferometric data, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities using an LTE analysis. We have reported for the first time the presence of EG towards G31.41+0.31, and we have also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as GA, methyl formate (MF), dimethyl ether (DME) and ethanol (ET). The high angular resolution images show that the EG emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like EG or GA, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that EG is more abundant than GA in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar r...

  14. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Genzel, Reinhard; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Kramer, Carsten; Lutz, Katharina A.; Schiminovich, David; Tacconi, Linda J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Accurso, Gioacchino

    2016-10-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the H I line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within ±0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive MS galaxies, indicating that the flattening of the MS is due to the global decrease of the cold gas reservoirs of galaxies rather than to bottlenecks in the process of converting cold atomic gas to stars.

  15. Studying the kinematics of the giant star-forming region 30 Doradus. I. The data

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; Apellániz, J Maíz; Rubio, M; Bosch, G; Hénault-Brunet, V; Evans, C J

    2013-01-01

    We present high-quality VLT-FLAMES optical spectroscopy of the nebular gas in the giant star-forming region 30 Doradus. In this paper, the first of a series, we introduce our observations and discuss the main kinematic features of 30 Dor, as revealed by the spectroscopy of the ionized gas in the region. The primary data set consists of regular grid of nebular observations, which we used to produce a spectroscopic datacube of 30 Dor, centered on the massive star cluster R136 and covering a field-of-view of 10'x10'. The main emission lines present in the datacube are from Halpha and [NII]6548,6584. The Halpha emission-line profile varies across the region from simple single-peaked emission to complex, multiple-component profiles, suggesting that different physical mechanisms are acting on the excited gas. To analyse the gas kinematics we fit Gaussian profiles to the observed Halpha features. Unexpectedly, the narrowest Halpha profile in our sample lies close to the supernova remnant 30 Dor B. We present maps of...

  16. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, A; Cortese, L; Genzel, R; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Janowiecki, S; Kramer, C; Lutz, K A; Schiminovich, D; Tacconi, L J; Wuyts, S; Accurso, G

    2016-01-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the HI line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within +/-0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive main sequence galaxies, indicating that the ...

  17. SMT CO (2-1) Observations of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We present CO $J$=2-1 observations towards 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and WISE catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope. Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-$M_{\\rm *}$ galaxies. The scaling-relations between molecular gas, atomic gas and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV$- r$ and WISE color W3$-$W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show that (1). In the galaxies with stellar mass $M_{\\rm *}$ $\\leqslant 10^{10}$ $M_{\\odot}$, HI fraction ($f_{\\rm HI}$ $\\equiv$ $M_{\\rm HI}$/$M_{\\rm *}$) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while H$_2$ gas fraction ($f_{\\rm H_2}$ $\\equiv$ $M_{\\rm H_2}$/$M_{\\rm *}$) remain nearly unchanged. (2). Comparing with $f_{\\rm H_2}$, $f_{\\rm HI}$ correlates better with both $M_{\\rm *}$ and NUV$- r$. (3). A new parameter, WISE color W3$-$W2 (12\\,$\\mu$m$-$4.6\\,$\\mu$m) is introduced, which is similar to NUV$- r$ in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3$-$W2 has a tighter anti-corr...

  18. Compact star forming galaxies as the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies: Clustering result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lulu; Kong, Xu; Fang, Guanwen

    2017-02-01

    We present a measurement of the spatial clustering of massive compact galaxies at 1.2 ≤ z ≤ 3 in CANDELS/3D-HST fields. We obtain the correlation length for compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs) at z ∼ 1.6 of r0 = 7.1-2.6+2.3 h-1 Mpc and compact star forming galaxies (cSFGs) at z ∼ 2.5 of r0 = 7.7-2.9+2.7 h-1 Mpc assuming a power-law slope γ = 1.8 . The characteristic dark matter halo masses MH of cQGs at z ∼ 1.6 and cSFGs at z ∼ 2.5 are ∼ 7.1 ×1012h-1M⊙ and ∼ 4.4 ×1012h-1M⊙ , respectively. Our clustering result suggests that cQGs at z ∼ 1.6 are possibly the progenitors of local luminous ETGs and the descendants of cSFGs and SMGs at z > 2. Thus an evolutionary connection involving SMGs, cSFGs, QSOs, cQGs and local luminous ETGs has been indicated by our clustering result.

  19. Compact star forming galaxies as the progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies: clustering result

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiaozhi; Kong, Xu; Fang, Guanwen

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the spatial clustering of massive compact galaxies at $1.2\\le z \\le 3$ in CANDELS/3D-HST fields. We obtain the correlation length for compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs) at $z\\sim1.6$ of $r_{0}=7.1_{-2.6}^{+2.3}\\ h^{-1}Mpc$ and compact star forming galaxies (cSFGs) at $z\\sim2.5$ of $r_{0}=7.7_{-2.9}^{+2.7}\\ h^{-1}Mpc$ assuming a power-law slope $\\gamma =1.8$. The characteristic dark matter halo masses $M_H$ of cQGs at $z\\sim1.6$ and cSFGs at $z\\sim2.5$ are $\\sim7.1\\times 10^{12}\\ h^{-1} M_\\odot$ and $\\sim4.4\\times10^{12}\\ h^{-1} M_\\odot$, respectively. Our clustering result suggests that cQGs at $z\\sim1.6$ are possibly the progenitors of local luminous ETGs and the descendants of cSFGs and SMGs at $z>2$. Thus an evolutionary connection involving SMGs, cSFGs, QSOs, cQGs and local luminous ETGs has been indicated by our clustering result.

  20. On the Stellar Masses of Giant Clumps in Distant Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Cava, Antonio; Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    We analyze stellar masses of clumps drawn from a compilation of star-forming galaxies at 1.1 galaxies, we examine the effects of spatial resolution and sensitivity on the inferred stellar masses. Large differences are found, with median stellar masses ranging from ∼ {10}9 {M}ȯ for clumps in the often-referenced field galaxies to ∼ {10}7 {M}ȯ for fainter clumps selected in deep-field or lensed galaxies. We argue that the clump masses, observed in non-lensed galaxies with a limited spatial resolution of ∼1 kpc, are artificially increased due to the clustering of clumps of smaller mass. Furthermore, we show that the sensitivity threshold used for the clump selection affects the inferred masses even more strongly than resolution, biasing clumps at the low-mass end. Both improved spatial resolution and sensitivity appear to shift the clump stellar mass distribution to lower masses, qualitatively in agreement with clump masses found in recent high-resolution simulations of disk fragmentation. We discuss the nature of the most massive clumps, and we conclude that it is currently not possible to properly establish a meaningful clump stellar mass distribution from observations and to infer the existence and value of a characteristic clump mass scale.

  1. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  2. Similarities and uniqueness of Lyα emitters among star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Ichi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a deep narrow-band imaging survey with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the Subaru Telescope and constructed a sample of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.53 in the UDS-CANDELS field where a sample of Hα emitters (HAEs) at the same redshift is already obtained from our previous narrow-band observation at NIR. The deep narrow-band and multi broadband data allow us to find LAEs of stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) down to ≳108 M⊙ and ≳0.2 M⊙/yr, respectively. We show that the LAEs are located along the same mass-SFR sequence traced by normal star-forming galaxies such as HAEs, but towards a significantly lower mass regime. Likewise, LAEs seem to share the same mass-size relation with typical star-forming galaxies, except for the massive LAEs, which tend to show significantly compact sizes. We identify a vigorous mass growth in the central part of LAEs: the stellar mass density in the central region of LAEs increases as their total galaxy mass grows. On the other hand, we see no Lyα line in emission for most of the HAEs. Rather, we find that the Lyα feature is either absent or in absorption (Lyα absorbers; LAAs), and its absorption strength may increase with reddening of the UV continuum slope. We demonstrate that a deep Lyα narrow-band imaging like this study is able to search for not only LAEs but also LAAs in a certain redshift slice. This work suggests that LAEs trace normal star-forming galaxies in the low-mass regime, while they remain as a unique population because the majority of HAEs are not LAEs.

  3. Similarities and uniqueness of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters among star-forming galaxies at z=2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Ichi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Suzuki, Tomoko L; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a deep narrow-band imaging survey with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the Subaru Telescope and constructed a sample of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) at z=2.53 in the UDS-CANDELS field where a sample of H$\\alpha$ emitters (HAEs) at the same redshift is already obtained from our previous narrow-band observation at NIR. The deep narrow-band and multi broadband data allow us to find LAEs of stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) down to $\\gtrsim$$10^8$ M$_\\odot$ and $\\gtrsim$0.2 M$_\\odot$/yr, respectively. We show that the LAEs are located along the same mass-SFR sequence traced by normal star-forming galaxies such as HAEs, but towards a significantly lower mass regime. Likewise, LAEs seem to share the same mass--size relation with typical star-forming galaxies, except for the massive LAEs, which tend to show significantly compact sizes. We identify a vigorous mass growth in the central part of LAEs: the stellar mass density in the central region of LAEs increases as their total galaxy mass gr...

  4. Molecular Gas Content of an Extremely Star-forming Herschel Observed Lensed Dusty Galaxy at z=2.685

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; H-ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of combined deep near-infrared, far infrared and millimeter observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) identified from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The high redshift DSFG is gravitationally lensed by a massive WISE identified cluster at z~1 (spectroscopically confirmed with Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS) producing multiply lensed images and arcs observed in the optical. The DSFG is spectroscopically confirmed at z=2.685 from CO(1-0) observations by GBT and separately from CO(3-2) observations by CARMA. We use the combined spectroscopic and imaging observations to construct a detailed lens model of the background DSFG which allowed us to study the sources plane properties of the target. Multi-band data from Keck/NIRC2, HST/WFC3 and Herschel yields star formation rate and stellar mass well above the main sequence. Observations of the dust continuum by the Sub-millimeter Array yields an observed total ISM mass of 6.5E+11 M* which is responsible for the intense observed star formation rates. Comparing the measured SFR with molecular gas measurements from CO(1-0) observations reveals that this system has relatively short gas depletion time scale which is consistent with the starburst phase observed in high redshift sub-millimeter galaxies.

  5. A near-infrared variability study in the cloud IC1396W: low star-forming efficiency and two new eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Alexander; Davis, Chris J; Meusinger, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the population of young stellar objects (YSOs) in high extinction regions is a prerequisite for studies of star formation. This task is not trivial, as reddened background objects can be indistinguishable from YSOs in near-infrared colour-colour diagrams. Here we combine deep JHK photometry with J- and K-band lightcurves, obtained with UKIRT/WFCAM, to explore the YSO population in the dark cloud IC1396W. We demonstrate that a colour-variability criterion can provide useful constraints on the star forming activity in embedded regions. For IC1396W we find that a near-infrared colour analysis alone vastly overestimates the number of YSOs. In total, the globule probably harbours not more than ten YSOs, among them a system of two young stars embedded in a small (~10000 AU) reflection nebula. This translates into a star forming efficiency SFE of ~1%, which is low compared with nearby more massive star forming regions, but similar to less massive globules. We confirm that IC1396W is likely associated wit...

  6. UV, optical and infrared properties of star forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchra, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The UVOIR properties of galaxies with extreme star formation rates are examined. These objects seem to fall into three distinct classes which can be called (1) extragalactic H II regions, (2) clumpy irregulars, and (3) starburst galaxies. Extragalactic H II regions are dominated by recently formed stars and may be considered 'young' galaxies if the definition of young is having the majority of total integrated star formation occurring in the last billion years. Clumpy irregulars are bursts of star formation superposed on an old population and are probably good examples of stochastic star formation. It is possible that star formation in these galaxies is triggered by the infall of gas clouds or dwarf companions. Starburst galaxies are much more luminous, dustier and more metal rich than the other classes. These objects show evidence for shock induced star formation where shocks may be caused by interaction with massive companions or are the result of an extremely strong density wave.

  7. Colours, star formation rates and environments of star-forming and quiescent galaxies at the cosmic noon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Robert; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-09-01

    We analyse the star formation rates (SFRs), colours and dust extinctions of galaxies in massive (1012.5 - 1013.5 M⊙) haloes at z ∼ 2 in high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations as part of the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. The simulations do not model feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) but reproduce well the observed relations between stellar and halo mass and between stellar mass and SFR. About half (a third) of the simulated massive galaxies (massive central galaxies) at z ∼ 2 have broad-band colours classifying them as 'quiescent', and the fraction of quiescent centrals is steeply decreasing towards higher redshift, in agreement with observations. The progenitors of z ∼ 2 quiescent central galaxies are, on average, more massive, have lower specific SFRs and reside in more massive haloes than the progenitors of similarly massive star-forming centrals. The simulations further predict a morphological mix of galaxies that includes disc-dominated, irregular and early-type galaxies. However, our simulations do not reproduce the reddest of the quiescent galaxies observed at z ∼ 2. We also do not find evidence for a colour bimodality, but are limited by our modest sample size. In our simulations, the star formation activity of central galaxies of moderate mass (Mstar ∼ 1010 - 1011 M⊙) is affected by a combination of two distinct physical processes. Outflows powered by stellar feedback result in a short-lived (experience a moderate reduction of their SFRs ('cosmological starvation'). The relative importance of these processes and AGN feedback is uncertain and will be explored in future work.

  8. Adolescent Interstellar Cloud Poised to Make Star-forming Debut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 140-foot radio telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, W.Va., have discovered a highly unusual, massive interstellar cloud that appears poised to begin a burst of star formation. The cloud may be the first ever to be detected in the transition between atomic and molecular states. NRAO scientists Felix J. Lockman and Anthony H. Minter presented their findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Pasadena, Calif. Radio Image of G28.17+0.05 The scientists discovered the cloud, identified as G28.17+0.05, lying along the inner plane of the Milky Way Galaxy, approximately 16,300 light-years from Earth. Observations of the cloud indicate that it is near one of the Galaxy's sweeping spiral arms, which are outlined by young stars and the massive clouds that form them. Lockman and Minter speculate that as the interstellar cloud slams into the Galactic arm, the resulting shock wave may be precipitating the conversion of the neutral hydrogen atoms into heavier molecules, which could herald the onset of star formation. "These may be the first observations of a cloud that is in the transition between the neutral atomic hydrogen and molecular phases," said Lockman. "This provides astronomers a unique opportunity to study the chemistry of very young interstellar clouds, which could give us significant insights into the early stages of star formation and the structure of the Galaxy." Interstellar clouds that contain neutral atomic hydrogen, called HI (H-one) clouds, are thought of as giant, cold blobs of gas. Researchers study these objects because they offer intriguing glimpses of the composition of our Galaxy and the cosmos, and reveal much about how stars and planets are born. Hydrogen atoms in these clouds give off natural signals (at the 21-cm wavelength), which can be detected only by radio telescopes. The scientists discovered that this HI cloud was unusual in many

  9. Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Bellocchi, E.; Maiolino, R.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2014-08-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the ionised gas outflows and ambient interstellar medium (ISM) in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies) at galactic and sub-galactic (i.e., star-forming clumps) scales, thanks to integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high signal-to-noise integrated spectra. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 70 km s-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star-forming galaxies (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 25 km s-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated with interactions and mergers plays an important role in driving σ in the U/LIRG range. We find that σ has a dependency on the star formation rate density (ΣSFR), which is weaker than expected if it were driven by the energy released by the starburst. The relatively small role of star formation (SF) driving the σ in U/LIRGs is reinforced by the lack of an increase in σ associated with high luminosity SF clumps. We also find that the impact of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ULIRGs is strong, increasing on average σ by a factor 1.5. Low-z U/LIRGs cover a range of velocity dispersion (σ ~ 30 to 100 km s-1) and star formation rate density (ΣSFR ~ 0.1 to 20 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) similar to those of high-z SFGs. Moreover, the observed weak dependency of σ on ΣSFR for local U/LIRGs (σ ∝ ΣSFR+0.06) is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z samples. The presence of ionized gas outflows in U/LIRGs seems universal based on the detection of a broad, usually blueshifted, Hα line. The observed dependency of the maximum velocity of the outflow (Vmax) on the star formation rate (SFR) is of the type Vmax(non - AGN) ∝ SFR(LIR)+ 0.24. We find that AGNs in U/LIRGs are able to generate faster (~×2) and more massive (~× 1.4) ionized gas outflows than pure starbursts. The derived ionized mass

  10. Physical properties of star-forming regions across the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Miranda Kay

    2010-12-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) has surveyed the northern Galactic plane at 1.1 mm and detected 8,358 sources. The BGPS catalog is large enough to characterize the properties of massive star formation in a statistically significant way. In this dissertation, I have conducted a survey of NH2 lines toward 771 BGPS sources located throughout the Galactic plane. The NH2 and 1.1 mm continuum observations together have allowed for complete characterization of the physical properties of these sources. I detected the NH2(1,1) line toward 408 BGPS sources in the inner Galaxy, allowing for determination of their kinematic distances. At distances less than roughly 1 kpc, the BGPS detects predominately cores which will form a single star or small multiple system, while at distances between 1 and 7 kpc the BGPS detects predominately clumps which will form entire stellar clusters. At distances greater than 7 kpc, the BGPS detects the large scale clouds which contain clumps and cores. I have correlated the BGPS catalog with mid-IR catalogs of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), and found that 49% of the BGPS sources contain signs of active star formation. The masses, densities, H2 and NH2 column densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and NH2 velocity dispersions are higher in BGPS sources with associated mid-IR sources. I have also studied the physical properties of the BGPS sources as a function of Galactocentric radius, R[subscript Gal]. I find that the mean radius and mass decrease with increasing R[subscript Gal] but peak within the 5 kpc molecular ring where the gas kinetic temperature reaches a minimum. The fraction of BGPS sources with associated mid-IR sources decreases by 10% within the molecular ring. I postulate that these trends can be explained by an ambient gas density which decreases with R[subscript Gal], but peaks within the molecular ring. Similarly, the NH2 column density and abundance decrease by almost an order! of magnitude from the inner to outer

  11. C+/H2 gas in star-forming clouds and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordon, Raanan; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-11-01

    We present analytic theory for the total column density of singly ionized carbon (C+) in the optically thick photon dominated regions (PDRs) of far-UV irradiated (star-forming) molecular clouds. We derive a simple formula for the C+ column as a function of the cloud (hydrogen) density, the far-UV field intensity, and metallicity, encompassing the wide range of galaxy conditions. When assuming the typical relation between UV and density in the cold neutral medium, the C+ column becomes a function of the metallicity alone. We verify our analysis with detailed numerical PDR models. For optically thick gas, most of the C+ column is mixed with hydrogen that is primarily molecular (H2), and this `C+/H2' gas layer accounts for almost all of the `CO-dark' molecular gas in PDRs. The C+/H2 column density is limited by dust shielding and is inversely proportional to the metallicity down to ˜0.1 solar. At lower metallicities, H2 line blocking dominates and the C+/H2 column saturates. Applying our theory to CO surveys in low-redshift spirals, we estimate the fraction of C+/H2 gas out of the total molecular gas to be typically ˜0.4. At redshifts 1 < z < 3 in massive disc galaxies the C+/H2 gas represents a very small fraction of the total molecular gas (≲ 0.16). This small fraction at high redshifts is due to the high gas surface densities when compared to local galaxies.

  12. Stars and Star Clusters: A Look at Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lau, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Star-forming regions hosting intermediate-mass stars straddle the boundary separating the the low- and high-mass regimes. These intermediate-mass star-forming regions can be used to probe this transition from low- to high-mass star formation. Our team has assembled an all-sky catalog of 616 candidate intermediate-mass star forming regions (IMSFRs) selected by IRAS colors and refined by visual inspection of WISE imagery. We present here two outer-Galaxy star-forming regions, IRAS22451+6154 and IRAS23448+6010, that despite having similar IRAS colors and mid-infrared morphologies, have vastly different stellar content. We combine Gemini and IRTF NIR spectroscopy with WIYN and SOFIA imaging for a thorough look at the stellar content of these two regions.

  13. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Van der Wiel, M. H. D. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, NL-9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ceccarelli, C., E-mail: emprecht@caltech.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J = 1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC 6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC 6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H{sub 2} of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC 6334 I we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freezeout of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of interstellar fluorine is controlled by freezeout onto gas grains.

  14. Hydrogen Fluoride in High-Mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, Martin; van der Tak, Floris F S; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Lis, Dariusz C; Neufeld, David; Phillips, Thomas G; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J=1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H2 of 1.5e-8 in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC6334 I, we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5e-10. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freeze out of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant 3.6e-8) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of...

  15. Stellar Clusters in the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, Eric D; McNeill, Collin J; Broos, Patrick S; Garmire, Gordon P

    2009-01-01

    The full stellar population of NGC 6334, one of the most spectacular regions of massive star formation in the nearby Galaxy, have not been well-sampled in past studies. We analyze here a mosaic of two Chandra X-ray Observatory images of the region using sensitive data analysis methods, giving a list of 1607 faint X-ray sources with arcsecond positions and approximate line-of-sight absorption. About 95 percent of these are expected to be cluster members, most lower mass pre-main sequence stars. Extrapolating to low X-ray levels, the total stellar population is estimated to be 20-30,000 pre-main sequence stars. The X-ray sources show a complicated spatial pattern with about 10 distinct star clusters. The heavily-obscured clusters are mostly associated with previously known far-infrared sources and radio HII regions. The lightly-obscured clusters are mostly newly identified in the X-ray images. Dozens of likely OB stars are found, both in clusters and dispersed throughout the region, suggesting that star formati...

  16. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  17. On the frequency of star-forming galaxies in the vicinity of powerful AGNs: The case of SMM J04135+10277

    CERN Document Server

    Fogasy, J; Lagos, C D P; Drouart, G; Gonzalez-Perez, V

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) In the last decade several massive molecular gas reservoirs were found 10^8\\, \\rm{M_{\\odot}}$, and 0.3% have at least one highly star-forming companion ($\\rm{SFR}>100\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}\\,yr^{-1}}$). Our results suggest that quasar-gas-rich companion galaxy systems are common phenomena in the early Universe and the high incidence of companions makes the study of such systems crucial to understand the growth and hierarchical build-up of galaxies and black holes.

  18. Inverse Compton Contribution to the Star-Forming Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa

    2012-01-01

    Fermi has resolved several star-forming galaxies, but the vast majority of the star-forming universe is unresolved and thus contributes to the extragalactic gamma ray background (EGB). Here, we calculate the contribution from star-forming galaxies to the EGB in the Fermi range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV, due to inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of the interstellar photon field by cosmic-ray electrons. We first construct a one-zone model for a single star-forming galaxy, assuming supernovae power the acceleration of cosmic rays. The same IC interactions leading to gamma rays also substantially contribute to the energy loss of the high-energy cosmic-ray electrons. Consequently, a galaxy's IC emission is determined by the relative importance of IC losses in the cosmic-ray electron energy budget ("partial calorimetry"). We use our template for galactic IC luminosity to find the cosmological contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB. For all of our models, we find the IC EGB contribution is almost an order of ma...

  19. Dust Attenuation in Clumpy, Star-Forming Galaxies at 0.07 < z < 0.14

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, Robert; Fisher, David B; Wisnioski, Emily; Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Green, Andrew W; da Cunha, Elisabete; McGregor, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Dust attenuation in galaxies has been extensively studied nearby, however, there are still many unknowns regarding attenuation in distant galaxies. We contribute to this effort using observations of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.15 from the DYNAMO survey. Highly star-forming DYNAMO galaxies share many similar attributes to clumpy, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Considering integrated Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations, trends between attenuation and other galaxy properties for DYNAMO galaxies are well matched to star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Integrated gas attenuations of DYNAMO galaxies are 0.2-2.0 mags in the V-band, and the ratio of stellar E(B-V) and gas E(B-V) is 0.78-0.08 (compared to 0.44 at low redshift). Four highly star-forming DYNAMO galaxies were observed at H-alpha using the Hubble Space Telescope and at Pa-alpha using integral field spectroscopy at Keck. The latter achieve similar resolution (~0.8-1 kpc) to our HST imaging using adaptive optics, pro...

  20. The Quenched Mass Portion of Star-forming Galaxies and the Origin of the Star Formation Sequence Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Zheng, Xianzhong; Kong, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Observationally, a massive disk galaxy can harbor a bulge component that is comparably inactive as a quiescent galaxy. It has been speculated that the quenched component contained in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is the reason why the star formation main sequence (MS) has a shallow slope at high masses. In this paper, we present a toy model to quantify the quenched mass portion of SFGs (fQ) at fixed stellar mass (M*) and to reconcile the MS slopes in both the low- and the high-mass regimes. In this model, each SFG is composed of a star-forming plus a quenched component. The mass of the star-forming component (MSF) correlates with the star formation rate (SFR) following a relation SFR \\propto {M}{SF}{α {SF}}, where αSF ∼ 1.0. The quenched component contributes to the stellar mass but not to the SFR. It is thus possible to quantify fQ based on the departure of the observed MS slope α from αSF. Adopting the redshift-dependent MS slope reported by Whitaker et al., we explore the evolution of the {f}{{Q}}{--}{M}* relations over z = [0.5, 2.5]. We find that Milky Way-like SFGs (with {M}* ≈ {10}10.7 {M}ȯ ) typically have an fQ = 30%–40% at z ∼ 2.25, whereas this value rapidly rises up to 70%–80% at z ∼ 0.75. The origin of an α ∼ 1.0 MS slope seen in the low-mass regime is also discussed. We argue for a scenario in which the majority of low-mass SFGs stay in a “steady-stage” star formation phase. In this phase, the SFR is mainly regulated by stellar feedback and not significantly influenced by the quenching mechanisms, thus remaining roughly constant over cosmic time. This scenario successfully produces an α ∼ 1.0 MS slope, as well as the observed MS evolution from z = 2.5 to z = 0 at low masses.

  1. The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F.; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.

  2. Challenging shock models with SOFIA OH observations in the high-mass star-forming region Cepheus A

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, A; Menten, K M; Flower, D R; Forets, G Pineau des; Codella, C; Csengeri, T; Gomez-Ruiz, A I; Heyminck, S; Jacobs, K; Kristensen, L E; Leurini, S; Requena-Torres, M A; Wampfler, S F; Wiesemeyer, H; Wyrowski, F

    2015-01-01

    OH is a key molecule in H2O chemistry, a valuable tool for probing physical conditions, and an important contributor to the cooling of shock regions. OH participates in the re-distribution of energy from the protostar towards the surrounding ISM. Our aim is to assess the origin of the OH emission from the Cepheus A massive star-forming region and to constrain the physical conditions prevailing in the emitting gas. We thus want to probe the processes at work during the formation of massive stars. We present spectrally resolved observations of OH towards the outflows of Cepheus A with the GREAT spectrometer onboard the SOFIA telescope. Three triplets were observed at 1834.7 GHz, 1837.8 GHz, and 2514.3 GHz (163.4, 163.1, and 119.2 microns), at angular resolutions of 16.3", 16.3", and 11.9", respectively. We present the CO (16-15) spectrum at the same position. We compared the integrated intensities in the redshifted wings to shock models. The two triplets near 163 microns are detected in emission with blending h...

  3. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Combes, F.; Freundlich, J. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Nordon, R. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Cox, P. [Department of Physics, Le Conte Hall, University of California, 94720 Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, M. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lutz, D., E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  4. PHIBSS: molecular gas, extinction, star formation and kinematics in the z=1.5 star forming galaxy EGS13011166

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, R; Kurk, J; Wuyts, S; Combes, F; Freundlich, J; Bolatto, A; Cooper, M C; Neri, R; Nordon, R; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Comerford, J; Cox, P; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; García-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Newman, S; Saintonge, A; Griffin, K Shapiro; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2013-01-01

    We report matched resolution, imaging spectroscopy of the CO J=3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H-alpha line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope)in the massive z=1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the "Plateau de Bure high-z, blue sequence survey (PHIBSS). We combine these data with HST V-J-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution, and peaks in an obscured, star forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a 'm...

  5. Early-stage star forming cloud cores in GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs) as traced by organics pecies

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Jixing; Chen, Xi; Takahashi, S

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the physical and chemical properties of massive star forming cores in early stages, we analyse the excitation and abundance of four organic species, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3 and CH3CH2CN, toward 29 Extended Green Object (EGO) cloud cores that were observed by our previous single dish spectral line survey. The EGO cloud cores are found to have similar methanol J_3-J_2 rotation temperatures of ~44 K, a typical linear size of ~0.036 pc, and a typical beam averaged methanol abundance of several 10^(-9) (the beam corrected value could reach several 10^(-7)). The abundances of the latter three species, normalized by that of methanol, are found to be correlated also across a large variety of clouds such as EGO cloud cores, hot corinos, massive hot cores and Galactic Center clouds. The chemical properties of the EGO cloud cores lie between that of hot cores and hot corinos. However, the abundances and abundance ratios of the four species can not be satisfactorily explained by recent chemical mo...

  6. First evidence for molecular interfaces between outflows and ambient cloud in high-mass star forming regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Viti, S; Williams, D A

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations of the CepA-East region of massive star formation and describe an extended and dynamically distinct feature not previously recognised. This feature is present in emission from H2CS, OCS, CH3OH, and HDO at -5.5 km/s, but is not traced by conventional tracers of star forming regions H2S, SO2, SO, CS. The feature is extended up to at least 0.1 pc. We show that the feature is neither a hot core nor a shocked outflow. However, the chemistry of the feature is consistent with predictions of a model of an eroding interface between a fast wind and a dense core; mixing between the two media occurs in the interface on a timescale of 10-50 years. If these observations are confirmed by detailed maps and by detections in species also predicted to be abundant (e.g. HCO+, H2CO, and NH3) this feature would be the first detection of such an interface in regions of massive star formation. An important implication of the model is that a significant reservoir of sulfur in grain mantles is required to b...

  7. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buat, V. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Charmandaris, V.; Magdis, G. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borgne, D. Le [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France); Lin, L. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States); and others

    2015-07-10

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.

  8. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    George, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Context: Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disrupti...

  9. A Study of the Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy NGC 855 with Spitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 855 using the narrow-band Ha and Spitzer data. Both the Ha and Spitzer IRAC images confirm star-forming activity in the center of NGC 855. We obtained a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.022 and 0.025 M☉yr-1, respectively, from the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm emission data. The HI observa tion suggests that the star-forming activity might be triggered by a minor merger. We also find that there is a distinct IR emission region in 5.8 and 8.0μm bands, located at about 10 "away from the nucleus of NGC 855. Given the strong 8.0μm but faint Hα emission, we expect that it is a heavily obscured star-forming region, which needs to be confirmed by further optical spectroscopic observations.

  10. GeV Observations of star-forming glaxies with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Caliandro, G.A.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Cameron, R.A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Caraveo, P.A.; /Brera Observ. /AIM, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /George Mason U. /Artep Inc. /Natl. Res. Coun., Wash., D.C. /Artep Inc. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Buenos Aires, IAFE /NASA, Goddard /Perugia U. /ASDC, Frascati /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Swedish Acad. Sci. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /AIM, Saclay /Alabama U., Huntsville /INFN, Padua /CSIC, Catalunya /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Kyoto U. /NASA, Goddard /Ohio State U., CCAPP /Iceland U.; /more authors..

    2012-08-07

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values lesssim 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙ yr–1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10–6 ph cm–2 s–1 sr–1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

  11. A Multitransition CO and CS(2--1) Comparison of a Star-forming and a Non--Star-forming Giant Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Blitz, Leo

    1998-02-01

    CO (3-2), CO (1-0), and CS (2-1) observations of clumps in the cold, low-luminosity cloud G216-2.5 discovered by Maddalena & Thaddeus are compared to the star-forming Rosette molecular cloud. The comparisons suggest that the clumps in a cloud may be characterized as being either dormant, incipient star forming, or star forming. In the Rosette molecular cloud, each set accounts for, respectively, 80%, 10%, and 10% of the total mass, but in G216-2.5, nearly 100% of the clumps are dormant. The physical conditions of the clumps in both clouds suggest a mass agglomeration evolutionary sequence from dormant to star-forming clumps. Detailed results for the clumps in both clouds are as follows. Clump excitation conditions are remarkably uniform in G216-2.5 but show wide variation in the Rosette. CO (3-2) integrated intensities and the ratio of (3-2) to (1-0) emission are significantly greater in the star-forming cloud and greatest of all in those clumps with embedded IRAS sources. The ratio of CO (3-2) to (1-0) line widths is also greater in the Rosette cloud. Peak clump CO (1-0) temperatures are greater in the Rosette than G216-2.5, implying higher gas kinetic temperatures, and are highest of all for those clumps associated with IRAS sources. The ratios of peak CO (3-2) to (1-0) temperatures, however, are comparable in the two clouds, which implies that the volume density of emitting gas in the clumps in each cloud is similar, nH2~=103 cm-3. The CS observations indicate the presence of denser gas, nH2~105 cm-3, in the clumps in each cloud. CS integrated intensities are generally an order of magnitude weaker than 13CO emission in each cloud, but the ratio of the two is a factor of 2 less in G216-2.5. CS to 13CO line width ratios are also lower in G216-2.5, which suggests that there is a deficiency of dense gas relative to the Rosette. Again, the star-forming clumps in the Rosette possess the highest ratios. In addition, CO (2-1) emission was mapped over the central region

  12. Assessing Radiation Pressure as a Feedback Mechanism in Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-02-01

    Radiation pressure from the absorption and scattering of starlight by dust grains may be an important feedback mechanism in regulating star-forming galaxies. We compile data from the literature on star clusters, star-forming subregions, normal star-forming galaxies, and starbursts to assess the importance of radiation pressure on dust as a feedback mechanism, by comparing the luminosity and flux of these systems to their dust Eddington limit. This exercise motivates a novel interpretation of the Schmidt law, the L IR-L'CO correlation, and the L IR-L'HCN correlation. In particular, the linear L IR-L'HCN correlation is a natural prediction of radiation pressure regulated star formation. Overall, we find that the Eddington limit sets a hard upper bound to the luminosity of any star-forming region. Importantly, however, many normal star-forming galaxies have luminosities significantly below the Eddington limit. We explore several explanations for this discrepancy, especially the role of "intermittency" in normal spirals—the tendency for only a small number of subregions within a galaxy to be actively forming stars at any moment because of the time dependence of the feedback process and the luminosity evolution of the stellar population. If radiation pressure regulates star formation in dense gas, then the gas depletion timescale is 6 Myr, in good agreement with observations of the densest starbursts. Finally, we highlight the importance of observational uncertainties, namely, the dust-to-gas ratio and the CO-to-H2 and HCN-to-H2 conversion factors, that must be understood before a definitive assessment of radiation pressure as a feedback mechanism in star-forming galaxies.

  13. THE COMPACT STAR-FORMING COMPLEX AT THE HEART OF NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J., E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-02-20

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during subarcsecond seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78 μm that coincides with the location of a C{sub 2} bandhead. If this feature is due to C{sub 2} then the star-forming complex has been in place for at least a few hundred Myr. Emission lines of Brγ, [Fe ii], and He i 2.06 μm do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages <8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf–Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages <8 Myr. If the present-day star formation rate is maintained then the timescale to double its stellar mass ranges from a few Myr to a few tens of Myr, depending on the contribution made by stars older than ∼8 Myr. If—as suggested by some studies—the star-forming complex is centered on the galaxy’s nucleus, which presumably contains a large population of old and intermediate-age stars, then the nucleus of NGC 253 is currently experiencing a phase of rapid growth in its stellar mass.

  14. Measuring Nearby Star Forming Regions with the VLBA: from the Distance to the Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of a large ongoing effort to determine the distance and structure of all star-forming regions within several hundred parsecs of the Sun using radio-interferometric observations. The main goals of this thesis were: (1) Find the mean distance to the two best-studied nearby regions of low-mass star-formation (Taurus and Ophiuchus) with accuracies (a few percent or better) one to two orders of magnitude better than the present values, (2) Explore the structure and dynamics of these star-forming regions, and (3) Study the stars themselves.

  15. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  16. A Systematic Investigation of Cold Gas and Dust in "Normal" Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts at Redshifts 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Capak, Peter L.; COSMOS, HerMES

    2016-01-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We present some of the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations of the cold gas and dust with the most powerful facilities, i.e., the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation encompasses a systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in massive dusty starbursts and (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  17. 13C-methyl formate: observations of a sample of high mass star-forming regions including Orion-KL and spectroscopic characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Cecile; Field, David; Jorgensen, Jes; Bisschop, Suzanne; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Bergin, Edwin; Crockett, Nathan; Neill, Justin; Margules, Laurent; Huet, Therese; Demaison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic centre for methyl formate, HCOOCH$_{3}$, and its isotopologues H$^{13}$COOCH$_{3}$ and HCOO$^{13}$CH$_{3}$. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4--287.4~GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the $^{13}$C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO$^{13}$CH$_{3}$ towards the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr~B2(N-LMH), NGC~6334~IRS~1, W51 e2 and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1~mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the $^{13}$C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4$\\pm$10.1 and 71.4$\\pm$7.8, respectively) are, for both the $^{13}$C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average ...

  18. Physical properties of local star-forming analogues to z ˜ 5 Lyman-break galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Stephanie M. L.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Levan, Andrew J.

    2016-07-01

    Intense, compact, star-forming galaxies are rare in the local Universe but ubiquitous at high redshift. We interpret the 0.1-22 μm spectral energy distributions of a sample of 180 galaxies at 0.05 origin and evolution of early galaxies.

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Bivariate functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawardhana, M L P; Taylor, E N; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Norberg, P; Baldry, I K; Loveday, J; Owers, M S; Wilkins, S M; Colless, M; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Brough, S; Cluver, M; Croom, S; Kelvin, L; Lara-López, M A; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, A R; Robotham, A S G

    2014-01-01

    We present bivariate luminosity and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies drawn from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. While optically deep spectroscopic observations of GAMA over a wide sky area enable the detection of a large number of $0.001<{SFR}_{H\\alpha}$ (M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$)$<100$ galaxies, the requirement for an H$\\alpha$ detection in targets selected from an $r$-band magnitude limited survey leads to an incompleteness due to missing optically faint star forming galaxies. Using $z<0.1$ bivariate distributions as a reference we model the higher-$z$ distributions, thereby approximating a correction for the missing optically faint star forming galaxies to the local SFR and stellar mass densities. Furthermore, we obtain the $r$-band LFs and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies from the bivariate LFs. As our sample is selected on the basis of detected H$\\alpha$ emission, a direct tracer of on-going star formation, this sample represents a true ...

  20. Reconciling the observed star-forming sequence with the observed stellar mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Kate

    2014-01-01

    We examine the connection between the observed "star-forming sequence" (SFR $\\propto$ M$_{*}^{\\alpha}$) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function between $0.2 10.5$, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then construct a star-forming sequence which exactly reproduces the evolution of the mass function. This star-forming sequence is also well-described by a broken-power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At $z=2$, it is offset by $\\sim$0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic SFR and the growth of the stellar mass density in recent determinations of the mass function. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in self-consistent theoretical models of galaxy evolution, including semi-analytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching mod...

  1. Near-Infrared Circular Polarization Survey in Star-Forming Regions: Correlations and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Jungmi; Hough, James H; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Lucas, Phil W; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kandori, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of ten sub-regions in six star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20 %, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star forming regions.

  2. The Compact Star-Forming Complex at the Heart of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during sub-arcsec seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78um that coincides with the location of a C2 bandhead. Emission lines of Brgamma, [FeII], and HeI2.06um do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages < 8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf-Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages < 8 Myr....

  3. The Clustering and Halo Masses of Star Forming Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Dolley, Tim; Weiner, Benjamin J; Brodwin, Mark; Kochanek, C S; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Palamara, David P; Jannuzi, Buell T; Dey, Arjun; Atlee, David W; Beare, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star forming galaxies at 0.2 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L_TIR > 10^11 Lsun) and is comprised entirely of LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L_TIR > 10^12 Lsun) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r_0 = 3-6 Mpc/h for almost all of our star forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L_TIR at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L_TIR (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M_halo ~ 10^12.9 Msun/h. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star forming galaxies at z 10^11.7 Lsun) at 0.6

  4. An Objective Definition for the Main Sequence of Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio

    2015-01-01

    The Main Sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies plays a fundamental role in driving galaxy evolution and in our efforts to understand it. However, different studies find significant differences in the normalization, slope and shape of the MS. These discrepancies arise mainly from the different selection criteria adopted to isolate star-forming galaxies, that may include or exclude galaxies with specific star formation rate (SFR) substantially below the MS value. To obviate this limitation of all current criteria, we propose an objective definition of the MS that does not rely at all on a pre-selection of star-forming galaxies. Constructing the 3D SFR-Mass-Number plot, the MS is then defined as the ridge line of the star-forming peak, as illustrated with various figures. The advantages of such definition are manifold. If generally adopted it will facilitate the inter-comparison of results from different groups using the same star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass diagnostics, or to highlight the relative s...

  5. Star-Forming Galaxies at the Cosmic Dawn = Stervormende sterrenstelsels tijdens het kosmische ochtendgloren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renske

    2015-01-01

    The question of how the first stars formed and assembled into galaxies lies at the frontier of modern astrophysics. The study of these first sources of cosmic illumination was transformed by the installation of new instrumentation aboard the Hubble Space Telescope during one of the final Space Shutt

  6. The gas mass of star-forming galaxies at $z \\approx 1.3$

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, Nissim; Dwarakanath, K S

    2016-01-01

    We report a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) search for HI 21cm emission from a large sample of star-forming galaxies at $z \\approx 1.18 - 1.34$, lying in sub-fields of the DEEP2 Redshift Survey. The search was carried out by co-adding ("stacking") the HI 21cm emission spectra of 857 galaxies, after shifting each galaxy's HI 21cm spectrum to its rest frame. We obtain the $3\\sigma$ upper limit S$_{\\rm{HI}} 1$. The implied limit on the average atomic gas mass fraction (relative to stars) is ${\\rm M}_{\\rm GAS}/{\\rm M}_* < 0.5$, comparable to the cold molecular gas mass fraction in similar star-forming galaxies at these redshifts. We find that the cosmological mass density of neutral atomic gas in star-forming galaxies at $z \\approx 1.3$ is $\\Omega_{\\rm GAS} < 3.7 \\times 10^{-4}$, significantly lower than $\\Omega_{\\rm GAS}$ estimates in both galaxies in the local Universe and damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at $z \\geq 2.2$. Blue star-forming galaxies thus do not appear to dominate the neutral atomic ...

  7. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-04

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen.

  8. The Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxy Component of the Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Stecker, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  9. Hierarchical star formation in M33 : fundamental properties of the star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastian, N.; Ercolano, B.; Gieles, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Scheepmaker, R.A.; Gutermuth, R.; Efremov, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Star formation within galaxies appears on multiple scales, from spiral structure, to OB associations, to individual star clusters, and often substructure within these clusters. This multitude of scales calls for objective methods to find and classify star-forming regions, regardless of spatial size.

  10. Archival research on absorption lines in violently star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized analysis of a starburst model is discussed. The model proposes that the absorption line equivalent width should scale with the level of star forming activity. Archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data on IUE spectra of luminous blue galaxies were compared with previous IUE observations of extragalactic HII regions and low luminosity galaxies. The comparisons are summarized and causes for offsets are discussed.

  11. Metallicity gradients and newly created star-forming systems in interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia L.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions play an extremely important role in the evolution of galaxies, changing their morphologies and kinematics. Galaxy collisions may result in the formation of intergalactic star-forming objects, such as HII regions, young clusters and/or tidal dwarf galaxies. Several studies have found a wealth of newly created objects in interacting systems. We will exemplify the problems and challenges in this field and will describe observations of the interacting group NGC 6845, which contains four bright galaxies, two of which have extended tidal tails. We obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra for 28 of the regions located in the galaxies and in the tails. All regions in the latter are star-forming objects according to their line ratios, with ages younger than 10 Myr. A super luminous star forming complex is found in the brightest member of the group, NGC 6845A. Its luminosity reveals a star formation density of 0.19 solar masses, per year, per kpc^2, suggesting that this object is a localized starburst. We derived the gas-phase metallicity gradients across NGC 6845A and its two tails and we find that these are shallower than those for isolated galaxies. We speculate that the observed metallicity gradient may be related to one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) interaction induced inflow of fresh gas to the galaxy center, as seen in simulations, which is expected to dilute the metallicity of the central burst, (2) the formation of young metal-rich star forming regions in the tidal tails, which were born out of enriched gas expelled from the central regions of the system during the interaction and (3) the incremental growth of metals accumulated over time, due to the successful generations of star forming regions along the tails. Finally we will describe our plans to do a search for such objects on Halpha images that will soon be available for 17.5k degrees of the sky, with the A-PLUS survey.

  12. Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N. G.; Orlitová, I.; Verhamme, A.

    2016-10-01

    Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al., we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These galaxies, at redshifts of z ˜ 0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ≳ 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ˜6-13 per cent, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Ly α emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for LyC leakers. We find escape fractions of Ly α, fesc(Ly α) ˜ 20-40 per cent, among the highest known for Ly α emitting galaxies. Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the centre and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scalelengths α in the range ˜0.6-1.4 kpc. Our galaxies are characterized by low metallicity, ˜1/8-1/5 solar, low stellar mass ˜(0.2-4) × 109 M⊙, high star formation rates, SFR ˜ 14-36 M⊙ yr-1, and high SFR densities, Σ ˜ 2-35 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. These properties are comparable to those of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, our observations, combined with our first detection reported in Izotov et al., reveal that a selection for compact star-forming galaxies showing high [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ratios appears to pick up very efficiently sources with escaping LyC radiation: all five of our selected galaxies are LyC leakers.

  13. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.

  14. Molecular gas properties of a lensed star-forming galaxy at z~3.6: a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Rujopakarn, W; Richard, J; Sklias, P; Schaerer, D; Combes, F; Ebeling, H; Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Boone, F; Clément, B; Kneib, J -P; Nyland, K; Walth, G

    2016-01-01

    We report on the galaxy MACSJ0032-arc (z=3.6314) discovered during the Herschel Lensing snapshot Survey of massive galaxy clusters and strongly lensed by the cluster MACSJ0032.1+1808. The successful detections of its rest-frame UV, optical, FIR, millimeter, and radio continua as well as of CO emission enable us to characterise, for the first time at such a high redshift, the stellar, dust, and molecular gas properties of a normal star-forming galaxy with a stellar mass of 4.8x10^9 Msun and an IR luminosity of 4.8x10^{11} Lsun. We find that the bulk of the molecular gas mass and star formation seems to be spatially decoupled from the rest-frame UV emission. About 90% of the total star formation rate is seen through the thermal FIR dust emission and the radio synchrotron radiation, and is undetected at rest-frame UV wavelengths because of severe obscuration by dust. The observed CO(1-0), CO(4-3) and CO(6-5) lines demonstrate that high-J transitions, at least up to J=6, remain excited in this galaxy, whose CO sp...

  15. Interferometric Observations of High-Mass Star-Forming Clumps with Unusual N2H+/HCO+ Line Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Ian W; Sanhueza, Patricio; Whitaker, J Scott; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M; Foster, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey has detected high-mass star-forming clumps with anomalous N$_2$H$^+$/HCO$^+$(1-0) integrated intensity ratios that are either unusually high ("N$_2$H$^+$ rich") or unusually low ("N$_2$H$^+$ poor"). With 3 mm observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we imaged two N$_2$H$^+$ rich clumps, G333.234-00.061 and G345.144-00.216, and two N$_2$H$^+$ poor clumps, G351.409+00.567 and G353.229+00.672. In these clumps, the N$_2$H$^+$ rich anomalies arise from extreme self-absorption of the HCO$^+$ line. G333.234-00.061 contains two of the most massive protostellar cores known with diameters of less than 0.1 pc, separated by a projected distance of only 0.12 pc. Unexpectedly, the higher mass core appears to be at an earlier evolutionary stage than the lower mass core, which may suggest that two different epochs of high-mass star formation can occur in close proximity. Through careful analysis of the ATCA observations and MALT90 clumps (incl...

  16. The BLAST View of the Star Forming Region in Aquila (ell=45deg,b=0deg)

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out the first general submillimeter analysis of the field towards GRSMC 45.46+0.05, a massive star forming region in Aquila. The deconvolved 6 deg^2 (3\\degree X 2\\degree) maps provided by BLAST in 2005 at 250, 350, and 500 micron were used to perform a preliminary characterization of the clump population previously investigated in the infrared, radio, and molecular maps. Interferometric CORNISH data at 4.8 GHz have also been used to characterize the Ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIRs) within the main clumps. By means of the BLAST maps we have produced an initial census of the submillimeter structures that will be observed by Herschel, several of which are known Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs). Our spectral energy distributions of the main clumps in the field, located at ~7 kpc, reveal an active population with temperatures of T~35-40 K and masses of ~10^3 Msun for a dust emissivity index beta=1.5. The clump evolutionary stages range from evolved sources, with extended HII regions and prominent IR ...

  17. The Properties of the Interstellar Medium within a Star-Forming Galaxy at z=2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Danielson, A L R; Smail, Ian; Cox, P; Edge, A C; Weiss, A; Harris, A I; Baker, A J; De Breuck, C; Geach, J E; Ivison, R J; Krips, M; Lungdren, A; Longmore, S; Neri, R; Flacquer, B Ocana

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the molecular and atomic gas emission in the rest-frame far-infrared and sub-millimetre, from the lensed z=2.3 sub-millimetre galaxy SMM J2135-0102. We obtain very high signal-to-noise detections of 11 transitions from 3 species and limits on a further 20 transitions from 9 species. We use the 12CO, [CI] and HCN line strengths to investigate the gas mass, kinematic structure and interstellar medium (ISM) chemistry, and find strong evidence for a two-phase medium comprising a hot, dense, luminous component and an underlying extended cool, low-excitation massive component. Employing photo-dissociation region models we show that on average the molecular gas is exposed to a UV radiation field that is ~1000 x more intense than the Milky Way, with star-forming regions having a characteristic density of n~10^4 /cm^3. These conditions are similar to those found in local ULIRGs and in the central regions of typical starburst galaxies, even though the star formation rate is far higher in this ...

  18. An Extreme Metallicity, Large-Scale Outflow from a Star-Forming Galaxy at z ~ 0.4

    CERN Document Server

    Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchil, Christopher W; Charlton, Jane C; Nielsen, Nikole M; Mathes, Nigel L; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a large-scale galactic outflow in the CGM of a massive (M_h ~ 10^12.5 Msun), star-forming (6.9 Msun/yr), sub-L* (0.5 L_B*) galaxy at z=0.39853 that exhibits a wealth of metal-line absorption in the spectra of the background quasar Q 0122-003 at an impact parameter of 163 kpc. The galaxy inclination angle (i=63 degree) and the azimuthal angle (Phi=73 degree) imply that the QSO sightline is passing through the projected minor-axis of the galaxy. The absorption system shows a multiphase, multicomponent structure with ultra-strong, wide velocity spread OVI (logN = 15.16\\pm0.04, V_{90} = 419 km/s) and NV (logN = 14.69\\pm0.07, V_{90} = 285 km/s) lines that are extremely rare in the literature. The highly ionized absorption components are well explained as arising in a low density (10^{-4.2} cm^{-3}), diffuse (10 kpc), cool (10^4 K) photoionized gas with a super-solar metallicity ([X/H] > 0.3). From the observed narrowness of the Lyb profile, the non-detection of SIV absorption, and...

  19. DNC/HNC and N2D+/N2H+ ratios in high-mass star forming cores

    CERN Document Server

    Fontani, F; Furuya, K; Sakai, N; Aikawa, Y; Yamamoto, S

    2014-01-01

    Chemical models predict that the deuterated fraction (the column density ratio between a molecule containing D and its counterpart containing H) of N2H+, Dfrac(N2H+), is high in massive pre-protostellar cores and rapidly drops of an order of magnitude after the protostar birth, while that of HNC, Dfrac(HNC), remains constant for much longer. We tested these predictions by deriving Dfrac(HNC) in 22 high-mass star forming cores divided in three different evolutionary stages, from high-mass starless core candidates (HMSCs, 8) to high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs, 7) to Ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIs, 7). For all of them, Dfrac (N2H+) was already determined through IRAM-30m Telescope observations, which confirmed the theoretical rapid decrease of Dfrac(N2H+) after protostar birth (Fontani et al. 2011). Therefore our comparative study is not affected by biases introduced by the source selection. We have found average Dfrac(HNC) of 0.012, 0.009 and 0.008 in HMSCs, HMPOs and UCHIIs, respectively, with no stati...

  20. DNC/HNC and N2D+/N2H+ ratios in high-mass star-forming cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontani, F.; Sakai, T.; Furuya, K.; Sakai, N.; Aikawa, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-05-01

    Chemical models predict that the deuterated fraction (the column density ratio between a molecule containing D and its counterpart containing H) of N2H+, Dfrac(N2H+), high in massive pre-protostellar cores, is expected to rapidly drop by an order of magnitude after the protostar birth, while that of HNC, Dfrac(HNC), remains constant for much longer. We tested these predictions by deriving Dfrac(HNC) in 22 high-mass star-forming cores divided in three different evolutionary stages, from high-mass starless core candidates (HMSCs, eight) to high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs, seven) to ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIs, seven). For all of them, Dfrac(N2H+) was already determined through IRAM 30 m Telescope observations, which confirmed the theoretical rapid decrease of Dfrac(N2H+) after protostar birth. Therefore, our comparative study is not affected by biases introduced by the source selection. We have found average Dfrac(HNC) of 0.012, 0.009 and 0.008 in HMSCs, HMPOs and UCHIIs, respectively, with no statistically significant differences among the three evolutionary groups. These findings confirm the predictions of the chemical models, and indicate that large values of Dfrac(N2H+) are more suitable than large values of Dfrac(HNC) to identify cores on the verge of forming high-mass stars, likewise what was found in the low-mass regime.

  1. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Bizzocchi, L; Giovanardi, C; Bomans, D; Coelho, B; De Looze, I; Gonçalves, T S; Hunt, L K; Leonardo, E; Madden, S; Menéndez-Delmestre, K; Pappalardo, C; Riguccini, L

    2016-01-01

    We present $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{12}$CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 $\\mu$m emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses <~ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, M$_{HI}$/M$_*$, which increases inversely with M$_*$. The flattening of the M$_{H_2}$/M$_*$ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both HI-deficient and HI-normal dwa...

  2. The Star-Forming Region NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud with Hubble Space Telescope ACS Observations I. Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, D A; Brandne, W; Henning, T; Henning, Th.

    2006-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the star-forming region NGC 346 and its surrounding field in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The data set contains both short and long exposures for increased dynamic range, and photometry was performed using the ACS module of the stellar photometry package DOLPHOT. We detected almost 100,000 stars over a magnitude range of V ~ 11 to V ~ 28 mag, including all stellar types from the most massive young stars to faint lower main sequence and pre-main sequence stars. We find that this region, which is characterized by a plethora of stellar systems and interesting objects, is an outstanding example of mixed stellar populations. We take into account different features of the color-magnitude diagram of all the detected stars to distinguish the two dominant stellar systems: The stellar association NGC 346 and the old spherical star cluster BS 90. These observations provide a complete st...

  3. Star-forming Activity in the H II Regions Associated with the IRAS 17160–3707 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 105 L ⊙. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M ⊙ and luminosity: 9–317 × 102 L ⊙ using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μm. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  4. The Connection Between Galaxy Environment and the Luminosity Function Slopes of Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Lee, Janice C; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far ultra-violet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ~65,000 star-forming regions (i.e., FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (alpha) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that alpha correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (Sigma_SFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity f...

  5. Interpreting the Ionization Sequence in Star-Forming Galaxy Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris T; Baldwin, Jack A; Hewett, Paul C; Ferland, Gary J; Crider, Anthony; Meskhidze, Helen

    2016-01-01

    High ionization star forming (SF) galaxies are easily identified with strong emission line techniques such as the BPT diagram, and form an obvious ionization sequence on such diagrams. We use a locally optimally emitting cloud model to fit emission line ratios that constrain the excitation mechanism, spectral energy distribution, abundances and physical conditions along the star-formation ionization sequence. Our analysis takes advantage of the identification of a sample of pure star-forming galaxies, to define the ionization sequence, via mean field independent component analysis. Previous work has suggested that the major parameter controlling the ionization level in SF galaxies is the metallicity. Here we show that the observed SF- sequence could alternatively be interpreted primarily as a sequence in the distribution of the ionizing flux incident on gas spread throughout a galaxy. Metallicity variations remain necessary to model the SF-sequence, however, our best models indicate that galaxies with the hig...

  6. Accretion and Dynamical Interactions in Small-N Star-Forming Clusters I. N=5 case

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Donate, E J; Bate, M R

    2003-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations which explore the effects of small scale clustering in star-forming regions. A large ensemble of small-N clusters with 5 stellar seeds have been modelled and the resulting properties of stars and brown dwarfs statistically derived and compared with observational data. Close dynamical interactions between the protostars and competitive accretion driven by the cloud collapse are shown to produce a distribution of final masses which is bimodal, with most of the mass residing in the binary components. When convolved with a suitable core mass function, the final distribution of masses resembles the observed IMF, both in the stellar and sub-stellar regime. Binaries and single stars are found to constitute two kinematically distinct populations, with about half of the singles attaining velocities > 2 km/s, which might deprive low mass star-forming regions of their lightest members in a few crossing times. The eccentricity distribution of binaries and...

  7. Distributions of Long-Lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star Forming Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fatuzzo, M

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary --- but not sufficient --- for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This...

  8. Photoionization Models for the Semi-Forbidden C III] 1909 Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z>6 suppresses Ly-alpha emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires detecting alternative UV lines. The strong [C III] 1907 + C III] 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C III] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C III] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C III] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C III] and nebular He II 1640 can separate star-forming...

  9. Evidence for ubiquitous collimated galactic-scale outflows along the star-forming sequence at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Kate H. R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Winstrom, Lucas O., E-mail: krubin@cfa.harvard.edu [Newman Laboratory of Elementary Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We analyze Mg II λλ2796, 2803 and Fe II λλ2586, 2600 absorption profiles in individual spectra of 105 galaxies at 0.3 < z < 1.4. The galaxies, drawn from redshift surveys of the GOODS fields and the Extended Groth Strip, sample the range in star formation rates (SFRs) occupied by the star-forming sequence with stellar masses log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≳ 9.6 down to SFR ≳ 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at 0.3 < z < 0.7. Using the Doppler shifts of Mg II and Fe II absorption as tracers of cool gas kinematics, we detect large-scale winds in 66 ± 5% of the galaxies. Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and our spectral analysis indicate that the outflow detection rate depends primarily on galaxy orientation: winds are detected in ∼89% of galaxies having inclinations (i) <30° (face-on), while the wind detection rate is ∼45% in objects having i > 50° (edge-on). Combined with the comparatively weak dependence of wind detection rate on intrinsic galaxy properties, this implies that biconical outflows are ubiquitous in normal, star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.5. We find that wind velocity is correlated with galaxy M {sub *} at 3.4σ significance, while outflow equivalent width is correlated with SFR at 3.5σ significance, suggesting hosts with higher SFR launch more material and/or generate a larger velocity spread for the absorbing clouds. Assuming the gas is driven into halos with isothermal density profiles, the wind velocities (∼200-400 km s{sup –1}) permit escape from the halo potentials only for the lowest-M {sub *} systems in the sample. However, the gas carries sufficient energy to reach distances ≳ 50 kpc, and may therefore be a viable source of material for the massive, cool circumgalactic medium around bright galaxies at z ∼ 0.

  10. The connection between galaxy environment and the luminosity function slopes of star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ˜65 000 star-forming regions (i.e. FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (α) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that α correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (ΣSFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity function in galaxies with low-number statistics nor the effects of blending due to distance can fully account for these trends. We hypothesize that the flatter slopes in high ΣSFR galaxies is due to higher gas densities and higher star formation efficiencies which result in proportionally greater numbers of bright star-forming regions. Finally, we create a composite luminosity function composed of star-forming regions from many galaxies and find a break in the luminosity function at brighter luminosities. However, we find that this break is an artefact of varying detection limits for galaxies at different distances.

  11. a Census of Medium-Mass Star-Forming Regions Within 1 KPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Myers, Philip C.; Burton, Michael G.

    We have used 13CO to associate kinematic distances for a sample of prospective medium-mass star-forming regions in the southern Milky Way. This complements the equivalent northern survey already completed and we present a valuable new source list for galactic star formation studies comprising dozens of previously unrecognised such regions. We also present preliminary results of maps of C18O CS and/or NH3 emission from these sources and analysis of these sources' spectral energy distributions.

  12. Ultraviolet to optical spectral distributions of northern star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquade, Kerry; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    We report spectral energy distribution from the UV to the optical for a sample of 31 northern star-forming galaxies. We also present measurements for emission-line fluxes, continuum levels, and equivalent widths of absorption features for each individual spectrum as well as averages for the eight galactic activity classes, including normal, starburst, Seyfert 2, blue compact dwarf, blue compact, Low-Inonization Nuclear Emission Regions (LINER), H II, and combination LINER-H II galaxies.

  13. Caught in the Act: Gas and Stellar Velocity Dispersions in a Fast Quenching Compact Star-Forming Galaxy at z~1.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Dekel, Avishai; Pacifici, Camilla; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Toloba, Elisa; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Inoue, Shigeki; Guo, Yicheng; Liu, Fengshan; Primack, Joel R.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brammer, Gabriel; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolas; Ceverino, Daniel; Eliche, Carmen; Fang, Jerome J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael C.; McGrath, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    We present Keck I MOSFIRE spectroscopy in the Y and H bands of GDN-8231, a massive, compact, star-forming galaxy at a redshift of z ˜ 1.7. Its spectrum reveals both Hα and [N ii] emission lines and strong Balmer absorption lines. The Hα and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm fluxes are both weak, thus indicating a low star-formation rate of SFR ≲ 5{--}10 {M}⊙ yr-1. This, added to a relatively young age of ˜700 Myr measured from the absorption lines, provides the first direct evidence for a distant galaxy being caught in the act of rapidly shutting down its star formation. Such quenching allows GDN-8231 to become a compact, quiescent galaxy, similar to three other galaxies in our sample, by z ˜ 1.5. Moreover, the color profile of GDN-8231 shows a bluer center, consistent with the predictions of recent simulations for an early phase of inside-out quenching. Its line-of-sight velocity dispersion for the gas, {σ }{{{LOS}}}{{gas}} = 127 ± 32 km s-1, is nearly 40% smaller than that of its stars, {σ }{{{LOS}}}\\star = 215 ± 35 km s-1. High-resolution hydro-simulations of galaxies explain such apparently colder gas kinematics of up to a factor of ˜1.5 with rotating disks being viewed at different inclinations and/or centrally concentrated star-forming regions. A clear prediction is that their compact, quiescent descendants preserve some remnant rotation from their star-forming progenitors.

  14. Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Thuan, T X; Worseck, G; Orlitova, I; Verhamme, A

    2016-01-01

    Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These galaxies, at redshifts of z~0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 > 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ~6%-13%, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Lyalpha emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for Lyman continuum leakers. We find escape fractions of Lyalpha, fesc(Lyalpha) ~60%-90%, among the highest known for Lyalpha emitters (LAEs). Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the center and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scale lengths alpha in the range ~0.6-1.4 k...

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: metallicity of the Chamaeleon I star forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Spina, L; Palla, F; Biazzo, K; Sacco, G G; Alfaro, E J; Franciosini, E; Magrini, L; Morbidelli, L; Frasca, A; Adibekyan, V; Delgado-Mena, E; Sousa, S G; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Montes, D; Tabernero, H; Tautvaisiene, G; Bonito, R; Lanzafame, A C; Gilmore, G; Jeffries, R D; Vallenari, A; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; de Laverny, P; Lardo, C; Masseron, T; Prisinzano, L; Worley, C C

    2014-01-01

    Context. Recent metallicity determinations in young open clusters and star-forming regions suggest that the latter may be characterized by a slightly lower metallicity than the Sun and older clusters in the solar vicinity. However, these results are based on small statistics and inhomogeneous analyses. The Gaia-ESO Survey is observing and homogeneously analyzing large samples of stars in several young clusters and star-forming regions, hence allowing us to further investigate this issue. Aims. We present a new metallicity determination of the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods. 48 candidate members of Chamaeleon I have been observed with the high-resolution spectrograph UVES. We use the surface gravity, lithium line equivalent width and position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to confirm the cluster members and we use the iron abundance to derive the mean metallicity of the region. Results. Out of the 48 targets,...

  16. Molecular gas properties of UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, T S; Overzier, R A; Pérez, L; Martin, D C

    2014-01-01

    Lyman break analogues (LBAs) are a population of star-forming galaxies at low redshift (z ~ 0.2) selected in the ultraviolet (UV). These objects present higher star formation rates and lower dust extinction than other galaxies with similar masses and luminosities in the local universe. In this work we present results from a survey with the Combined Array for Research in Millimetre-wave Astronomy (CARMA) to detect CO(1-0) emission in LBAs, in order to analyse the properties of the molecular gas in these galaxies. Our results show that LBAs follow the same Schmidt-Kennicutt law as local galaxies. On the other hand, they have higher gas fractions (up to 66%) and faster gas depletion time-scales (below 1 Gyr). These characteristics render these objects more akin to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We conclude that LBAs are a great nearby laboratory for studying the cold interstellar medium in low-metallicity, UV-luminous compact star-forming galaxies.

  17. H{\\alpha} to FUV ratios in resolved star forming region populations of nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hermanowicz, Maciej T; Eldridge, John J

    2013-01-01

    We present a new study of H{\\alpha}/FUV flux ratios of star forming regions within a sample of nearby spiral galaxies. We search for evidence of the existence of a cluster mass dependent truncation in the underlying stellar initial mass function (IMF). We use an automated approach to identification of extended objects based on the SExtractor algorithm to catalogue resolved Hii regions within a set of nearby spiral galaxies. Corrections due to dust attenuation effects are applied to avoid artificially boosted H{\\alpha}/FUV values. We use the BPASS stellar population synthesis code of Eldridge & Stanway (2009) to create a benchmark population of star forming regions to act as a reference for our observations. Based on those models, we identify a zone of parameter space populated by regions that cannot be obtained with a cluster mass dependent truncation in the stellar IMF imposed. We find that the investigated galaxies display small subpopulations of star forming regions falling within our zone of interest,...

  18. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Messa, M.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Shabani, F.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3-15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ˜40-60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  19. The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Ellis, Richard S; Dye, Simon; Smail, Ian R; Richard, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of galaxies ~2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang have revealed large, turbulent rotating systems. The existence of well-ordered rotation in galaxies during this peak epoch of cosmic star formation may suggest that gas accretion through cold streams is likely to be the dominant mode by which most star-forming galaxies at high redshift since major mergers can completely disrupt the observed velocity fields. However poor spatial resolution and sensitivity have hampered this interpretation, limiting the study to the largest and most luminous galaxies, which may have fundamentally different modes of assembly than more typical star forming galaxies. Here we report observations of a typical star forming galaxy at z=3.07 with a linear resolution of ~100 parsec. This spatial sampling is made possible by the combination of gravitational lensing and laser guide star adaptive optics. We find a well-ordered compact source in which molecular gas is being converted efficiently into stars, likely assembling a spheroida...

  20. C III] EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES NEAR AND FAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, J. R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bayliss, M. B. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sharon, K.; Johnson, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, E. [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Peña-Guerrero, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We measure [C iii] 1907, C iii] 1909 Å emission lines in 11 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6–3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies. While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C iii] emitters, C iii] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C iii] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C iii] emission, with equivalent widths < −5 Å. Three nearby galaxies show C iii] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf–Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C iii] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C iii] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  1. After the interaction: an efficiently star-forming molecular disk in NGC5195

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, Katherine; Nyland, Kristina; Aalto, Susanne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Gallagher, John S; Lanz, Lauranne

    2016-01-01

    We present new molecular gas maps of NGC5195 (alternatively known as M51b) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA), including 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), CN(1-0), and CS(2-1). NGC5195 has also been detected in 3mm continuum. NGC5195 has a 12CO/13CO ratio consistent with normal star-forming galaxies. The CN(1-0) intensity is higher than is seen in an average star-forming galaxy, possibly enhanced in the diffuse photo-dissociation regions. Stellar template fitting of the nuclear spectrum of NGC5195 shows two stellar populations: an 80% mass fraction of old (>10Gyr) and a 20% mass fraction of intermediate-aged (~1Gyr) stellar populations, providing a constraint on the timescale over which NGC5195 experienced enhanced star formation during its interaction with M51a. The average molecular gas depletion timescale in NGC5195 is: tdep=3.08Gyr, a factor of ~2 larger than the depletion timescales in nearby star-forming galaxies, but consistent with the depletion seen in CO-detected early-type gal...

  2. Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of A Class of Compact Extremely Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cardamone, Carolin N; Sarzi, Marc; Bamford, Steven P; Bennert, Nicola; Urry, C M; Lintott, Chris; Keel, William C; Parejko, John; Nichol, Robert C; Thomas, Daniel; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; VandenBerg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a class of rapidly growing emission line galaxies, known as "Green Peas", first noted by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project because of their peculiar bright green colour and small size, unresolved in SDSS imaging. Their appearance is due to very strong optical emission lines, namely [O III] 5007 A, with an unusually large equivalent width of up to ~1000 A. We discuss a well-defined sample of 251 colour-selected objects, most of which are strongly star forming, although there are some AGN interlopers including 8 newly discovered narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. The star-forming Peas are low mass galaxies (M~10^8.5 - 10^10 M_sun) with high star formation rates (~10 M_sun/yr), low metallicities (log[O/H] + 12 ~ 8.7) and low reddening (E(B-V) < 0.25) and they reside in low density environments. They have some of the highest specific star formation rates (up to ~10^{-8} yr^{-1}) seen in the local Universe, yielding doubling times for their stellar mass of hundreds of Myrs. The few star-forming P...

  3. [NeIII]/[OII] as an Ionization Parameter Diagnostic in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    We present our parameterizations of the log([NeIII]3869/[OII]3727) (Ne3O2) and log([OIII]5007/[OII]3727) ratios as comparable and effective diagnostics of ionization parameter in star-forming galaxies. Our calibrations are based on the most recent generations of the Starburst99/Mappings III photoionization models, which extend up to the extremely high values of ionization parameter found in high-redshift galaxies. While similar calibrations have been presented previously for O3O2, this is the first such calibration of Ne3O2. We illustrate the tight correlation between these two ratios for star-forming galaxies and discuss the underlying physics that dictates their very similar evolution. Based on this work, we propose the Ne3O2 ratio as a new and useful diagnostic of ionization parameter for star-forming galaxies. Given the Ne3O2 ratio's relative insensitivity to reddening, this ratio is particularly valuable for use with galaxies that have uncertain amounts of extinction. The short wavelengths of the Ne3O2 r...

  4. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: High Resolution Kinematics of Luminous Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wisnioski, Emily; Blake, Chris; Wyder, Ted; Martin, Chris; Poole, Gregory B; Sharp, Rob; Couch, Warrick; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara; Drinkwater, Michael J; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David G; Gladders, Michael; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Pimbblet, Kevin; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David; Yee, H K C

    2011-01-01

    We report evidence of ordered orbital motion in luminous star-forming galaxies at z~1.3. We present integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations, performed with the OH Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) system, assisted by laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck telescope, of 13 star-forming galaxies selected from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. Selected via ultraviolet and [OII] emission, the large volume of the WiggleZ survey allows the selection of sources which have comparable intrinsic luminosity and stellar mass to IFS samples at z>2. Multiple 1-2 kpc size sub-components of emission, or 'clumps', are detected within the Halpha spatial emission which extends over 6-10 kpc in 4 galaxies, resolved compact emission (r100 km/s) in the most compact sources. This unique data set reveals that the most luminous star-forming galaxies at z>1 are gaseous unstable disks indicating that a different mode of star formation could be feeding gas to galaxies at z>1, and lending support to theories o...

  5. The MOSDEF Survey: Excitation Properties of $z\\sim 2.3$ Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shapley, Alice E; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R; Sanders, Ryan L; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present results on the excitation properties of z~2.3 galaxies using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) Survey. With its coverage of the full suite of strongrest-frame optical emission lines, MOSDEF provides an unprecedented view of the rest-frame optical spectra of a representative sample of distant star-forming galaxies. We investigate the locations of z~2.3 MOSDEF galaxies in multiple emission-line diagnostic diagrams. These include the [OIII]/Hb vs. [NII]/Ha (O3N2) and [OIII]/Hb vs. [SII]/Ha (O3S2) "BPT" diagrams, as well as the O_32 vs. R_23 (O32R23) excitation diagram. We recover the well-known offset in the star-forming sequence of high-redshift galaxies in the O3N2 BPT diagram relative to Sloan Digital Sky Survey star-forming galaxies. However, the shift for our rest-frame optically selected sample is less significant than for rest-frame-UV selected and emission-line selected galaxies at z~2. Furthermore, we find that the offset is mass-dependent, only appearing withi...

  6. ALMA maps the Star-Forming Regions in a Dense Gas Disk at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Nightgale, James; Furlanetto, Christina; Smail, Ian; Cooray, Asantha; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Gavazzi, Raphael; Hunter, Todd; Ivison, Rob; Negrello, Mattia; Oteo, Ivan; Smit, Renske; van der Werf, Paul; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We exploit long-baseline ALMA sub-mm observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z=3.042 to investigate the properties of inter-stellar medium on scales of 50-100pc. The kinematics of the CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally-supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v=320+/-20km/s and a dynamical mass of M=(3.5+/-1.0)x10^10Mo within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q=0.30+/-0.10 and so should collapse in to star-forming regions with Jeans length L_J~130pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line-widths and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local Galaxies (Larson's relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the interstellar medium (ISM), P/kB=(40+/-20)x10^7K/cm3, which is ~10,000x higher than the typical ISM pressure in the M...

  7. Looking for outflow and infall signatures in high mass star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Beuther, H

    2011-01-01

    (Context) Many physical parameters change with time in star forming regions. Here we attempt to correlate changes in infall and outflow motions in high mass star forming regions with evolutionary stage using JCMT observations. (Aims) From a sample of 45 high mass star forming regions in three phases of evolution, we investigate the presence of established infall and outflow tracers to determine whether there are any trends attributable to the age of the source. (Methods) We obtained JCMT observations of HCO+/H13CO+ J=4-3 to trace large scale infall, and SiO J=8-7 to trace recent outflow activity. We compare the infall and outflow detections to the evolutionary stage of the host source (high mass protostellar objects, hypercompact HII regions and ultracompact HII regions). We also note that the integrated intensity of SiO varies with the full width at half maximum of the H13CO+. (Results) We find a surprising lack of SiO detections in the middle stage (Hypercompact HII regions), which may be due to an observat...

  8. Scaling Relations of Star-Forming Regions: from kpc-size clumps to HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wisnioski, Emily; Blake, Chris; Poole, Gregory B; Green, Andrew W; Wyder, Ted; Martin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the properties of 8 star-forming regions, or 'clumps,' in 3 galaxies at z~1.3 from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, which are resolved with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph. Within turbulent discs, \\sigma~90 km/s, clumps are measured with average sizes of 1.5 kpc and average Jeans masses of 4.2 x 10^9 \\Msolar, in total accounting for 20-30 per cent of the stellar mass of the discs. These findings lend observational support to models that predict larger clumps will form as a result of higher disc velocity dispersions driven-up by cosmological gas accretion. As a consequence of the changes in global environment, it may be predicted that star-forming regions at high redshift should not resemble star-forming regions locally. Yet despite the increased sizes and dispersions, clumps and HII regions are found to follow tight scaling relations over the range z=0-2 for size, velocity dispersion, luminosity, and mass when comparing >2000 HII regions locally and 30 clumps at z>1 (\\sigma \\propto r^{0.42+/-...

  9. The Incidence of Highly-Obscured Star-Forming Regions in SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Bendo, George J; Buckalew, Brent A; Calzetti, Daniela; Engelbracht, Charles W; Gordon, Karl D; Hollenbach, David J; Lee, Janice C; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Helou, George; Jarrett, Thomas H; Murphy, Eric J; Smith, John David T; Akiyama, Sanae; Sosey, Megan L; George J. Bendo Astrophysics Group, Imperial College

    2007-01-01

    Using the new capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope and extensive multiwavelength data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), it is now possible to study the infrared properties of star formation in nearby galaxies down to scales equivalent to large HII regions. We are therefore able to determine what fraction of large, infrared-selected star-forming regions in normal galaxies are highly obscured and address how much of the star formation we miss by relying solely on the optical portion of the spectrum. Employing a new empirical method for deriving attenuations of infrared-selected star-forming regions we investigate the statistics of obscured star formation on 500pc scales in a sample of 38 nearby galaxies. We find that the median attenuation is 1.4 magnitudes in H-alpha and that there is no evidence for a substantial sub-population of uniformly highly-obscured star-forming regions. The regions in the highly-obscured tail of the attenuation distribution (A_H-alpha > 3) make up only ~...

  10. Phase-space structures and stellar populations in the star-forming region NGC~ 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyse the structure of a subspace of the phase space of the star-forming region NGC~ 2264 using the Spectrum of Kinematic Groupings (SKG). We show that the SKG can be used to process a collection of star data to find substructure at different scales. We have found structure associated with the NGC~ 2264 region and also with the background area. In the NGC~ 2264 region, a hierarchical analysis shows substructure compatible with that found in previous specific studies of the area but with an objective, compact methodology that allows us to homogeneously compare the structure of different clusters and star-forming regions. Moreover, this structure is compatible with the different ages of the main NGC~ 2264 star-forming populations. The structure found in the field can be roughly associated with giant stars far in the background, dynamically decoupled from NGC~ 2264, which could be related either with the Outer Arm or Monoceros Ring. The results in this paper confirm the relationship between str...

  11. Phase-space structures and stellar populations in the star-forming region NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta; Alfaro, Emilio J.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we analyse the structure of a subspace of the phase space of the star-forming region NGC 2264 using the spectrum of kinematic groupings (SKG). We show that the SKG can be used to process a collection of star data to find substructure at different scales. We have found structure associated with the NGC 2264 region and also with the background area. In the NGC 2264 region, a hierarchical analysis shows substructure compatible with that found in previous specific studies of the area but with an objective, compact methodology that allows us to homogeneously compare the structure of different clusters and star-forming regions. Moreover, this structure is compatible with the different ages of the main NGC 2264 star-forming populations. The structure found in the field can be roughly associated with giant stars far in the background, dynamically decoupled from NGC 2264, which could be related either with the Outer Arm or Monoceros Ring. The results in this paper confirm the relationship between structure in the radial velocity phase-space subspace and different kinds of populations, defined by other variables not necessarily analysed with the SKG, such as age or distance, showing the importance of detecting phase-space substructure in order to trace stellar populations in the broadest sense of the word.

  12. C III] Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies Near and Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J, R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.; Johnson, T.; Pena-Guerrero, M.

    2015-01-01

    We measure C III Lambda Lambda 1907, 1909 Angstrom emission lines in eleven gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at zeta at approximately 1.6-3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies (Stark et al. 2014). While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C III] emitters, C III] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C III] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST, and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C III] emission, with equivalent widths less than -5 Angstrom. Three nearby galaxies show C III] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf-Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C III] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C III] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  13. 13C Isotopic Fractionation of HC3N in Star-Forming Regions -Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527 and High-Mass Star Forming Region G28.28-0.36-

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Ozeki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We observed the J=9-8 and 10-9 rotational lines of three13C isotopologues of HC3N in L1527 and G28.28-0.36 with the 45-m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in order to constrain the main formation mechanisms of HC3N in each source. The abundance ratios of the three 13C isotopologues of HC3N are found to be 0.9 (0.2) : 1.00 : 1.29 (0.19) (1sigma) and 1.0 (0.2) : 1.00 : 1.47 (0.17) (1sigma) for [H13CCCN]: [HC13CCN]: [HCC13CN] in L1527 and G28.28-0.36, respectively. We recognize a similar 13C isotopic fractionation pattern that the abundances of H13CCCN and HC13CCN are comparable, and HCC13CN is more abundant than the others. Based on the results, we discuss the main formation pathway of HC3N. The 13C isotopic fractionation pattern derived from our observations can be explained by the neutral-neutral reaction between C2H2 and CN in both the low-mass (L1527) and high-mass (28.28-0.36) star forming regions.

  14. THE CLUSTERING AND HALO MASSES OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolley, Tim; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Palamara, David P.; Beare, Richard [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Atlee, David W., E-mail: Tim.Dolley@monash.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star-forming galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. After excluding active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we construct a sample of 22,553 24 μm sources selected from 8.42 deg{sup 2} of the Spitzer MIPS AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of Boötes. Mid-infrared imaging allows us to observe galaxies with the highest star formation rates (SFRs), less biased by dust obscuration afflicting the optical bands. We find that the galaxies with the highest SFRs have optical colors that are redder than typical blue cloud galaxies, with many residing within the green valley. At z > 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) and is composed entirely of LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r {sub 0} ≈ 3-6 h {sup –1} Mpc for almost all of our star-forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L {sub TIR} at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L {sub TIR} (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M {sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.9} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star-forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star-forming galaxies at z < 1.0 are the progenitors of L ≲ 2.5 L {sub *} blue galaxies in the local universe, but star-forming galaxies with the highest SFRs (L {sub TIR} ≳ 10{sup 11.7} L {sub ☉}) at 0.6 < z < 1.0 are the progenitors of early-type galaxies in denser group environments.

  15. Searching for star-forming galaxies in the Fornax and Hydra clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Kehrig, C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Unda-Sanzana, E.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies is relatively difficult to understand because of their faint emission in all regimes that require large aperture telescopes. Aims: We intend to study the evolution of star-forming dwarf galaxies in clusters. We selected Fornax and Hydra clusters to complement our previous study of Virgo. On the basis of available literature data, we selected ten star-forming candidates in Fornax and another ten objects in Hydra. Methods: We used Gemini South with GMOS to acquire Hα images necessary to detect star-forming regions in the two galaxy samples. We then performed long-slit spectroscopy for the brightest six candidates, to derive their chemical properties. Finally, we employed the VLT with HAWK-I to observe all galaxies in the K' band to derive their main physical properties. Results: We studied the morphology of our two samples, finding five objects in Fornax and six in Hydra with structures consistent with those of star-forming dwarfs, i.e., dwarf irregulars (dIs) or blue compact dwarfs (BCDs). About four other objects are probably dwarf spirals, while three objects remained undetected in both visible and near infrared. On the basis of visible bright emission lines, we derived oxygen abundances for ten star-forming candidates with values between 8.00 ≤ 12+log(O/H) ≤8.78. Conclusions: Most fundamental properties of star-forming galaxies in Fornax and Hydra appear similar to corresponding properties of dIs and BCDs from Virgo and the local volume (LV). The luminosity-metallicity and metallicity-gas fraction relations in the LV and Virgo appear to be followed by Fornax and Hydra samples, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the two clusters seems consistent with the predictions from the closed box model, although larger samples are needed to investigate the role of possible environmental effects. Star-forming dwarfs (dIs and BCDs) in different environments appear to follow different mass-metallicity relations

  16. The ISM in distant star-forming galaxies: Turbulent pressure, fragmentation and cloud scaling relations in a dense gas disk at z=2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Cox, Pierre; Krips, Melanie; Ivison, Rob; Smail, Ian; Thomson, Alasdair; Neri, Roberto; Richard, Johan; Ebeling, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We have used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Expanded Very Large Array to obtain a high resolution map of the CO(6-5) and CO(1-0) emission in the lensed, star-forming galaxy SMMJ2135-0102 at z=2.32. The kinematics of the gas are well described by a model of a rotationally-supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v_rot = 320+/-25km/s, a ratio of rotational- to dispersion- support of v/sigma=3.5+/-0.2 and a dynamical mass of 6.0+/-0.5x10^10Mo within a radius of 2.5kpc. The disk has a Toomre parameter, Q=0.50+/-0.15, suggesting the gas will rapidly fragment into massive clumps on scales of L_J ~ 400pc. We identify star-forming regions on these scales and show that they are 10x denser than those in quiescent environments in local galaxies, and significantly offset from the local molecular cloud scaling relations (Larson's relations). The large offset compared to local molecular cloud linewidth-size scaling relations imply that supersonic turbulence should remain dominant on sca...

  17. New insights into the stellar content and physical conditions of star-forming galaxies at z = 2-3 from spectral modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brinchmann, Jarle; Charlot, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    We have used extensive libraries of model and empirical galaxy spectra (assembled respectively from the population synthesis code of Bruzual and Charlot and the fourth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) to interpret some puzzling features seen in the spectra of high redshift star-forming galaxies. We show that a stellar He II 1640 emission line, produced in the expanding atmospheres of Of and Wolf-Rayet stars, should be detectable with an equivalent width of 0.5-1.5AA in the integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies, provided the metallicity is greater than about half solar. Our models reproduce the strength of the He II 1640 line measured in the spectra of Lyman break galaxies for established values of their metallicities. With better empirical calibrations in local galaxies, this spectral feature has the potential of becoming a useful diagnostic of massive star winds at high, as well as low, redshifts. We also uncover a relationship in SDSS galaxies between their location in the [O III]/Hb vs. ...

  18. Evolution of the Stellar-to-Dark Matter Relation: Separating Star-Forming and Passive Galaxies from z=1 to 0

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Bundy, Kevin; George, Matthew R; Behroozi, Peter; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Wechsler, Risa

    2013-01-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z=[0.2,1.0]. For massive galaxies, M*>~10^10.6 Msol, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z=1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quen...

  19. The FMOS-COSMOS Survey of Star-forming Galaxies at z ≈ 1.6. IV. Excitation State and Chemical Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Sanders, D.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Valentino, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Juneau, S.; Kewley, L. J.; Zahid, H. J.; Arimoto, N.; Nagao, T.; Chu, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Civano, F.; Ilbert, O.; Kajisawa, M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maier, C.; Masters, D.; Miyaji, T.; Onodera, M.; Puglisi, A.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of ionized gas in high-z star-forming galaxies using diagnostic diagrams based on the rest-frame optical emission lines. The sample consists of 701 galaxies with an Hα detection at 1.4≲ z≲ 1.7, from the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS)-COSMOS survey, that represent the normal star-forming population over the stellar mass range {10}9.6≲ {M}* /{M}ȯ ≲ {10}11.6, with those at {M}* > {10}11 {M}ȯ being well sampled. We confirm an offset of the average location of star-forming galaxies in the Baldwin–Phillips–Terlevich (BPT) diagram ({{[O}} {{III}}]/{{H}}β versus {{[N}} {{II}}]/{{H}}α ), primarily toward higher {{[O}} {{III}}]/{{H}}β , compared with local galaxies. Based on the [S ii] ratio, we measure an electron density ({n}{{e}}={220}-130+170 {{cm}}-3), which is higher than that of local galaxies. Based on comparisons to theoretical models, we argue that changes in emission-line ratios, including the offset in the BPT diagram, are caused by a higher ionization parameter both at fixed stellar mass and at fixed metallicity, with additional contributions from a higher gas density and possibly a hardening of the ionizing radiation field. Ionization due to active galactic nuclei is ruled out as assessed with Chandra. As a consequence, we revisit the mass–metallicity relation using {{[N}}{{II}}]/{{H}}α and a new calibration including {{[N}} {{II}}]/{{[S}} {{II}}] as recently introduced by Dopita et al. Consistent with our previous results, the most massive galaxies ({M}* ≳ {10}11 {M}ȯ ) are fully enriched, while those at lower masses have metallicities lower than local galaxies. Finally, we demonstrate that the stellar masses, metallicities, and star formation rates of the FMOS sample are well fit with a physically motivated model for the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies.

  20. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: H i observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.

    2015-01-01

    , implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought. In this case, it is possible that star formation is directly fuelled by atomic gas (or that the H1-to-H2 conversion is very efficient, which rapidly...... exhaust molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because cooling of gas (necessary for star formation) is faster than the H1-to-H2 conversion. Indeed, large atomic gas reservoirs, together with low molecular gas...... masses, stellar, and dust masses are consistent with GRB hosts being preferentially galaxies which have very recently started a star formation episode after accreting metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. This provides a natural route for forming GRBs in low-metallicity environments. The gas...

  1. Distance biases in the estimation of the physical properties of Hi-GAL compact sources - I. Clump properties and the identification of high-mass star-forming candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeschi, Adriano; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Schisano, E.; Gatti, M.; Serra, A.; Merello, M.; Benedettini, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Liu, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    The degradation of spatial resolution in star-forming regions, observed at large distances (d ≳ 1 kpc) with Herschel, can lead to estimates of the physical parameters of the detected compact sources (clumps), which do not necessarily mirror the properties of the original population of cores. This paper aims at quantifying the bias introduced in the estimation of these parameters by the distance effect. To do so, we consider Herschel maps of nearby star-forming regions taken from the Herschel Gould Belt survey, and simulate the effect of increased distance to understand what amount of information is lost when a distant star-forming region is observed with Herschel resolution. In the maps displaced to different distances we extract compact sources, and we derive their physical parameters as if they were original Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey maps of the extracted source samples. In this way, we are able to discuss how the main physical properties change with distance. In particular, we discuss the ability of clumps to form massive stars: we estimate the fraction of distant sources that are classified as high-mass stars-forming objects due to their position in the mass versus radius diagram, that are only 'false positives'. We also give a threshold for high-mass star formation M>1282 (r/ [pc])^{1.42} M_{⊙}. In conclusion, this paper provides the astronomer dealing with Herschel maps of distant star-forming regions with a set of prescriptions to partially recover the character of the core population in unresolved clumps.

  2. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  3. After the Interaction: an Efficiently Star-forming Molecular Disk in NGC 5195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Aladro, Rebeca; Nyland, Kristina; Aalto, Susanne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Gallagher, John S.; Lanz, Lauranne

    2016-10-01

    We present new molecular gas maps of NGC 5195 (alternatively known as M51b) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy, including 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), CN(1{}{0,2}-{0}{0,1}), CS(2-1), and 3 mm continuum. We also detected HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) using the Onsala Space Observatory. NGC 5195 has a 12CO/13CO ratio ({{ R }}12/13 = 11.4 ± 0.5) consistent with normal star-forming galaxies. The CN(1-0) intensity is higher than is seen in an average star-forming galaxy, possibly enhanced in the diffuse gas in photo-dissociation regions. Stellar template fitting of the nuclear spectrum of NGC 5195 shows two stellar populations: an 80% mass fraction of old (≳10 Gyr) and a 20% mass fraction of intermediate-aged (≈1 Gyr) stellar populations. This provides a constraint on the timescale over which NGC 5195 experienced enhanced star formation during its interaction with M51a. The average molecular gas depletion timescale in NGC 5195 is = 3.08 Gyr, a factor of ≈ 2 larger than the depletion timescales in nearby star-forming galaxies, but consistent with the depletion seen in CO-detected early-type galaxies. While radio continuum emission at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths is present in the vicinity of the nucleus of NGC 5195, we find it is most likely associated with nuclear star formation rather than radio-loud AGN activity. Thus, despite having a substantial interaction with M51a ˜1/2 Gyr ago, the molecular gas in NGC 5195 has resettled and is currently forming stars at an efficiency consistent with settled early-type galaxies.

  4. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  5. C iii] Emission in Star-forming Galaxies at z ∼ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinnan; Shapley, Alice E.; Martin, Crystal L.; Coil, Alison L.

    2017-03-01

    The C iii]λλ1907, 1909 rest-frame UV emission doublet has recently been detected in galaxies during the epoch of reionization (z > 6), with a high equivalent width (EW; 10 Å, rest frame). Currently, it is possible to obtain much more detailed information for star-forming galaxies at significantly lower redshift. Accordingly, studies of their far-UV spectra are useful for understanding the factors modulating the strength of C iii] emission. We present the first statistical sample of C iii] emission measurements in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1. Our sample is drawn from the DEEP2 survey and spans the redshifts 0.64 ≤slant z ≤slant 1.35 ( =1.08). We find that the median EW of individual C iii] detections in our sample (1.30 Å) is much smaller than the typical value observed thus far at z > 6. Furthermore, out of 184 galaxies with coverage of C iii], only 40 have significant detections. Galaxies with individual C iii] detections have bluer colors and lower luminosities on average than those without, implying that strong C iii] emitters are in general young and low-mass galaxies without significant dust extinction. Using stacked spectra, we further investigate how C iii] strength correlates with multiple galaxy properties (M B , U ‑ B, M *, star formation rate, specific star formation rate) and rest-frame near-UV (Fe ii* and Mg ii) and optical ([O iii] and Hβ) emission line strengths. These results provide a detailed picture of the physical environment in star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1, and motivate future observations of strong C iii] emitters at similar redshifts.

  6. RECENT STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.3 < z < 0.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Gallego, Jesús; De Paz, Armando Gil; Villar, Víctor [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n. E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Tresse, Laurence [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Charlot, Stéphane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Barro, Guillermo, E-mail: lucia.rodriguez.munoz@fis.ucm.es [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the universe. We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of LMSFGs obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach that (1) consistently combines photometric (broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. The sample includes 31 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 8.0), at 0.3 < z {sub spec} < 0.9, in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South field. Among them, 24 were selected with photometric stellar mass log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} < 8.0, 0.3 < z {sub phot} < 1.0, and m {sub NB816,} {sub AB} < 26 mag; the remaining 7 were selected as blue compact dwarfs within the same photometric redshift and magnitude ranges. We also study a secondary sample of 43 more massive spectroscopically confirmed galaxies (8.0 < log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 9.1), selected with the same criteria. The SFRs and stellar masses derived for both samples place our targets on the standard main sequence of star-forming galaxies. The median SFH of LMSFGs at intermediate redshifts appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ∼0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for LMSFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for the more massive secondary sample.

  7. Kinematic Distances of Pre-main Sequence Stars in the Lupus Star-Forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Bertout, C.

    2014-06-01

    The problem of the determination of distances has always played a central role in astronomy. However, little recent progress has been made in the distance determination of faint young stellar objects such as pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Many of the PMS stars were neither observed by the Hipparcos satellite due to their magnitude nor have any trigonometric parallax measured from the ground due to their distance. Here we investigate the kinematic properties of the Lupus moving group with the primary objective of deriving individual parallaxes for each group member of this star-forming region.

  8. Formation of star-forming clouds from the magnetised, diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Robi

    2015-01-01

    Molecular clouds, the birthplaces of stars in galaxies, form dynamically from the diffuse atomic gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The ISM is also threaded by magnetic fields which have a large impact on its dynamics. In particular, star forming regions must be magnetically supercrit- ical in order to accomodate gas clumps which can collapse under their own weight. Based on a parameter study of three dimensional magneto-hydrodyamical (MHD) simulations, we show that the long-standing problem of how such supercritical regions are generated is still an open issue.

  9. Aperture-free star formation rate of SDSS star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Puertas, S.; Vilchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kehrig, C.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    Large area surveys with a high number of galaxies observed have undoubtedly marked a milestone in the understanding of several properties of galaxies, such as star-formation history, morphology, and metallicity. However, in many cases, these surveys provide fluxes from fixed small apertures (e.g. fibre), which cover a scant fraction of the galaxy, compelling us to use aperture corrections to study the global properties of galaxies. In this work, we derive the current total star formation rate (SFR) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies, using an empirically based aperture correction of the measured Hα flux for the first time, thus minimising the uncertainties associated with reduced apertures. All the Hα fluxes have been extinction-corrected using the Hα/ Hβ ratio free from aperture effects. The total SFR for 210 000 SDSS star-forming galaxies has been derived applying pure empirical Hα and Hα/ Hβ aperture corrections based on the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. We find that, on average, the aperture-corrected SFR is 0.65 dex higher than the SDSS fibre-based SFR. The relation between the SFR and stellar mass for SDSS star-forming galaxies (SFR-M⋆) has been obtained, together with its dependence on extinction and Hα equivalent width. We compare our results with those obtained in previous works and examine the behaviour of the derived SFR in six redshift bins, over the redshift range 0.005 ≤ z ≤ 0.22. The SFR-M⋆ sequence derived here is in agreement with selected observational studies based on integral field spectroscopy of individual galaxies as well as with the predictions of recent theoretical models of disc galaxies. A table of the aperture-corrected fluxes and SFR for 210 000 SDSS star-forming galaxies and related relevant data is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A71 Warning, no authors

  10. 15N Fractionation in Star-Forming Regions and Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstrom, Eva; Milam, Stefanie; Adande, GIlles; Charnley, Steven; Cordiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for understanding the formation and evolution of matter in the early Solar System is the relationship between the chemical composition of star-forming interstellar clouds and that of primitive Solar System materials. The pristinemolecular content of comets, interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous chondrites show significant bulk nitrogen isotopic fractionation relative to the solar value, 14N15N 440. In addition, high spatial resolution measurements in primitive materials locally show even more extreme enhancements of 14N15N 100.

  11. Signatures of cool gas fueling a star-forming galaxy at redshift 2.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, N; Murphy, M T; Kacprzak, G G; Péroux, C; Contini, T; Martin, C L; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M

    2013-07-05

    Galaxies are thought to be fed by the continuous accretion of intergalactic gas, but direct observational evidence has been elusive. The accreted gas is expected to orbit about the galaxy's halo, delivering not just fuel for star formation but also angular momentum to the galaxy, leading to distinct kinematic signatures. We report observations showing these distinct signatures near a typical distant star-forming galaxy, where the gas is detected using a background quasar passing 26 kiloparsecs from the host. Our observations indicate that gas accretion plays a major role in galaxy growth because the estimated accretion rate is comparable to the star-formation rate.

  12. The UV Properties of Star Forming Galaxies I]{The UV Properties of Star Forming Galaxies I: {\\em HST} WFC3 Observations of Very-high Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Stanway, Elizabeth; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Caruana, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of deep Near-IR imaging with Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope has provided the opportunity to study the very-high redshift Universe. For galaxies up to $z\\approx 7.7$ sufficient wavelength coverage exists to probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum without contamination from either Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission or the Lyman-$\\alpha$ break. In this work we use Near-IR imaging to measure the rest-frame UV continuum colours of galaxies at $4.7star forming population (or a moderately dusty population of low metallicity). At lower-redshift we find that the mean UV continuum colours of galaxies (over the same luminosi...

  13. The intrinsic scatter along the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Kexin; Zhong Zheng, Xian [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West-Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Fu, Hai, E-mail: kxguo@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xzzheng@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: hai-fu@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    A sample of 12,614 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with stellar mass >10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} between 0.6 < z < 0.8 from COSMOS is selected to study the intrinsic scatter of the correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. We derive SFR from ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) luminosities. A stacking technique is adopted to measure IR emission for galaxies undetected at 24 μm. We confirm that the slope of the mass-SFR relation is close to unity. We examine the distributions of specific SFRs (SSFRs) in four equally spaced mass bins from 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} to 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}. Different models are used to constrain the scatter of SSFR for lower mass galaxies that are mostly undetected at 24 μm. The SFR scatter is dominated by the scatter of UV luminosity and gradually that of IR luminosity at increasing stellar mass. We derive SSFR dispersions of 0.18, 0.21, 0.26, and 0.31 dex with a typical measurement uncertainty of ≲ 0.01 dex for the four mass bins. Interestingly, the scatter of the mass-SFR relation seems not constant in the sense that the scatter in SSFR is smaller for SFGs of stellar mass <10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}. If confirmed, this suggests that the physical processes governing star formation become systematically less violent for less massive galaxies. The SSFR distribution for SFGs with intermediate mass 10{sup 10}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} is characterized by a prominent excess of intense starbursts in comparison with other mass bins. We argue that this feature reflects that both violent (e.g., major/minor mergers) and quiescent processes are important in regulating star formation in this intermediate-mass regime.

  14. DISSECTION OF H{alpha} EMITTERS : LOW-z ANALOGS OF z > 4 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Chary, Ranga-Ram, E-mail: hjshim@knu.ac.kr [U.S. Planck Data Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Strong H{alpha} emitters (HAEs) dominate the z {approx} 4 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population. We have identified local analogs of these HAEs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. At z < 0.4, only 0.04% of the galaxies are classified as HAEs with H{alpha} equivalent widths ({approx}> 500 A) comparable to that of z {approx} 4 HAEs. Local HAEs have lower stellar mass and lower ultraviolet (UV) luminosity than z {approx} 4 HAEs, yet the H{alpha}-to-UV luminosity ratio, as well as their specific star formation rate, is consistent with that of z {approx} 4 HAEs, indicating that they are scaled-down versions of high-z star-forming galaxies. Compared to the previously studied local analogs of LBGs selected using rest-frame UV properties, local HAEs show similar UV luminosity surface density, weaker D{sub n} (4000) break, lower metallicity, and lower stellar mass. This implies that the local HAEs are less evolved galaxies than the traditional Lyman break analogs. In the stacked spectrum, local HAEs show a significant He II {lambda}4686 emission line suggesting a population of hot, massive stars similar to that seen in some Wolf-Rayet galaxies. Low [N II]/[O III] line flux ratios imply that local HAEs are inconsistent with being systems that host bright active galactic nuclei. Instead, it is highly likely that local HAEs are galaxies with an elevated ionization parameter, either due to a high electron density or large escape fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons as in the case of Wolf-Rayet galaxies.

  15. The sub-galactic and nuclear main sequences for local star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maragkoudakis, A; Ashby, M L N; Willner, S P

    2016-01-01

    We describe a sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS) relating star formation rate surface density ($\\Sigma_{\\textrm{SFR}}$) and stellar mass density ($\\Sigma_{\\star}$) for distinct regions within star forming galaxies, including their nuclei. We use a sample of 246 nearby star-forming galaxies from the "Star Formation Reference Survey" and demonstrate that the SGMS holds down to $ \\sim $1 kpc scales with a slope of $\\alpha=0.91$ and a dispersion of 0.31 dex, similar to the well-known main sequence (MS) measured for globally integrated star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses. The SGMS slope depends on galaxy morphology, with late-type galaxies (Sc$-$Irr) having $\\alpha = 0.97$ and early-type spirals (Sa$-$Sbc) having $\\alpha = 0.81$. The SGMS constructed from sub-regions of individual galaxies has on average the same characteristics as the composite SGMS from all galaxies. The SGMS for galaxy nuclei shows a dispersion similar to that seen for other sub-regions. Sampling a limited range of SFR$-$M$_{\\star} $ ...

  16. The effect of disc inclination on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Renzini, A.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.

    2016-11-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al.) data base to explore the effect of the disc inclination angle on the derived star formation rate (SFR), hence on the slope and width of the main-sequence (MS) relation for star-forming galaxies. We find that SFRs for nearly edge-on discs are underestimated by factors ranging from ˜0.2 dex for low-mass galaxies up to ˜0.4 dex for high-mass galaxies. This results in a substantially flatter MS relation for high-inclination discs compared to that for less inclined ones, though the global effect over the whole sample of star-forming galaxies is relatively minor, given the small fraction of high-inclination discs. However, we also find that galaxies with high-inclination discs represent a non-negligible fraction of galaxies populating the so-called green valley, with derived SFRs intermediate between the MS and those of quenched, passively evolving galaxies.

  17. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for Dust Grain Evolution in Perseus Star-forming Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Johnstone, D; Sadavoy, S; Hatchell, J; Mottram, J C; Kirk, H; Buckle, J; Berry, D S; Broekhoven-Fiene, H; Currie, M J; Fich, M; Jenness, T; Nutter, D; Pattle, K; Pineda, J E; Quinn, C; Salji, C; Tisi, S; Hogerheijde, M R; Ward-Thompson, D; Bastien, P; Bresnahan, D; Butner, H; Chrysostomou, A; Coude, S; Davis, C J; Drabek-Maunder, E; Duarte-Cabral, A; Fiege, J; Friberg, P; Friesen, R; Fuller, G A; Graves, S; Greaves, J; Gregson, J; Holland, W; Joncas, G; Kirk, J M; Knee, L B G; Mairs, S; Marsh, K; Matthews, B C; Moriarty-Schieven, G; Mowat, C; Pezzuto, S; Rawlings, J; Richer, J; Robertson, D; Rosolowsky, E; Rumble, D; Schneider-Bontemps, N; Thomas, H; Tothill, N; Viti, S; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M

    2016-01-01

    The dust emissivity spectral index, $\\beta$, is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures, and consequently their gravitational stability. The $\\beta$ value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present $\\beta$, dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting SEDs to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160 $\\mu$m, 250 $\\mu$m, 350 $\\mu$m, 500 $\\mu$m, and 850 $\\mu$m bands. Most of the derived $\\beta$, and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0 - 2.7 and 8 - 20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the $\\beta$ distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant, localized $\\beta$ variations within individual clumps and find low $\\beta$ regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting a...

  18. An All-Sky Sample of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lundquist, Michael J; Alexander, Michael J; Kerton, Charles R; Arvidsson, Kim

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions color-selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5 degrees using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 solar masses of stars. The...

  19. Geometry of Star-Forming Galaxies from SDSS, 3D-HST and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, A; Bell, E F; Holden, B P; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Rix, H -W; Skelton, R; Whitaker, K; Momcheva, I; Brammer, G; Kassin, S A; Martig, M; Dekel, A; Ceverino, D; Koo, D C; Mozena, M; van Dokkum, P G; Franx, M; Faber, S M; Primack, J

    2014-01-01

    We determine the intrinsic, 3-dimensional shape distribution of star-forming galaxies at 0 1e10 Msol) disks are the most common geometric shape at all z 1 possess a broad range of geometric shapes: the fraction of elongated (prolate) galaxies increases toward higher redshifts and lower masses. Galaxies with stellar mass 1e9 Msol (1e10 Msol) are a mix of roughly equal numbers of elongated and disk galaxies at z~1 (z~2). This suggests that galaxies in this mass range do not yet have disks that are sustained over many orbital periods, implying that galaxies with present-day stellar mass comparable to that of the Milky Way typically first formed such sustained stellar disks at redshift z~1.5-2. Combined with constraints on the evolution of the star formation rate density and the distribution of star formation over galaxies with different masses, our findings imply that, averaged over cosmic time, the majority of stars formed in disks.

  20. The Rest-Frame Submillimeter Spectrum of High-Redshift, Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Spilker, J S; Aguirre, J E; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bethermin, M; Bradford, C M; Bothwell, M S; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; de Breuck, C; Fassnacht, C D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Holzapfel, W L; Husband, K; Ma, J; Malkan, M; Murphy, E J; Reichardt, C L; Rotermund, K M; Stalder, B; Stark, A A; Strandet, M; Vieira, J D; Weiss, A; Welikala, N

    2014-01-01

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250-770GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking ALMA 3mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z=2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of 12CO, [CI], and H2O, we also detect several faint transitions of 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the 13CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z>2 star-forming galaxy in which 13CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T_kin ~ 55K and n_H2 >~ 10^5.5 cm^-3. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlik...

  1. Sulphur abundance determinations in star-forming regions-I: Ionization Correction Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dors, O L; Hagele, G F; Cardaci, M V; Krabbe, A C

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we used a grid of photoionization models combined with stellar population synthesis models to derive reliable Ionization Correction Factors (ICFs) for the sulphur in star-forming regions. These models cover a large range of nebular parameters and yielding ionic abundances in consonance with those derived through optical and infrared observational data of star-forming regions. From our theoretical ICFs, we suggested an {\\alpha} value of 3.27 in the classical Stasinska formulae. We compared the total sulphur abundance in the gas phase of a large sample of objects by using our Theoretical ICF and other approaches. In average, the differences between the determinations via the use of the different ICFs considered are similar to the uncertainties in the S/H estimations. Nevertheless, we noted that for some objects it could reach up to about 0.3 dex for the low metallicity regime. Despite of the large scatter of the points, we found a trend of S/O ratio to decrease with the metallicity, independ...

  2. DISTRIBUTIONS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE NUCLEI PROVIDED BY STAR-FORMING ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatuzzo, Marco [Department of Physics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (United States); Adams, Fred C. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for {sup 40}K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in {sup 40}K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  3. A kinematic study and membership analysis of the Lupus star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Galli, P A B; Teixeira, R; Ducourant, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to investigating the kinematic properties of the Lupus moving group of young stars with the primary objective of deriving individual parallaxes for each group member. We identify those stars in the Lupus star-forming region that define the comoving association of young stars by utilizing our new and improved convergent point search method that allows us to derive the precise position of the convergent point of the comoving association from the stars' proper motions. We used published proper motion catalogs and searched the literature for radial velocities, which are needed to compute individual parallaxes. We supplemented the radial velocity data with new measurements from spectroscopic observations performed with the FEROS spectrograph mounted on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at La Silla. We identify a comoving group with 109 pre-main sequence stars and candidates that define the kinematic properties of the Lupus low-mass star-forming region. We derive individual parallaxes for stars wit...

  4. Aperture-free star formation rate of SDSS star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Puertas, S Duarte; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Kehrig, C; Perez-Montero, E; Rosales-Ortega, F F

    2016-01-01

    Large area surveys with a high number of galaxies observed have undoubtedly marked a milestone in the understanding of several properties of galaxies, such as star-formation history, morphology, and metallicity. However, in many cases, these surveys provide fluxes from fixed small apertures (e.g. fibre), which cover a scant fraction of the galaxy, compelling us to use aperture corrections to study the global properties of galaxies. In this work, we derive the current total star formation rate (SFR) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies, using an empirically based aperture correction of the measured $\\rm H\\alpha$ flux for the first time, thus minimising the uncertainties associated with reduced apertures. All the $\\rm H\\alpha$ fluxes have been extinction-corrected using the $\\rm H\\alpha/H\\beta$ ratio free from aperture effects. The total SFR for $\\sim$210,000 SDSS star-forming galaxies has been derived applying pure empirical $\\rm H\\alpha$ and $\\rm H\\alpha/H\\beta$ aperture corrections based ...

  5. Physical Properties of Local Star-Forming Analogues to z~5 Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greis, Stephanie M L; Davies, Luke J M; Levan, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Intense, compact, star-forming galaxies are rare in the local Universe but ubiquitous at high redshift. We interpret the 0.1-22 um spectral energy distributions (SED) of a sample of 180 galaxies at 0.05star-forming galaxies with little dust extinction (mean stellar continuum extinction $E_\\mathrm{cont}$(B-V) ~ 0.1) and find star formation rates of a few tens of Solar masses per year. We use our inferred masses to determine a mean specific star formation rate for this sample of ~ $10^{-9}$ yr$^{-1}$, and compare this to the specific star formation rates in distant Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), and in other low redshift populations. We conclude that our sample's characteristics overlap significantly with those of the z~5 LBG population, maki...

  6. Far-ultraviolet morphology of star-forming filaments in cool core brightest cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, G. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Mittal, R.; McDonald, M. A.; Combes, F.; Li, Y.; McNamara, B. R.; Bremer, M. N.; Clarke, T. E.; Donahue, M.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Hamer, S. L.; Hogan, M. T.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Quillen, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Salomé, P.; Voit, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength morphological analysis of star-forming clouds and filaments in the central (≲50 kpc) regions of 16 low-redshift (z atlas of star formation locales relative to the ambient hot (˜107-8 K) and warm ionized (˜104 K) gas phases, as well as the old stellar population and radio-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. Nearly half of the sample possesses kpc-scale filaments that, in projection, extend towards and around radio lobes and/or X-ray cavities. These filaments may have been uplifted by the propagating jet or buoyant X-ray bubble, or may have formed in situ by cloud collapse at the interface of a radio lobe or rapid cooling in a cavity's compressed shell. The morphological diversity of nearly the entire FUV sample is reproduced by recent hydrodynamical simulations in which the AGN powers a self-regulating rain of thermally unstable star-forming clouds that precipitate from the hot atmosphere. In this model, precipitation triggers where the cooling-to-free-fall time ratio is tcool/tff ˜ 10. This condition is roughly met at the maximal projected FUV radius for more than half of our sample, and clustering about this ratio is stronger for sources with higher star formation rates.

  7. The nebular emission of star-forming galaxies in a hierarchical universe

    CERN Document Server

    Orsi, Alvaro; Groves, Brent; Cora, Sofia; Tecce, Tomas; Gargiulo, Ignacio; Ruiz, Andres

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We predict nebular emission from star-forming galaxies within a cosmological galaxy formation model. Emission lines are computed by combining the semi-analytical model SAG with the photo-ionization code MAPPINGS-III. We characterise the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies by relating the ionization parameter of gas in galaxies to their cold gas metallicity. Our model is in reasonable agreement with the observed H-alpha, [OII] and [OIII] luminosity functions. Also, the model reproduces the star-forming sequence of the BPT diagram for local galaxies and the observed H-alpha to [OII] line ratios at high redshift. The average ionization parameter predicted for galaxies is found to increase in galaxies with low star-formation rates and also towards higher redshifts, in agreement with recent observational results. We study the relation between the star-formation rate of galaxies and their emission line luminosities as a function of redshift, finding strong correlations between different emission lines ...

  8. Characterizing and Cataloguing Star-Forming Galaxies in Preparation for the LADUMA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manuel Joe; Baker, Andrew J.; Wu, John F.

    2017-01-01

    This poster presents the results of an effort to process, characterize, and catalog the optical spectra of ~ 1,500 star-forming galaxies, located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), which will be used in stacking experiments by the Looking At the Distant Universe with the MeerKAT Array (LADUMA) deep HI survey. The LADUMA HI data will be used to study the evolution of the Tully-Fisher relation, cosmic neutral gas density, and other intrinsic properties of galaxies as a function of redshift. The stacking component of this research will rely on large catalogs of star-forming galaxies in the ECDFS, categorized according to star-formation rate (SFR), metallicity, stellar color excess, and redshift. We used optical spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope, for which we have developed an automated pipeline to calculate extinction-corrected line fluxes, SFRs, and various metallicity diagnostics. The pipeline ultimately provides a visualization of the objects and their intrinsic properties as related to redshift for future analysis by the LADUMA team. This work has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1560077.

  9. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC1333

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, L E; van Dishoeck, E F; Yıldız, U A; Doty, S D; Herczeg, G J; Liu, F -C; Parise, B; Jørgensen, J K; van Kempen, T A; Brinch, C; Wampfler, S F; Bruderer, S; Benz, A O; Hogerheijde, M R; Deul, E; Bachiller, R; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E A; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G A; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; de Graauw, Th; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; Helmich, F; Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Kaufman, M J; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; Tielens, A G G M; van der Tak, F; Wyrowski, F; Beintema, D; de Jonge, A; Dieleman, P; Ossenkopf, V; Roelfsema, P; Stutzki, J; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    'Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel' (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC1333 in several H2-16O, H2-18O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H16O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km/s), medium-broad (~5-10 km/s), and narrow (20 km/s), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H2-16O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (<1000 AU) and large scales along the out...

  10. Actively Star Forming Elliptical Galaxies at Low Redshifts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Fukugita, M; Turner, E L; Helmboldt, J; Nichol, R C; Fukugita, Masataka; Nakamura, Osamu; Turner, Edwin L.; Helmboldt, Joe

    2004-01-01

    We report discovery of actively star forming elliptical galaxies in a morphologically classified sample of bright galaxies at a low redshift obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The emission lines of these galaxies do not show the characteristics of active galactic nuclei, and thus their strong H$\\alpha$ emission is ascribed to star formation with a rate nearly as high as that is seen in typical late spiral galaxies. This is taken as evidence against the traditional view that all elliptical galaxies formed early and now evolve only passively. The frequency of such star forming elliptical galaxies is a few tenths of a percent in the sample, but increases to 3% if we include active S0 galaxies. We may identify these galaxies as probable progenitors of so-called E+A galaxies that show the strong Balmer absorption feature of A stars superimposed on an old star population. The approximate match of the abundance of active elliptical plus S0 galaxies with that of E+A galaxies indicates that the duration of su...

  11. Circumnuclear star-forming regions in early type spiral galaxies: dynamical masses

    CERN Document Server

    Hagele, G F; Bosch, G L; Diaz, A I; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R

    2012-01-01

    We present the measurements of gas and stellar velocity dispersions in 17 circumnuclear star-forming regions (CNSFRs) and the nuclei of three barred spiral galaxies: NGC2903, NGC3310 and NGC3351 from high dispersion spectra. The stellar dispersions have been obtained from the CaII triplet (CaT) lines at 8494, 8542, 8662A, while the gas velocity dispersions have been measured by Gaussian fits to the Hbeta and to the [OIII]5007A\\ lines. The CNSFRs, with sizes of about 100 to 150pc in diameter, are seen to be composed of several individual star clusters with sizes between 1.5 and 6.2pc on HST images. Using the stellar velocity dispersions, we have derived dynamical masses for the entire star-forming complexes and for the individual star clusters. Values of the stellar velocity dispersions are between 31 and 73 km/s. Dynamical masses for the whole CNSFRs are between 4.9x10^6 and 1.9x10^8 Mo and between 1.4x10^6 and 1.1x10^7 Mo for the individual star clusters. We have found indications for the presence of two dif...

  12. [C II] emission in z ˜ 6 strongly lensed, star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jauzac, Mathilde; Clément, Benjamin; Drouart, Guillaume; Egami, Eiichi; Lindroos, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    The far-infrared fine-structure line [C II] at 1900.5 GHz is known to be one of the brightest cooling lines in local galaxies, and therefore it has been suggested to be an efficient tracer for star formation in very high redshift galaxies. However, recent results for galaxies at z > 6 have yielded numerous non-detections in star-forming galaxies, except for quasars and submillimetre galaxies. We report the results of ALMA observations of two lensed, star-forming galaxies at z = 6.029 and z = 6.703. The galaxy A383-5.1 (star formation rate [SFR] of 3.2 M⊙ yr-1 and magnification of μ = 11.4 ± 1.9) shows a line detection with L_[C II] = 8.9× 106 L⊙, making it the lowest L_[C II] detection at z > 6. For MS0451-H (SFR = 0.4 M⊙ yr-1 and μ = 100 ± 20) we provide an upper limit of L_[C II] 6; however, other effects could also play a role in terms of decreasing L[CII]. The detection of A383-5.1 is encouraging and suggests that detections are possible, but much fainter than initially predicted.

  13. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masao; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$ in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [OII]$\\lambda$3727 emitters at $z\\approx$ 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H$\\alpha$ emission line in 115 galaxies, [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H$\\beta$, [NII]$\\lambda$6584, and [SII]$\\lambda\\lambda$6716,6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [OII] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at $z\\sim$1.5. We find a tight correlation between H$\\alpha$ and [OII], which suggests that [OII] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$. The line ratios of H$\\alpha$/[OII] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [OII] emitters have strong [OIII] emission lines. The [OIII]/[...

  14. The WFC3 Mosaic of The Star-Forming Galaxy M51 in Paschen beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Jin

    2011-10-01

    We propose WFC3/IR Paschen beta imaging of the entire star-forming disk of M51 in a 10-point mosaic. This proposal is motivated by a new picture of gas evolution in galaxies from our recent observations in carbon-monoxide {CO} emission, namely one driven by galactic dynamics. The Paschen beta and archival ACS/Halpha images will enable correction for extinction throughout the entire M51 disk, and show an unprecedented map of star forming activity across the entire galaxy. By comparing this map with our new CO intensity and velocity maps, we will {1} place star formation in this new context of gas evolution, {2} study the triggering of star formation by correlating the star formation efficiency of individual GMC with global galactic structures {such as observed spiral shear motions and local gas convergence}, and {3} investigate the physics that underlie the Schmidt law by resolving the early-phases of star formation and its environment. The extinction-corrected map of star formation activity will become a reference for future calibration of other tracers of star formation activity and will have an unparalleled archival value.

  15. Neutral and Ionized Hydrides in Star-forming Regions -- Observations with Herschel/HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, Arnold O; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Staeuber, Pascal; Wampfler, Susanne F

    2013-01-01

    The cosmic abundance of hydrides depends critically on high-energy UV, X-ray, and particle irradiation. Here we study hydrides in star-forming regions where irradiation by the young stellar object can be substantial, and density and temperature can be much enhanced over interstellar values. Lines of OH, CH, NH, SH and their ions OH+, CH+, NH+, SH+, H2O+, and H3O+ were observed in star-forming regions by the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Molecular column densities are derived from observed ground-state lines, models, or rotational diagrams. We report here on two prototypical high-mass regions, AFGL 2591 and W3 IRS5, and compare them to chemical calculations making assumptions on the high-energy irradiation. A model assuming no ionizing protostellar emission is compared with (i) a model assuming strong protostellar X-ray emission and (ii) a two-dimensional (2D) model including emission in the far UV (FUV, 6 -- 13.6 eV) irradiating the outflow walls that separate the outflowing gas an...

  16. Looking for phase-space structures in star-forming regions: an MST-based methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Emilio J.; González, Marta

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for analysing the phase space of star-forming regions. In particular we are searching for clumpy structures in the 3D sub-space formed by two position coordinates and radial velocity. The aim of the method is the detection of kinematic segregated radial velocity groups, that is, radial velocity intervals whose associated stars are spatially concentrated. To this end we define a kinematic segregation index, tilde{Λ }(RV), based on the Minimum Spanning Tree graph algorithm, which is estimated for a set of radial velocity intervals in the region. When tilde{Λ }(RV) is significantly greater than 1 we consider that this bin represents a grouping in the phase space. We split a star-forming region into radial velocity bins and calculate the kinematic segregation index for each bin, and then we obtain the spectrum of kinematic groupings, which enables a quick visualization of the kinematic behaviour of the region under study. We carried out numerical models of different configurations in the sub-space of the phase space formed by the coordinates and the that various case studies illustrate. The analysis of the test cases demonstrates the potential of the new methodology for detecting different kind of groupings in phase space.

  17. The structural and size evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Buitrago, Fernando; Afonso, Jose

    2016-01-01

    We present new results on the evolution of rest-frame blue/UV sizes and Sersic indices of H$\\alpha$-selected star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs. We investigate how the perceived evolution can be affected by a range of biases and systematics such as cosmological dimming and resolution effects. We use GALFIT and an artificial redshifting technique, which includes the luminosity evolution of H$\\alpha$-selected galaxies, to quantify the change on the measured structural parameters with redshift. We find typical sizes of 2 to 3 kpc and Sersic indices of n~1.2, close to pure exponential disks all the way from z=2.23 to z=0.4. At z=0 we find typical sizes of 4-5 kpc. Our results show that, when using GALFIT, cosmological dimming has a negligible impact on the derived effective radius for galaxies with <10 kpc, but we find a ~20% bias on the estimate of the median Sersic indices, rendering galaxies more disk-like. Star-forming galaxies have grown on average by a factor of 2-3 in the last 11 Gyrs with $r_e...

  18. Looking for phase-space structures in star-forming regions: An MST-based methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Emilio J

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for analysing the phase space of star-forming regions. In particular we are searching for clumpy structures in the 3D subspace formed by two position coordinates and radial velocity. The aim of the method is the detection of kinematic segregated radial velocity groups, that is, radial velocity intervals whose associated stars are spatially concentrated. To this end we define a kinematic segregation index, $\\tilde{\\Lambda}$(RV), based on the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) graph algorithm, which is estimated for a set of radial velocity intervals in the region. When $\\tilde{\\Lambda}$(RV) is significantly greater than 1 we consider that this bin represents a grouping in the phase space. We split a star-forming region into radial velocity bins and calculate the kinematic segregation index for each bin, and then we obtain the spectrum of kinematic groupings, which enables a quick visualization of the kinematic behaviour of the region under study. We carried out numerical models of different config...

  19. ZFIRE: The Kinematics of Star-Forming Galaxies as a Function of Environment at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Alcorn, Leo Y; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Straatman, Caroline; Yuan, Tiantian; Allen, Rebecca J; Cowley, Michael; Davé, Romeel; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J; Labbé, Ivo; Quadri, Ryan; Spitler, Lee R; Tomczak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We perform a kinematic analysis of galaxies at $z\\sim2$ in the COSMOS legacy field using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy from Keck/MOSFIRE as part of the ZFIRE survey. Our sample consists of 75 Ks-band selected star-forming galaxies from the ZFOURGE survey with stellar masses ranging from log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\odot}$)$=9.0-11.0$, 28 of which are members of a known overdensity at $z=2.095$. We measure H$\\alpha$ emission-line integrated velocity dispersions ($\\sigma_{\\rm int}$) from 50$-$230 km s$^{-1}$, consistent with other emission-line studies of $z\\sim2$ field galaxies. From these data we estimate virial, stellar, and gas masses and derive correlations between these properties for cluster and field galaxies at $z\\sim2$. We find evidence that baryons dominate within the central effective radius. However, we find no statistically significant differences between the cluster and the field, and conclude that the kinematics of star-forming galaxies at $z\\sim2$ are not significantly different between the cluster ...

  20. Molecular Hydrogen and [Fe II] in Active Galactic Nuclei III: LINERS and Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Riffel, R; Aleman, I; Brotherton, M S; Pastoriza, M G; Bonatto, C J; Dors, O L

    2013-01-01

    We study the kinematics and excitation mechanisms of H2 and [Fe II] lines in a sample of 67 emission-line galaxies with Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX near-infrared (NIR, 0.8-2.4 micrometers) spectroscopy together with new photoionisation models. H2 emission lines are systematically narrower than narrow-line region (NLR) lines, suggesting that the two are, very likely, kinematically disconnected. The new models and emission-line ratios show that the thermal excitation plays an important role not only in active galactic nuclei but also in star forming galaxies. The importance of the thermal excitation in star forming galaxies may be associated with the presence of supernova remnants close to the region emitting H2 lines. This hypothesis is further supported by the similarity between the vibrational and rotational temperatures of H2. We confirm that the diagram involving the line ratios H2 2.121/Br_gamma and [Fe II] 1.257/Pa_beta is an efficient tool for separating emission-line objects according to their dom...

  1. A preliminary distance to W 75N in the Cygnus X star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Rygl, K L J; Menten, K M; Reid, M J; van Langevelde, H J; Honma, M; Torstensson, K J E; Fujisawa, K; Sanna, A

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus X is one of the closest giant molecular cloud complexes and therefore an extensively studied region of ongoing high mass star formation. However, the distance to this region has been a long-standing issue, since sources at galactic longitude of ~80 degrees could be in the Local Arm nearby (1-2 kpc), in the Perseus Arm at ~5 kpc, or even in the outer arm (~10 kpc). We use combined observations of the EVN plus two Japanese stations to measure very accurate parallaxes of methanol masers in five star-forming regions in Cygnus X to understand if they belong to one large star-forming complex or if they are separate entities located at different distances. Here we report our preliminary result for W75N based on six epochs of VLBI observations: we find that W75N is at a distance of 1.32^{+0.11}_{-0.09} kpc, which is significantly closer than the reported values in the literature (1.5-2 kpc).

  2. Chemical Evolution in High-Mass Star-Forming Regions: Results from the MALT90 Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hoq, Sadia; Foster, Jonathan B; Sanhueza, Patricio; Guzman, Andres; Whitaker, J Scott; Claysmith, Christopher; Rathborne, Jill M; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H2 column densities for each clump from Herschel Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N2H+, HCO+, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The Herschel dust tempe...

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATIONS IN PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SPH-COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo Velona, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Antonuccio-Delogu, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, v. S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cielo, S., E-mail: aro@oact.inaf.it [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M{sub *} plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active

  4. Challenging shock models with SOFIA OH observations in the high-mass star-forming region Cepheus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdorf, A.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Flower, D. R.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Heyminck, S.; Jacobs, K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Leurini, S.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-01-01

    Context. OH is a key molecule in H2O chemistry, a valuable tool for probing physical conditions, and an important contributor to the cooling of shock regions around high-mass protostars. OH participates in the re-distribution of energy from the protostar towards the surrounding Interstellar Medium. Aims: Our aim is to assess the origin of the OH emission from the Cepheus A massive star-forming region and to constrain the physical conditions prevailing in the emitting gas. We thus want to probe the processes at work during the formation of massive stars. Methods: We present spectrally resolved observations of OH towards the protostellar outflows region of Cepheus A with the GREAT spectrometer onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope. Three triplets were observed at 1834.7 GHz, 1837.8 GHz, and 2514.3 GHz (163.4 μm, 163.1 μm between the 2Π1/2 J = 1/2 states, and 119.2 μm, a ground transition between the 2Π3/2 J = 3/2 states), at angular resolutions of 16.̋3, 16.̋3, and 11.̋9, respectively. We also present the CO (16-15) spectrum at the same position. We compared the integrated intensities in the redshifted wings to the results of shock models. Results: The two OH triplets near 163 μm are detected in emission, but with blending hyperfine structure unresolved. Their profiles and that of CO (16-15) can be fitted by a combination of two or three Gaussians. The observed 119.2 μm triplet is seen in absorption, since its blending hyperfine structure is unresolved, but with three line-of-sight components and a blueshifted emission wing consistent with that of the other lines. The OH line wings are similar to those of CO, suggesting that they emanate from the same shocked structure. Conclusions: Under this common origin assumption, the observations fall within the model predictions and within the range of use of our model only if we consider that four shock structures are caught in our beam. Overall, our comparisons suggest that

  5. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  6. New fully empirical calibrations of strong-line metallicity indicators in star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, M; Mannucci, F; Marconi, A; Maiolino, R; Esposito, S

    2016-01-01

    We derive new empirical calibrations for strong-line diagnostics of gas phase metallicity in local star forming galaxies by uniformly applying the Te method over the full metallicity range probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To measure electron temperatures at high metallicity, where the auroral lines needed are not detected in single galaxies, we stacked spectra of more than 110,000 galaxies from the SDSS in bins of log[O II]/H$\\beta$ and log[O III]/H$\\beta$. This stacking scheme does not assume any dependence of metallicity on mass or star formation rate, but only that galaxies with the same line ratios have the same oxygen abundance. We provide calibrations which span more than 1 dex in metallicity and are entirely defined on a consistent absolute Te metallicity scale for galaxies. We apply our calibrations to the SDSS sample and find that they provide consistent metallicity estimates to within 0.05 dex.

  7. Evolution of star-forming dwarf galaxies: characterizing the star formation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Manjón, M. L.; Mollá, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Terlevich, R.

    2012-02-01

    We use the self-consistent model technique developed by Martín-Manjón et al. that combines the chemical evolution with stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes, to study the star formation scenarios capable of reproducing the observed properties of star-forming galaxies. The comparison of our model results with a data base of H II galaxies shows that the observed spectra and colours of the present burst and the older underlying population are reproduced by models in a bursting scenario with star formation efficiency involving close to 20 per cent of the total mass of gas, and interburst times longer than 100 Myr, and more probably around 1 Gyr. Other modes like gasping and continuous star formation are not favoured.

  8. Tomography of Galactic star-forming regions and spiral arms with the Square Kilometer Array

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent; Hoare, Melvin; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; Ellingsen, Simon; Brunthaler, Andreas; Forbrich, Jan; Rygl, Kazi L J; Rodriguez, Luis F; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Torres-Lopez, Rosa M; Dzib, Sergio A; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N; Bourke, Tyler L; Green, James A

    2014-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at radio wavelengths can provide astrometry accurate to 10 micro-arcseconds or better (i.e. better than the target GAIA accuracy) without being limited by dust obscuration. This means that unlike GAIA, VLBI can be applied to star-forming regions independently of their internal and line-of-sight extinction. Low-mass young stellar objects (particularly T Tauri stars) are often non-thermal compact radio emitters, ideal for astrometric VLBI radio continuum experiments. Existing observations for nearby regions (e.g. Taurus, Ophiuchus, or Orion) demonstrate that VLBI astrometry of such active T Tauri stars enables the reconstruction of both the regions' 3D structure (through parallax measurements) and their internal kinematics (through proper motions, combined with radial velocities). The extraordinary sensitivity of the SKA telescope will enable similar "tomographic mappings" to be extended to regions located several kpc from Earth, in particular to nearby spiral arm segmen...

  9. The Dawes Review 1: Kinematic studies of star-forming galaxies across cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Glazebrook, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The last seven years have seen an explosion in the number of Integral Field galaxy surveys, obtaining resolved two dimensional spectroscopy, especially at high-redshift. These have taken advantage of the mature capabilities of 8-10m class telescopes and the development of associated technology such as Adaptive Optics. Surveys have leveraged both high spectroscopic resolution enabling internal velocity measurements and high spatial resolution from Adaptive Optics techniques and sites with excellent natural seeing. For the first time we have been able to glimpse the kinematic state of matter in young, assembling star-forming galaxies and learn detailed astrophysical information about the physical processes and compare their kinematic scaling relations with those in the local universe. Observers have measured disk galaxy rotation, merger signatures and turbulence enhanced velocity dispersions of gas rich disks. Theorists have interpreted kinematic signatures of galaxies in a variety of ways (rotation, merging, o...

  10. Magnetic fields on a wide range of scales in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Sridhar, Sarrvesh S

    2016-01-01

    A key ingredient in the evolution of galaxies is the star formation cycle. Recent progress in the study of magnetic fields is revealing the close connection between star formation and its effect on the small-scale structure in the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM). In this contribution we describe how the modern generation of radio telescopes is being used to probe the physics of the ISM through sensitive multiwavelength surveys of gas and magnetic fields, from the inner star forming disk and outward into the galaxy outskirts where large-scale magnetic fields may also play a key role. We highlight unique pioneering efforts towards performing and scientifically exploiting large-scale surveys of the type that the SKA will undertake routinely. Looking to the future, we describe plans for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders to gain important new insights into the cosmic history of galaxy evolution.

  11. A kinematic analysis of the Giant star-forming Region of N11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Barbá, Rodolfo; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Rubio, Mónica; Bosch, Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    In this work we present high resolution spectroscopic data of the giant star-forming region of N11, obtained with the GIRAFFE instrument at the Very Large Telescope. By using this data set, we find that most of the Hα emission lines profiles in this complex can be fitted by a single Gaussian, however, multiple emission line profiles can be observed in the central region of N11. By adding all the spectra, we derive the integrated Hα profile of this complex, which displays a width (σ) of about 12 km s-1 (corrected by instrumental and thermal width). We find that a single Gaussian fit on the integrated Hα profile leaves remaining wings, which can be fitted by a secondary broad Gaussian component. In addition, we find high velocity features, which spatially correlate with soft diffuse X-ray emission.

  12. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions: I. Reliable Mock Observations from SPH Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Koepferl, Christine M; Dale, James E; Biscani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Through synthetic observations of a hydrodynamical simulation of an evolving star-forming region, we assess how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurements of properties which trace star formation. Testing and calibrating observational measurements requires synthetic observations which are as realistic as possible. In this part of the paper series (Paper I), we explore different techniques for how to map the distributions of densities and temperatures from the particle-based simulations onto a Voronoi mesh suitable for radiative transfer and consequently explore their accuracy. We further test different ways to set up the radiative transfer in order to produce realistic synthetic observations. We give a detailed description of all methods and ultimately recommend techniques. We have found that the flux around 20 microns is strongly overestimated when blindly coupling the dust radiative transfer temperature with the hydrodynamical gas temperature. We find that when instead assuming a consta...

  13. Deep VLA observations of nearby star forming regions I: Barnard 59 and Lupus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, S. A.; Loinard, L.; Medina, S.-N. X.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Torres, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    Barnard 59 and Lupus 1 are two nearby star-forming regions visible from the southern hemisphere. In this manuscript, we present deep (σ˜15 μJy) radio observations (ν=6 GHz) of these regions, and report the detection of a total of 114 sources. Thirteen of these sources are associated with known young stellar objects, nine in Barnard 59 and four in Lupus 1. The properties of the radio emission (spectral index and, in some cases, polarization) suggest a thermal origin for most young stellar objects. Only for two sources (Sz 65 and Sz 67) are there indications for a possible non-thermal origin. The remaining radio detections do not have counterparts at other wavelengths, and the number of sources detected per unit solid angle is in agreement with extragalactic number counts, suggesting that they are extragalactic sources.

  14. Spitzer and Magellan Observations of NGC 2264: A Remarkable Star Forming Core Near IRS-2

    CERN Document Server

    Young, E T; Lada, C J; Mainzer, A K; Marengo, M; Murphy, D C; Muzerolle, J; Persson, S E; Siegler, N; Teixeira, P S

    2006-01-01

    We analyze {\\it Spitzer} and Magellan observations of a star forming core near IRS-2 in the young cluster NGC 2264. The submillimeter source IRAS 12 S1, previously believed to be an intermediate mass Class 0 object is shown to be a dense collection of embedded, low mass stars. We argue that this group of stars represents the fragmenting collapse of a dense, turbulent core, based on a number of indicators of extreme youth. With reasonable estimates for the velocity dispersion in the group, we estimate a dynamical lifetime of only a few x 10$^{4}$ years. Spectral energy distributions of stars in the core are consistent with Class I or Class 0 assignments. We present observations of an extensive system of molecular hydrogen emission knots. The luminosity of the objects in the core region are consistent with roughly solar mass protostars.

  15. Detections of 2 cm formaldehyde emissions towards Galactic star-forming regions with 6 cm counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Yang, Kai; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bin; Wang, Jin-Qing; Dong, Jian; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    We report the detections of H2CO emission at the 2 cm transition towards Galactic star-forming regions with known 6 cm counterpart using the Shanghai Tianma Radio Telescope (TMRT). One significant detection (in NGC7538) and two possible detections (in G23.01-0.41 and G29.96-0.02) were made. Comparing with previous observations, we found that there is a time lag of appearance of 2 cm and 6 cm emissions detected in NGC7538, contradicting with the prediction of radiative pumping via radio continuum radiation. Combinations of the variability of 6 cm masers in NGC7538 suggest that collisional pumping via high-velocity shocks could better explain the 6 cm H2CO maser emission. Under this scheme, excitation of the 2 cm maser may require a higher collision energy compared to the 6 cm transition.

  16. Diffuse Matter from Star Forming Regions to Active Galaxies A Volume Honouring John Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W

    2006-01-01

    John Dyson has contributed to the study of the hydrodynamic processes that govern a wide variety of astrophysical sources which he has helped explain. In this volume dedicated to him, introductory reviews to a number of the key processes and to the sources themselves are given by leading experts. The mechanisms in which the multi-component natures of media affect their dynamics receive particular attention, but the roles of hydromagnetic effects are also highlighted. The importance of cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for the evolution of flows are amongst the topics treated. The main types of regions considered include those where stars form, the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, the larger scale interstellar structures caused by the mass loss of stars, and those where the lines of AGNs form. The reviews complement one another and together provide a coherent introduction to the astro...

  17. Optical and mid-infrared neon abundance determinations in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dors, Oli L; Cardaci, Monica V; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Krabbe, Angela C; Vilchez, Jose M; Sales, Dinalva A; Riffel, Rogerio; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2013-01-01

    We employed observational spectroscopic data of star-forming regions compiled from the literature and photoionization models to analyse the neon ionic abundances obtained using both optical and mid-infrared emission-lines. Comparing Ne++/H+ ionic abundances from distinct methods, we found that, in average, the abundances obtained via IR emission-lines are higher than those obtained via optical lines by a factor of 4. Photoionization models with abundance variations along the radius of the hypothetical nebula provide a possible explanation for a large part of the difference between ionic abundances via optical and infrared emission-lines. Ionization Correction Factor (ICF) for the neon is obtained from direct determinations of ionic fractions using infrared emission-lines. A constant Ne/O ratio (logNe/O \\approx -0.70) for a large range of metallicity, independently of the ICF used to compute the neon total abundance is derived.

  18. The Hercules Cluster Environment Impact on the Chemical History of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, V.; VíLchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Papaderos, P.

    In this work we study the effects of the Hercules cluster environment on the chemical history of star-forming (SF) galaxies. For this purpose we have derived the gas metallicities, the mean stellar metallicities and ages, the masses and the luminosities of our sample of galaxies. We have found that our Hercules SF galaxies are either chemically evolved spirals with nearly flat oxygen gradients, or less metal-rich dwarf galaxies which appear to be the "newcomers" in the cluster. Most Hercules SF galaxies follow well defined mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity sequences; nevertheless significant outliers to these relations have been identified, illustrating how environmental effects can provide a physical source of dispersion in these fundamental relations.

  19. New fully empirical calibrations of strong-line metallicity indicators in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, M.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Esposito, S.

    2017-02-01

    We derive new empirical calibrations for strong-line diagnostics of gas-phase metallicity in local star-forming galaxies by uniformly applying the Te method over the full metallicity range probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To measure electron temperatures at high metallicity, where the auroral lines needed are not detected in single galaxies, we stacked spectra of more than 110 000 galaxies from the SDSS in bins of log[O II]/Hβ and log[O III]/Hβ. This stacking scheme does not assume any dependence of metallicity on mass or star formation rate, but only that galaxies with the same line ratios have the same oxygen abundance. We provide calibrations which span more than 1 dex in metallicity and are entirely defined on a consistent absolute Te metallicity scale for galaxies. We apply our calibrations to the SDSS sample and find that they provide consistent metallicity estimates to within 0.05 dex.

  20. A Hubble View of Star Forming Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, D A; Brandner, W; Rosa, M R; Dolphin, A E; Schmalzl, M; Hennekemper, E; Zinnecker, H; Panagia, N; Chu, Y -H; Brandl, B; Quanz, S P; Robberto, M; De Marchi, G; Gruendl, R A; Romaniello, M

    2007-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (MCs) offer an outstanding variety of young stellar associations, in which large samples of low-mass stars (with masses less than 1 solar mass) currently in the act of formation can be resolved and explored sufficiently with the Hubble Space Telescope. These pre-main sequence (PMS) stars provide a unique snapshot of the star formation process, as it is being recorded for the last 20 Myr, and they give important information on the low-mass Initial Mass Function (IMF) of their host environments. We present the latest results from observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) of such star-forming regions in the MCs, and discuss the importance of Hubble}for a comprehensive collection of substantial information on the most recent low-mass star formation and the low-mass IMF in the MCs.

  1. Popularizing a scientific project: star forming rate in different ages of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Fernández-Castro, T.; Gallego, J.; Armentia, J.

    In Spain we have to make a big effort in order to produce more activities dedicated to the popularization of Science. In this paper we show the activities we have developped, and others that will be done soon, in order to show to the general public, an example of how science is made. The project Star Forming Rate at Different z's is paid with public founds and included in its objectives, are some actions directed to the popularization of the science made in it. Exhibitions, public talks and planetarium shows are part of these activities presented to the general public in two of the main Science Centers of Spain, the Madrid and Pamplona planetaria.

  2. A kinematic analysis of the Giant star-forming Region of N11

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; Apellániz, J Maíz; Rubio, M; Bosch, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present high resolution spectroscopic data of the giant star-forming region of N11, obtained with the GIRAFFE instrument at the Very Large Telescope. By using this data set, we find that most of the H$\\alpha$ emission lines profiles in this complex can be fitted by a single Gaussian, however, multiple emission line profiles can be observed in the central region of N11. By adding all the spectra, we derive the integrated H$\\alpha$ profile of this complex, which displays a width ($\\sigma$) of about 12 km s$^{-1}$ (corrected by instrumental and thermal width). We find that a single Gaussian fit on the integrated H$\\alpha$ profile leaves remaining wings, which can be fitted by a secondary broad Gaussian component. In addition, we find high velocity features, which spatially correlate with soft diffuse X-ray emission.

  3. A kinematic study of the giant star-forming region 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Apellániz, Jesús Maíz; Rubio, Mónica; Bosch, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    We present, for the first time, an optical spectroscopic data cube of the giant star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained with the GIRAFFE on the VLT at Paranal Observatory. The main emission lines present in this data cube correspond to H{\\alpha}, [NII] 6548 {\\AA} and [NII] 6584 {\\AA}. By using this data set, we found that H{\\alpha} presents from simple to multiple profiles, which suggests that different physical mechanisms act in different ways on the excited gas in 30 Doradus. We found, at least, three unclassified large expanding structures. These structures correlate with peaks in the X-ray distribution. Given the excellent signal-to-noise ratio and the large spatial coverage of this data cube, we have studied in detail the kinematics of 30 Doradus, showing the importance of the small scale phenomena on the integrated properties of 30 Doradus.

  4. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  5. An accretion disks in the high-mass star forming region IRA 23151+5912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migenes, Victor; Rodríguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H2O masers toward the high-mass star-forming regions IRA 23151+5912 carried out with the VLA-EVLA. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm and 13 water maser spots which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with an HC HII region, probably with an embedded zero-age main sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this radio continuum source is probably associated with a circumstellar disk of about 68 AU, as traced by water masers. Furthermore, the masers of the second group are probably describing another circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar is still undetected. We discuss this results in the light of more recent high-resolution observations.

  6. The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Contursi, A; Silbermann, N A; Kolhatkar, S; Dale, Daniel A.; Helou, George; Contursi, Alessandra; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Kolhatkar, Sonali

    2001-01-01

    We present a new phenomenological model for the spectral energy distribution of normal star-forming galaxies between 3 and 1100 microns. A sequence of realistic galaxy spectra are constructed from a family of dust emission curves assuming a power law distribution of dust mass over a wide range of interstellar radiation fields. For each interstellar radiation field heating intensity we combine emission curves for large and very small grains and aromatic feature carriers. The model is constrained by IRAS and ISOCAM broadband photometric and ISOPHOT spectrophotometric observations for our sample of 69 normal galaxies; the model reproduces well the empirical spectra and infrared color trends. These model spectra allow us to determine the infrared energy budget for normal galaxies, and in particular to translate far-infrared fluxes into total (bolometric) infrared fluxes. The 20 to 42 micron range appears to show the most significant growth in relative terms as the activity level increases, suggesting that the 20-...

  7. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  8. What is a GMC? Are Observers and Simulators Discussing the Same Star-forming Clouds?

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Hsi-An; Tasker, Elizabeth J; Rosolowsky, Erik; Colombo, Dario; Benincasa, Samantha M; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01

    As both simulations and observations reach the resolution of the star-forming molecular clouds, it becomes important to clarify if these two techniques are discussing the same objects in galaxies. We compare clouds formed in a high resolution galaxy simulation identified as continuous structures within a contour, in the simulator's position-position-position (PPP) co-ordinate space and the observer's position-position-velocity space (PPV). Results indicate that the properties of the cloud populations are similar in both methods and up to 70% of clouds have a single counterpart in the opposite data structure. Comparing individual clouds in a one-to-one match reveals a scatter in properties mostly within a factor of two. However, the small variations in mass, radius and velocity dispersion produce significant differences in derived quantities such as the virial parameter. This makes it difficult to determine if a structure is truely gravitationally bound. The three cloud types originally found in the simulation...

  9. Luminous X-ray sources in spiral and star-forming galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Martin

    2002-09-15

    For studies of discrete X-ray source populations in nearby galaxies, high spatial resolution is a key to making progress. Now, for the first time, using the Chandra X-ray observatory, we are able to study these source populations in detail for galaxies beyond M31 and our local group galaxies. Analysis of accretion-driven and supernova-related discrete sources provides a new perspective on the evolution of galactic stellar populations, as well as giving insights into the physical mechanisms operating in individual cases. A particularly intriguing area, which we are only just beginning to address, is the nature of the most X-ray-luminous sources that are being discovered in many spiral and star-forming galaxies.

  10. I Zw 18, a Template for Star-Forming, z is Greater than 7 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    I Zw 18-NW, one of the most primitive nearby dwarf galaxies, is arguably the best template we have for star-forming, very high-redshift galaxies (z>7). We have therefore obtained a far-UV spectrum of I Zw 18-NW using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). The spectrum indicates star-formation over the past approx.10 Myr, a very low stellar metallicity, log Z/Zsun approx. -1.7, and high average stellar rotation rate, Vsini approx.200 km/s. Stellar wind lines are very weak, and the edge velocity of wind lines is very low (approx.250 km/s). The overall properties of I Zw 18-NW are consistent with theories of very low metallicity, rapidly rotating stars, e.g. Meynet et al. (2006).

  11. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. III. A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Gräfener, G.; Najarro, F.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; Doran, E.; Friedrich, K.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Soszynski, I.; Taylor, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a

  12. IROCKS: Spatially Resolved Kinematics of z ∼ 1 Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, Etsuko; Wright, Shelley A.; Larkin, James E.; Armus, Lee; Juneau, Stéphanie; Salim, Samir; Murray, Norman

    2016-11-01

    We present results from the Intermediate Redshift OSIRIS Chemo-Kinematic Survey (IROCKS) for sixteen z ∼ 1 and one z ∼ 1.4 star-forming galaxies. All galaxies were observed with OSIRIS with the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Keck Observatory. We use rest-frame nebular Hα emission lines to trace morphologies and kinematics of ionized gas in star-forming galaxies on sub-kiloparsec physical scales. We observe elevated velocity dispersions (σ ≳ 50 km s‑1) seen in z > 1.5 galaxies persist at z ∼ 1 in the integrated galaxies. Using an inclined disk model and the ratio of v/σ , we find that 1/3 of the z ∼ 1 sample are disk candidates while the other 2/3 of the sample are dominated by merger-like and irregular sources. We find that including extra attenuation toward H ii regions derived from stellar population synthesis modeling brings star formation rates (SFRs) using Hα and stellar population fit into a better agreement. We explore the properties of the compact Hα sub-component, or “clump,” at z ∼ 1 and find that they follow a similar size–luminosity relation as local H ii regions but are scaled-up by an order of magnitude with higher luminosities and sizes. Comparing the z ∼ 1 clumps to other high-redshift clump studies, we determine that the clump SFR surface density evolves as a function of redshift. This suggests clump formation is directly related to the gas fraction in these systems and may support disk fragmentation as their formation mechanism since gas fraction scales with redshift.

  13. Properties and Star Formation Histories of Intermediate Redshift Dwarf Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Gallego, J.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2017-03-01

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the Universe. We present improved constraints on the physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of intermediate redshift LMSFGs selected by their stellar mass or blue-compact-dwarf-like properties. Our work takes advantage of the deep UV-to-FIR photometric coverage available on the Extended-Chandra Deep Field South and our own dedicated deep VLT/VIMOS optical spectroscopy programs. On the one hand, we estimate the stellar mass (M_{*}), star formation rate (SFR), and SFH of each galaxy modeling its spectral energy distribution. We use a novel approach by Pacifici et al. 2012, that (1) consistently combines photometric (broad-band) and spectroscopic (emission line fluxes and equivalent widths) data, and (2) uses physically-motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the SFR as a function of time. On the other hand, we characterize the properties of their interstellar medium by analyzing the emission line features visible in the VIMOS spectroscopy. The final sample includes 91 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ logM_{*}/M_{⊙} ≤ 9.5) at 0.3 star forming galaxies over 2 dex in stellar mass, and high specific-SFR. Furthermore, they are characterized by strong emission lines, low metallicity, and an enhanced level of excitation. Our selection criterion based on mass gathers galaxies within a wide range of properties, and possibly, different evolutionary stages. Despite the individual differences, the average SFH that we obtain suggests a late and fast (˜2 Gyr prior their observation) assembly scenario for this type of system.

  14. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  15. Trigonometric parallaxes to star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Menten, K. M.; Zhang, B.; Sato, M.; Brunthaler, A.; Immer, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report four trigonometric parallaxes for high-mass star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the Galactic center. These measurements were made with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of the BeSSeL Survey. By associating these sources kinematically with large-scale features in CO and H I longitude-velocity diagrams, we begin to outline some major features of the inner Milky Way: the Connecting arm, the near and far 3 kpc arms, and the Norma arm. The Connecting arm in the first Galactic quadrant lies closer to the Galactic center than the far 3 kpc arm and is offset by the long-bar's major axis near its leading edge, supporting the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance. Assuming the 3 kpc arms are a continuous physical structure, the relative Galactocentric distance of its near and far sides suggests highly elliptical streamlines of gas around the bar(s) and a bar corotation radius, r {sub CR} ≳ 3.6 kpc. At a Galactic longitude near 10° and a heliocentric distance of about 5 kpc, the near 3 kpc arm and the Norma arm intersect on a face-on view of our Galaxy, while passing at different Galactic latitudes. We provide an accurate distance measurement to the W 31 star-forming complex of 4.95{sub −0.43}{sup +0.51} kpc from the Sun, which associates it with a bright CO feature belonging to the near 3 kpc arm.

  16. Chemical Evolution in High-mass Star-forming Regions: Results from the MALT90 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Guzmán, Andrés; Whitaker, J. Scott; Claysmith, Christopher; Rathborne, Jill M.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton

    2013-11-01

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H2 column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N2H+, HCO+, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N2H+ and HCO+ abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N2H+ (1-0) to HCO+ (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  17. A multifrequency study of the active star-forming complex NGC 6357 - I. Interstellar structures linked to the open cluster Pis 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, C. E.; Barbá, R.; Duronea, N. U.; Vasquez, J.; Arnal, E. M.; Goss, W. M.; Fernández Lajús, E.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the distribution of gas (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular) and interstellar dust in the complex star-forming region NGC 6357 with the goal of studying the interplay between the massive stars in the open cluster Pis 24 and the surrounding interstellar matter. Our study of the distribution of the ionized gas is based on narrow-band Hα, [S II]and [O III] images obtained with the Curtis-Schmidt Camera at CTIO, Chile, and on radio continuum observations at 1465 MHz taken with the VLA with a synthesized beam of 40 arcsec. The distribution of the molecular gas is analysed using 12CO(1-0) data obtained with the NANTEN radiotelescope, Chile (angular resolution = 2.7 arcmin). The interstellar dust distribution was studied using mid-infrared data from the GLIMPSE survey and far-infrared observations from IRAS. NGC 6357 consists of a large ionized shell and a number of smaller optical nebulosities. The optical, radio continuum, and near- and mid-IR images delineate the distributions of the ionized gas and interstellar dust in the H II regions and in previously unknown wind-blown bubbles linked to the massive stars in Pis 24 revealing surrounding photodissociation regions. The CO line observations allowed us to identify the molecular counterparts of the ionized structures in the complex and to confirm the presence of photodissociation regions. The action of the WR star HD 157504 on the surrounding gas was also investigated. The molecular mass in the complex is estimated to be (4 ± 2) × 105 M⊙. The mean electron densities derived from the radio data suggest electron densities >200 cm-3, indicating that NGC 6357 is a complex formed in a region of high ambient density. The known massive stars in Pis 24 and a number of newly inferred massive stars are mainly responsible for the excitation and photodissociation of the parental molecular cloud.

  18. Evolution of the stellar-to-dark matter relation: Separating star-forming and passive galaxies from z = 1 to 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Massey, Richard [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Jason, E-mail: jeremy.tinker@nyu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We use measurements of the stellar mass function, galaxy clustering, and galaxy-galaxy lensing within the COSMOS survey to constrain the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) of star forming and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z = [0.2, 1.0]. For massive galaxies, M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}, our results indicate that star-forming galaxies grow proportionately as fast as their dark matter halos while quiescent galaxies are outpaced by dark matter growth. At lower masses, there is minimal difference in the SHMRs, implying that the majority low-mass quiescent galaxies have only recently been quenched of their star formation. Our analysis also affords a breakdown of all COSMOS galaxies into the relative numbers of central and satellite galaxies for both populations. At z = 1, satellite galaxies dominate the red sequence below the knee in the stellar mass function. But the number of quiescent satellites exhibits minimal redshift evolution; all evolution in the red sequence is due to low-mass central galaxies being quenched of their star formation. At M {sub *} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the fraction of central galaxies on the red sequence increases by a factor of 10 over our redshift baseline, while the fraction of quenched satellite galaxies at that mass is constant with redshift. We define a 'migration rate' to the red sequence as the time derivative of the passive galaxy abundances. We find that the migration rate of central galaxies to the red sequence increases by nearly an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0. These results imply that the efficiency of quenching star formation for centrals is increasing with cosmic time, while the mechanisms that quench the star formation of satellite galaxies in groups and clusters is losing efficiency.

  19. On the frequency of star-forming galaxies in the vicinity of powerful AGNs: The case of SMM J04135+10277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogasy, J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Drouart, G.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.

    2017-01-01

    Context. In the last decade several massive molecular gas reservoirs were found SMM J04135+10277 (z = 2.84) and investigate the expected frequency of quasar-starburst galaxy pairs at high redshift using a cosmological galaxy formation model. Methods: We use archive data and new APEX ArTeMiS data to construct and model the spectral energy distribution of SMM J04135+10277 in order to determine its properties. We also carry out a comprehensive analysis of the cosmological galaxy formation model galform with the aim of characterising how typical the system of SMM J04135+10277 is and whether quasar-star-forming galaxy pairs may constitute an important stage in galaxy evolution. Finally, we compare our results to observations found in the literature at both large and small scales (1 Mpc-100 kpc). Results: The companion galaxy of SMM J04135+10277 is a heavily dust-obscured starburst galaxy with a median star formation rate (SFR) of 700 M⊙ yr-1, median dust mass of 5.1 × 109M⊙ and median dust luminosity of 9.3 × 1012L⊙. Our simulations, performed at z = 2.8, suggest that SMM J04135+10277 is not unique. In fact, at a distance of 108M⊙, and 0.3% have at least one highly star-forming companion (SFR> 100 M⊙ yr-1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that quasar-gas-rich companion galaxy systems are common phenomena in the early Universe and the high incidence of companions makes the study of such systems crucial to understand the growth and hierarchical build-up of galaxies and black holes.

  20. The UV-optical Color Gradients in Star-Forming Galaxies at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F S; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C; Faber, S M; Zheng, Xianzhong; Yesuf, Hassen M; Barro, Guillermo; Li, Yao; Li, Dingpeng; Wang, Weichen; Mao, Shude; Fang, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    Rest-frame UV-optical (i.e., NUV-B) color index is sensitive to the low-level recent star formation and dust extinction, but is insensitive to the metallicity. In this Letter, we have measured the rest-frame NUV-B color gradients in ~1400 large ($\\rm r_e>0.18^{\\prime\\prime}$), nearly face-on (b/a>0.5) main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between redshift 0.5 and 1.5 in the CANDELS/GOODS-S and UDS fields. With this sample, we study the origin of UV-optical color gradients in the SFGs at z~1 and discuss their link with the buildup of stellar mass. We find that more massive, centrally compact and more dust extinguished SFGs tend to have statistically more negative raw color gradients (redder centers) than less massive, centrally diffuse and less dusty SFGs. After correcting for dust reddening based on optical-SED fitting, the color gradients in the low-mass ($M_{\\ast} 10^{10.5}M_{\\odot}$) SFGs still retain shallow negative color gradients. These findings imply that dust reddening is likely the principal c...

  1. PARALLAXES FOR W49N AND G048.60+0.02: DISTANT STAR FORMING REGIONS IN THE PERSEUS SPIRAL ARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Plank-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-09-20

    We report trigonometric parallax measurements of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers in two massive star-forming regions from Very Long Baseline Array observations as part of the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey. The distances of 11.11{sup +0.79}{sub -0.69} kpc to W49N (G043.16+0.01) and 10.75{sup +0.61}{sub -0.55} kpc to G048.60+0.02 locate them in a distant section of the Perseus arm near the solar circle in the first Galactic quadrant. This allows us to locate accurately the inner portion of the Perseus arm for the first time. Combining the present results with sources measured in the outer portion of the arm in the second and third quadrants yields a global pitch angle of 9.°5 ± 1.°3 for the Perseus arm. We have found almost no H{sub 2}O maser sources in the Perseus arm for 50° massive star formation activity.

  2. New analytical solutions for chemical evolution models: characterizing the population of star-forming and passive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Analytical models of chemical evolution, including inflow and outflow of gas, are important tools for studying how the metal content in galaxies evolves as a function of time. Aims: We present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the gas mass, total mass, and metallicity of a galactic system when a decaying exponential infall rate of gas and galactic winds are assumed. We apply our model to characterize a sample of local star-forming and passive galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with the aim of reproducing their observed mass-metallicity relation. Methods: We derived how the two populations of star-forming and passive galaxies differ in their particular distribution of ages, formation timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Results: We find that the local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical timescales than the local star-forming galaxies; on the other hand, the star-forming galaxies with higher masses generally show older ages and longer typical formation timescales compared than star-forming galaxies with lower masses. The local star-forming galaxies experience stronger galactic winds than the passive galaxy population. Exploring the effect of assuming different initial mass functions in our model, we show that to reproduce the observed mass-metallicity relation, stronger winds are requested if the initial mass function is top-heavy. Finally, our analytical models predict the assumed sample of local galaxies to lie on a tight surface in the 3D space defined by stellar metallicity, star formation rate, and stellar mass, in agreement with the well-known fundamental relation from adopting gas-phase metallicity. Conclusions: By using a new analytical model of chemical evolution, we characterize an ensemble of SDSS galaxies in terms of their infall timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical

  3. TADPOL: A 1.3 mm Survey of Dust Polarization in Star-forming Cores and Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Kwon, Woojin; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    We present λ 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of dust polarization toward 30 star-forming cores and eight star-forming regions from the TADPOL survey. We show maps of all sources, and compare the ~2".5 resolution TADPOL maps with ~20" resolution polarization maps from single-dish submillimeter telescopes. Here we do not attempt to interpret the detailed B-field morphology of each object. Rather, we use average B-field orientations to derive conclusi...

  4. Dusty Star Forming Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts: In- Situ Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    We have exploited the continuity equation approach and the star-formation timescales derived from the observed 'main sequence' relation (Star Formation Rate vs Stellar Mass), to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≥ a few 10^10 M⊙ at redshift z ≥ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≥ 10^2 M⊙ yr^-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≤ 3 in the Far-InfraRed (FIR) band by the Herschel space observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼10, elucidating that the number density at z ≤ 8 for SFRs ψ ≥ 30 M⊙ yr^-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UltraViolet (UV) luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≤ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2. The same could be done with radio observations by SKA and its precursors. In particular we have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. To do that we

  5. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  6. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral distributions of star-forming galaxies: Metallicity and age effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral distributions from the UV to the near-IR of a sample of 44 star-forming galaxies are used to calculate the metallicity (O/H), star-formation rate (SFR) and age of the starbursts. The oxygen abundance covers the range 8.3 less than O/H less than 9.4 and nitrogen (N) is found to be mostly a product of secondary nucleosynthesis for O/H greater than 8.4. Due to its secondary origin, N/O ratios up to approximately equals 4 times the solar value can be obtained for metal-rich starbursts. The SFR ranges 0.01 to 100 solar mass/year. The lower metallicity galaxies seem to be experiencing an instantaneous burst of star formation, with ages ranging from under 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) yr. The highest metallicity galaxies are most probably experiencing a continuous burst. Correlations between the calculated quantities and several spectral features are investigated. We found a highly significant correlation between the equivalent width W(C IV lambda 1550)-a stellar (absorption) feature- and the oxygen abundance of the emitting gas (O/H). Thus we show for the first time that the stellar metallicity is well correlated with the gas metallicity in star-bursting galaxies. The equivalent width W(Si IV lambda 1400) and the emission line ratio (N II) lambda lambda 6548.84/H(sub alpha) also correlate well with O/H, and all three features can be used as metallicity indicators for star-forming galaxies. The continuum color between lambda 1400 and lambda 3500 (C(14 - 35)) is shown to correlate with O/H, although it is better correlated with E(B - V). It was not possible to disentangle the metallicity from the reddening effect in C(14- 35). We estimate that the reddening affecting the UV continuum is about half the one derived from the Balmer decrement of the emitting gas. The SFR correlates well with the galaxy luminosity and there is no dependence of the continuum color on the SFR. The higher metallicities are only found in the more luminous galaxies, while low metallicities are

  7. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-Mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star Forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Robberto, M; Da Rio, N; Apai, D; Pascucci, I; Ricci, L; Goddi, C; Testi, L; Palla, F; Bacciotti, F

    2012-01-01

    We present new HST/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([OI]6300A), F656N (Ha) and F673N ([SII]6716A+6731A) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared and sub-millimeter data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our Ha photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high alpha(2-24} IR spectral index, s...

  8. Outside-in Shrinking of the Star-forming Disk of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Gao, Yu; Schruba, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We have studied multi-band surface brightness profiles of a representative sample of 34 nearby dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs). Our data include GALEX FUV/NUV, UBV, H\\alpha, and Spitzer 3.6 \\mum images. These galaxies constitute the majority of the LITTLE THINGS survey. By modeling the azimuthal averages of the spectral energy distributions with a complete library of star formation (SF) histories, we derived the stellar mass surface density distributions and the SF rate averaged over three different timescales: the recent 0.1 Gyr, 1 Gyr and a Hubble time. We find that, for \\sim 80% (27 galaxies) of our sample galaxies, radial profiles (at least in the outer part) at shorter wavelengths have shorter disk scale lengths than those at longer wavelengths. This indicates that the star-forming disk has been shrinking. In addition, the radial distributions of the stellar mass surface density are well described as piece-wise exponential profiles, and \\sim 80% of the galaxies have steeper mass profiles in the outer di...

  9. Modeling the Atomic-to-Molecular Transition and Chemical Distributions of Turbulent Star-Forming Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella S R; Viti, Serena; Bell, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C+, C, H2 and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric probl...

  10. MODELING THE ATOMIC-TO-MOLECULAR TRANSITION AND CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF TURBULENT STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bisbas, Thomas G.; Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6B (United Kingdom); Bell, Tom A., E-mail: stella.offner@yale.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C{sup +}, C, H{sub 2}, and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric problems. We compare our results with the work of Glover et al., who self-consistently followed the time evolution of molecule formation in hydrodynamic simulations using a reduced chemical network. In general, we find good agreement with this in situ approach for C and CO abundances. However, the temperature and H{sub 2} abundances are discrepant in the boundary regions (A{sub v} {<=} 5), which is due to the different number of rays used by the two approaches.

  11. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI...... is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (∼10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O...... abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ∼0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ∼10-5-10-4 with respect to H 2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post...

  12. Empirical determination of the shape of dust attenuation curves in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Vivienne; Brinchmann, Jarle; Heckman, Timothy; Vince, Oliver; Pacifici, Camilla; Chevallard, Jacopo

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the shape of the dust attenuation curve in star-forming galaxies from the far ultraviolet to the near infrared (0.15-2microns), as a function of specific star formation rate (sSFR) and axis ratio (b/a), for galaxies with and without a significant bulge. Our sample comprises 23,000 (15,000) galaxies with a median redshift of 0.07, with photometric entries in the SDSS, UKIDSS-LAS (and GALEX-AIS) survey catalogues and emission line measurements from the SDSS spectroscopic survey. We develop a new pair-matching technique to isolate the dust attenuation curves from the stellar continuum emission. The main results are: (i) the slope of the attenuation curve in the optical varies weakly with sSFR, strongly with b/a, and is significantly steeper than the Milky Way extinction law in bulge-dominated galaxies; (ii) the NIR slope is constant, and matches the slope of the Milky Way extinction law; (iii) the UV has a slope change consistent with a dust bump at 2175AA which is evident in all...

  13. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVIII. Star-forming dwarfs in a cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Madden, S C; Hughes, T M; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bizzocchi, L; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clemens, M; Corbelli, E; Cortese, L; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Fritz, J; Pappalardo, C; Pierini, D; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Smith, M W L; Verstappen, J; Viaene, S; Vlahakis, C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the FIR-submm properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf (SFD) galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body (MBB) function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than $m_B$ = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by $\\beta$=1.5, with a median dust temperature $T_d$ = 22.4 K. Assuming $\\beta$=1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 $\\mu$m in excess of the MBB model. The excess is inversely correlated ...

  14. Far Infrared Luminosity Function of Local Star-forming Galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Sedgwick, Chris; Pearson, Chris; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Oyabu, Shinki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Clements, D L; Negrello, Mattia; White, Glenn J

    2011-01-01

    We present a far-infrared galaxy luminosity function for the local universe. We have obtained 389 spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies observed at 90 microns in the AKARI Deep Field South, using the AAOmega fibre spectrograph via optical identifications in the digitized sky survey and 4m-class optical imaging. For the luminosity function presented in this paper, we have used those galaxies which have redshifts 0star-forming activity and predominantly active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in their optical spectra. Our luminosity function is in good agreement with the previous 90 micron lumino...

  15. CLASH: A Census of Magnified Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, L D; Coe, D; Bouwens, R; Postman, M; Balestra, I; Grillo, C; Monna, A; Rosati, P; Seitz, S; Host, O; Lemze, D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A; Shu, X; Zheng, W; Broadhurst, T; Carrasco, M; Jouvel, S; Koekemoer, A; Medezinski, E; Meneghetti, M; Nonino, M; Smit, R; Umetsu, K; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Infante, L; Jimenez-Teja, Y; Kelson, D; Lahav, O; Maoz, D; Melchior, P; Merten, J; Molino, A

    2013-01-01

    We utilize 16-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 18 lensing clusters obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury program to search for z~6-8 galaxies. We report the discovery of 206, 45, and 13 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z~6, z~7, and z~8, respectively, identified from purely photometric redshift selections. This large sample, representing nearly an order of magnitude increase in the number of magnified star-forming galaxies at z~6-8 presented to date, is unique in that we have observations in four WFC3/UVIS UV, seven ACS/WFC optical and all five WFC3/IR broad-band filters, which enable very accurate photometric redshift selections. We construct detailed lensing models for all 18 clusters (although some are preliminary) to estimate object magnifications and to identify two new multiply-lensed z >~ 6 candidates. The median magnifications for these 18 clusters are 4, 4, and 5 for the z~6, z~7, and z~8 samples, respectively, ove...

  16. Mass accretion flows in the high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Zernickel, A.; Schmiedeke, A.; Möller, Th.; Qin, S.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is one of the major topics of astrophysical research, in particular the process of accretion from large-scale clouds down to small-scale cores. We have selected the nearby, filamentary, high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334 to study the gas velocity at different scales and probe the infall rates onto the protostellar cores embedded in the NGC 6334-I and I(N) clusters. This study makes use of single-dish and interferometric submillimeter observations, complemented with 3D numerical non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. We measure a mass accretion rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 throughout the filament increasing up to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the densest regions where high-mass stars are forming. At smaller scales, our 3D model is consistent with accretion rates of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the clusters, and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 onto the protostars.

  17. The Kinematics of CIV in Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Xinnan; Martin, Crystal L; Coil, Alison L

    2016-01-01

    We present the first statistical sample of rest-frame far-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at z~1. These spectra are unique in that they cover the high-ionization CIV{\\lambda}{\\lambda}1548, 1550 doublet. We also detect low-ionization features such as SiII{\\lambda}1527, FeII{\\lambda}1608, AlII{\\lambda}1670, NiII{\\lambda}{\\lambda}1741, 1751 and SiII{\\lambda}1808, and intermediate-ionization features from AlIII{\\lambda}{\\lambda}1854, 1862. Comparing the properties of absorption lines of lower- and higher- ionization states provides a window into the multi-phase nature of circumgalactic gas. Our sample is drawn from the DEEP2 survey and spans the redshift range 1.01 = 1.25). By isolating the interstellar CIV absorption from the stellar P-Cygni wind profile we find that 69% of the CIV profiles are blueshifted with respect to the systemic velocity. Furthermore, CIV shows a small but significant blueshift relative to FeII (offset of the best-fit linear regression -76 $\\pm$ 26 km/s). At the same time, the CIV blu...

  18. Boxy H$\\alpha$ Emission Profiles in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Shi, Yong; Jin, Yi-Fei

    2016-01-01

    We assemble a sample of disk star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, studying the structure of H$\\alpha$ emission lines, finding a large fraction of this sample contains boxy H$\\alpha$ line profiles. This fraction depends on galaxy physical and geometric parameters in the following way: (1) it increases monotonically with star formation rate per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$), and stellar mass ($M_*$), with the trend being much stronger with $M_*$, from $\\sim$0% at $M_*=10^{10}M_{\\odot}$ to about 50% at $M_*=10^{11}M_\\odot$; (2) the fraction is much smaller in face-on systems than in edge-on systems. It increases with galaxy inclination ($i$) while $i < 60\\,^{\\circ}$ and is roughly a constant of 25% beyond this range; (3) for the sources which can be modeled well with two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity, these is a positive correlation between the velocity difference of these two components and the stellar mass, with a slope similar...

  19. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, C. A. [Natural Sciences Department, Jeffords Science Center, Castleton State College, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, 135 Willey Street, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Low, M.-M. Mac [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Kreckel, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Guzmán, R., E-mail: catherine.garland@castleton.edu, E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: krabidou@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de, E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  20. A photometric comprehensive study of circumnuclear star forming rings: the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Mar

    2013-01-01

    We present photometry in U, B, V, R and I continuum bands and in H{\\alpha} and H{\\beta} emission lines for a sample of 336 circumnuclear star forming regions (CNSFR) located in 20 early type spiral galaxies with different levels of activity in their nuclei. This reported activity ranges from Sy1 to Starburst, including Sy2 and LINER. They are nearby galaxies, with distances less than 100 Mpc, $60\\%$ of which are considered as interacting objects. We have found a clear relationship between MB of the galaxy and the major axis of the rings based on data from a wide sample of galaxies with outer, inner and circumnuclear rings. This relationship allows us to define the "limiting radius" for each galaxy as the radius beyond which, HII regions should not be considered as circumnuclear. This concept of "limiting radius" allows to ascertain whether an HII region close to the galactic nucleus can be considered circumnuclear or not. Extinction corrected H{\\alpha}luminosities range from 1.3 10^38 to 4 10^41 erg s-1. H{\\a...

  1. SiO outflows in high-mass star forming regions: A potential chemical clock?

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, A; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Schuller, F; Bronfman, L; Carey, S J; Menten, K M; Molinari, S; Noriega-Crespo, A

    2010-01-01

    Some theoretical models propose that O-B stars form via accretion, in a similar fashion to low-mass stars. Jet-driven molecular outflows play an important role in this scenario, and their study can help to understand the process of high-mass star formation and the different evolutionary phases involved. Observations towards low-mass protostars so far favour an evolutionary picture in which jets are always associated with Class 0 objects while more evolved Class I/II objects show less evidence of powerful jets. The present study aims at checking whether an analogous picture can be found in the high-mass case. The IRAM 30-m telescope (Spain) has been used to perform single-pointing SiO(2-1) and (3-2) observations towards a sample of 57 high-mass molecular clumps in different evolutionary stages. Continuum data at different wavelengths, from mid-IR to 1.2 mm, have been gathered to build the spectral energy distributions of all the clumps and estimate their bolometric luminosities. SiO emission at high velocities...

  2. The molecular environment of the Galactic star forming region G19.61-0.23

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, G; Leurini, S; Walmsley, C M; Cesaroni, R; Bronfman, L; Carey, S; Gregorini, L; Menten, K M; Molinari, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Olmi, L; Schuller, F

    2010-01-01

    We present single-dish (sub)millimeter observations of gas and dust in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region G19.61-0.23, with the aim of studying the large-scale properties and physical conditions of the molecular gas across the region. The final aim is to compare the large-scale (about 100 pc) properties with the small-scale (about 3 pc) properties and to consider possible implications for extragalactic studies. We have mapped CO isotopologues in the J=1-0 transition using the FCRAO-14m telescope and the J=2-1 transition using the IRAM-30m telescope. We have also used data from the ATLASGAL survey and from the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey, as well as the Spitzer infrared Galactic plane surveys GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL to characterize the star-formation activity within the molecular clouds. We reveal a population of molecular clumps in the 13CO(1-0) emission. Our analysis of the 13CO suggests that the virial parameter (ratio of kinetic to gravitational energy) varies over an order of magnitude between clump...

  3. Dust Emissivity in the Star-Forming Filament OMC 2/3

    CERN Document Server

    Sadavoy, S I; Schnee, S; Mason, B; Di Francesco, J; Friesen, R

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of the dust emissivity index, beta, for the high-mass, star-forming OMC 2/3 filament. We combine 160-500 um data from Herschel with long-wavelength observations at 2 mm and fit the spectral energy distributions across a ~ 2 pc long, continuous section of OMC 2/3 at 15000 AU (0.08 pc) resolution. With these data, we measure beta and reconstruct simultaneously the filtered-out large-scale emission at 2 mm. We implement both variable and fixed values of beta, finding that beta = 1.7 - 1.8 provides the best fit across most of OMC 2/3. These beta values are consistent with a similar analysis carried out with filtered Herschel data. Thus, we show that beta values derived from spatial filtered emission maps agree well with those values from unfiltered data at the same resolution. Our results contradict the very low beta values (~ 0.9) previously measured in OMC 2/3 between 1.2 mm and 3.3 mm data, which we attribute to elevated fluxes in the 3.3 mm observations. Therefore, we find no evide...

  4. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star-forming Galaxy NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Aloisi, A.; Bright, S. N.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Ryon, J. E.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Wofford, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star-forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (≲ 100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy using a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent α. We recover a weighted mean index of α ∼ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3.″3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of α ∼ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The strength of the clustering increases with decreasing age and clusters older than 40 Myr lose their clustered structure very rapidly and tend to be randomly distributed in this galaxy, whereas the mass of the star cluster has little effect on the clustering strength. This is consistent with results from other studies that the morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering resembles the same hierarchy as the turbulent interstellar medium.

  5. Flat rotation curves and low velocity dispersions in KMOS star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Teodoro, E. M.; Fraternali, F.; Miller, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    The study of the evolution of star-forming galaxies requires the determination of accurate kinematics and scaling relations out to high redshift. In this paper we select a sample of 18 galaxies at z ~ 1, observed in the Hα emission line with KMOS, to derive accurate kinematics using a novel 3D analysis technique. We use the new code 3DBarolo, which models the galaxy emission directly in 3D observational space, without the need to extract kinematic maps. This major advantage of this technique is that it is not affected by beam smearing and thus it enables the determination of rotation velocity and intrinsic velocity dispersion, even at low spatial resolution. We find that (1) the rotation curves of these z ~ 1 galaxies rise very steeply within few kiloparsecs and remain flat out to the outermost radius and (2) the Hα velocity dispersions are low, ranging from 15 to 40 km s-1, which leads to V/σ = 3-10. These characteristics are similar to those of disc galaxies in the local Universe. Finally, we also report no significant evolution of the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation. Our results show that disc galaxies are kinematically mature and rotation-dominated at z ~ 1 already. The reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A77

  6. Carbon gas in SMC low-metallicity star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Requena-Torres, M A; Okada, Y; Guesten, R; Stutzki, J; Risacher, C; Simon, R; Zinnecker, H

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents [CII], [CI] and CO emission line maps of the star-forming regions N66, N25+N26, and N88 in the metal-poor Local Group dwarf galaxy SMC. The spatial and velocity structure of the large HII region N66 reveals an expanding ring of shocked molecular gas centered on the exciting star cluster NGC346, whereas a more distant dense molecular cloud is being eroded by UV radiation from the same cluster. In the N25+N26 and N88 maps, diffuse [CII] emission at a relatively low surface brightness extends well beyond the compact boundaries of the bright emission associated with the [CII] regions. In all regions, the distribution of this bright [CII] emission and the less prominent [CI] emission closely follows the outline of the CO complexes, but the intensity of the [CII] and [CI] emission is generally anticorrelated, which can be understood by the action of photodissociation and photoionization processes. Notwithstanding the overall similarity of CO and [CII] maps, the intensity ratio of these lines var...

  7. The Quest for Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift z>4

    CERN Document Server

    Mancuso, C; Shi, J; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Aversa, R; Danese, L

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and the `main sequence' star-formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses > a few 10^10 M_sun at redshift z>4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) > 10^2 M_sun/yr in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z30 M_sun/yr cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data...

  8. H i-to-H2 Transition Layers in the Star-forming Region W43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, Shmuel; Bihr, Simon; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas; Sternberg, Amiel

    2017-02-01

    The process of atomic-to-molecular (H i-to-H2) gas conversion is fundamental for molecular-cloud formation and star formation. 21 cm observations of the star-forming region W43 revealed extremely high H i column densities, of 120–180 {M}ȯ {{pc}}-2, a factor of 10–20 larger than predicted by H i-to-H2 transition theories. We analyze the observed H i with a theoretical model of the H i-to-H2 transition, and show that the discrepancy between theory and observation cannot be explained by the intense radiation in W43, nor be explained by variations of the assumed volume density or H2 formation rate coefficient. We show that the large observed H i columns are naturally explained by several (9–22) H i-to-H2 transition layers, superimposed along the sightlines of W43. We discuss other possible interpretations such as a non-steady-state scenario and inefficient dust absorption. The case of W43 suggests that H i thresholds reported in extragalactic observations are probably not associated with a single H i-to-H2 transition, but are rather a result of several transition layers (clouds) along the sightlines, beam-diluted with diffuse intercloud gas.

  9. Equilibrium model prediction for the scatter in the star-forming main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sourav; Davé, Romeel; Simha, Vimal; Finlator, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The analytic `equilibrium model' for galaxy evolution using a mass balance equation is able to reproduce mean observed galaxy scaling relations between stellar mass, halo mass, star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity across the majority of cosmic time with a small number of parameters related to feedback. Here, we aim to test this data-constrained model to quantify deviations from the mean relation between stellar mass and SFR, i.e. the star-forming galaxy main sequence (MS). We implement fluctuation in halo accretion rates parametrized from merger-based simulations, and quantify the intrinsic scatter introduced into the MS under the assumption that fluctuations in star formation follow baryonic inflow fluctuations. We predict the 1σ MS scatter to be ˜0.2-0.25 dex over the stellar mass range 108-1011 M⊙ and a redshift range 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3 for SFRs averaged over 100 Myr. The scatter increases modestly at z ≳ 3, as well as by averaging over shorter time-scales. The contribution from merger-induced star formation is generally small, around 5 per cent today and 10-15 per cent during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. These results are generally consistent with available observations, suggesting that deviations from the MS primarily reflect stochasticity in the inflow rate owing to halo mergers.

  10. The Sizes of Diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ Nebulae around Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Rui; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Hong, Sungryong; Prescott, Moire K M; Inami, Hanae; Jannuzi, Buell T; Gonzalez, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ emission, or Lyman alpha halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at $z\\approx3.78$ and $2.66$ in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Bo\\"otes field. Our samples consist of a total of $\\approx$1,400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly$\\alpha$ images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly$\\alpha$ radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scalelength of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities, but not on Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly$\\alpha$ emitters ($M_{\\rm UV} \\gtrsim -21$), exhibit LAH s...

  11. ALMA Observations of SPT-Discovered, Strongly Lensed, Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Y D; Fassnacht, C D; Spilker, J S; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; De Breuck, C; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Weiß, A; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 micrometer imaging of four high-redshift (z=2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.5 arcsec resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1-3 arcsec, consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z=5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 X 10^13 L_sun and star formation surface density of 4200 M_sun yr^-1 kpc^-2. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, w...

  12. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey I. Star Forming Molecular Gas in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Bendo, G; Brinks, E; Clements, D; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Mortier, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sinukoff, E; Spekkens, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Van der Werf, P P; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2008-01-01

    We present large-area maps of the CO J=3-2 emission obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope for four spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We combine these data with published CO J=1-0, 24 micron, and Halpha images to measure the CO line ratios, molecular gas masses, and instantaneous gas depletion times. For three galaxies in our sample (NGC 4254, NGC4321, and NGC 4569), we obtain molecular gas masses of 7E8-3E9 Msun and disk-averaged instantaneous gas depletion times of 1.1-1.7 Gyr. We argue that the CO J=3-2 line is a better tracer of the dense star forming molecular gas than the CO J=1-0 line, as it shows a better correlation with the star formation rate surface density both within and between galaxies. NGC 4254 appears to have a larger star formation efficiency(smaller gas depletion time), perhaps because it is on its first passage through the Virgo Cluster. NGC 4569 shows a large-scale gradient in the gas properties traced by the CO J=3-2/J=1-0 line ratio, which suggests that its interaction with ...

  13. The very low-mass population of the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a deep optical survey in the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions. Our optical photometry is combined with available near- and mid-infrared photometry to identify very low-mass candidate members in these dark clouds. In our Chamaeleon II field, only one object exhibits clear H-alpha emission, but the discrepancy between its optical and near-infrared colours suggests that it might be a foreground star. We also identify two objects without H-alpha emission that could be planetary mass members of Chamaeleon II. In Corona Australis, we find ten stars and three brown dwarf candidates in the Coronet cluster. Five of our new members are identified with ISOCAM sources. Only two of them have a mid-infrared excess, indicating the presence of an accretion disk. On the other hand, one brown dwarf candidate has a faint close companion, seen only in our deepest I-band image. For many of the candidates in both clouds, membership could not be inferred from their H-alpha emission o...

  14. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Fialkov, A; Scudder, J; Hayward, C C; Cowley, W I; Bock, J; Calanog, J; Chapman, S C; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lacey, C; Loeb, A; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Vieira, J D; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for...

  15. Statistical Properties of Diffuse Lyman-alpha Halos around Star-forming Galaxies at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, Rieko; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yuma, Suraphong; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyman-alpha halos (LAHs) around high-$z$ star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $z=2.2$. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs' central Lyman-alpha luminosities, UV magnitudes, Lyman-alpha equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs' radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths $r_n$ as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyman-alpha luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyman-alpha SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anti-correlation between $r_n$ and Lyman-alpha luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is $\\rho=-0.9$ ($-0.7$) corresponding to the $96\\%$ ($93\\%$) confidence level, although the correlation between $r_n$ and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficien...

  16. Far Infrared Mapping of Three Galactic Star Forming Regions: W3(OH), S209 & S187

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. K. Ghosh; B. Mookerjea; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

    2001-06-01

    Three Galactic star forming regions associated with W3(OH), S209 and S187 have been simultaneously mapped in two trans-IRAS far infrared (FIR) bands centered at ∼ 140 and 200m using the TIFR 100 cm balloon borne FIR telescope. These maps showextended FIR emission with structures. The HIRES processed IRAS maps of these regions at 12, 25, 60 & 100 m have also been presented for comparison. Point-like sources have been extracted from the longest waveband TIFR maps and searched for associations in the other five bands. The diffuse emission from these regions have been quantified, which turns out to be a significant fraction of the total emission. The spatial distribution of cold dust (T < 30 K) for two of these sources (W3(OH) & S209), has been determined reliably from the maps in TIFR bands. The dust temperature and optical depth maps show complex morphology. In general the dust around S209 has been found to be warmer than that in W3(OH) region.

  17. KMOS^3D: Dynamical constraints on the mass budget in early star-forming disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wuyts, S; Wisnioski, E; Genzel, R; Burkert, A; Bandara, K; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Bender, R; Brammer, G B; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Kulkarni, S K; Lang, P; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I G; Naab, T; Nelson, E J; Saglia, R P; Seitz, S; Tacconi, L J; Tadaki, K; Übler, H; van Dokkum, P G; Wilman, D J; Wuyts, E

    2016-01-01

    We exploit deep integral-field spectroscopic observations with KMOS/VLT of 240 star-forming disks at 0.6 2 being strongly baryon-dominated within $R_e$. Substantial object-to-object variations in both stellar and baryonic mass fractions are observed among the galaxies in our sample, larger than what can be accounted for by the formal uncertainties in their respective measurements. In both cases, the mass fractions correlate most strongly with measures of surface density. High $\\Sigma_{star}$ galaxies feature stellar mass fractions closer to unity, and systems with high inferred gas or baryonic surface densities leave less room for additional mass components other than stars and molecular gas. Our findings can be interpreted as more extended disks probing further (and more compact disks probing less far) into the dark matter halos that host them. However, a non-negligible tail of the derived baryonic mass fraction distribution reaching into the unphysical $f_{bar} > 1$ regime may in addition hint at more effi...

  18. The SONYC survey: Towards a complete census of brown dwarfs in star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Muzic, K; Geers, V C; Jayawardhana, R; Tamura, M; Dawson, P; Ray, T P

    2013-01-01

    SONYC, short for "Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters", is a survey program to provide a census of the substellar population in nearby star forming regions. We have conducted deep optical and near-infrared photometry in five young regions (NGC1333, rho Ophiuchi, Chamaeleon-I, Upper Sco, and Lupus-3), combined with proper motions, and followed by extensive spectroscopic campaigns with Subaru and VLT, in which we have obtained more than 700 spectra of candidate low-mass objects. We have identified and characterized more than 60 new substellar objects, among them a handful of objects with masses close to, or below the Deuterium burning limit. Through SONYC and surveys by other groups, the substellar IMF is now well characterized down to ~ 5 - 10 MJup, and we find that the ratio of the number of stars with respect to brown dwarfs lies between 2 and 6. A comprehensive survey of NGC 1333 reveals that, down to ~5MJup, free-floating objects with planetary masses are 20-50 times less numerous than stars, i.e. ...

  19. Extremely-bright submillimeter galaxies beyond the Lupus-I star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Y; Shimajiri, Y; Tsukagoshi, T; Nakajima, Y; Oasa, Y; Wilner, D J; Chandler, C J; Saigo, K; Tomida, K; Yun, M S; Taniguchi, A; Kohno, K; Hatsukade, B; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Dickman, R; Ezawa, H; Goss, W M; Hayashi, M; Hughes, D H; Hiramatsu, M; Inutsuka, S; Ogasawara, R; Ohashi, N; Oshima, T; Scott, K S; Wilson, G W

    2015-01-01

    We report detections of two candidate distant submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), MM J154506.4$-$344318 and MM J154132.7$-$350320, which are discovered in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm survey toward the Lupus-I star-forming region. The two objects have 1.1 mm flux densities of 43.9 and 27.1 mJy, and have Herschel/SPIRE counterparts as well. The Submillimeter Array counterpart to the former SMG is identified at 890 $\\mu$m and 1.3 mm. Photometric redshift estimates using all available data from the mid-infrared to the radio suggest that the redshifts of the two SMGs are $z_{\\rm photo} \\simeq$ 4-5 and 3, respectively. Near-infrared objects are found very close to the SMGs and they are consistent with low-$z$ ellipticals, suggesting that the high apparent luminosities can be attributed to gravitational magnification. The cumulative number counts at $S_{\\rm 1.1mm} \\ge 25$ mJy, combined with other two 1.1-mm brightest sources, are $0.70 ^{+0.56}_{-0.34}$ deg$^{-2}$, which is consistent with a model prediction that accounts for ...

  20. Derivation of chemical abundances in star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Martinez, J M

    2014-01-01

    We have studied a sample of 11 blue, luminous, metal-poor galaxies at redshift 0.744 < z < 0.835 from the DEEP2 redshift survey. They were selected by the presence of the [OIII]4363 auroral line and the [OII]3726,3729 doublet together with the strong emission nebular [OIII] lines in their spectra from a sample of around 6000 galaxies within a narrow redshift range. All the spectra have been taken with DEIMOS, which is a multi-slit, double-beam spectrograph which uses slitmasks to allow the spectra from many objects to be imaged at the same time. The selected objects present high luminosities (20.3 < MB < 18.5), remarkable blue color index, and total oxygen abundances between 7.69 and 8.15 which represent 1/3 to 1/10 of the solar value. The wide spectral coverage (from 6500 to 9100 angstroms) of the DEIMOS spectrograph and its high spectral resolution, R around 5000, bring us an opportunity to study the behaviour of these star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift with high quality spectra. We ...

  1. Star forming regions linked to RCW78 and the discovery of a new IR bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C E; Romero, G A; Duronea, N U; Firpo, V

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the presence of molecular and dust clumps linked to two star forming regions identified in the expanding molecular envelope of the stellar wind bubble RCW78, we analyzed the distribution of the molecular gas and cold dust. To accomplish this study we performed dust continuum observations at 870 \\mu m and 13CO(2-1) line observations with the APEX telescope, using LABOCA and SHeFI-1 instruments, respectively, and analyzed Herschel images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 \\mu m. These observations allowed us to identify cold dust clumps linked to region B (named the Southern clump) and region C (clumps 1 and 2) and an elongated Filament. Molecular gas was clearly detected linked to the Southern clump and the Filament. The velocity of the molecular gas is compatible with the location of the dense gas in the expanding envelope of RCW78. We estimate dust temperatures and total masses for the dust condensations from the emissions at different wavelengths in the far-IR and from the molecular...

  2. The UV to FIR spectral energy distribution of star-forming galaxies in the redshift desert

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Magdis, G; Pérez-García, A M; Cepa, J; Cedrés, B; Sánchez, H Domínguez; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Pérez-Martínez, R; Pintos-Castro, I; Polednikova, J

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the rest-frame UV-to-near-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), star-forming (SF) BzK (sBzK), and UV-selected galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the COSMOS, GOODS-North, and GOODS-South fields. Additionally, we complement the multi-wavelength coverage of the galaxies located in GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields with deep FIR data taken within the framework of the GOODS-Herschel project. According to their best-fitted SED-derived properties we find that, due to their selection criterion involving UV measurements, LBGs tend to be UV-brighter, bluer, have less prominent Balmer break (are younger), and have higher dust-corrected total SFR than sBzK galaxies. In a color versus stellar mass diagram, LBGs at z ~ 2 tend to be mostly located over the blue cloud of galaxies at their redshift, although galaxies with older ages, higher dust attenuation, and redder UV continuum slope deviate to the green valley and red sequence. We find PACS (100um or 160um) individual detection...

  3. Broadband and Narrowband Search for z < 1 Analogs of High Redshift Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Benjamin; Barger, Amy J.; Wold, Isak; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox

    2017-01-01

    Studies of high redshift (z > 6) galaxies rely on extreme broadband colors from Spitzer/IRAC to select samples of low-mass star forming galaxies. These broadband excess searches are biased towards galaxies with the strongest emission lines, and the extent to which existing studies miss fainter galaxies with lower star formation rates remains unknown. Using both broadband (BB) and narrowband (NB) imaging from the HyperSuprimeCam (HSC) and SuprimeCam (SC) on the Subaru Telescope, we have performed a search for z population. The search was performed over roughly 4 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field, and the narrowband filters allow us to probe fainter emission lines than the broadband searches. We carried out spectral followup of our BB excess and NB excess samples using WIYN/Hydra to measure redshifts and line ratios in order to understand the biases in the different selection techniques. We also investigate the rest frame UV properties of our sample using data from GALEX. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using broadband colors to select intermediate redshift emission line galaxies.

  4. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL2591

    CERN Document Server

    Poelman, D R

    2007-01-01

    Context: observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allow to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims: we investigate the diagnostic value of specific water transitions in high-mass star-forming regions. As a test case, we apply our models to the AFGL2591 region. Results: in general, for models with a constant water abundance, the ground state lines, i.e., 1_(10)-1_(01), 1_(11)-0_(00), and 2_(12)-1_(01), are predicted in absorption, all the others in emission. This behaviour changes for models with a water abundance jump profile in that the line profiles for jumps by a factor of ~10-100 are similar to the line shapes in the constant abundance models, whereas larger jumps lead to emission profiles. Asymmetric line profiles are found for models with a cavity outflow and depend on the inclination angle. Models with an outflow cav...

  5. 2D Kinematics and Physical Properties of z~3 Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine-Busserolle, M; Lamareille, F; Kissler-Patig, M

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a study of the kinematic structure of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~3 selected in the VVDS, using integral-field spectroscopy of rest-frame optical nebular emission lines, in combination with rest-frame UV spectroscopy, ground-based optical/near-IR and Spitzer photometry. We also constrain the underlying stellar populations to address the evolutionary status of these galaxies. We infer the kinematic properties of four galaxies: VVDS-20298666, VVDS-020297772, VVDS-20463884 and VVDS-20335183 with redshifts z = 3.2917, 3.2878, 3.2776, and 3.7062, respectively. While VVDS-20463884 presents an irregular velocity field with a peak in the local velocity dispersion of the galaxy shifted from the centre of the galaxy, VVDS-20298666 has a well-resolved gradient in velocity over a distance of ~4.5 kpc with a peak-to-peak amplitude of v = 91 km/s . We discovered that the nearby galaxy, VVDS-020297772 (which shows traces of AGN activity), is in fact a companion at a similar redshift with a pr...

  6. New Star Forming Galaxies at $z\\approx 7$ from WFC3 Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Caruana, Joseph; Astrophysics, - Oxford

    2010-01-01

    The addition of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\em HST}) has led to a dramatic increase in our ability to study the $z>6$ Universe. The increase in the near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity of WFC3 over previous instruments has enabled us to reach apparent magnitudes approaching 29 (AB). This allows us to probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum, redshifted into the NIR at $z>6$. Taking advantage of the large optical depths at this redshift, resulting in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ break, we use a combination of WFC3 imaging and pre-existing Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging to search for $z\\approx 7$ over 4 fields. Our analysis reveals 29 new $z\\approx 7$ star forming galaxy candidates in addition to 16 pre-existing candidates already discovered in these fields. The improved statistics from our doubling of the robust sample of $z$-drop candidates confirms the previously observed evolution of the bright end of the luminosity function.

  7. Timing the Evolution of Quiescent and Star-forming Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Oh, Sree; Oh, Kyuseok; Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-06-01

    Constraining the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that regulate their evolution. Here, we combine multi-wavelength (ultraviolet, optical, and infrared) measurements of a very large sample of galaxies (˜230,000) at z motivated models of galaxy spectral energy distributions to extract constraints on galaxy physical parameters (such as stellar mass and star formation rate) as well as individual SFHs. In particular, we set constraints on the timescales in which galaxies form a certain percentage of their total stellar mass (namely, 10%, 50%, and 90%). The large statistics allows us to average such measurements over different populations of galaxies (quiescent and star-forming) and in narrow ranges of stellar mass. As in the downsizing scenario, we confirm that low-mass galaxies have more extended SFHs than high-mass galaxies. We also find that at the same observed stellar mass, galaxies that are now quiescent evolve more rapidly than galaxies that are currently still forming stars. This suggests that stellar mass is not the only driver of galaxy evolution, but plays along with other factors such as merger events and other environmental effects.

  8. Spiral-like star-forming patterns in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, J M; Vílchez, J M; Kehrig, C; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Breda, I; Lehnert, M D; Sánchez, S F; Ziegler, B; Reis, S N dos; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Bomans, D J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Walcher, C J; García-Benito, R; Márquez, I; del Olmo, A; Mollá, M; Marino, R A; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Delgado, R M González; López-Sánchez, Á R

    2015-01-01

    Based on a combined analysis of SDSS imaging and CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, we report on the detection of faint (24 < {\\mu}$_r$ mag/arcsec$^2$ < 26) star-forming spiral-arm-like features in the periphery of three nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). These features are of considerable interest because they document the still ongoing inside-out growth of some local ETGs and may add valuable observational insight into the origin and evolution of spiral structure in triaxial stellar systems. A characteristic property of the nebular component in the studied ETGs, classified i+, is a two-radial-zone structure, with the inner zone that displays faint (EW(H\\alpha)$\\simeq$1{\\AA}) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) properties, and the outer one (3{\\AA}

  9. Magnetic fields in star-forming galaxies at high and low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Garn, T; Alexander, P; Green, D A; Riley, J M

    2007-01-01

    As part of an ongoing series of deep GMRT surveys, we have observed the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey field at 610 MHz, producing the deepest wide-field 610 MHz survey published to date. We reach an rms noise of 30 microJy before primary beam correction, with a resolution of ~6 arcsec over an area of ~4 square degrees. By combining these observations with the existing 1.4 GHz VLA survey produced by Condon et al. (2003), along with infrared data in up to seven wavebands from the Spitzer Space Telescope, optical photometry from SDSS and a range of spectroscopic redshift surveys, we are able to study the relationship between radio luminosity and star formation rate in star-forming galaxies up to z ~ 1. The large amount of multi-wavelength data available allows accurate k-corrections to be performed in the radio, and in the infrared through the use of a semi-empirical radiative transfer model. We find a tight correlation between infrared-derived star formation rates and radio luminosities, but contrary ...

  10. Density Profiles in Molecular Cloud Cores Associated with High-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Pirogov, Lev E

    2009-01-01

    Radial density profiles for the sample of dense cores associated with high-mass star-forming regions from southern hemisphere have been derived using the data of observations in continuum at 250 GHz. Radial density profiles for the inner regions of 16 cores (at distances $\\la 0.2-0.8$ pc from the center) are close on average to the $\\rho\\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ dependence, where $\\alpha=1.6\\pm 0.3$. In the outer regions density drops steeper. An analysis with various hydrostatic models showed that the modified Bonnor-Ebert model, which describes turbulent sphere confined by external pressure, is preferable compared with the logotrope and polytrope models practically in all cases. With a help of the Bonnor-Ebert model, estimates of central density in a core, non-thermal velocity dispersion and core size are obtained. The comparison of central densities with the densities derived earlier from the CS modeling reveals differences in several cases. The reasons of such differences are probably connected with the presen...

  11. Untangling the Nature of Spatial Variations of Cold Dust Properties in Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Kennicutt, Robert; Galametz, Maud; Gordon, Karl; Groves, Brent; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Hinz, Joannah; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the far-infrared (IR) dust emission for 20 local star forming galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-IR Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. We model the far-IR/submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) using images from Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We calculate the cold dust temperature (T(cold)) and emissivity (beta) on a pixel by pixel basis (where each pixel ranges from 0.1-3 kpc^2) using a two temperature modified blackbody fitting routine. Our fitting method allows us to investigate the resolved nature of temperature and emissivity variations by modeling from the galaxy centers to the outskirts (physical scales of ~15-50 kpc, depending on the size of the galaxy). We fit each SED in two ways: (1) fit T(cold) and beta simultaneously, (2) hold beta constant and fit T(cold). We compare T(cold) and beta with star formation rates (calculated from L(Halpha) and L(24)), the luminosity of the old stellar population (traced through L(3.6), and ...

  12. The EGNoG Survey: Molecular Gas in Intermediate-Redshift Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bauermeister, Amber; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bureau, Martin; Leroy, Adam; Ostriker, Eve; Teuben, Peter J; Wong, Tony; Wright, Melvyn C H

    2013-01-01

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z=0.05 to z=0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30)x10^10 M_Sun and star formation rates of 4-100 M_Sun yr^-1. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 \\pm 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 \\pm 0.04 Gyr for star...

  13. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star Forming Galaxy NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Grasha, K; Adamo, A; Kim, H; Elmegreen, B G; Gouliermis, D A; Aloisi, A; Bright, S N; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Dale, D A; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, D M; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Smith, L J; Ryon, J E; Thilker, D; Ubeda, L; Wofford, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broad band WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (<100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy, identified from a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent $\\alpha$. We recover a weighted mean index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3".3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The stre...

  14. Environmental impacts on dust temperature of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuki, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Takita, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared views of the environmental effects on the dust properties in star-forming (SF) galaxies at z ~ 0, using the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) all-sky map and the large spectroscopic galaxy sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We restrict the sample to those within the redshift range of 0.05 4 A) and emission line flux ratios. We perform far-infrared (FIR) stacking analyses by splitting the SDSS SF galaxy sample according to their stellar mass, specific SFR (SSFR_SDSS), and environment. We derive total infrared luminosity (LIR) for each subsample using the average flux densities at WIDE-S (90 micron) and WIDE-L (140 micron) bands, and then compute IR-based SFR (SFR_IR) from L_IR. We find a mild decrease of IR- based SSFR (SSFR_IR) amongst SF galaxies with increasing local density (~0.1-dex level at maximum), which suggests that environmental effects do not instantly shut down the SF activity in galaxies. We also derive average dust temperature (T_dust) using th...

  15. How does the far-IR properties of star-forming galaxies depend on environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, most observational studies estimate SFRs using rest-frame UV luminosities or emission lines, which are subject to uncertain corrections for dust extinction. In star-forming regions, UV photons heat the dust, and their energy is re-emitted in the mid- and far-IR range. About half of the starlight is absorbed and re-emitted over the history of the Universe. Observations at IR wavelengths are thus an essential complement to UV and optical tracers of star formation. We use far-IR selected galaxies from the Herschel ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey and optically selected galaxies from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) redshift survey to study the environmental effects on far-IR properties. It includes the following aspects. What is the typical halo mass of the low-redshift H-ATLAS sources? How does far-IR luminosity depend on host halo mass? How do the far-IR conditional luminosity functions depend on group masses and redshifts? How is the total far-IR light-to-mass ratio in groups of different masses at different redshifts? How much of the far-IR luminosity is contributed by galaxies in groups? Are there any environmental effects on the far-IR-to-optical colour? How does the far-IR properties depend on large-scale environments? Can we pose constrains on current galaxy formation models?

  16. Mid- to far infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, G E; Helou, G; Farrah, D; Hurley, P; Alonso-Herrero, A; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Chapman, S; Charmandaris, V; Cooray, A; Dai, Y S; Dale, D; Elbaz, D; Feltre, A; Hatziminaoglou, E; Huang, J-S; Morrison, G; Oliver, S; Page, M; Scott, D; Shi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24um-selected flux-limited sample (S24 > 5mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (~0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5MUSES survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the HerMES program, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Md) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2um PAH emission (EW0.2um more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500um Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8um luminosity ratio, IR8 = LIR\\L8, and the strength of PAH features. ...

  17. Star-Forming Compact Groups (SFCGs): An ultraviolet search for a local sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    We present a local sample (z<0.15) of 280 Star-Forming Compact Groups (SFCGs) of galaxies identified in the ultraviolet Galaxy Evolution EXplorer (GALEX) All-sky Imaging Survey (AIS). So far, just one prototypical example of SFCG, the Blue Infalling Group, has been studied in detail in the Local Universe. The sample of SFCGs is mainly the result of applying a Friends-of-Friends group finder in the space of celestial coordinates with a maximum linking-length of 1.5 arcmin and choosing groups with a minimum number of four members of bright UV-emitting 17

  18. Timing the evolution of quiescent and star-forming local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pacifici, Camilla; Oh, Kyuseok; Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies is crucial to understanding the mechanisms that regulate their evolution. Here, we combine multi-wavelength (ultraviolet, optical, and infrared) measurements of a very large sample of galaxies (~230,000) at z<0.16, with physically motivated models of galaxy spectral energy distributions to extract constraints on galaxy physical parameters (such as stellar mass and star formation rate) as well as individual SFHs. In particular, we set constraints on the timescales in which galaxies form a certain percentage of their total stellar mass (namely, 10, 50 and 90%). The large statistics allows us to average such measurements over different populations of galaxies (quiescent and star-forming) and in narrow ranges of stellar mass. As in the downsizing scenario, we confirm that low-mass galaxies have more extended SFHs than high-mass galaxies. We also find that at the same observed stellar mass, galaxies that are now quiescent evolve more rapidl...

  19. Modelling the nebular emission from primeval to present-day star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, Julia; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies in a wide range of chemical compositions, appropriate to interpret observations of galaxies at all cosmic epochs. The model relies on the combination of state-of-the-art stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes to describe the ensemble of HII regions and the diffuse gas ionized by young stars in a galaxy. A main feature of this model is the self-consistent yet versatile treatment of element abundances and depletion onto dust grains, which allows one to relate the observed nebular emission from a galaxy to both gas-phase and dust-phase metal enrichment. We show that this model can account for the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission-line properties of galaxies at different redshifts and find that ultraviolet emission lines are more sensitive than optical ones to parameters such as C/O abundance ratio, hydrogen gas density, dust-to-metal mass ratio and upper cutoff of the stellar initial mass function. We also find th...

  20. Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as $L \\propto M^{1.125}$. We also discuss the plausi...

  1. Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as L ∝ M^{1.125}. We also discuss the plausible mechanisms for the power-law distribution.

  2. Detection of Far-Infrared Features in Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Onaka, T; Onaka, Takashi; Okada, Yoko

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of a feature at 65um and a broad feature around 100um in the far-infrared spectra of the diffuse emission from two active star-forming regions, the Carina nebula and Sharpless 171. The features are seen in the spectra over a wide area of the observed regions, indicating that the carriers are fairly ubiquitous species in the interstellar medium. A similar 65um feature has been detected in evolved stars and attributed to diopside, a Ca-bearing crystalline silicate. The present observations indicate the first detection of a crystalline silicate in the interstellar medium if this identification holds true also for the interstellar feature. A similar broad feature around 90um reported in the spectra of evolved stars has been attributed to calcite, a Ca-bearing carbonate mineral. The interstellar feature seems to be shifted to longer wavelengths and have a broader width although the precise estimate of the feature profile is difficult. As a carrier for the interstellar 100um feature, we inve...

  3. The unorthodox evolution of major merger remnants into star-forming spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sparre, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to play a key role in transforming star-forming disk galaxies into quenched ellipticals. Most of our theoretical knowledge about such morphological transformations does, however, rely on idealised simulations where processes such as cooling of hot halo gas into the disk and gas accretion in the post-merger phase are not treated in a self-consistent cosmological fashion. In this paper we study the morphological evolution of the stellar components of four major mergers occurring at z=0.5 in cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-simulations. In all simulations the merger reduces the disk mass-fraction, but all galaxies simulated at our highest resolution regrow a significant disk by z=0 (with a disk fraction larger than 24%). For runs with our default physics model, which includes galactic winds from star formation and black hole feedback, none of the merger remnants are quenched, but in a set of simulations with stronger black hole feedback we find that major mergers can indeed quench gal...

  4. On the nature of star-forming filaments: II. Sub-filaments and velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rowan J; Klessen, Ralf S; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We show that hydrodynamic turbulent cloud simulations naturally produce large filaments made up of a network of smaller and coherent sub-filaments. Such simulations resemble observations of filaments and fibres in nearby molecular clouds. The sub-filaments are dynamical features formed at the stagnation points of the turbulent velocity field where shocks dissipate the turbulent energy. They are a ubiquitous feature of the simulated clouds, which appear from the beginning of the simulation and are not formed by gradual fragmentation of larger filaments. Most of the sub-filaments are gravitationally sub-critical and do not fragment into cores, however, there is also a significant fraction of supercritical sub-filaments which break up into star-forming cores. The sub-filaments are coherent along their length, and the residual velocities along their spine show that they are subsonically contracting without any ordered rotation on scales of ~0.1 pc. Accretion flows along the sub-filaments can feed material into st...

  5. EVLA Observations of the Barnard 5 Star-Forming Core: Embedded Filaments Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, Jaime E; Arce, Héctor G; Caselli, Paola; Longmore, Steven; Corder, Stuartt

    2011-01-01

    We present a ~6.5'x8' Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) mosaic observations of the NH3 (1,1) emission in the Barnard 5 region in Perseus, with an angular resolution of 6". This map covers the coherent region, where the dense gas presents subsonic non-thermal motions (as seen from single dish observations with the Green Bank Telescope, GBT). The combined EVLA and GBT observations reveal, for the first time, a striking filamentary structure (20" wide or 5,000 AU at the distance of Perseus) in this low-mass star forming region. The integrated intensity profile of this structure is consistent with models of an isothermal filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. The observed separation between the B5-IRS1 young stellar object (YSO), in the central region of the core, and the northern starless condensation matches the Jeans length of the dense gas. This suggests that the dense gas in the coherent region is fragmenting. The region observed displays a narrow velocity dispersion, where most of the gas shows evidence for su...

  6. YSOVAR: Mid-IR variability in the star forming region Lynds 1688

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, H M; Covey, K R; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Poppenhaeger, K; Rebull, L M; Stauffer, J R; Wolk, S J; Allen, L; Bayo, A; Gutermuth, R A; Hora, J L; Meng, H Y A; Morales-Calderon, M; Parks, J R; Song, Inseok

    2014-01-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-IR is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present an IR-monitoring survey of about 800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 years using the \\emph{Spitzer} space telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all lightcurves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral-energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the lightcurves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 years. Non-periodic lightcurves often still show a preferred timescale of variability which is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhib...

  7. Si and Fe depletion in Galactic star-forming regions observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Yoko; Miyata, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of the mid-infrared spectroscopy of 14 Galactic star-forming regions with the high-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detected [SiII] 35um, [FeII] 26um, and [FeIII] 23um as well as [SIII] 33um and H2 S(0) 28um emission lines. Using the intensity of [NII] 122um or 205um and [OI] 146um or 63um reported by previous observations in four regions, we derived the ionic abundance Si+/N+ and Fe+/N+ in the ionized gas and Si+/O0 and Fe+/O0 in the photodissociation gas. For all the targets, we derived the ionic abundance of Si+/S2+ and Fe2+/S2+ for the ionized gas. Based on photodissociation and HII region models the gas-phase Si and Fe abundance are suggested to be 3-100% and <8% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the ionized gas and 16-100% and 2-22% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the photodissociation region gas. Since the [FeII] 26um and [FeIII] 23um emissions are weak, the high sensitivity of the IRS enables to de...

  8. The redshift distribution of dusty star forming galaxies from the SPT survey

    CERN Document Server

    Strandet, M L; Vieira, J D; de Breuck, C; Aguirre, J E; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Béthermin, M; Bradford, C M; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Everett, W; Fassnacht, C D; Furstenau, R M; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Kamenetzky, J R; Litke, K; Ma, J; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; Menten, K M; Murphy, E J; Nadolski, A; Rotermund, K M; Spilker, J S; Stark, A A; Welikala, N

    2016-01-01

    We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 to determine spectroscopic redshifts of high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected by their 1.4mm continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. We present ALMA 3mm spectral scans between 84-114GHz for 15 galaxies and targeted ALMA 1mm observations for an additional eight sources. Our observations yield 30 new line detections from CO, [CI] , [NII] , H_2O and NH_3. We further present APEX [CII] and CO mid-J observations for seven sources for which only a single line was detected in spectral-scan data from ALMA Cycle 0 or Cycle 1. We combine the new observations with previously published and new mm/submm line and photometric data of the SPT-selected DSFGs to study their redshift distribution. The combined data yield 39 spectroscopic redshifts from molecular lines, a success rate of >85%. Our sample represents the largest data set of its kind today and has the highest spectroscopic completeness among all redsh...

  9. Sejong open cluster survey (SOS) - V. The active star forming region Sh 2-255 -- 257

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S; Kim, Jinyoung S; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-01-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the HII regions Sh 2-255 -- 257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 +/- 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Gamma = -1.6 +/- 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kro...

  10. The history of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Asari, N V; Stasinska, G; Torres-Papaqui, J P; Mateus, A; Sodré, L; Schoenell, W; Gomes, J M

    2007-01-01

    We study the evolution of 82302 star-forming (SF) galaxies from the SDSS. Our main goals are to explore new ways of handling star formation histories (SFH) obtained with our publicly available spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT, and apply them to investigate how SFHs vary as a function of nebular metallicity (Zneb). Our main results are: (1) A conventional correlation analysis shows how global properties such as luminosity, mass, dust content, mean stellar metallicity and mean stellar age relate to Zneb. (2) We present a simple formalism which compresses the results of the synthesis into time-dependent star formation rates (SFR) and mass assembly histories. (3) The current SFR derived from the population synthesis and that from H-alpha are shown to agree within a factor of two. Thus we now have a way to estimate SFR in AGN hosts, where the H-alpha method cannot be applied. (4) Fully time-dependent SFHs are derived for all galaxies and averaged over six Zneb bins spanning the entire SF wing in the [OIII]/H-beta...

  11. Multi-wavelength study of 14000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) We studied a large sample of ~14000 dwarf star-forming galaxies with strong emission lines selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and distributed in the redshift range of z~0-0.6. We modelled spectral energy distributions (SED) of all galaxies which were based on the SDSS spectra in the visible range of 0.38-0.92 micron and included both the stellar and ionised gas emission. These SEDs were extrapolated to the UV and mid-infrared ranges to cover the wavelength range of 0.1-22 micron. The SDSS spectroscopic data were supplemented by photometric data from the GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, IRAS, and NVSS all-sky surveys. We derived global characteristics of the galaxies, such as their element abundances, luminosities, and stellar masses. The luminosities and stellar masses range within the sample over ~5 orders of magnitude, thereby linking low-mass and low-luminosity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies to luminous galaxies, which are similar to high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). The lumi...

  12. Equilibrium model prediction for the scatter in the star-forming main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sourav; Davé, Romeel; Simha, Vimal; Finlator, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    The analytic "equilibrium model" for galaxy evolution using a mass balance equation is able to reproduce mean observed galaxy scaling relations between stellar mass, halo mass, star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity across the majority of cosmic time with a small number of parameters related to feedback. Here we aim to test this data-constrained model to quantify deviations from the mean relation between stellar mass and SFR, i.e. the star-forming galaxy main sequence (MS). We implement fluctuation in halo accretion rates parameterised from merger-based simulations, and quantify the intrinsic scatter introduced into the MS under the assumption that fluctuations in star formation follow baryonic inflow fluctuations. We predict the 1-σ MS scatter to be ˜0.2 - 0.25 dex over the stellar mass range 108M⊙ to 1011M⊙ and a redshift range 0.5⪉ z⪉ 3 for SFRs averaged over 100 Myr. The scatter increases modestly at z⪆ 3, as well as by averaging over shorter timescales. The contribution from merger-induced star formation is generally small, around 5% today and 10 - 15% during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation. These results are generally consistent with available observations, suggesting that deviations from the MS primarily reflect stochasticity in the inflow rate owing to halo mergers.

  13. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions: I. VLA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosero, V; Claussen, M; Kurtz, S; Cesaroni, R; Araya, E D; Carrasco-González, C; Rodríguez, L F; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F; Loinard, L; Ellingsen, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present a high sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3$\\,$cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array towards a sample of 58 high-mass star forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC-IRs, CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the $1\\,$mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the VLA, this survey achieved map rms levels of $\\sim$ 3-10 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 centimeter continuum sources associated with 1.2$\\,$mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and are prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the mm dust clumps for CMCs, CMC-IRs and HMCs are 6$\\%$, 53$\\%$ and 100$\\%$, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs...

  14. Exploring the physical properties of local star-forming ULIRGs from the ultraviolet to the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Elisabete; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Marshall, Jason A; Elbaz, David

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of the da Cunha, Charlot & Elbaz (2008) model of the spectral energy distribution (SEDs) of galaxies from the ultraviolet to far-infrared to a small pilot sample of purely star-forming Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). We interpret the observed SEDs of 16 ULIRGs using this physically-motivated model which accounts for the emission of stellar populations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared and for the attenuation by dust in two components: an optically-thick starburst component and the diffuse ISM. The infrared emission is computed by assuming that all the energy absorbed by dust in these components is re-radiated at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. This model allows us to derive statistically physical properties including star formation rates, stellar masses, as well as temperatures and masses of different dust components and plausible star formation histories. We find that, although the ultraviolet to near-infrared emission represents only a small fraction of th...

  15. Phosphorus-bearing molecules in solar-type star forming regions: First PO detection

    CERN Document Server

    Lefloch, B; Viti, S; Jimenez-Serra, I; Codella, C; Podio, L; Ceccarelli, C; Mendoza, E; Lepine, J R D; Bachiller, R

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Large Program ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM), we have used the IRAM 30m telescope to lead a systematic search for the emission of rotational transitions of P-bearing species between 80 and 350 GHz towards L1157-B1, a shock position in the solar-type star forming region L1157. We report the detection of several transitions of PN and, for the first time, of prebiotic molecule PO. None of these species are detected towards the driving protostar of the outflow L1157-mm. Analysis of the line profiles shows that PN arises from the outflow cavity, where SiO, a strong shock tracer, is produced. Radiative transfer analysis yields an abundance of 2.5e-9 and 0.9e-9 for PO and PN, respectively. These results imply a strong depletion (approx 100) of Phosphorus in the quiescent cloud gas. Shock modelling shows that atomic N plays a major role in the chemistry of PO and PN. The relative abundance of PO and PN brings constraints both on the duration of the pre-shock phase, which has to be about 1 Myr, an...

  16. Early Phases Of Galaxy Assembly Revealed By Young Star-Forming Dwarfs At Z 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorín, Ricardo; VUDS Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Studying lower-redshift analogs of the first galaxies is essential to scrutinize the details of galaxy formation and cosmic reionization, paving the way for a better interpretation of observations of primeval galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope. In this talk I will present a thorough study of a recently discovered population of small, sub-L* star-forming galaxies at redshift z 2-4 that exhibit all the rest-frame properties expected for early galaxies in their first epoch of assembling and chemical enrichment. Selected by their strong nebular emission in the UV (including emission lines such as CIII]1908, CIV1550 and OIII]1664) from thousands of galaxies in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey, these young low mass systems are extremely metal-deficient galaxies that are likely experiencing their first significant starburst episode. I will discuss their rest-frame properties, hard radiations fields, strong Lyman-alpha emission, HST morphologies and strongly sub-solar chemical abundances. Finally, I will compare their properties with that of galaxies observed at the edge of the reionization epoch, which pose interesting prospects for JWST studies.

  17. Widespread and Hidden Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshift > 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Alexander, David M; Daddi, Emanuele; Mullaney, James R; Magnelli, Benjamin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S P; Coil, Alison L; Rosario, David J; Trump, Jonathan R; Weiner, Benjamin J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Cooper, Michael C; Elbaz, David; Faber, S M; Frayer, David T; Kocevski, Dale D; Laird, Elise S; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey; Salim, Samir; Symeonidis, Myrto

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70-micron from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect "normal" galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37+/-3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-lum...

  18. Far Ultraviolet Morphology of Star Forming Filaments in Cool Core Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Grant R; Baum, Stefi A; Mittal, Rupal; McDonald, Michael; Combes, Françoise; Li, Yuan; McNamara, Brian; Bremer, Malcolm N; Clarke, Tracy E; Donahue, Megan; Edge, Alastair C; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Hogan, Michael T; Oonk, Raymond; Quillen, Alice C; Sanders, Jeremy S; Salomé, Philippe; Voit, G Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength morphological analysis of star forming clouds and filaments in the central ($ 5$ \\Msol) stars reveals filamentary and clumpy morphologies, which we quantify by means of structural indices. The FUV data are compared with X-ray, Ly$\\alpha$, narrowband H$\\alpha$, broadband optical/IR, and radio maps, providing a high spatial resolution atlas of star formation locales relative to the ambient hot ($\\sim10^{7-8}$ K) and warm ionised ($\\sim 10^4$ K) gas phases, as well as the old stellar population and radio-bright AGN outflows. Nearly half of the sample possesses kpc-scale filaments that, in projection, extend toward and around radio lobes and/or X-ray cavities. These filaments may have been uplifted by the propagating jet or buoyant X-ray bubble, or may have formed {\\it in situ} by cloud collapse at the interface of a radio lobe or rapid cooling in a cavity's compressed shell. The morphological diversity of nearly the entire FUV sample is reproduced by recent hydrodynamical simulations...

  19. Candidate Gravitationally Lensed Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Herschel Wide Area Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Nayyeri, H; Cooray, A; Riechers, D A; Ivison, R J; Harris, A I; Frayer, D T; Baker, A J; Chapman, S C; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Fu, H; Marchetti, L; Marques-Chaves, R; Martinez-Navajas, P I; Oliver, S; Omont, A; Perez-Fournon, I; Scott, D; Vaccari, M; Vieira, J; Viero, M; Wardlow, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a list of candidate gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) from the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS). Together, these partially overlapping surveys cover 372 deg^2 on the sky. After removing local spiral galaxies and known radio-loud blazars, our candidate list of lensed DSFGs is composed of 77 sources with 500 micron flux densities (S_500) greater than 100 mJy. Such sources are likely dusty starburst galaxies that are selected as bright sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs). We expect a large fraction of this list to be strongly lensed, with a small fraction made up of bright SMG-SMG mergers that appear as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs). Thirteen of the 77 candidates have spectroscopic redshifts from CO spectroscopy with ground-based interferometers, putting them at z>1 and well above the redshift of the foreground lensing galaxies. The surface density of our sample of 0.21 +/- 0.03 deg^-2. We also find nine radio-bright blazars tha...

  20. Synchrotron spectral index and interstellar medium densities of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Aritra; Schmidt, Philip; Roy, Subhashis

    2015-01-01

    The spectral index of synchrotron emission is an important parameter in understanding the properties of cosmic ray electrons (CREs) and the interstellar medium (ISM). We determine the synchrotron spectral index ($\\alpha_{\\rm nt}$) of four nearby star-forming galaxies, namely NGC 4736, NGC 5055, NGC 5236 and NGC 6946 at sub-kpc linear scales. The $\\alpha_{\\rm nt}$ was determined between 0.33 and 1.4 GHz for all the galaxies. We find the spectral index to be flatter ($\\gtrsim -0.7$) in regions with total neutral (atomic + molecular) gas surface density, $\\Sigma_{\\rm gas} \\gtrsim \\rm 50~M_\\odot pc^{-2}$, typically in the arms and inner parts of the galaxies. In regions with $\\Sigma_{\\rm gas} \\lesssim \\rm 50~M_\\odot pc^{-2}$, especially in the interarm and outer regions of the galaxies, the spectral index steepens sharply to $<-1.0$. The flattening of $\\alpha_{\\rm nt}$ is unlikely to be caused due to thermal free--free absorption at 0.33 GHz. Our result is consistent with the scenario where the CREs emitting a...