WorldWideScience

Sample records for byssinosis

  1. Byssinosis control and latest developments

    OpenAIRE

    Eğri, Dr. Mücahit

    1998-01-01

    Byssinosis is an occupational disease of the lungs caused by an allergic reaction to the dust produced in the processing of cotton, flax, and hemp. It is characterised by chest tightness and breathlessness at work after the weekend break and may lead after several years of exposure to permanent respiratory impairment. The exact pathogenesis is unknown but endotoxins from bacterial contamination of the cotton are thought to be central in causing bronchial obstruction. The cotton textile indust...

  2. First report of byssinosis in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, P G; Ong, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    There has been no report of byssinosis in Hong Kong although the textile industry has been one of the leading industries for many years. Three workers with a long history of exposure to cotton dust had chronic obstructive airways disease precipitated by their work environment. One had irreversible airways obstruction but none had chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or asthma. Only one gave a history of "Monday morning tightness," and this was attributed to the fact that most of the textile workers...

  3. Byssinosis: a role for public health in the face of scientific uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, D H; Levenstein, C; Greaves, I A

    1983-02-01

    Byssinosis, a lung disease caused by cotton dust, has been the subject of recent controversy. Debates over the nature of the disease, possible interactions with cigarette smoking, and the proposed reevaluation of the cotton dust standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have tended to overlook the plight of affected workers and to obscure the most effective means for preventing the disease. The present lack of definitive information is no reason for inaction, nor for depriving disabled workers of adequate financial compensation. In this respect, byssinosis is no different from other public health hazards for which action must often be taken on the basis of incomplete evidence. PMID:6217757

  4. Mondays without dread: the Trade Union response to byssinosis in the Lancashire cotton industry in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Sue; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2003-04-01

    Trade unions have often been criticized for their failure to address occupational health issues. This article explores their response to byssinosis-a chronic respiratory disease caused by exposure to cotton dust that was rife in the Lancashire cotton industry in the early nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Using the archives of the cardroom and spinning unions, it is demonstrated that trade union efforts to combat byssinosis began before the First World War and were sustained for over 70 years. During that period, byssinosis became a recognized medical condition and a compensatable disease, due in no small measure to the trade unions campaigning tirelessly for better dust control, compensation for all affected workers, and more medical research. PMID:14598818

  5. Bissinose no município da capital do Estado de S. Paulo, Brasil Byssinosis in the county of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pupo Nogueira

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo-se uma sistemática epidemiológica, foram estudados os trabalhadores de 3 fiações de algodão, com diferentes quantidades de poeira de algodão em suspensão na atmosfera dos locais de trabalho, comparando-se com 135 pessoas do grupo controle não exposto a essas poeiras. Pelas respostas ao questionário padrão internacional sobre doenças respiratórias, verificou-se que os trabalhadores das fábricas, onde era mais elevada a concentração de poeira de algodão, apresentavam um ou mais sintomas característicos da bissinose; por outro lado, as provas de função pulmonar, realizadas imediatamente antes e após o início do trabalho às segundas-feiras, mostravam-se alteradas. Como no grupo controle, verificou-se melhoria significativa da função pulmonar no término do dia de trabalho. E como tal fato não foi observado mesmo na fábrica onde a concentração de poeira no ar era muito baixa e onde não se notou piora das provas de função pulmonar entre seus trabalhadores, levantou-se a hipótose de que essa ausência de melhoria possa constituir um sintoma precoce da bissinose.Workers of three cotton spinneries, with different amounts of cotton dust in the athmosphere of work places, were studied according to the epidemiological method of study proposed by Schilling, as compared with 135 workers not exposed to cotton dust. Through the answers to the international questionnaire on lung diseases, it was disclosed that workers from mills with highest concentration of cotton dust in the air presented symptoms characteristic of byssinosis; on the other hand, lung function tests performed on mondays immediately after the period of work showed impairment of lung function when compared with tests performed immediately before starting work. As in the control group lung function tests actually became better after the period of work, it is supposed that the non-existence of changes in lung function after work in mills the amount of cotton

  6. Otras enfermedades obstructivas: bisinosis, bronquitis crónica y EPOC de origen laboral y bronquitis eosinofílica Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Michel De la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Además del asma ocupacional y las enfermedades derivadas de la inhalación aguda, otras enfermedades obstructivas también reconocen un origen laboral. Aunque en la actualidad la bisinosis es una enfermedad rara en España, describimos las características de la misma por su interés histórico dentro de las enfermedades respiratorias de origen laboral y porque todavía sigue vigente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La bronquitis crónica también puede estar relacionada con la exposición laboral a polvos y humos, con frecuencia denominada "bronquitis industrial". La relación ocupacional de la EPOC ha sido más controvertida a lo largo de la historia, pero en la actualidad esta relación está aceptada; describimos la evidencia actual que sustenta esta relación. En último lugar, describimos la bronquitis eosinofílica sin asma, entidad descrita por primera vez en 1989 y que en ocasiones también puede tener un origen laboral, compartiendo agentes etiológicos con el asma ocupacional.Besides occupational asthma and diseases derived from acute inhalation, other obstructive diseases also have an occupational origin. Although at present byssinosis is a rare disease in Spain, we describe its characteristics because of its historical interest amongst occupational respiratory diseases and because it is still relevant in developing countries. Chronic bronchitis can also be related to exposure at work to dust and smoke, and is often referred to as "industrial bronchitis". Historically, the relation of CPOD to occupation has been subject to controversy, but nowadays this relationship is accepted; we describe the present evidence supporting this relationship. Finally, we describe eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma, an entity that was described for the first time in 1989 and that can sometimes have an occupational origin, sharing aetiological agents with occupational asthma.

  7. Enterobacter agglomerans lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in pulmonary surfactant as a factor in the pathogenesis of byssinosis.

    OpenAIRE

    DeLucca, A J; Brogden, K.A.; Engen, R

    1988-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Enterobacter agglomerans and pulmonary surfactant mixtures were centrifuged in discontinuous sucrose gradients to determine whether LPS bound to surfactant and examined in a Langmuir trough with a Wilhelmy balance to determine whether LPS altered the surface activity of surfactant. The LPS was found to bind to the surfactant and altered its surface tension properties. The binding of LPS to surfactant in the lung may change the physiological properties of surfacta...

  8. Role of histamine in the aetiology of byssinosis. I Blood histamine concentrations in workers exposed to cotton and flax dusts.

    OpenAIRE

    Noweir, M H; Abdel-Kader, H M; Omran, F

    1984-01-01

    The formation or the accumulation, or both, of histamine in the lungs may be potentiated by agent(s) present in cotton dust at higher level(s) than in flax dust and negligible in cottonseed dust. It has been suggested that such potentiation may be due to the activation of the ability of the lung to produce histamine and/or produce or recruit mast cells; this may present an acceptable explanation of the mechanism by which the propagation of the chronic effect of the dust proceeds in cotton and...

  9. Role of histamine in the aetiology of byssinosis. II. Lung histamine concentrations in guinea pigs chronically exposed to cotton and flax dusts.

    OpenAIRE

    Noweir, M H; Abdel-Kader, H M; Makar, A

    1984-01-01

    Data presented in this study support the finding that cotton and flax dusts contain agents which potentiate the formation or accumulation of histamine or both in the lungs of guinea pigs exposed to dust, and that such agents are present at much higher levels in cotton dust than in flax dust. The potentiating effect may be through the recruitment of mast cells into the lung. Both cotton and flax dusts contain methylating enzyme inhibitory agents, whereas cotton dust also contains agents that i...

  10. Otras enfermedades obstructivas: bisinosis, bronquitis crónica y EPOC de origen laboral y bronquitis eosinofílica Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Michel De la Rosa; B. Fernández Infante

    2005-01-01

    Además del asma ocupacional y las enfermedades derivadas de la inhalación aguda, otras enfermedades obstructivas también reconocen un origen laboral. Aunque en la actualidad la bisinosis es una enfermedad rara en España, describimos las características de la misma por su interés histórico dentro de las enfermedades respiratorias de origen laboral y porque todavía sigue vigente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La bronquitis crónica también puede estar relacionada con la exposición laboral ...

  11. Pneumoconiosis. May 1978-March 1990 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for May 1978-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the lung diseases generally termed pneumoconiosis. Anthracosilicosis, asbestosis, silicosis, and byssinosis are most prominently mentioned. Chest radiography studies and pulmonary function studies are considered. Studies on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes and their relation to the disease are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 180 citations, 92 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Study of respiratory effect of short- and long-term cotton gin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R K; Barman, M L; Smith, D W; Nicol, L

    1981-04-01

    No excess of obstructive airway disease was found in a group of 265 cotton gin workers when compared with other San Joaquin Valley agricultural workers. After an average of eight weeks' employment in San Joaquin Valley cotton gins, 125 workers showed no appreciable deterioration of pulmonary function compared with pre-employment measurements. In studies of pulmonary function during a workshift, cotton gin workers showed slightly greater mean decrements than control agricultural workers. These differences did not reach a level of statistical significance and were lower than those usually found in byssinosis. The unusual temporal pattern of employment in cotton gins in California precludes a simple approach to diagnosis by symptoms. No correlation was found in this study between symptoms of byssinosis and objective decrements in FEV1. The questionnaire as proposed by the Cotton Dust Standard was found to be of no value in detecting reactors in this study of gin workers. PMID:7471886

  13. Bioaerosol exposure assessment in the workplace: the past, present and recent advances†‡

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard, W.; Heederik, D.; Duchaine, C.; Green, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur described the first measurements of airborne microorganisms in 1861. A century later, the inhalation of spores from thermophilic microorganisms was shown to induce attacks of farmers' lung in patients with this disease, while endotoxins originating from Gram-negative bacteria were identified as causal agents for byssinosis in cotton workers. Further epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated inflammatory, respiratory, and pathogenic effects following exposure to...

  14. Immunologic responses to inhaled cotton dust.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvaggio, J E; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T

    1986-01-01

    Byssinosis, a respiratory disease of workers on cotton, flax, and soft hemp, is classically characterized as shortness of breath, cough, and chest tightness on Mondays or the first day of return to work after a time off. Exposure to these vegetable dusts can also result in other respiratory diseases, and the term cotton dust-induced respiratory disease (CDIRD) is introduced. Although clinically characterized for more than a century, the underlying pathogenesis of CDIRD remains obscure. An all...

  15. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  16. A longitudinal study of pulmonary function in cotton gin workers in the San Joaquin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R K; Barman, M L

    1989-10-01

    In a previous study we found no significant effects of acute exposure to the cotton gin environment on FEV1 in San Joaquin Valley gin workers compared with concurrent control subjects, nor was there an excess of obstructive lung disease among the same gin workers. The present study looked at the mean annual decline in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75% in San Joaquin Valley cotton gin workers vs concurrent control subjects over four years. The FEV1 of gin workers completing all four years of the study declined 27.3 ml vs 35.5 ml in control subjects (p = 0.37); FEV1/FVC declined 0.21 percent in gin workers and 0.23 percent in control subjects (p = 0.86); FEF25-75% declined 0.058 L/s in gin workers and 0.066 L/s in control subjects (p = 0.68). Also, the mean annual rate of change of FEV1 was less among the gin workers who did not complete all four years than the gin workers completing all four years. The presence of "byssinosis" symptoms did not significantly influence the results. This prospective, longitudinal study failed to find any detrimental effect of the cotton gin environment on the rate of decline of FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75%. This result was independent of "byssinosis" symptoms and the effect of "dropouts." PMID:2791678

  17. A preliminary study on gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their endotoxins in a gin house in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, P B; Bhagia, L J; Derasari, A Y; Vyas, J B; Amin, R J; Ghosh, S K

    2006-12-01

    The presence of byssinosis, an occupational disease found among cotton mill workers, has been well documented in different parts of the world. The disease develops due to exposure to environmental cotton dust. Evidence suggests that the causative agent for the disease is gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their endotoxins present on the cotton fibers. An investigation was carried out in a gin house in western India. Environmental dust samples were collected by vertical elutriator (VE). Airborne dust concentrations were very high in the working environment: 2.11 mg/m3 in ginning and 0.95 mg/m3 in the press department (p Enterobacter agglomerans were the dominant bacterial flora. Results indicate that gin workers are occupationally exposed to airborne GNB and endotoxins, and require masks. PMID:17133691

  18. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-04

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act (Northern Ireland) 1979 ('the Order') lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Order applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations further amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1988 so as to increase the amounts payable under the Order. The increase in each case is 3.9 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Order applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening.

  19. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-21

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act (Northern Ireland) 1979 ('the Order') lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Order applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations further amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1988 so as to increase the amounts payable under the Order. The increase in each case is 2.7 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Order applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening. A full regulatory impact assessment has not been produced for this instrument as it has no impact on the costs of business.

  20. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-29

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act (Northern Ireland) 1979 ('the Order') lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Order applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations further amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1988 so as to increase the amounts payable under the Order. The increase in each case is 3.6 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Order applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening. A full regulatory impact assessment has not been produced for this instrument as it has no impact on the costs of business, charities or voluntary bodies.

  1. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) Regulations 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-23

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act 1979 'the Act' lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Act applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations 1988, so as to increase the amount payable under the Act. The increase in each case is 2.7 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Act applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening. A full regulatory impact assessment has not been produced for this instrument as it has no impact on the cost of business.

  2. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) Regulations 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-13

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act 1979 'the Act' lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Act applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations 1988 (SI 1988/668), so as to increase the amount payable under the Act. The increase in each case is 3.6 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Act applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening. A full regulatory impact assessment has not been produced for this instrument as it has no impact on the cost of business, charities and voluntary bodies.

  3. The Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) (Amendment) Regulations 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-14

    Under the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) Act 1979 'the Act' lump sum payments may be made to certain persons disabled by a disease to which the Act applies, or to dependants of persons who were so disabled immediately before they died. These Regulations amend the Pneumoconiosis etc. (Workers' Compensation) (Payment of Claims) Regulations 1988 (SI 1988/668), so as to increase the amount payable under the Act. The increase in each case is 3.9 per cent, rounded up or down to the nearest one pound as appropriate. The diseases to which the Act applies are pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, diffuse mesothelioma, primary carcinoma of the lung (where accompanied by asbestosis or diffuse pleural thickening) and diffuse pleural thickening. A full regulatory impact assessment has not been produced for this instrument as it has no impact on the cost of business, charities and voluntary bodies.

  4. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  5. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  6. Ventilatory impairment from pre-harvest retted flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J P; Langlands, J H; Lowry, R C

    1986-12-01

    A new method of retting flax recently developed to suit the United Kingdom climate has allowed the reintroduction of flax growing to this country. The weed killer glyphosate is sprayed on the crop which then rets before harvesting six weeks later. The acute bronchoconstrictor responses of 11 normal subjects to dust from dew retted and from pre-harvest retted flaxes were compared in a double blind crossover fashion. There were no significant differences in the dust levels nor in the size of the dust particles in the experimental dust room. The decreases in pulmonary function after six hours of dust inhalation were significantly larger after pre-harvest retted flax dust than after dew retted flax dust (delta FEV1, -0.21 and -0.40 1; delta MEF50, -0.72 and -1.211/s; delta sGaw (specific airway conductance), -0.17 and -0.65 kPa/s for dew retted and pre-harvest retted respectively). The subjects also reported more symptoms after inhaling pre-harvest retted flax dust. It is concluded that the acute bronchoconstrictor response to flax dust is increased by pre-harvest retting, suggesting an increased risk of byssinosis. PMID:3801332

  7. Pulmonary Symptoms and Functions in Cotton Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candan Öğüş

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of chronic cotton dust exposure on respiratorytract.We planned a cross sectional study in cotton textile workers. Meanworking period of all subjects had been calculated as 18.0 ± 3.7 years. Atotal of 250 (95.4% out of 262 were administered a respiratoryquestionnaire and all subjects were examined, and subjected to spirometricevaluation. 146 (%58.4 workers were exposed to cotton dust.Onehundredfour (41.6% subjects working in places without dust wereregarded as control group.No statistically significant difference in respiratory symptoms, signs andspirometric parameters was found between study groups. In spirometricevaluations, in those having complained of symptoms compatible withallergic rhinitis and byssinosis PEFR, in those with bronchialhyperreactivity FEV1, PEFR and MMEF and in those with physicalexamination findings FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, MMEF values weresignificantly lower.No statistically significant impairment of pulmonary system wasdetected in workers due to chronic cotton dust exposure for 18 years.

  8. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy. PMID:27618081

  9. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF RESP I RATORY CONDITION IN NON TEXTILE AND TEXTILE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among cotton - ginning workers. Byssinosis is a respiratory disease caused by inhalation of cotton dust for prolonged period of time. This is most frequently occurs in the cotton mill workers. The Aim of the study is 1. Determining the proportion of workers experiencing difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, chest pain, coughing, wheezing and phlegm. 2. To evaluate the pulmonary function test variation in textile workers with non - textile workers. The present study was conducted on three groups (I, II, III of male subjects of age ranging 30 to 40 yrs, 41 to 50 yrs & 51 to 60 yrs. And each of the group is divided again into textile workers & non - textile workers. A structured questionnaire enquiring about the respiratory health was administered to the employees. And our result shows the Byssinotic symptoms were too high in cotton mill workers than control group. The pulmonary function test shows a significant reduction in lung capacity, and the mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF 50%, were on negative side among cotton mill workers compared to control group and which is statistically significant.

  10. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all. PMID:26024343

  11. The measurement and health impact of endotoxin contamination in organic dusts from multiple sources: focus on the cotton industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Samantha R; Nicholls, Paul J; Sewell, Robert D E

    2004-04-01

    Endotoxin is derived from Gram-negative bacterial membranes, and its inflammatory effects following inhalation are well characterized. The significance of this fact becomes apparent when the wide-ranging environments containing high levels of this microbial product are considered. Endotoxin is present in numerous industrial environments, especially where organic fibers are processed. Microbial contamination of these fibers mainly occurs at the agricultural stage. Materials such as flax and hemp are affected in this way, but the most important product in this context is cotton, from which chronic dust inhalation causes the disease byssinosis. Despite the fact that endotoxin constitutes a significant threat to public health, there are currently no occupational exposure limits for this toxicant. This communication describes the toxicology of endotoxin, and its role in inhalation-induced disease, focusing on measurement of airborne endotoxin in the occupational and domestic environments using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) enzyme assay. Following the success of the LAL assay for measuring endotoxin in dusts, our laboratory has examined its application to aqueous washes from cotton fibers. Reproducibility of the results was high, and data are presented displaying levels of endotoxin contamination in fibers from different cotton producing countries. Hence, worldwide comparison of industrial endotoxin concentrations can be readily made using this test. It would be highly desirable if the performance of the LAL assay facilitated introduction of industrial endotoxin safety limits, and in spite of minor surmountable shortcomings, the test is accurate, reliable, and well field-tested, so its continued widespread use may achieve this goal. PMID:15204769

  12. Bioaerosol exposure assessment in the workplace: the past, present and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, Wijnand; Heederik, Dick; Duchaine, Caroline; Green, Brett James

    2012-02-01

    Louis Pasteur described the first measurements of airborne microorganisms in 1861. A century later, the inhalation of spores from thermophilic microorganisms was shown to induce attacks of farmers' lung in patients with this disease, while endotoxins originating from Gram-negative bacteria were identified as causal agents for byssinosis in cotton workers. Further epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated inflammatory, respiratory, and pathogenic effects following exposure to bioaerosols. Exposure assessment is often confounded by the diversity of bioaerosol agents in the environment. Microorganisms represent a highly diverse group that may vary in toxicity. Fungi and bacteria are mainly quantified as broad groups using a variety of viable and nonviable assessment methods. Endotoxins and β(1 → 3)-glucans are mainly measured by their activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, enzymes by immuno-chemical methods and mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Few health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) are available for risk assessment. For endotoxins, a health-based OEL of 90 endotoxin units m(-3) has been proposed in the Netherlands. A criteria document for fungal spores recently proposed a lowest observed effect level of 100,000 spores m(-3) for non-pathogenic and non-mycotoxin producing species based on inflammatory respiratory effects. Recent developments in bioaerosol assessment were presented at the Organic Dust Tromsø Symposium including molecular biological methods for infectious agents and organisms that are difficult to cultivate; studies of submicronic and hyphal fragments from fungi; the effect of biodiversity of microorganisms in asthma studies; and new/improved measurement methods for fungal antigens, enzymes and allergens. Although exposure assessment of bioaerosol agents is complex and limited by the availability of methods and criteria, the field is rapidly evolving. PMID:22267210

  13. Work-related lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Ainsley

    2011-01-01

    Work-related respiratory diseases affect people in every industrial sector, constituting approximately 60% of all disease and injury mortality and 70% of all occupational disease mortality. There are two basic types: interstitial lung diseases, that is the pneumoconioses (asbestosis, byssinosis, chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), silicosis, flock workers' lung, and farmers' lung disease), and airways diseases, such as work-related or exacerbated asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiolitis obliterans (a disease that was recognized in the production of certain foods only 10 years ago). Common factors in the development of these diseases are exposures to dusts, metals, allergens and other toxins, which frequently cause oxidative damage. In response, the body reacts by activating primary immune response genes (i.e. cytokines that often lead to further oxidative damage), growth factors and tissue remodelling proteins. Frequently, complex imbalances in these processes contribute to the development of disease. For example, tissue matrix metalloproteases can cause the degradation of tissue, as in the development of CWP small profusions, but usually overexpression of matrix metalloproteases is controlled by serum protein inhibitors. Thus, disruption of such a balance can lead to adverse tissue damage. Susceptibility to these types of lung disease has been investigated largely through candidate gene studies, which have been characteristically small, often providing findings that have been difficult to corroborate. An important exception to this has been the finding that the HLA-DPB11(E69) allele is closely associated with chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitivity. Although chronic beryllium disease is only caused by exposure to beryllium, inheritance of HLA-DPB1(E69) carries an increased risk of between two- and 30-fold in beryllium exposed workers. Most, if not all, of these occupationally related diseases are

  14. Circadian disruption: New clinical perspective of disease pathology and basis for chronotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Hermida, Ramon C; Reinberg, Alain; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    pressure 24 h patterns (nocturnal hypertension); delayed sleep phase syndrome, non-24 h sleep/wake disorder; recurrent hypersomnia; SW intolerance; delirium; peptic ulcer disease; kidney failure; depression; mania; bipolar disorder; Parkinson's disease; Smith-Magenis syndrome; fatal familial insomnia syndrome; autism spectrum disorder; asthma; byssinosis; cancers; hand, foot and mouth disease; post-operative state; and ICU outcome. Poorly conceived medical interventions, for example nighttime dosing of synthetic corticosteroids and certain β-antagonists and cyclic nocturnal enteral or parenteral nutrition, plus lifestyle habits, including atypical eating times and chronic alcohol consumption, also can be causal of CD. Just as surprisingly are the many proven chronotherapeutic strategies available today to manage the CD of several of these medical conditions. In clinical medicine, CD seems to be a common, yet mostly unrecognized, pathologic mechanism of human disease as are the many effective chronotherapeutic interventions to remedy it. PMID:27308960