WorldWideScience

Sample records for byrd land west

  1. Deployment of Autonomous GPS Stations in Marie Byrd Land, Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Luyendyk, B.; Smith, M.; Dace, G.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic field season, we installed three autonomous GPS stations in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica to measure glacio-isostatic rebound and rates of spreading across the West Antartic Rift System.

  2. Magnetic anomaly patterns over crustal blocks of the King Edward VII Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the GITARA II project an aeromagnetic survey was performed during the GANOVEXVII expedition (1992/1993 over the King Edward VII Peninsula in northwestern Marie Byrd Land (West Antarctica. This region which may represent the eastern flank of the Ross Sea rift system had previously been explored only at reconnaissance level. New total field and upward continued (10 km magnetic anomaly maps are produced and interpreted here to map and discuss the crustal structure of the Edward VII Peninsula. Tworound-shaped, high-amplitude magnetic anomalies are recognised over the Alexandra Mountains block. The anomalies are difficult to interpret since susceptibility data indicate the prevalence of non-magnetic rocks at the surface. A possible interpretation is that the anomalies are due to Cretaceous mafic intrusives distinct from weakly magnetic Byrd Coast Granite of the adjacent Rockefeller Mountains block. Alternatively the anomalies could be related to buried pluton-sized Devonian Ford Granodiorite intruded by dikes. If Cretaceous in age, the former intrusives revealed from the magnetics could also be responsible for contact metamorphism of the adjacent Alexandra Mountains migmatites. Lower amplitude circular anomalies over the Central Plateau and Prestrud Inlet are likely to be caused by unexposed Devonian Ford Granodiorite which crops out in the Ford Ranges. Elongated high-frequency anomalies of the Sulzberger Bay are similar to those recognised over seismically constrained Cenozoic rift-related volcanics of the Ross Sea. A broad magnetic low over the Sulzberger Ice Shelf may be indicative of a fault bounded graben-like basin with sedimentary infill. Overall recognition of magnetic anomaly patterns and trends reveals segmentation of the Edward VII Peninsula and of the adjacent marine areas in distinct crustal blocks. Faults may separate these blocks and they are interpreted to reflect multiple Cretaceous and maybe Cenozoic crustal

  3. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Implications for the Weddellia collage of crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divenere, Vic; Kent, Dennis V.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    1995-05-01

    A new approximately 117 Ma paleomagnetic pole has been defined from the study of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the eastern portion Marie Byrd Land (MBL). The new pole (185.6 deg E/56.8 deg S, A(sub 95) = 8.7 deg) implies that the eastern portion of MBL was an integral part of Weddellia, which included the ancestral Antarctic Peninsula, Thurston Island, and Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains blocks of West Antarctica. This pole is generally similar to a approximately 125 Ma pole from Thurston Island. Both poles call for major clockwise rotation and poleward motion of eastern MBL and Thurston Island between the Early Cretaceous (125-117 Ma) and the mid-Cretaceous (110-100 Ma). We propose that in the Early Cretaceous, eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand were part of a continuous active Pacific margin of Gondwana, connecting with the Antarctic Peninsula, and distinct from western MBL, the Western Province of New Zealand, and North Victoria Land. These western terranes are thought to have accreted to Gondwana in the Devonian. Eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand amalgamated with western MBL and the Western Province of New Zealand by the mid-Cretaceous. Major Early Cretaceous motions of the Weddellia blocks postdate the estimated initiation of seafloor spreading in the Weddell Sea and therefore may be the result of plate reorganization during the Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  4. Reconciling the shadow of a subduction signature with rift geochemistry and tectonic environment in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasurier, Wesley E.; Choi, Sung Hi; Hart, Stanley R.; Mukasa, Sam; Rogers, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Basalt-trachyte volcanoes in the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) Cenozoic province lie along the Amundsen Sea coast on the north flank of the West Antarctic rift. Basalts here are characterized by OIB-like geochemistry, restricted ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.702535-0.703284) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512839-0.513008) and a wide range of 206Pb/204Pb (19.357-20.934). Basalts at three MBL volcanoes display two anomalies compared with the above and with all other basalts in West Antarctica. They include 143Nd/144Nd (0.512778-0.512789) values at Mt. Takahe and Mt. Siple that are 2σ lower than other West Antarctic basalts, and Ba/Nb, Ba/La, and Ba/Th values at Mt. Murphy and Mt. Takahe that are 3-8 times higher than normal OIB. Isotope and trace element data do not support crustal and lithospheric mantle contamination, or the presence of residual mantle amphibole or phlogopite as explanations of these anomalies. The apparent coincidence of these anomalies with the site of a pre-Cenozoic convergence zone along the Gondwanaland margin suggests a subduction influence. Major episodes of subduction and granitic plutonism took place in MBL during the Devonian, Permian, and Late Cretaceous. Relicts in the source region, of components from these subducted slabs, provide a credible explanation for the uncoupling of Ba from other large ion lithophile elements (LILE), for its erratic distribution, and for the anomalously low 143Nd/144Nd at Mt. Takahe. The last episode of subduction ended 85 Ma, and was followed by continental break-up, rifting and lithospheric attenuation that produced the West Antarctic rift as we know it today. Thus, the enigmatic geochemical signatures in these three volcanoes seem to have been preserved roughly 61-85 m.y. after subduction ended. New calculations of source melting depth and a new determination of lithospheric thickness suggest that the source of the anomalies resides in a fossil mélange diapir that rose from the Cretaceous subducting slab, became attached to the

  5. Crustal structure of the Transantarctic Mountains, Ellsworth Mountains and Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: constraints on shear wave velocities, Poisson's ratios and Moho depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Emry, E. L.; Julià, J.; Sun, X.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Winberry, P.; Wilson, T.

    2017-12-01

    A uniform set of crustal parameters for seismic stations deployed on rock in West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) has been obtained to help elucidate similarities and differences in crustal structure within and between several tectonic blocks that make up these regions. P-wave receiver functions have been analysed using the H-κ stacking method to develop estimates of thickness and bulk Poisson's ratio for the crust, and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersion measurements to obtain depth-dependent shear wave velocity models for the crust and uppermost mantle. The results from 33 stations are reported, including three stations for which no previous results were available. The average crustal thickness is 30 ± 5 km along the TAM front, and 38 ± 2 km in the interior of the mountain range. The average Poisson's ratios for these two regions are 0.25 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.02, respectively, and they have similar average crustal Vs of 3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1. At multiple stations within the TAM, we observe evidence for mafic layering within or at the base of the crust, which may have resulted from the Ferrar magmatic event. The Ellsworth Mountains have an average crustal thickness of 37 ± 2 km, a Poisson's ratio of 0.27, and average crustal Vs of 3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1, similar to the TAM. This similarity is consistent with interpretations of the Ellsworth Mountains as a tectonically rotated TAM block. The Ross Island region has an average Moho depth of 25 ± 1 km, an average crustal Vs of 3.6 ± 0.1 km s-1 and Poisson's ratio of 0.30, consistent with the mafic Cenozoic volcanism found there and its proximity to the Terror Rift. Marie Byrd Land has an average crustal thickness of 30 ± 2 km, Poisson's ratio of 0.25 ± 0.04 and crustal Vs of 3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1. One station (SILY) in Marie Byrd Land is near an area of recent volcanism and deep (25-40 km) seismicity, and has a high Poisson's ratio, consistent with the presence of partial melt in the crust.

  6. Spatial pattern of agricultural land conversion in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Pratiwi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Population growth has an implication on increasing demand for land. The demand for built-up area is filled by land conversion, mostly from agricultural land. On the other hand, population growth requires an increase in food production as well as land for agriculture. Conversion of agricultural land can threaten the availability and food security. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province as input to improve food security condition in this province. Descriptive statistics and spatial analysis were used to analyse the area of agricultural land, conversion of agricultural land, and spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province. The data used is time series data in the period of 2005-2014. The result of analysis shows that there are still areas with a high percentage of agricultural land in West Java Province. The rate of conversion of agricultural land varies widely. Cities or regions with very high land conversion rate tend to concentrate in metropolitan areas.

  7. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  8. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine large-scale agricultural land acquisitions in nine West African countries -Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Benin, Mali, Togo, Senegal, Niger, and Côte d'Ivoire. ... They will use the results to increase public awareness and knowledge about the consequences of large-scale land acquisitions.

  9. Quantifying the Jakobshavn Effect: Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, compared to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Sargent, A.; Fastook, J.; Purdon, K.; Li, J.; Yan, J.-B.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Jakobshavn Effect is a series of positive feedback mechanisms that was first observed on Jakobshavn Isbrae, which drains the west-central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enters Jakobshavn Isfjord at 69°10'. These mechanisms fall into two categories, reductions of ice-bed coupling beneath an ice stream due to surface meltwater reaching the bed, and reductions in ice-shelf buttressing beyond an ice stream due to disintegration of a laterally confined and locally pinned ice shelf. These uncoupling and unbuttressing mechanisms have recently taken place for Byrd Glacier in Antarctica and Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland, respectively. For Byrd Glacier, no surface meltwater reaches the bed. That water is supplied by drainage of two large subglacial lakes where East Antarctic ice converges strongly on Byrd Glacier. Results from modeling both mechanisms are presented here. We find that the Jakobshavn Effect is not active for Byrd Glacier, but is active for Jakobshavn Isbrae, at least for now. Our treatment is holistic in the sense it provides continuity from sheet flow to stream flow to shelf flow. It relies primarily on a force balance, so our results cannot be used to predict long-term behavior of these ice streams. The treatment uses geometrical representations of gravitational and resisting forces that provide a visual understanding of these forces, without involving partial differential equations and continuum mechanics. The Jakobshavn Effect was proposed to facilitate terminations of glaciation cycles during the Quaternary Ice Age by collapsing marine parts of ice sheets. This is unlikely for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, based on our results for Byrd Glacier and Jakobshavn Isbrae, without drastic climate warming in high polar latitudes. Warming would affect other Antarctic ice streams already weakly buttressed or unbuttressed by an ice shelf. Ross Ice Shelf would still protect Byrd Glacier.

  10. Land use/land cover and land capability data for evaluating land utilization and official land use planning in Indramayu Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Widiatmaka; Nahib, I.

    2018-05-01

    Land utilization in Indonesia is regulated in an official spatial land use planning (OSLUP), stipulated by government regulations. However in fact, land utilizations are often develops inconsistent with regulations. OSLUP itself is also not usually compatible with sustainable land utilizations. This study aims to evaluate current land utilizations and OSLUP in Indramayu Regency, West Java. The methodology used is the integrated analysis using land use and land cover (LU/LC) data, land capability data and spatial pattern in OSLUP. Actual LU/LC are interpreted using SPOT-6 imagery of 2014. The spatial data of land capabilities are derived from land capability classification using field data and laboratory analysis. The confrontation between these spatial data is interpreted in terms of future direction for sustainable land use planning. The results shows that Indramayu regency consists of 8 types of LU/LC. Land capability in research area range from class II to VIII. Only a small portion of the land in Indramayu has been used in accordance with land capability, but most of the land is used exceeding its land capability.

  11. Performance optimization of Qbox and WEST on Intel Knights Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huihuo; Knight, Christopher; Galli, Giulia; Govoni, Marco; Gygi, Francois

    We present the optimization of electronic structure codes Qbox and WEST targeting the Intel®Xeon Phi™processor, codenamed Knights Landing (KNL). Qbox is an ab-initio molecular dynamics code based on plane wave density functional theory (DFT) and WEST is a post-DFT code for excited state calculations within many-body perturbation theory. Both Qbox and WEST employ highly scalable algorithms which enable accurate large-scale electronic structure calculations on leadership class supercomputer platforms beyond 100,000 cores, such as Mira and Theta at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. In this work, features of the KNL architecture (e.g. hierarchical memory) are explored to achieve higher performance in key algorithms of the Qbox and WEST codes and to develop a road-map for further development targeting next-generation computing architectures. In particular, the optimizations of the Qbox and WEST codes on the KNL platform will target efficient large-scale electronic structure calculations of nanostructured materials exhibiting complex structures and prediction of their electronic and thermal properties for use in solar and thermal energy conversion device. This work was supported by MICCoM, as part of Comp. Mats. Sci. Program funded by the U.S. DOE, Office of Sci., BES, MSE Division. This research used resources of the ALCF, which is a DOE Office of Sci. User Facility under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  13. Combined ice core and climate-model evidence for the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during Marine Isotope Stage 5e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, Eric J.; Huybers, Kathleen; Singh, Hansi A.; Steiger, Nathan J.; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Popp, Trevor; White, James W. C.

    2015-04-01

    It has been speculated that collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet explains the very high eustatic sea level rise during the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, but the evidence remains equivocal. Changes in atmospheric circulation resulting from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) would have significant regional impacts that should be detectable in ice core records. We conducted simulations using general circulation models (GCMs) at varying levels of complexity: a gray-radiation aquaplanet moist GCM (GRaM), the slab ocean version of GFDL-AM2 (also as an aquaplanet), and the fully-coupled version of NCAR's CESM with realistic topography. In all the experiments, decreased elevation from the removal of the WAIS leads to greater cyclonic circulation over the West Antarctic region. This creates increased advection of relatively warm marine air from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas towards the South Pole, and increased cold-air advection from the East Antarctic plateau towards the Ross Sea and coastal Marie Byrd Land. The result is anomalous warming in some areas of the East Antarctic interior, and significant cooling in Marie Byrd Land. Comparison of ice core records shows good agreement with the model predictions. In particular, isotope-paleotemperature records from ice cores in East Antarctica warmed more between the previous glacial period (MIS 6) and MIS 5e than coastal Marie Byrd Land. These results add substantial support to other evidence for WAIS collapse during the last interglacial period.

  14. Understanding land acquisitions in West Africa: A community-based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... AMINE BOULHIAN Large-scale land acquisitions of traditional rice paddies such as ... Women are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of large-scale land ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...

  15. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de R.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was

  16. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  17. Scenarios on future land changes in the West African Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambin, Eric; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Mertz, Ole

    2014-01-01

    by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: (1) ‘downward spiral’ characterized by rapid climate change, expansion of agriculture and chaotic urban growth; (2) ‘integrated economy’ with integrated land management, food production for local markets and rural–urban exchanges; (3) ‘open doors’ characterized by large......-scale out-migrations, land grabbing by foreign companies and development aid and (4) ‘climate change mitigation’ with an increase in biofuel crops, land management for carbon capture and development of off-farm activities. We conclude that the Sahel region is most likely moving away from being a highly...

  18. A Systemic Analysis of Land Markets and Land Institutions in West African Cities : Rules and Practices--The Case of Bamako, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maylis; Selod, Harris

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is appli...

  19. Land cover change detection in West Jilin using ETM+ images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward M.Osei,Jr.; ZHOU Yun-xuan

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the information content and accuracy ofLandsat ETM+ digital images in land cover change detection,change-detection techniques of image differencing,normalized difference vegetation index,principal components analysis and tasseled-cap transformation were applied to yield 13 images. These images were thresholded into change and no change areas. The thresholded images were then checked in terms of various accuracies. The experiment results show that kappa coefficients of the 13 images range from 48.05 ~78.09. Different images do detect different types of changes. Images associated with changes in the near-infrared-reflectance or greenness detects crop-type changes and changes between vegetative and non-vegetative features. A unique means of using only Landsat imagery without reference data for the assessment of change in arid land are presented. Images of 12th June, 2000 and 2nd June, 2002 are used to validate the means. Analyses of standard accuracy and spatial agreement are performed to compare the new images (hereafter called "change images" ) representing the change between the two dates. Spatial agreement evaluates the conformity in the classified "change pixels" and "no-change pixels" at the same location on different change images and comprehensively examines the different techniques. This method would enable authorities to monitor land degradation efficiently and accurately.

  20. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  1. Integrating fire management into land management planning for west-side forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter D. Teensma

    1996-01-01

    Fire management's integration into land management planning is critical to the successful management of nearly all wildland ecosystems, including westside forests, which lie west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and the northern coastal ranges in California. Restoration and maintenance of fire as an ecosystem process is critical to retention of biological diversity...

  2. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  3. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne E. de Vos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was abolished. This case enables an empirical enquiry of land tenure as well as the meaning of land and associated resources for people’s livelihoods in a pre-plantation situation. The article aims to understand how people’s responses to the oil palm plantation project are rooted in the way they give meaning to the land that is targeted for conversion. Using a functional analysis of property relations, the article shows that people value multiple functions of land, including food security, income security over generations, flexibility to respond to crises and opportunity, and the ability to retain autonomy and identity as farmers. One of the factors that contributed to the conflict was the expectation that a conversion of diversified agricultural land and forest into a monoculture plantation, run by a company, would change the functionality of land and associated resources in a way that would negatively impact livelihood opportunities, lifestyles, and identity.

  4. Globalization, land use and the invasion of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2012-01-01

    Many invasive species that have been spread through the globalization of trade and travel are infectious pathogens. A paradigmatic case is the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999. A decade of research on the ecology and evolution of WNV includes three findings that provide insight into the outcome of future viral introductions. First, WNV transmission in North America is highest in urbanized and agricultural habitats, in part because the hosts and vectors of WNV are abundant in human-modified areas. Second, after its introduction, the virus quickly adapted to infect local mosquito vectors more efficiently than the originally introduced strain. Third, highly focused feeding patterns of the mosquito vectors of WNV result in unexpected host species being important for transmission. These findings provide a framework for predicting and preventing the emergence of foreign vector-borne pathogens. PMID:22021850

  5. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  6. Regional Climate Change Impact on Agricultural Land Use in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.; You, L.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a key element of the human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) that is influenced by climate and can potentially influence regional climate. Temperature and precipitation directly impact the crop yield (by controlling photosynthesis, respiration and other physiological processes) that then affects agricultural land use pattern. In feedback, the resulting changes in land use and land cover play an important role to determine the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. The assessment of future agricultural land use is, therefore, of great importance in climate change study. In this study, we develop a prototype land use projection model and, using this model, project the changes to land use pattern and future land cover map accounting for climate-induced yield changes for major crops in West Africa. Among the inputs to the land use projection model are crop yield changes simulated by the crop model DSSAT, driven with the climate forcing data from the regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5, which features a projected decrease of future mean crop yield and increase of inter-annual variability. Another input to the land use projection model is the projected changes of food demand in the future. In a so-called "dumb-farmer scenario" without any adaptation, the combined effect of decrease in crop yield and increase in food demand will lead to a significant increase in agricultural land use in future years accompanied by a decrease in forest and grass area. Human adaptation through land use optimization in an effort to minimize agricultural expansion is found to have little impact on the overall areas of agricultural land use. While the choice of the General Circulation Model (GCM) to derive initial and boundary conditions for the regional climate model can be a source of uncertainty in projecting the future LULCC, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the changes

  7. Agricultural Land Use Change after NAFTA in Central West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcóatl Orozco-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that agricultural land use change and modernization in agricultural production techniques are related to the loss of crop diversity. Two processes contribute to this loss; first is the replacement of landraces by modern varieties, and second is the abandonment of traditional crops in favor of cash crops. We studied the expression of these processes in a region that is both an agro-biodiversity and cultural center and one of the most significant fruit exporters of Mexico. We analyzed agricultural change based on the transformation of cropping areas and the primary crops’ locations in Michoacán state. We examined the crop-harvested area statistics from 1950 to 2015, and identified 23 crops as the most important in terms of harvested area and monetary value. After NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, harvested area for nine crops changed significantly: seven crops increased, and two decreased. Positive trends were observed for commercial fruits oriented to export markets, and negative trends were observed for traditional crops. These crops, such as beans and maize, are important for food security. Additionally, we analyzed how these land-use and agricultural changes overlap in zones of maize planted-area change. Using a maize-race collection database, we identified three native maize races that could be at risk due to the abandonment of maize in favor of commercial crops.

  8. Evaluation of approximate original contour and postmining land use in West Virginia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Office of Surface Mining (OSM) has been working diligently with the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) to improve the State's administration of its approved program in two areas: (1) the standards used by the WVDEP in evaluating whether a particular postmining and land configuration constitutes a return to AOC (approximate original contour); and (2) the postmining land uses which WVDEP approves when it grants a waiver from the AOC requirement. In conjunction with OSM, the WVDEP recently announced proposed new procedures that should both enable the permit reviewer to more easily determine when a site achieves AOC and limit the placement of excess spoil in valleys and streams. In addition, OSM is developing a policy document that will clarify the acceptable postmining land uses for mountaintop-removal and steep slope mining operations with AOC variances. In particular, this document addresses the issue of whether commercial forestry, agriculture, and public facilities, including recreational facilities constitute approvable postmining land uses

  9. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Programs 20 CFR Parts 718 and 725 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits... Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal Miners' and Survivors... amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care...

  10. 78 FR 60686 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...-AA04 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal... correcting the preamble to a final rule implementing amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act that appeared... the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal Miners' and Survivors...

  11. Gallup, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  12. Clifton, AZ 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  13. Albuquerque, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  14. Douglas, AZ 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  15. Roswell, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  16. Socorro, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  17. Shiprock, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  18. Aztec, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  19. Carlsbad, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  20. Raton, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  1. Tularosa, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  2. Dynamics of land - use change in urban area in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribowo, R. L.

    2018-01-01

    This aim to research is to know how land use change in West Jakarta period 2000 - 2010. The research method used is descriptive method with a quantitative approach. Data analysis was done by using the result of research instrument to find out the driving of land change and to know the change of was analyzed using GIS (Geographic Information System) in Arc View GIS 3.3 program and Quantitative Analysis Model Location Quotient (LQ) and Shift-Share Analysis (SSA) In this study. The research instrument used in the analysis was observation and documentation. Based on the analysis conducted, the results of research on land use change in West Jakarta in the period of 10 years from 2000 until 2010 is caused by several aspects that are related to each other, namely political, economic, demographic, and cultural aspects. The land use change occurred in the area which decreased by minus 367,79 hectares (2.87%), the open space area decreased by minus 103.36 hectares (0.8%), the built up area increased by 201.13 hectares (1.57%), and the settlement area was 27.14 hectares (0.21%).

  3. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  4. Implications of land use change in tropical West Africa under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Tim; Claussen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, are highly vulnerable to climate change, due to strong exposure to increasing temperature, precipitation variability, and population growth. A major link between climate and humans in this region is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. But how strongly does climate change affect land use and how strongly does land use feeds back into climate change? To which extent may climate-induced water, food and wood shortages exacerbate conflict potential and lead changes in land use and to migration? Estimates of possible changes in African climate vary among the Earth System Models participating in the recent Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) exercise, except for the region adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, where a significant decrease of precipitation emerges. While all models agree in a strong temperature increase, rainfall uncertainties for most parts of the Sahara, Sahel, and Sudan are higher. Here we present results of complementary experiments based on extreme and idealized land use change scenarios within a future climate.. We use the MPI-ESM forced with a strong green house gas scenario (RCP8.5) and apply an additional land use forcing by varying largely the intensity and kind of agricultural practice. By these transient experiments (until 2100) we elaborate the additional impact on climate due to strong land use forcing. However, the differences are mostly insignificant. The greenhouse gas caused temperature increase and the high variability in the West African Monsoon rainfall superposes the minor changes in climate due to land use. While simulated climate key variables like precipitation and temperature are not distinguishable from the CMIP5 RCP8.5 results, an additional greening is simulated, when crops are demanded. Crops have lower water usage than pastureland has. This benefits available soil water, which is taken up by the natural vegetation and makes it more

  5. Deer forests, game shooting and landed estates in the South West of Ireland, 1840 - 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John M. (Sean)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the historical aspects of the elitist field sports of deer stalking and game shooting, as practiced by four Irish landed ascendancy families in the south west of Ireland. Four great estates were selected for study. Two of these were, by Irish standards, very large: the Kenmare estate of over 136,000 acres in the ownership of the Roman Catholic Earls of Kenmare, and the Herbert estate of over 44,000 acres in the ownership of the Protestant Herbert family. The oth...

  6. Impact of land use changes on surface feedbacks in sudanian region of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohard, J. M.; Galle, S.; Mamadou, O.; Peugeot, C.; Seghieri, J.; Kounouhewa, B.; Awanou, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    In West Africa, surface atmosphere exchanges have been found to impact both regional and local features of the Monsoon. At local scale the spatial patterns of Evaporative Fraction can drive the trajectories of mesoscale convective systems. Under Sudanian climate a mean of ~80% of the precipitation return to atmosphere through evapotranspiration but this important amount and its dynamics may vary with the vegetation cover. In consequence, any land use or climate changes can lead to modifications on the surface feedbacks and thus on both the atmospheric and the continental water cycle. In West Africa, Sudanian regions are submitted to a ~3% demographical increase per year, which leads to regular deforestation to the benefit of cultivated areas. This study aims at quantifying the changes in evapotranspiration regime caused by such a land use change under Sudanian climate. Within the framework of The AMMA-CATCH observatory, energy and water vapor fluxes were investigated in west Africa since 2007. Herein, a pluri-annual (2007 - 2010) energy budget of a clear forest and a cultivated area located in northern Benin are analysed. Results show that evapotranspiration rates over the sudanian forest are higher than those of cultivated area, because of agricultural practice and water availability for trees. After harvest, the residual vegetation is burned to bring nutriment to soil and to clean the landscape around the villages. Thus, during the dry season, the cultivated areas are bare. At the same time, a significant evapotranspiration is measured over the forest area despite the lack of precipitations. The deep root system of such vegetation allow the trees to get access to water during the dry season. During the rainy season, a significant difference in evapotransiration rates are also observed. These differences lead to a large deficit of water vapor that returns to the atmosphere and will significantly change the continental water cycle when forests will be replaced by

  7. The effects of land application of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality : West Coast 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.M.; Hawke, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Land application of agricultural effluent is becoming a standard farming practice. The application of farm dairy effluent to land, as opposed to direct discharge to waterways, is the preferred method for disposal in New Zealand as regulatory authorities move to protect and enhance water quality and meet Maori spiritual and cultural values. Land application recognises the nutrient value of dairy effluent; however, it is not without risks. Careful management of land application of the effluent is required because of the potential nutrient and bacterial contamination of groundwater. In 2001, 19 groundwater bores were sampled on four occasions to assess the effects of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality. Elevated (> 1.6 g m -3 nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in 14 of these bores (43 of 74 samples). The available long-term data shows statistically significant increasing trends in nitrate-nitrogen and chloride over the period 1998 to 2007. The nitrate-nitrogen and chloride results suggest effluent is the source of the elevated nitrate-nitrogen; however, the nitrogen isotope analysis indicates that the source of the nitrate-nitrogen may be from fertiliser or soil organic matter (average δ 15 N value of 3.5 permille). Spatially isolated occurrences of bacterial contamination were also recorded: in 7 bores and 12% of all samples analysed. Groundwater dating, using chlorofluorocarbons, suggested that the groundwater in the region was young (8 to 12 years). Overall, the spatial and temporal data suggests human influences are affecting groundwater quality on the West Coast. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Retrieval of biophysical parameters with AVIRIS and ISM: The Landes Forest, south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagolski, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Giordano, G.; Marty, G.; Letoan, T.; Beaudoin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The first steps of an experiment for investigating the capability of airborne spectrometer data for retrieval of biophysical parameters of vegetation, especially water conditions are presented. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ISM data were acquired in the frame of the 1991 NASA/JPL and CNES campaigns on the Landes, South west France, a large and flat forest area with mainly maritime pines. In-situ measurements were completed at that time; i.e. reflectance spectra, atmospheric profiles, sampling for further laboratory analyses of elements concentrations (lignin, water, cellulose, nitrogen,...). All information was integrated in an already existing data base (age, LAI, DBH, understory cover,...). A methodology was designed for (1) obtaining geometrically and atmospherically corrected reflectance data, (2) registering all available information, and (3) analyzing these multi-source informations. Our objective is to conduct comparative studies with simulation reflectance models, and to improve these models, especially in the MIR.

  9. The effect of land cover change to the biomass value in the forest region of West Java province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M. I.; Waryono, T.; Rokhmatullah; Shidiq, I. P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the issue of climate change as a public concern, information of carbon stock availability play an important role to describe the condition of forest ecosystems in the context of sustainable forest management. This study has the objective to identify land cover change during 2 decades (1996 – 2016) in the forest region and estimate the value of forest carbon stocks in west Java Province using remote sensing imagery. The land cover change information was obtained by visually interpreting the Landsat image, while the estimation of the carbon stock value was performed using the transformation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) which extracted from Landsat image. Biomass value is calculated by existing allometric equations. The results of this study shows that the forest area in the forest region of West Java Province have decreased from year to year, and the estimation value of forest carbon stock in the forest region of West Java Province also decreased from year to year.

  10. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  11. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aflizar; Alarima Cornelius Idowu; Roni Afrizal; Jamaluddin; Husnain; Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Edi Syafri; Muzakir

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D) provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop...

  12. Land-Surface Characteristics and Climate in West Africa: Models’ Biases and Impacts of Historical Anthropogenically-Induced Deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Sy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land Use Land-Cover Change (LULCC, such as deforestation, affects the climate system and land-atmosphere interactions. Using simulations carried out within the LUCID (Land Use and Climate, IDentification of robust Impacts project framework, we first quantify the role of historical land-cover change induced by human activities on surface climate in West Africa. Focusing on two contrasted African regions, we find that climate responses of land-use changes are small but they are still statistically significant. In Western Sahel, a statistically significant near-surface atmospheric cooling and a decrease in water recycling are simulated in summer in response to LULCC. Over the Guinean zone, models simulate a significant decrease in precipitation and water recycling in autumn in response to LULCC. This signal is comparable in magnitude with the effect induced by the increase in greenhouse gases. Simulated climate changes due to historical LULCC could however be underestimated because: (i the prescribed LULCC can be underestimated in those regions; (ii the climate models underestimate the coupling strength between West African surface climate and leaf area index (LAI and (iii the lack of interactive LAI in some models. Finally, our study reveals indirect atmospheric processes triggered by LULCC. Over the Western Sahel, models reveal that a significant decrease in solar reflection tend to cool down the surface and thus counteract the atmospheric feedback. Conversely, over the Guinea zone, models reveal that the indirect atmospheric processes and turbulent heat fluxes dominate the climatic responses over the direct effects of LULCC.

  13. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  14. Land Cover Land Use change and soil organic carbon under climate variability in the semi-arid West African Sahel (1960-2050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Amadou M.

    Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change affects land surface processes recognized to influence climate change at local, national and global levels. Soil organic carbon is a key component for the functioning of agro-ecosystems and has a direct effect on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. The capacity to model and project LCLU change is of considerable interest for mitigation and adaptation measures in response to climate change. A combination of remote sensing analyses, qualitative social survey techniques, and biogeochemical modeling was used to study the relationships between climate change, LCLU change and soil organic carbon in the semi-arid rural zone of Senegal between 1960 and 2050. For this purpose, four research hypotheses were addressed. This research aims to contribute to an understanding of future land cover land use change in the semi-arid West African Sahel with respect to climate variability and human activities. Its findings may provide insights to enable policy makers at local to national levels to formulate environmentally and economically adapted policy decisions. This dissertation research has to date resulted in two published and one submitted paper.

  15. Las Cruces, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  16. Santa Fe, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  17. El Paso, TX 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  18. Silver City, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  19. Fort Sumner, NM 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  20. Saint Johns, AZ 1:250,000 Quad West Half USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  1. Assessment and mapping of tradeoffs land uses in the Orangutan habitat: A case Pongo pygmeus pygmeus habitat of West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, P. G.; Supriatna, J.; Koestoer, R. H.; Harmantyo, D.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to analyse trade-offs among 6 (six) types of dominant land uses to consider Orangutan livelihood and landscape sustainability. The results of this study assists landscape's planners and policy makers for selecting development scenarios as well as policy within the landscape, especially to reduce human and wildlife conflict as impact of development. This study was conducted in Orangutan sub species Pongo pygmeus pygmeus habitat in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Net present value analysis was applied to identify economic profit of land uses and also perspective of expert judgment was applied to identify suitability of the land uses to Orangutan livelihood. The study shows that palm oil plantation was the dominant land use type in non-forest area category and natural forest is in forest area category within the site. Palm oil contributed highest economic profit (average IDR 11 Million per year) compared to other land use types, and thus the worst land use type for supporting Orangutan conservation; index suitability for Orangutan achieved only 21.8. The development of agroforestry which planted more than 3 valuable economic commodities is used as an alternative in forest buffer area development that can provide better gain for economic and Orangutan conservation with index suitability for Orangutan was 43.5. In achieving sustainability at the landscape level, it needs to consider the sustainability of the umbrella species, such as Orangutan. The existence of the umbrella species would also protect other biodiversity, forest and its environmental services.

  2. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

  3. No Bursts Detected from FRB121102 in Two 5 hr Observing Campaigns with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Danny C.; Gajjar, Vishal; Rosenthal, Lee; Hallinan, Gregg; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hellbourg, Greg; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; Lynch, Ryan; MacMahon, David H. E.; Men, Yunpeng; Xu, Yonghua; Liu, Zhiyong; Lee, Kejia; Siemion, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Here, we report non-detection of radio bursts from Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 during two 5-hour observation sessions on the Robert C. Byrd 100-m Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, USA, on December 11, 2017, and January 12, 2018. In addition, we report non-detection during an abutting 10-hour observation with the Kunming 40-m telescope in China, which commenced UTC 10:00 January 12, 2018. These are among the longest published contiguous observations of FRB 121102, and support the notion that FRB 121102 bursts are episodic. These observations were part of a simultaneous optical and radio monitoring campaign with the the Caltech HIgh- speed Multi-color CamERA (CHIMERA) instrument on the Hale 5.1-m telescope.

  4. Methods for Delineating Degraded Land at Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suria Darma Tarigan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the extent and spatial location of degraded lands is very important to plan their rehabilitation.So far, various institutions issue different estimation on the extent of degraded land in Indonesia led to big confusion for rehabilitation planning. Ministry of Forestry estimates around 30.2 million ha of degraded land both inside and outside forestry area throughout Indonesia based on data released in 2007. Ministry of Forestry implementes the socalled scoring method in delineating degraded land. Criteria used in the scoring methods are: land cover, slope steepness, erosion, and management. Scoring method applies different weight to each of those criteria. This study aimed to analyze accuracy of scoring method and to compare it to propose alternative methods in delineating degraded land such as: a Inconsistency of land use, and b Combination of Inconsistency of land use and scoring method. The accuracy of these methods were obtained by comparing to the field observation. The slope map was derived from SRTM 30 m, soil map was obtained from Soil Research Institute and land cover/land use from Ministry for Environment. Using GIS analysis, those maps were used to compose land capability classification (LCC and inconsistency of land use. The study showed that scoring method had 66% accuracy in delineating degraded land. When scoring method was combined with Inconsistency method the accuracy increased about 7%.

  5. Impacts of Rainfall Variability, Land Use and Land Cover Change on Stream Flow of the Black Volta Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komlavi Akpoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential implications of rainfall variability along with Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULC on stream flow have been assessed in the Black Volta basin using the SWAT model. The spatio-temporal variability of rainfall over the Black Volta was assessed using the Mann-Kendall monotonic trend test and the Sen’s slope for the period 1976–2011. The statistics of the trend test showed that 61.4% of the rain gauges presented an increased precipitation trend whereas the rest of the stations showed a decreased trend. However, the test performed at the 95% confidence interval level showed that the detected trends in the rainfall data were not statistically significant. Land use trends between the year 2000 and 2013 show that within thirteen years, land use classes like bare land, urban areas, water bodies, agricultural lands, deciduous forests and evergreen forests have increased respectively by 67.06%, 33.22%, 7.62%, 29.66%, 60.18%, and 38.38%. Only grass land has decreased by 44.54% within this period. Changes in seasonal stream flow due to LULC were assessed by defining dry and wet seasons. The results showed that from year 2000 to year 2013, the dry season discharge has increased by 6% whereas the discharge of wet season has increased by 1%. The changes in stream flows components such us surface run-off (SURF_Q, lateral flow (LAT_Q and ground water contribution to stream flow (GW_Q and also on evapotranspiration (ET changes due to LULC was evaluated. The results showed that between the year 2000 and 2013, SURF_Q and LAT_Q have respectively increased by 27% and 19% while GW_Q has decreased by 6% while ET has increased by 4.59%. The resultant effects are that the water yield to stream flow has increased by 4%.

  6. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  7. Spatial model of land use change related to sediment yield (case study: Cipeles and Cilutung watershed, West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, D. W.; Kusratmoko, E.; Indra, T. L.

    2018-05-01

    Land use changes (LUC) as a result of increasing human need for space are likely to destroy the hydrological function of the watershed, increase land degradation, stimulate erosion and drive the process of sedimentation. This study aimed to predict LUC during the period 1990 to 2030 in relation to sediment yield in Cilutung and Cipeles Watershed, West Java. LUC were simulated following the model of Cellular Automata-Marcov Chain, whereas land use composition in 2030 was predicted using Land Change Modeler on Idrisi Selva Software. Elevation, slope, distance from road, distance from river, and distance from settlement were selected as driving factors for LUC in this study. Erosion and sediment yield were predicted using WATEM/SEDEM model based on land use, rainfall, soil texture and topography. The results showed that the areas of forest and shrub have slightly declined up to 5% during the period 1990 to 2016, generally being converted into rice fields, settlements, non-irrigated fields and plantations. In addition, rice fields, settlements, and plantations were expected to substantially increase up to 50% in 2030. Furthermore, the study also revealed that erosion and sediment yield tend to increase every year. This is likely associated with LUC occurring in Cipeles and Cilutung Watershed.

  8. Land Use Change and Recommendation for Sustainable Development of Peatland for Agriculture: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyunto, Wahyunto; Supriatna, Wahyu; Agus, Fahmuddin

    2010-01-01

    Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively) of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Tim...

  9. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  10. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  11. Using Geospatial Information Technology in Natural Resources Management: The Case of Urban Land Management In West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past several decades, Lagos Metropolis emerged as one of the fastesturbanizing cities in the West African Sub-region. In the absence of a regular use ofgeospatial information management systems, limited effort had been made to keep track ofchanges in the natural environment in the rapidly growing city for policy making in landadministration. The ubiquitous energy radiated by the rapid urbanization rate in the areanot only created unprecedented consequences by diminishing the quality of theenvironment and natural resources but it raises serious implications for land managementin the region. The factors fuelling the land crisis in the area which are not far fetchedconsists of socio-economic, ecological and policy elements. To tackle these issues in amega city, up-to-date knowledge would be required to capture and analyze landinformation trends. Such an effort will help manage the city’s expansion as well asinfrastructure development through the right choices in planning and (spatial designsusing the latest tools in geospatial technologies of Geographic Information Systems GISand remote sensing. This study investigates the spatial implications of the rapid expansionof metropolitan Lagos for land management using GIS and Remote sensing technology.The result of the research provides a valuable road map that can enable planners contributeto improved land administration necessary for effective management of natural resources.

  12. All lands approaches to fire management in the Pacific West: a typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Erin C. Kelly; Kendra L. Wendel

    2017-01-01

    Since 2009, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service has promoted an “all lands approach” to forest restoration, particularly relevant in the context of managing wildfire. To characterize its implementation, we undertook an inventory of what we refer to as fire-focused all lands management (ALM) projects, defined as projects in which fuels reduction treatments...

  13. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by

  14. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  15. Effects of Land Use Changes on Some Soil Chemical Properties in Khoy, West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taghipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified agriculture over a long-term is an important factor in soil change phenomena that can cause some unwanted effects on soil properties. To examine this hypothesis, chemical properties of the soils under sunflower cultivation over five decades and adjoining virgin lands were investigated in order to monitor changes caused by long-term cropping. The studied soils are influenced by continuous sunflower cultivation along with flooding irrigation and using chemical fertilizers for over five decades Materials and Methods: This research was undertaken at Khoy area (38o 10′ to 38o 40′ N latitude and 44o 15′ to 45o 10′ E latitude as the northern part of western-Azarbaijan province in the north-west Iran. The Khoy area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (mean annual rainfall of 300 mm linked with soil moisture and temperature regimes of xeric and mesic, respectively. Agriculturally, the studied area is cropped continuously by sunflower-wheat or barley rotations for over five decades and has received irrigation water from rainfall, groundwater, or seasonal river water. Forty soil surface samples (0-30 cm belonging to 10 soil series from the cultivated soils and the adjoining uncultivated soils were samplied and analyzed for the different chemical properties. In each soil serie, the samples (cultivated soil and adjacent virgin land were selected in similar slope, aspect, drainage condition, and parent materials. Soil analyses were involved soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC, soil organic carbon (SOC, Calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total N, soluble K, exchangeable K, and available K. Potassium absorption ration (PAR was calculated by the concentration of solution K, Ca, Mg and exchangeable potassium percentage (EPP was calculated by exchangeable Na and CEC values Results and Discussion: This study illustrate that long-term continuous sunflower cropping had considerable effects on

  16. Physical Land Suitability for Civet Arabica Coffee: Case Study of Bandung and West Bandung Regencies, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairani, E.; Supriatna, J.; Koestoer, R.; Moeliono, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as the best Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) producer, in terms of both aspects, quality and number of product. Currently, its production, however, declines to the 3rd rank internationally. Issues emerged in the coffee cultivation are: land unsuitability, low quality of seeds, and poor management. Among Arabica coffee types, wild civet coffee is the most expensive one and harvested from the coffee beans which have been digested naturally. The study aims to determine the physical suitability of land as well as the constraints related to land for civet Arabica coffee in selected study cases, e.g., Bandung and Bandung Barat. The research methods employ multi-criteria analysis, and combined with weighted overlaying techniques for mapping. The criteria include temperature, rainfall, humidity, duration of dry season, slope, altitude, type of soil, soil texture, and erosion potential. Parameters of civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) are land use, altitude, and temperature. Local policy strongly supports the extensive management for land and the increase of coffee export. Processing data involved matching the comparison between guideline requirements for the land suitability classes, characteristics of Arabica coffee and civet habitat. The results covered the profile suitable land of the civet Arabica coffee in the study areas.

  17. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  18. Can reconstructed land surface temperature data from space predict a West Nile Virus outbreak?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreo, V.; Metz, J.C.M.; Neteler, M.; Rosà, R.; Marcantonio, M.; Billinis, C.; Rizzoli, A.; Papa, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main drivers of ecological processes. The availability of temporally and spatially continuous temperature time series is crucial in different research and application fields, such as epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, several West Nile virus (WNV)

  19. 2004 C-CAP Land Cover, Territory of American Samoa, West Manua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  20. Organic carbon sequestration under selected land use in Padang city, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulnafatmawita; Yasin, S.

    2018-03-01

    Organic carbon is a potential element to build biomass as well as emitting CO2 to the atmosphere and promotes global warming. This research was aimed to calculate the sequestered Carbon (C) within a 1-m soil depth under selected land use from 6 different sites in Padang city, Indonesia. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from several horizons until 100 cm depth at each location. Soil parameters observed were organic carbon (OC), bulk density (BD), and soil texture. The result showed that soil OC content tended to decrease by the depth at all land use types, except under rice field in Kurao-Nanggalo which extremely increased at >65 cm soil depth with the highest carbon stock. The soil organic carbon sequestration from the highest to the lowest according to land use and the location is in the following order mix garden- Kayu Aro > mix garden- Aie Pacah > Rangeland- Parak Laweh >seasonal farming- Teluk Sirih > rice field- Kampuang Jua.

  1. Implications of the regional haze rule on renewable and wind energy development on native American lands in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, T.L.; Auberle, W.M.; Duque, E.P.N.; Jeffery, W.D.; LaRoche, D.R.; Masayesva, V.; Smith, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided. (author)

  2. Establishment of trees and shrubs on lands disturbed by mining in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1984-01-01

    Increased research and development of cultural practices and species has assured success of establishment of trees and shrubs on lands disturbed by surface mining. Trickle irrigation and water harvesting techniques have increased survival of planted stock by 250 percent for some species.

  3. Effectiveness of sustainable land management measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Okoba, Barrack; Sterk, Geert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157276465

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem that affects food security and social livelihoods in the highlands of East Africa. Sustainable land management (SLM) measures have been widely promoted to reduce erosion and increase crop yield, but the adoption of SLM measures has remained low. In order to

  4. Dynamics of Poverty and Land Degradation in the Sahel (West Africa)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will attempt to breach this knowledge gap. ... will endeavor to understand the dynamics of poverty and land degradation, identify promising ... Studies. Rôle de la migration dans les stratégies de survie des populations rurales : cas ...

  5. 49 Land Use Change in the Mezam Division of the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    subjected to Principal Component Analysis for image enhancement. Six landuse classes were identified: Bare. Surface, Montane Forest, Water Body, Secondary Forest, Grassland, and ... about its components and processes. FAO .... The area is characterized by deep .... assessment: A critical component of land cover.

  6. Buruli ulcer disease prevalence in Benin, West Africa: associations with land use/cover and the identification of disease clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Benbow, M Eric; Brenden, Travis O; Qi, Jiaguo; Johnson, R Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by infection with the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans, is an emerging infectious disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown, it is hypothesized that the transmission of BU disease is associated with human activities in or around aquatic environments, and that characteristics of the landscape (e.g., land use/cover) play a role in mediating BU disease. Several studies performed at relatively small spatial scales (e.g., within a single village or region of a country) support these hypotheses; however, if BU disease is associated with land use/cover characteristics, either through spatial constraints on vector-host dynamics or by mediating human activities, then large-scale (i.e., country-wide) associations should also emerge. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate associations between BU disease prevalence in villages in Benin, West Africa and surrounding land use/cover patterns and other map-based characteristics, and (2) identify areas with greater and lower than expected prevalence rates (i.e., disease clusters) to assist with the development of prevention and control programs. Results Our landscape-based models identified low elevation, rural villages surrounded by forest land cover, and located in drainage basins with variable wetness patterns as being associated with higher BU disease prevalence rates. We also identified five spatial disease clusters. Three of the five clusters contained villages with greater than expected prevalence rates and two clusters contained villages with lower than expected prevalence rates. Those villages with greater than expected BU disease prevalence rates spanned a fairly narrow region of south-central Benin. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that interactions between natural land cover and human alterations to the landscape likely play a role in the dynamics of BU disease. For example, urbanization

  7. Land Water-Storage Variability over West Africa: Inferences from Space-Borne Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of terrestrial water storage (TWS inverted from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE measurements to investigate water variations and their response to droughts over the Volta, Niger, and Senegal Basins of West Africa was investigated. An altimetry-imagery approach was proposed to deduce the contribution of Lake Volta to TWS as “sensed” by GRACE. The results showed that from April 2002 to July 2016, Lake Volta contributed to approximately 8.8% of the water gain within the Volta Basin. As the signal spreads out far from the lake, it impacts both the Niger and Senegal Basins with 1.7% (at a significance level of 95%. This figure of 8.8% for the Volta Basin is approximately 20% of the values reported in previous works. Drought analysis based on GRACE-TWS (after removing the lake’s contribution depicted below-normal conditions prevailing from 2002 to 2008. Wavelet analysis revealed that TWS changes (fluxes and rainfall as well as vegetation index depicted a highly coupled relationship at the semi-annual to biennial periods, with common power covariance prevailing in the annual frequencies. While acknowledging that validation of the drought occurrence and severity based on GRACE-TWS is needed, we believe that our findings shall contribute to the water management over West Africa.

  8. The crustal structure and tectonic development of the continental margin of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica: implications from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-07-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica represents a key component in the tectonic history of Antarctic-New Zealand continental breakup. The region played a major role in the plate-kinematic development of the southern Pacific from the inferred collision of the Hikurangi Plateau with the Gondwana subduction margin at approximately 110-100 Ma to the evolution of the West Antarctic Rift System. However, little is known about the crustal architecture and the tectonic processes creating the embayment. During two `RV Polarstern' expeditions in 2006 and 2010 a large geophysical data set was collected consisting of seismic-refraction and reflection data, ship-borne gravity and helicopter-borne magnetic measurements. Two P-wave velocity-depth models based on forward traveltime modelling of nine ocean bottom hydrophone recordings provide an insight into the lithospheric structure beneath the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Seismic-reflection data image the sedimentary architecture and the top-of-basement. The seismic data provide constraints for 2-D gravity modelling, which supports and complements P-wave modelling. Our final model shows 10-14-km-thick stretched continental crust at the continental rise that thickens to as much as 28 km beneath the inner shelf. The homogenous crustal architecture of the continental rise, including horst and graben structures are interpreted as indicating that wide-mode rifting affected the entire region. We observe a high-velocity layer of variable thickness beneath the margin and related it, contrary to other `normal volcanic type margins', to a proposed magma flow along the base of the crust from beneath eastern Marie Byrd Land-West Antarctica to the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of upper mantle serpentinization by seawater penetration at the Marie Byrd Seamount province. Hints of seaward-dipping reflectors indicate some degree of volcanism in the area after break-up. A set of gravity anomaly data

  9. Black Sea impact on its west-coast land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Constantin, Sorin

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the Black Sea influence on the thermal characteristics of its western hinterland based on satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The marine impact on the land surface temperature (LST) values is detected at daily, seasonal and annual time scales, and a strong linkage with the land cover is demonstrated. The remote sensing products used within the study supply LST data with complete areal coverage during clear sky conditions at 1-km spatial resolution, which is appropriate for climate studies. The sea influence is significant up to 4-5 km, by daytime, while the nighttime influence is very strong in the first 1-2 km, and it gradually decreases westward. Excepting the winter, the daytime temperature increases towards the plateau with the distance from the sea, e.g. with a gradient of 0.9 °C/km in the first 5 km in spring or with 0.7 °C/km in summer. By nighttime, the sea water usually remains warmer than the contiguous land triggering higher LST values in the immediate proximity of the coastline in all seasons, e.g. mean summer LST is 19.0 °C for the 1-km buffer, 16.6 °C for the 5-km buffer and 16.0 °C for the 10-km buffer. The results confirm a strong relationship between the land cover and thermal regime in the western hinterland of the Black Sea coast. The satellite-derived LST and air temperature values recorded at the meteorological stations are highly correlated for similar locations, but the marine influence propagates differently, pledging for distinct analysis. Identified anomalies in the general observed trends are investigated in correlation with sea surface temperature dynamics in the coastal area.

  10. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities in the Dynamics of Land Cover in Mediterranean Steppe West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Tayeb, Tayeb

    2016-08-01

    The last thirty years, there is a real dynamic change of land cover with intensive degradation of the natural vegetation especially in arid zone. Indeed, the adverse effects of drought periods from the year 1970 combined with population growth and economic conditions experienced by the country in the 1980s have greatly upset the delicate balance of the natural environment. These adverse effects may result in partial or total disappearance of some natural ecosystems.The objective of this work is to study the distribution of plant formations that constitute the ecosystem typical of west Algeria and their dynamics in time and space, as well as to develop a method to monitor the degradation process and a system capable of effectively protecting areas classified for their plant and animal species.The Landsat satellite images were used to map the vegetation of the study area at a scale of 1:200,000. A comparison was then made between the map obtained from satellite images (Landsat 8) of 2014 and (Landsat 5) of 1987.The results show the following main trends in the distribution patterns of steppe species, a strong decrease of land occupied by steppe of Stipatenacissima and steppe of Artimesiaherba-alba, witch replaced by three taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Peganumharmala. Steppe of Artemisia herbaalba has been transformed by steppe of. taxa Thymelaeamicrophylla, Salsolavermiculata and Lygeumspartum. Woody species such as Quercus ilex and Juniperusphoenicea are characterized by a large regression.

  11. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  12. Cesium-137 activity in soil from an agricultural land in West Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, M. A. A.; Yaprak, G.; AYTAS, S.; AKGil, S.; Eral, M.; Yener, G.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the radiocesium derived from the accident at Chernobyl in 1986 deposited on the soil, this study presents experimental data on Cs-137 activity concentrations in soil samples taken from agricultural land of Aegean Region in Turkey in 1997 and 1998. The activity of Cs-137 for these soil samples was found in the range between 0.92±0.15 Bq/kg and 20.75±0.29 Bq/kg. The distribution of Cs-137 in the soil can differ, being dependent on soil properties

  13. HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE SINGKARAK BASIN, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2008-11-01

    . Best bet menu of land management options was formulated based on hydro-meteorological characteristics of the catchments surrounding Singkarak basin. The results showed that the catchments have high response to rainfall producing runoff that is discharged to the lake. The hydrograph data shows that the discharge sharply increased immediately after rainfall started then decreased quite slowly when rainfall ended. For sustainable land management in the Singkarak basin, land and water conservation have to be a priority options. Agro-forestry may be a better cropping system that has to be applied by local community. Since potential water scarcity during dry spell period may occur, water harvesting and water conservation are better options to be associated into the land management system.

  14. LAND USE PLANNING FOR BEEKEEPING USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varian Triantomo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is one of the alternative businesses that can be developed without converting the existing land use. Deveoping the business of beekeeping should consider the biophysically suitable area for bees themselves and also for the bee forage availability. The objective of this study was to provide the direction of development area for beekeeping. The methods used consist ofa combination of remote sensing, geographic information system, and analytical hierarchy process. The recommended area for beekeeping in Sukabumi regency consists of two areas: forest and dry land agriculture area. The protected area has two priorities: The first priority area for beekeeping is 3,335.52 ha (6.4%, while second priority is 48,415.22 ha (93.6% that covered 14 sub-districts. The cultivation area has three priorities: First priority area is 1,163.92 ha, second priorityarea is 6,044.98 ha, and third priority area is 2,651.21 ha that covered 9 sub-districts. Based on result of analysis with the existing beekeeping in Sukabumi regency, local government of Sukabumi regency or local farmer could develop program for beekeeping in such as sub district: Cibadak, Cicurug, Cidahu, Ciemas, Cikidang, Ciracap, Cisolok, Kabandungan, Kadudampit, Kalapanunggal, Nagrak, Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi, Sukaraja, Jampang Kulon, Pabuaran, Sagaranten, Surade, and Tegalbuleud.

  15. Variable crustal thickness beneath Thwaites Glacier revealed from airborne gravimetry, possible implications for geothermal heat flux in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Theresa M.; Jordan, Tom A.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Young, Duncan A.; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2014-12-01

    Thwaites Glacier has one of the largest glacial catchments in West Antarctica. The future stability of Thwaites Glacier's catchment is of great concern, as this part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has recently been hypothesized to already be en route towards collapse. Although an oceanic trigger is thought to be responsible for current change at the grounding line of Thwaites Glacier, in order to determine the effects of this coastal change further in the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet it is essential to also better constrain basal conditions that control the dynamics of fast glacial flow within the catchment itself. One major contributor to fast glacial flow is the presence of subglacial water, the production of which is a result of both glaciological shear heating and geothermal heat flux. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the crustal thickness beneath Thwaites Glacier, which is an important contributor to regional-scale geothermal heat flux patterns. Crustal structure is an indicator of past tectonic events and hence provides a geophysical proxy for the thermal status of the crust and mantle. Terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity disturbances are used here to estimate depths to the Moho and mid-crustal boundary. The thin continental crust we reveal beneath Thwaites Glacier supports the hypothesis that the West Antarctic Rift System underlies the region and is expressed topographically as the Byrd Subglacial Basin. This rifted crust is of similar thickness to that calculated from airborne gravity data beneath neighboring Pine Island Glacier, and is more extended than crust in the adjacent Siple Coast sector of the Ross Sea Embayment. A zone of thinner crust is also identified near the area's subaerial volcanoes lending support to a recent interpretation predicting that this part of Marie Byrd Land is a major volcanic dome, likely within the West Antarctic Rift System itself. Near-zero Bouguer gravity disturbances for the subglacial highlands

  16. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  17. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  18. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  19. What is the role of historical anthropogenically-induced land-cover change on the surface climate of West Africa? Results from the LUCID intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, S.

    2015-12-01

    West Africa has been highlighted as a hot spot of land surface-atmosphere interactions. This study analyses the outputs of the project Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) over West Africa. LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore the impacts of Land Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC) that are robust and consistent across the climate models. Focusing the analysis on Sahel and Guinea, this study shows that, even though the seven climate models use the same atmospheric and land cover forcing, there are significant differences of West African Monsoon variability across the climate models. The magnitude of that variability differs significantly from model to model resulting two major "features": (1) atmosphere dynamics models; (2) how the land-surface functioning is parameterized in the Land surface Model, in particular regarding the evapotranspiration partitioning within the different land-cover types, as well as the role of leaf area index (LAI) in the flux calculations and how strongly the surface is coupled to the atmosphere. The major role that the models'sensitivity to land-cover perturbations plays in the resulting climate impacts of LULCC has been analysed in this study. The climate models show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC induced cooling is directed by decreases in net shortwave radiation that reduced the available energy (QA) (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as LAI and surface roughness), which decreases during most part of the year. The biophysical impacts of LULCC were compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (CO2SST). The results show that the surface cooling (related a decrease in QA) induced by the biophysical effects of LULCC are insignificant compared to surface warming (related an

  20. Potential land use planning and assessment in the west part of the Büyük Menderes basin by ILSEN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was planned to investigate the structural properties and soil mapping capability according to rules of the 7. Approximation Soil Taxonomic System of the region western part of the Büyük Menderes Basin by using Landsat satellite images in remote sensing technique. The data gathered from field observation about some soil properties and land requirements of different land use types were correlated and as a result of that the boundaries of land use patterns were carried out. Land use patterns were detected according to suitable land use classes for soil mapping units and potential land use map were done. Land use assessment is likely to be the prediction of land potential for productive land use types. This case is great important in guiding decisions on land uses in terms of potential and conserving natural resources for future generations. The main objective of this study was to determine land resources and to assess potential land use in the west part of the Büyük Menderes Basin of Aegean region. The study area covers about 24.300 km2 and formed on alluvial material deposited by Büyük Menders River. Using Landsat 5 TM satellite images, which cover back and foot slope of mountain and alluvial plains of the western part of Menderes Basin, and taking physiographic units of the region as basis, detailed soil series and phases were determined. Soils of the region were classified as Entisol, Inceptisol as 2 orders, 4 suborders, 4 great groups and 6 sub groups, and 10 series. Twenty-five different land utilization types grouped into 4 major land use groups were evaluated for the studied area’s soils. ILSEN computer model was used to determined potential land use groups and suitable classes for agricultural uses. In addition, ArcGIS software was used to generate their maps and database. Suitability map for agricultural uses results showed that, distributions of the best, relatively good, problematic and restricted agricultural lands

  1. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  2. Anomalous South Pacific lithosphere dynamics derived from new total sediment thickness estimates off the West Antarctic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.

  3. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  4. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository operated by the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine...

  5. Transformation of Agricultural Land for Urbanisation, Infrastructural Development and Question of Future Food Security: Cases from Parts of Hugli District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasuddin Siddique

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries of the world encounter urbanisation and infrastructural development in or around the fertile tracts and the absence of any landuse plan for desired land use change has led to conversion of farmlands, which is detrimental to future food security and environmental quality. Hugli district is traditionally well known as one of the most prosperous agricultural regions of West Bengal but the district is experiencing rapid urban extension and infrastructural development towards productive agricultural land since 1991. This has caused decline in the amount of agricultural production which may be treated as an indicator of increasing threat to the long run sustainable livelihood security of the people of the whole of West Bengal. This article critically explores the transformation of agricultural (farm land because of growing rate of urbanisation and infrastructural development, which in turn poses the question of threat to food (in security. Although, this is a growing problem across the universe, this article probes the future food security questions of Hugli district, West Bengal by examining the impact of the highly intertwined indicators of urbanisation and infrastructural development on agricultural (farm land use and its effect on food security. Regression analysis, Spearman’s Ranking Correlation Coefficient, Remote Sensing technologies, Markov Chain Model, Projection of future population growth and yield rate are employed to understand the depth of the problem. The result not only shows a direct negative correlation between urban extension and agricultural areal contraction but also the supervised classification of satellite imageries shows that there is rapid change of rural land use from 1996-2016. There is no match between future population growth and future yield rate of crops and the Markov Chain Model further predicts that the cropland will decrease from 62.77% to 42.90% and the built up area will increase from 31

  6. Increasing land sustainability and productivity through soil-fertility management in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bationo, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Kimetu, J.; Kihara, J.; Abdoulaye, M.S.; Adamou, A.; Tabo, R.; Koala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Food production has lagged behind population growth in most parts of the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT). One of the reasons for low food production is decline in soil fertility as a consequence of continuous cropping without fertilization. As a result, there is a negative nutrient balance in most land-use systems in WASAT. The amount of nutrients leaving the soil, through crop uptake, leaching and erosion exceeds that returned through natural processes such as atmospheric deposition and biological nitrogen fixation or through additions of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Use of mineral fertilizers by many smallholder farmers remains low because of socio-economic constraints. Lack of adequate foreign exchange to import fertilizers, poor infrastructure and poor distribution mechanisms have hampered the use of inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs such as manure, compost and crop residues are often proposed as alternatives to mineral fertilizers, however, it is important to recognize that in most cases the use of organic inputs is part of an internal flow of nutrients within the farm and does not add nutrient from outside the farm; also, quantities available are inadequate to meet nutrient needs over large areas because of limited availability, low nutrient content of the material, and high labour demands for processing and application. The beneficial effects of combined manure and inorganic nutrients on soil fertility have been repeatedly shown, yet there is need for more research on the establishment of the fertilizer equivalency of manures, in determining the optimum combination of these two plant nutrients and in taking into account the high variability in their quality. Such information is useful in formulating decision-support systems and in establishing simple guidelines for management and utilization of the resources. This paper highlights current research results on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and summarizes our

  7. Land Cover Land Use Change and Soil Organic Carbon under Climate Variability in the Semi-Arid West African Sahel (1960-2050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Amadou M.

    2016-01-01

    Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change affects land surface processes recognized to influence climate change at local, national and global levels. Soil organic carbon is a key component for the functioning of agro-ecosystems and has a direct effect on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. The capacity to model and project…

  8. Geoologic controls on the architecture of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's basal interface: New results from West and East Antarctica from long range geophysics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Richter, T.; Aitken, A.; Siegert, M. J.; Roberts, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    running through the heart of the Marie Byrd Land subglacial massif, with associated deep erosional scars with implications for the history of the West Antarctic ice sheet. In eastern Wilkes Land, deep, comparably recently active eroding troughs dominate the hydrology of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. In western Wilkes Land in East Antarctica, (as noted by other presentations in this session) fjord systems nucleating on continental suture zones indicate the extent of paleoice sheet margins, and act as switches for modern subglacial hydrology.

  9. LAND USE CHANGE AND RECOMMENDATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PEATLAND FOR AGRICULTURE: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyunto Wahyunto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Time series satellite imageries of land use and land cover, ground truthing, and statistical data of land use change were analyzed for generating the dynamics of land use changes in the period of 1986-2008. Field observation, peat sampling, and peat analyses of representative land use types were undertaken to assess peat characteristics and its agricultural suitability. The study showed that within 22 years (1986-2008, the area of peat forests in Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts decreased as much as 13.6% from 391,902 ha to 328,078 ha. The current uses of the peatland in the two districts include oil palm plantation (8704 ha, smallholder rubber plantation (13,186 ha, annual crops (15,035 ha, mixed cropping of trees and annual crops (22,328 ha, and pineapple farming (11,744 ha. Our evaluation showed unconformity of the current uses of peatland with regulations and crops agronomic requirements such as peat thickness and maturity, rendering unsustainability. This study recommends that expansion of agriculture and plantation on peatland areas be limited over idle land within the agricultural production and conversion production forest areas. About 34,362 ha (9.7% of uncultivated log-over forest and shrubs can potentially be developed for agriculture. Peat soils with the thickness of >3 m should be allocated for conservation or forest protection due to low inherent soil fertility and high potential greenhouse gas emissions if converted for agriculture.

  10. The relative roles of climate and land use in the degradation of a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study from Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Around AD 870 the virgin environment of Iceland became populated by humans and mammal land herbivores. Since then, the island has lost nearly all of its native birch woodland, resulting in dramatic degradation of landscapes and ecosystems, attributed mainly to over-exploitation of woodlands and late-medieval climate deterioration. As part of policy making in agriculture, a heated debate is ongoing over limitations to sheep grazing in pastures suffering from long-term degradation. In this context the history of climate and land use is of great importance. Those who consider grazing a minimal attribute to land degradation argue that the harsh climate conditions of the little ice age are the primary mechanism behind the current degraded landscape. Others err on the side of caution and propose a careful approach to grazing. This study forms a contribution to the historical context of the impact of grazing upon the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem. Using the analyses of pollen and spores from coprophilous fungi as principal methods, we present data about historical environmental change from within two different land holdings in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland. One dataset comes from within a landholding governed by the chieftain farm Reykholt, the other comes from within the land of the indipendent farm, Norðtunga. In the past the valley was used primarily as a pasture, associated with shielings (organised seasonal grazing). Pollen data from the pasture in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland, demonstrate a rapid loss of birch (Betula pubescens) woodland from grazing areas owned by the major farm and institution, Reykholt. The suppressive nature of grazing is demonstrated by the expansion of woodland as soon when animal stocks are reduced, probably as a consequence of the bubonic plague after AD 1402. Resumed exploitation of resources eventually depleted all birch woodland from the Reykholt landholding and precipitated soil erosion. The trajectory of environmental change

  11. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  12. Potential climate effect of mineral aerosols over West Africa: Part II—contribution of dust and land cover to future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhenming; Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy S.

    2018-04-01

    Mineral dust aerosols are an essential component of climate over West Africa, however, little work has been performed to investigate their contributions to potential climate change. A set of regional climate model experiments with and without mineral dust processes and land cover changes is performed to evaluate their climatic effects under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for two global climate models. Results suggest surface warming to be in the range of 4-8 °C by the end of the century (2081-2100) over West Africa with respect to the present day (1981-2000). The presence of mineral dusts dampens the warming by 0.1-1 °C in all seasons. Accounting for changes in land cover enhances the warming over the north of Sahel and dampens it to the south in spring and summer; however, the magnitudes are smaller than those resulting from dusts. Overall dust loadings are projected to increase, with the greatest increase occurring over the Sahara and Sahel in summer. Accounting for land cover changes tends to reduce dust loadings over the southern Sahel. Future precipitation is projected to decrease by 5-40 % in the western Sahara and Sahel and increase by 10-150 % over the eastern Sahel and Guinea Coast in JJA. A dipole pattern of future precipitation changes is attributed to dust effects, with decrease in the north by 5-20 % and increase by 5-20 % in the south. Future changes in land cover result in a noisy non-significant response with a tendency for slight wetting in MAM, JJA, and SON and drying in DJF.

  13. Modeling land use change impacts on water resources in a tropical West African catchment (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and

  14. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  15. Mapping and estimating land change between 2001 and 2013 in a heterogeneous landscape in West Africa: Loss of forestlands and capacity building opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Olofsson, Pontus; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Helmschrot, Joerg; Wala, Kpérkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2017-12-01

    In West Africa, accurate classification of land cover and land change remains a big challenge due to the patchy and heterogeneous nature of the landscape. Limited data availability, human resources and technical capacities, further exacerbate the challenge. The result is a region that is among the more understudied areas in the world, which in turn has resulted in a lack of appropriate information required for sustainable natural resources management. The objective of this paper is to explore open source software and easy-to-implement approaches to mapping and estimation of land change that are transferrable to local institutions to increase capacity in the region, and to provide updated information on the regional land surface dynamics. To achieve these objectives, stable land cover and land change between 2001 and 2013 in the Kara River Basin in Togo and Benin were mapped by direct multitemporal classification of Landsat data by parameterization and evaluation of two machine-learning algorithms. Areas of land cover and change were estimated by application of an unbiased estimator to sample data following international guidelines. A prerequisite for all tools and methods was implementation in an open source environment, and adherence to international guidelines for reporting land surface activities. Findings include a recommendation of the Random Forests algorithm as implemented in Orfeo Toolbox, and a stratified estimation protocol - all executed in the QGIS graphical use interface. It was found that despite an estimated reforestation of 10,0727 ± 3480 ha (95% confidence interval), the combined rate of forest and savannah loss amounted to 56,271 ± 9405 ha (representing a 16% loss of the forestlands present in 2001), resulting in a rather sharp net loss of forestlands in the study area. These dynamics had not been estimated prior to this study, and the results will provide useful information for decision making pertaining to natural resources management, land

  16. Rethinking Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Based Land Use Systems in Smallholder Farmers Livelihoods: A Case of Kolobo Watershed, West Shewa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyisa Dadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their restriction, smallholder farmers have been continuing growing Eucalyptus globulus in the cultivated land in the central highland of Ethiopia. Literature has shown controversial issues against E. globulus. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the compatibility of E. globulus in the smallholder farmers’ land use system. Soil samples were collected from five different land uses and analysed for selected physical and chemical properties. The socioeconomic contribution of E. globulus was collected through household surveys from 110 households. Analysis of soil showed that organic carbon (OC, total nitrogen (TN and cation exchange capacity (CEC were significantly higher (P<0.05 under E. globulus compared to the cultivated land. The survey results also showed that the largest proportion (58% of households was interested in growing E. globulus because of its multiple uses. About 83% of households responded that E. globulus help them to attain food security through increasing the purchasing power of smallholder farmers to buy agricultural inputs and food. This study has substantiated the role of E. globulus in the land use system of smallholder farmers. Most of the soil fertility indicators were better under E. globulus. The present finding reveals that E. globulus degrade the soil seemingly difficult to generalise. Growing E. globulus must be promoted under appealing land use to enhance smallholder farmers’ livelihoods. Removing E. globulus from the land use system may jeopardise the food security situation of many households.

  17. 76 FR 82031 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-use Assurance; DuPage Airport, West Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... retained by the DAA. Parcel A includes portions of Parcels 209A (SOUTH OF THE Union Pacific Railroad, 231 (south of the Union Pacific Railroad) and all of Parcels 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 314 and 315 as per the... AT THE FOUND CAST IRON MONUMENT MARKING THE WEST QUARTER CORNER OF SAID SECTION 18, PER DOCUMENT NO...

  18. THE ROLE OF THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WEST

    OpenAIRE

    Gentle, Paul F.; Bergstrom, John C.; Betz, Carter J.; Bowker, James Michael; Cordell, H. Ken; English, Donald B.K.; Teasley, R. Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Future demand projections reported in this paper indicate a steady increase in demand for outdoor recreational opportunities in U.S. regions where BLM lands are located. From a supply perspective, BLM lands represent "prime targets" for meeting increased recreational demand in the western U.S. The BLM will face the challenge of balancing increased recreation use with other multiple uses, and minimizing the negative environmental impacts of increased recreation use such as damages caused by mo...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON LAND BALANCE FOR EVALUATION PLANNING OF SPATIAL AND REGIONAL IN SOLOK REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Pahuluan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Act No. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning stated that the central and the local government should establish Spatial and Regional Planning (RTRW by considering environmental carrying capacity. The environmental carrying capacity based RTRW will ensure the balance between the use of natural resources and the prevention of negative impacts on the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of RTRW at Solok Regency Year 2012 - 2031 which has been established in 2013. Evaluation was conducted by calculating land carrying capacity method to determine land supply and land demand. The results showed that the land use planned as stated in the RTRW increase the land supply in supporting bio-product production to meet the needs of the population, with surplus conditions amounted to 101,005.79 hectares. The future predictions indicated that the carrying capacity of planned land could met the needs of the population bio-product until the year 2121. The evaluation of the spatial pattern plan showed that there was a need to increase the area of housing and settlements in accordance with the rate of population increase and determine the extents area for the development of the livestock sector to improve its yield.

  20. Scenarios of Land-Use Change in Protected Forest of Wosi Rendani Manokwari District, West Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected forests have drawn international attention. This research aims to determine scenarios of land-use change in Protected Forest of Wosi Rendani (PFWR. The study was conducted using land evaluation approach to land unit, determination and alternative land use change, based on the potential and the level of threat for PFWR. The results showed that PFWR should remain as a protected forest although the total score of forest modeling was 130. This forest serves to protect soil, water, and danger from floods and landslides. This region has springs, caves, and waterfalls, which can be further developed into eco-tourism and environmental services. As a city forest, PFWR makes Manokwari's weather cooler, enhances the quality of air, reduces environmental pollution, and adds catchment areas. As a community forest, PFWR has forest plants, agricultural crops and fruits, in which people are only allowed to take flowers, fruits, and seeds they have planted. As a buffer zone, PFWR serves as a buffer to reduce population pressures on the forest area or village surrounding the area with high interaction by integrating conservation and economic interests of the surrounding community. As cultivation and settlement, PFWR has three settlements, namely Soribo, Kentestar, and Ipingoisi, 4 settlements outside PFWR namely Tanah Merah Indah, Ajoi, Buton, Mako Brimob, as well as plots of land owned by developers such as Bank Arfindo, Lumintu, Irman Jaya, and Suntari. The final scenario of the land use change in PFWR depends on the policy of local and central government

  1. Assessing driving forces of land use and land cover change by a mixed-method approach in north-eastern Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Janina; Baysal, Gülendam; Bulley, Henry N N; Fürst, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis. Viewpoints from experts help to answer why the land use is changing, since many triggering effects, especially non-spatial and indirect drivers of LULCC, are not measurable by other methodological approaches. Geo-statistical or economic analyses add to validate the relevance of the expert-based results. First, we conducted in-depth interviews and developed a list of 34 direct and indirect drivers of LULCC. Subsequently, a group of experts was asked in a questionnaire to select the most important drivers by using a Likert scale. This information was complemented by remote sensing analysis. Finally, the driver analysis was compared to information from literature. Based on these analyses there is a very high confidence that population growth, especially in rural areas, is a major driver of LULCC. Further, current farming practice, bush fires, livestock, the road network and climate variability were the main direct drivers while the financial capital of farmers and customary norms regarding land tenure were listed as important indirect drivers with high confidence. Many of these driving forces, such as labour shortage and migration, are furthermore interdependent. Governmental laws, credits, the service by extension officers, conservational agriculture and foreign agricultural medium-scale investments are currently not driving

  2. 75 FR 11107 - Revision of Land Management Plan for the George Washington National Forest, Virginia and West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., mountain biking, All-Terrain Vehicle use, Off-Highway Vehicle use, horseback riding), roadless areas, wilderness, forest health, roads, minerals, fire, subsurface mineral rights, lands, air quality, special uses...--Ecological Health, Restoration and Sustainability Changes are needed in management direction for maintaining...

  3. Analysis of land degradation processes on a tiger bush plateau in South West Niger using MODIS and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Edoardo; Maselli, Fabio; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing digital image analysis has been applied to monitor land clearing and degradation processes on a plateau covered by tiger bush near Niamey in South West Niger, where signs of severe landscape degradation due to fuelwood supply have been observed in the last decades. A MODIS NDVI dataset (2000-2015) and five LANDSAT images (1986-2012) were used to identify spatial and temporal dynamics and to emphasize areas of greater degradation. The study indicates that the land clearing found by previous investigations in the second part of the 20th century is still ongoing, with a decreasing trend of MODIS NDVI values recorded in the period 2000-2015. This trend appeared to be linked to an increase in bare soil areas that was demonstrated by analysis of LANDSAT SAVI images. The investigation also indicated that rates of degradation are stronger in more deteriorated areas like those located nearer Niamey; degradation patterns also tend to increase from the inner areas to the edges of the plateau. These results attest to the urgency to develop effective environmental preservation policies and find alternative solutions for domestic energy supply.

  4. Decay Functions of Soil Moisture: Implications for Land Cover Controls on Actual Evapotranspiration During the Wet Season of a West-African Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouni, M.; Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    The West-African savanna experiences extreme seasonal climate. The role of vegetation and the impact of agriculture on the regional hydrology of these areas are not well understood. A better understanding of such phenomena is crucial, as water resources are becoming unstable and populations dependent on rain-fed agriculture are more vulnerable. This study examines soil moisture dynamics during the 2010 rainy season in the Singou River Basin, Burkina Faso. Volumetric soil water content and meteorological data are collected from seven stations of a wireless sensor network. This network covers representative types of land cover in the watershed including riverbank, wetland, open savanna, agricultural parkland, and forested upland savanna. Vegetation was also surveyed throughout the season. Here, we present parameterizations and exploratory analysis of soil moisture decay functions at each station considered. Results are compared to the seasonal evolution of soil moisture storage, potential evapotranspiration and vegetation density. Preliminary results suggest these soil moisture measurements may be essential to understanding actual evapotranspiration and the hydrological influence of the types of land cover in the watershed over time. These findings contribute to improved modeling of the ecohydrological behavior of the Singou River Basin and up-scaling of the sensor network data for regional water management purposes as part of an integrated research and development project, Info4Dourou.

  5. A Tool for Creating Regionally Calibrated High-Resolution Land Cover Data Sets for the West African Sahel: Using Machine Learning to Scale Up Hand-Classified Maps in a Data-Sparse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Van Gordon, S.; Min, A.; Sullivan, J.; Weiner, Z.; Tappan, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using support vector machine (SVM) learning and high-accuracy hand-classified maps, we have developed a publicly available land cover classification tool for the West African Sahel. Our classifier produces high-resolution and regionally calibrated land cover maps for the Sahel, representing a significant contribution to the data available for this region. Global land cover products are unreliable for the Sahel, and accurate land cover data for the region are sparse. To address this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Regional Center for Agriculture, Hydrology and Meteorology (AGRHYMET) in Niger produced high-quality land cover maps for the region via hand-classification of Landsat images. This method produces highly accurate maps, but the time and labor required constrain the spatial and temporal resolution of the data products. By using these hand-classified maps alongside SVM techniques, we successfully increase the resolution of the land cover maps by 1-2 orders of magnitude, from 2km-decadal resolution to 30m-annual resolution. These high-resolution regionally calibrated land cover datasets, along with the classifier we developed to produce them, lay the foundation for major advances in studies of land surface processes in the region. These datasets will provide more accurate inputs for food security modeling, hydrologic modeling, analyses of land cover change and climate change adaptation efforts. The land cover classification tool we have developed will be publicly available for use in creating additional West Africa land cover datasets with future remote sensing data and can be adapted for use in other parts of the world.

  6. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    zones with use of mechanized boats and this area is also extensively used for tourism-related activities. Therefore, it is important to un- derstand the changes in wave parameters during the active land/sea breeze system in the nearshore region... and interaction. The wave computations in Delft3D-wave are stable due to the fully implicit schemes that have been implemented. In the Delft3D-wave module, the governing equation of wave transformation is based on action balance spectrum, in ge- ographical space...

  7. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  8. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  9. Assessing land cover performance in Senegal, West Africa using 1-km integrated NDVI and local variance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M.E.; Tappan, G.; Rowland, James; Lewis, J.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The researchers calculated seasonal integrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each of 7 years using a time-series of 1-km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1992-93, 1995) and SPOT Vegetation (1998-2001) sensors. We used a local variance technique to identify each pixel as normal or either positively or negatively anomalous when compared to its surroundings. We then summarized the number of years that a given pixel was identified as an anomaly. The resulting anomaly maps were analysed using Landsat TM imagery and extensive ground knowledge to assess the results. This technique identified anomalies that can be linked to numerous anthropogenic impacts including agricultural and urban expansion, maintenance of protected areas and increased fallow. Local variance analysis is a reliable method for assessing vegetation degradation resulting from human pressures or increased land productivity from natural resource management practices. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High-resolution electrical resistivity tomography applied to patterned ground, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, south-west Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kasprzak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT applied to three types of patterned ground in Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard, carried out in late July 2012. The structures investigated include sorted circles, non-sorted polygons and a net with sorted coarser material. ERT was used to recognize the internal ground structure, the shape of permafrost table below the active layer and the geometric relationships between permafrost, ground layering and surface patterns. Results of inversion modelling indicate that the permafrost table occurs at a depth of 0.5–1 m in a mountain valley and 1–2.5 m on raised marine terraces. The permafrost table was nearly planar beneath non-sorted deposits and wavy beneath sorted materials. The mutual relationships between the permafrost table and the shape of a stone circle are different from those typically presented in literature. Ground structure beneath the net with sorted coarser materials is complex as implied in convective models. In non-sorted polygons, the imaging failed to reveal vertical structures between them.

  11. [Main interspecific competition and land productivity of fruit-crop intercropping in Loess Region of West Shauxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lei; Bi, Hua-Xing; Tian, Xiao-Ling; Cui, Zhe-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Zi; Gao, Lu-Bo; Liu, Li-Xia

    2011-05-01

    Taking the four typical fruit-crop intercropping models, i.e., walnut-peanut, walnut-soybean, apple-peanut, and apple-soybean, in the Loess Region of western Shanxi Province as the objects, this paper analyzed the crop (peanut and soybean) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), yield, and soil moisture content. Comparing with crop monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping decreased the crop PAR and P(n). The smaller the distance from tree rows, the smaller the crop PAR and P(n). There was a significantly positive correlation between the P(n) and crop yield, suggesting that illumination was one of the key factors affecting crop yield. From the whole trend, the 0-100 cm soil moisture content had no significant differences between walnut-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, but had significant differences between apple-crop intercropping systems and corresponding monoculture cropping systems, indicating that the competition for soil moisture was more intense in apple-crop intercropping systems than in walnut-crop intercropping systems. Comparing with monoculture, fruit-crop intercropping increased the land use efficiency and economic benefit averagely by 70% and 14%, respectively, and walnut-crop intercropping was much better than apple-crop intercropping. To increase the crop yield in fruit-crop intercropping systems, the following strategies should be taken: strengthening the management of irrigation and fertilization, increasing the distances or setting root barriers between crop and tree rows, regularly and properly pruning, and planting shade-tolerant crops in intercropping.

  12. Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot

  13. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Wideband Data Recorder System for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, David H. E.; Price, Danny C.; Lebofsky, Matthew; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Gregory; Isaacson, Howard; Werthimer, Dan; Abdurashidova, Zuhra; Bloss, Marty; Brandt, Joe; Creager, Ramon; Ford, John; Lynch, Ryan S.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; McCullough, Randy; Ray, Jason; Whitehead, Mark; Woody, Dave

    2018-04-01

    The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is undertaking a comprehensive search for radio and optical signatures from extraterrestrial civilizations. An integral component of the project is the design and implementation of wide-bandwidth data recorder and signal processing systems. The capabilities of these systems, particularly at radio frequencies, directly determine survey speed; further, given a fixed observing time and spectral coverage, they determine sensitivity as well. Here, we detail the Breakthrough Listen wide-bandwidth data recording system deployed at the 100 m aperture Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The system digitizes up to 6 GHz of bandwidth at 8 bits for both polarizations, storing the resultant 24 GB s‑1 of data to disk. This system is among the highest data rate baseband recording systems in use in radio astronomy. A future system expansion will double recording capacity, to achieve a total Nyquist bandwidth of 12 GHz in two polarizations. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, along with salient configuration and disk-write optimizations used to achieve high-throughput data capture on commodity compute servers and consumer-class hard disk drives.

  14. A community responds to collective trauma: an ecological analysis of the James Byrd murder in Jasper, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Thomas; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2009-12-01

    The brutal murder of James Byrd Jr. in June 1998 unleashed a storm of media, interest groups, high profile individuals and criticism on the Southeast Texas community of Jasper. The crime and subsequent response-from within the community as well as across the world-engulfed the entire town in a collective trauma. Using natural disaster literature/theory and employing an ecological approach, Jasper, Texas was investigated via an interrupted time series analysis to identify how the community changed as compared to a control community (Center, Texas) on crime, economic, health, educational, and social capital measures collected at multiple pre- and post-crime time points between 1995 and 2003. Differences-in-differences (DD) analysis revealed significant post-event changes in Jasper, as well as a surprising degree of resilience and lack of negative consequences. Interviews with residents conducted between March 2005 and 2007 identified how the community responded to the crisis and augmented quantitative findings with qualitative, field-informed interpretation. Interviews suggest the intervention of external organizations exacerbated the severity of the events. However, using strengths of specific local social institutions-including faith based, law enforcement, media, business sector and civic government organizations-the community effectively responded to the initial threat and to the potential negative ramifications of external entities.

  15. Threats to agriculture at the extensive and intensive margins : economic analyses of selected land-use issues in the U.S. West and British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eagle, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key Words Agriculture-environment interactions, economic modelling, sage grouse, yellow starthistle, urban-rural fringe, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), farmland conservation, direct marketing Agricultural land uses are frequently challenged by competing land demands for urban uses and for

  16. Effects of land-use change and rainfall in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa on the diet and nestling growth rates of an avian predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Folkertsma, I.; Kortekaas, K.; longh, De H.H.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Raptor populations in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa are being severely affected by widespread habitat alteration which depletes prey populations, potentially aggravated by changing rainfall patterns. We studied Grasshopper Buzzards Butastur rufipennis at nests in natural and transformed habitats in

  17. Effects of land-use change and rainfall in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa on the diet and nestling growth rates of an avian predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Folkertsma, Ingrid; Kortekaas, Kim; De Iongh, Hans H.; Komdeur, Jan; Sergio, Fabrizio

    Raptor populations in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa are being severely affected by widespread habitat alteration which depletes prey populations, potentially aggravated by changing rainfall patterns. We studied Grasshopper Buzzards Butastur rufipennis at nests in natural and transformed habitats in

  18. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture over West Africa using the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index based on SEVIRI land surface parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, T.; Horion, S.; Nieto, H.

    2018-01-01

    the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) that served as SM proxy within the disaggregation process. West Africa (3 N, 26 W; 28 N, 26 E) was selected as a case study as it presents both an important North-South climate gradient and a diverse range of ecosystem types. The main challenge was to set up...... resolution of SMOS SM, with potential application for local drought/flood monitoring of importance for the livelihood of the population of West Africa....

  19. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  20. ANALYSIS OF GINGER FARMING BUSINESS IN PEAT LAND IN WEST KALIMANTAN (Case study: Ginger Farmer in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carolina Kilmanun

    2016-07-01

    Peat land potential as agricultural land in Indonesia is quite large of about 6 million hectaresout of 21 million hectares or 11% of land area in Indonesia. The utilization of peat land as agricultural land requires accurate and careful planning, appropriate technological application, and proper management because of its marginal and fragile ecosystem. Peat land has a big potential as agricultural land because this land contains high organic material. Theproblem is that the pH is very low so that it is not good for agricultural land. However, the research in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency proved that doing ginger farming business in peat land could increase the farmers’ income and welfare. The research aims to: 1 study problems faced in doing ginger farming business, 2 know ginger farmer’s income. Data collection was done by using Focus Group Discussion method and R/C Ratio analysis. The research result found out that the main problem in ginger farming business was that of rotten tuber. Based on the analysis result it was found that R/C ratio obtained in ginger farming business was 3.4. Total revenue obtained was Rp75,000,000with the profit over cash expense was Rp53,620,000 and the profit over total expense was Rp53,470,000. Theresearch concluded that: 1 there need be a serious handling of rotten tuber disease in ginger plant, 2 doing ginger farming business could increase income and welfare of the peat land farmers in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency.

  1. Effects of land use changes on water and nitrogen flows at the scale of West African inland valleys: an explorative model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Stomph, T.J.; Fresco, L.O.

    1997-01-01

    Land use and cover, as influenced by agricultural practices, and the changes in these with increasing pressure on land, are among the factors determining water flows in inland valleys. Changing water flows affect nitrogen flows both at the plot level and at levels higher than plots. We present a

  2. Raptors in changing West African savannas : the impact of anthropogenic land transformation on populations of Palearctic and Afrotropical raptors in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Raptors in West Africa’s savannas have strongly declined the past four decades and many species now survive only in a few pockets of intact habitat, mostly inside protected areas, while some species are on the brink of extinction. Little is known about the processes that sustain raptor populations

  3. Assessment for salinized wasteland expansion and land use change using GIS and remote sensing in the west part of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zongming; Song, Kaishan; Zhang, Bai; Liu, Dianwei; Guo, Zhixing

    2007-08-01

    Due to human impact under climatic variations, western part of Northeast China has suffered substantial land degradation during past decades. This paper presents an integrated study of expansion process of salinized wasteland in Da'an County, a typical salt-affected area in Northeast China, by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The study explores the temporal and spatial characteristics of salinized wasteland expansion from 1954 to 2004, and land use/cover changes during this period. During the past 50 years, the salinized wasteland in study area have increased by 135,995 ha, and in 2004 covers 32.31% of the total area, in the meantime grassland has decreased by 104,697 ha and in 2004 covers only 13.15% of the study area. Grasslands, croplands and swamplands were found the three main land use types converted into salinized wasteland. Land use/cover changes shows that between 1954 and 2004, 48.6% of grasslands, 42.5% of swamplands, and 14.1% of croplands were transformed into salinized wasteland, respectively. Lastly, the major factors influencing salinized wasteland expansion and land use/cover changes were also explored. In general, climatic factors supplied a potential environment for soil salinization. Human-related factors, such as policy, population, overgrazing, and intensified and unreasonable utilization of land and water resources are the main causes of salinized wasteland expansion.

  4. "Coming to a Strange Land": The West African Migrant Women's Establishment of Home and Family in a New Culture Within Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde-Sowole, Olutoyin O; Jackson, Debra; Davidson, Patricia M; Power, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Migrating and establishing a new life in another culture can have diverse health effects especially for women. This article explores the struggles and social adjustment issues that might constitute negatively to the health of West African migrant women living in Australia. Qualitative storytelling. Audiotaped voluntary stories from 20 West African migrant women living in Sydney, Australia were transcribed and analyzed. Three themes are presented for discussion: (1) But it is different here: life in a new country; (2) I have to do it all by myself: communal versus individual living; and (3) They don't listen to parents: perceived threats to the family unit. The demand for and the importance of nurses and midwives in supporting migrant families is demonstrated by findings suggesting that social adjustment into the Australian culture has a significant impact on both the nuclear and extended family unit of women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian–Mediterranean limit of north-west Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Martinez, J.M.; Suarez-Seoane, S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Luis Calabuig, de E.

    2014-01-01

    1.In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanisms behind landscape change is a complex undertaking because the influence of land use may be reinforced

  6. Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Gulliver, John; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Martin, Randall V; Marshall, Julian D; Bechle, Matthew J; Cesaroni, Giulia; Pradas, Marta Cirach; Dedele, Audrius; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Forsberg, Bertil; Galassi, Claudia; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Katsouyanni, Klea; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Lindley, Sarah J; Lepeule, Johanna; Meleux, Frederik; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Nystad, Wenche; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peters, Annette; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Rouil, Laurence; Udvardy, Orsolya; Slama, Rémy; Stempfelet, Morgane; Stephanou, Euripides G; Tsai, Ming Y; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Vienneau, Danielle; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models,

  7. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Croes, B.M.; Gort, G.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species’ migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  8. The role of breeding range, diet, mobility and body size in associations of raptor communities and land-use in a West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Gort, Gerrit; Komdeur, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into raptor declines in western Africa, we investigated associations between land-use and raptor distribution patterns in Cameroon. We examined the role of breeding distribution, species' migratory mobility, diet, body size, and thus area requirements, on 5-km scale patterns of

  9. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Land Use and Habitat Fragmentation within a Protected Area Dedicated to Tourism in a Sudanian Savanna of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimobe Kangbéni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR is a reserve in Burkina Faso involving local communities for securing biodiversity through sustainable management. Yet, its ecosystems are threatened by increasing number of elephants and illegal human activities. Renowned as a model of wildlife participatory management, NGR has mainly been studied for its animal wildlife only. The aim of this study was to uncover ecological effects of recent land management on savanna habitats including tourism, and to conclude on more sustainable options, land use/land cover (LULC changes and vegetation dynamics in NGR were analyzed. This was accomplished with multi-temporal change detection using Landsat images of 1984, 2002 and 2013 to map seven representative LULC classification categories, and quantitative indices of landscape metrics. The results showed that the LULC dynamics in NGR from 1984 to 2013 was mainly characterized by an expansion of gallery forest, tree savanna and agricultural area and a reduction of shrub savanna, woodland and bare soils. From 2002 to 2013, fragmentation in all land cover types increased at the landscape level, whereas at the class level, it decreased for woodland. Our findings provided evidence of habitat degradation in NGR, due to extensive agriculture, tourism and growing of elephants’ population. According to the original management goals and the purposes of the reserve, both fauna and tourism are to be maintained and sustained in a sustainable way. Adaptation of land use and targeted wildlife management are the main requirements for avoiding further degradation of vegetation and thus of the existence basis of local inhabitants, animals and tourism.

  10. Testing landscape modeling approaches for environmental impact assessment of mining land use on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the foothills region of west central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbaluk, M.D. [Elk Valley Coal Corp., Hinton, AB (Canada). Cardinal River Operations

    2008-07-01

    The Cheviot open pit coal mine is located on the front range of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirements for the mining project included an assessment of the cumulative effects of past, existing, and immanent activities on a 3040 km{sup 2} study area radiating approximately 25 km around the proposed project area. The grizzly bear was identified as a flagship valued ecosystem component (VEC) for assessing the regional cumulative effects of the proposed Cheviot project. In this portion of the study, a grizzly bear habitat effectiveness model was used to monitor grizzly bear response to mining land use in the study area. An investigation of grizzly bear movement paths prior to and during mine disturbances demonstrated that mining land use does not present significant barriers to grizzly bear activities. The study demonstrated the importance of using inductive modelling tools at appropriate scales, as well as the use of site-specific empirical data. It was concluded that continued monitoring of mining sites is needed to ensure that adaptive management processes are improved. A review of the Cheviot cumulative environmental effects (CEA) process was also provided. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Integration of logistic regression and multicriteria land evaluation to simulation establishment of sustainable paddy field zone in Indramayu Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahib, Irmadi; Suryanta, Jaka; Niedyawati; Kardono, Priyadi; Turmudi; Lestari, Sri; Windiastuti, Rizka

    2018-05-01

    Ministry of Agriculture have targeted production of 1.718 million tons of dry grain harvest during period of 2016-2021 to achieve food self-sufficiency, through optimization of special commodities including paddy, soybean and corn. This research was conducted to develop a sustainable paddy field zone delineation model using logistic regression and multicriteria land evaluation in Indramayu Regency. A model was built on the characteristics of local function conversion by considering the concept of sustainable development. Spatial data overlay was constructed using available data, and then this model was built upon the occurrence of paddy field between 1998 and 2015. Equation for the model of paddy field changes obtained was: logit (paddy field conversion) = - 2.3048 + 0.0032*X1 – 0.0027*X2 + 0.0081*X3 + 0.0025*X4 + 0.0026*X5 + 0.0128*X6 – 0.0093*X7 + 0.0032*X8 + 0.0071*X9 – 0.0046*X10 where X1 to X10 were variables that determine the occurrence of changes in paddy fields, with a result value of Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) of 0.8262. The weakest variable in influencing the change of paddy field function was X7 (paddy field price), while the most influential factor was X1 (distance from river). Result of the logistic regression was used as a weight for multicriteria land evaluation, which recommended three scenarios of paddy fields protection policy: standard, protective, and permissive. The result of this modelling, the priority paddy fields for protected scenario were obtained, as well as the buffer zones for the surrounding paddy fields.

  12. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  13. Upper Mantle Seismic Anisotropy Beneath West Antarctica from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis of POLENET/ANET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, N.; Wiens, D. A.; Hernandez, S.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    subparallel to the inferred WARS extension direction. Stations located in the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains (EWM) show fast directions parallel to those found within WARS. Furthermore, results from WARS and from EWM all show relatively large splitting times of 0.6 - 1.33 s. These results suggest upper mantle anisotropy that results from mantle flow and deformation related to the extensional deformation of the region. Two stations were installed in the Pensacola Mountains which are located grid-north of the EWM. The results from this region deviate from the dominant fast orientation seen in WARS but appear to be approximately perpendicular to the strike of the mountain range. Stations in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) show inconsistent fast directions and a wide range of delay times (0.3 - 0.9 s), perhaps as a result of complex mantle fabric related to a possible MBL hotspot.

  14. Fri os fra ejerskabets byrde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Engang var musik et statussymbol og en luksus. Man måtte nemlig købe den musik, som man gerne ville lytte til på en lp eller en cd, der var ganske dyr – en enkelt lp eller cd kostede det samme som to måneders Spotify-abonnement. Og lp’en og cd’en gav kun adgang til at lytte til de udvalgte numre...

  15. Using Machine Learning for Land Suitability Classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. ... evidence for the utility of machine learning methods in land suitability classification especially MCS methods. ... Artificial intelligence tools. ..... Numerical values of index for the various classes.

  16. Tradução e adaptação transcultural do "Harris Hip Score modificado por Byrd" Translation and transcultural adaptation of the modified Harris Hip Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As artroscopias do quadril têm sido utilizadas tanto para fins diagnósticos, como para fins terapêuticos, fazendo parte do arsenal rotineiro dos cirurgiões do quadril. Devido a necessidade de avaliação dos resultados artroscópicos, Byrd propôs a modificação do "Harris Hip Score", realizando a avaliação da dor e função. O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o protocolo de avaliação do "Harris Hip Score" modificado por Byrd, utilizado nas artroscopias do quadril. MÉTODO: O método utilizado constituiu em: 1 tradução inicial, 2 retrotradução, 3 pré - teste e 4 teste definitivo. RESULTADOS: A versão em português foi aplicada em 30 pacientes com afecções do quadril para verificar o nível de compreensão do protocolo. Foram realizadas mudanças e substituições de termos e expressões que não foram entendidas pelos pacientes durante o pré-teste e realizada a versão final em consenso. Novamente a versão final do questionário foi aplicada com 100% de entendimento pelos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: disponibiliza-se assim a versão final em português do questionário "Harris Hip Score" modificado por Byrd. A validação desta versão já está em desenvolvimento.OBJECTIVE: Hip arthroscopy has been used for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, and it is part of the daily arsenal of hip surgeons. Due to the need for arthroscopic evaluation of the results, Byrd proposed a modification of the Harris Hip Score by assessing pain and function. This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt the evaluation protocol of the modified Harris Hip Score used in hip arthroscopies. METHOD: The method used consisted of: 1 an initial translation, 2 a back translation, 3 a pre-test and 4 a final test. RESULTS: The Portuguese version was used with 30 patients with hip disorders to determine the level of comprehension of the protocol. Expressions which were not understood by patients during the

  17. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Surveys from 23 West Hawaii Aquarium Project Sites during 1999-2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelves with moderate...

  18. Degradação das paisagens de solos lateríticos e uso da terra no distrito de Birbhum, Bengala Ocidental, Índia / Degraded lateritic soils cape and land uses in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of lateritic environment as found in the south western and eastern Birbhum district can be considered as irresistible. Inherently poor physical and chemical status of existing lateritic soil profileand radical conversion of land uses as observed at cadastral level are the key factors of land degradation.Lateritic soilscapes are mostly affected by water erosion induced, vegetal and anthropogenic degradation attaining severe and very severe degradation status. Degraded lands in sample mouzas like Ballabhpur, Shyambati, Chawpahari Jungle, Bodakuri and Pachami account for 60.33%, 71.42%, 72.99%, 87.31% and 79.66% respectively out of their total lateritic exposures. In other words about 36.98%, 71.42%, 61.73%, 56.70% and 76.02% out of their total village areas and mostly non agricultural land use areaffected by it. Four degraded villages get the higher priority for friendly landscape conservation actions.

  19. Status and potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood products to estimate the net current annual C sequestration in West Virginia. Several management options within these components were simulated using a...

  20. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  1. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  2. Effect of land-use/land-cover change on the future of rainfed agriculture in the Jenin Governorate, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thawaba, Salem; Abu-Madi, Maher; Özerol, Gül

    2017-01-01

    Land cover has been changed by humans throughout history. At the global level, population growth and socio-economic development have a significant impact on land resources. Recently, scholars added climate change as one of the major factors affecting land-cover transformation. In the West Bank of

  3. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  4. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  5. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  6. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  7. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  8. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  9. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  10. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  11. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  12. Working landscapes: the future of land use policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Miller; Thomas E. Sheridan; Susan Charnley; Christy Plumer; Jim Lyons; Tom Martin

    2015-01-01

    The history of land use in the American West has traditionally been one of conflict, but the divisive relationships between ranchers, foresters, land management agencies, recreational users, and conservationists are transforming. Grassroots coalitions have developed among unlikely allies. Together, they are advocating for management approaches that incorporate local...

  13. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  14. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  15. EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossie Wiedya Nusantara

    2015-01-01

    the rainy season. The research shows that the highest and lowest soil emissions of CO2 at the  two measurements are at KJ (6.512 ton ha-1 yr-1 and SB (1.698  ton ha-1 yr-1, and at KS (6.701 ton ha-1 yr-1 and SB (3.169 ton ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The highest and lowest temperature of peat soil the  two measurements are at SB (27.78 oC and HP (22.78 oC, and at KS (29.08 oC dan HP (26.56 oC. Also the highest and lowest water-table depth of peat soil are at KJ (56.2 cm and  SB (32.1 cm. The factors caused to differences of CO2 emissions are soil temperature, water-table depth and land cultivation which caused changing of peat-soil properties such as organic-C stock, soil pH and peat maturity.

  16. Historical commercial West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historic data from 1891 to 2001 on the annual exports of rock lobster Jasus lalandii products (canned, frozen tails, raw whole frozen, cooked whole frozen and live) from the South African west coast are used to estimate the annual commercial landings by this fishery. Conversion factors were developed to convert canned, ...

  17. Potential RSM Projects: West Maui Region, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Hawaii by Thomas D. Smith BACKGROUND: The Hawaii West Maui Region (Figure 1) was the focus of Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM...Conservation Service; Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources; Hawaii Department of Transportation; Maui...County; University of Hawaii , Sea Grant; Sea Engineering, Inc.; Maui Nui Marine Resource Council; Coral Reef Alliance; The Nature Conservancy; Henningson

  18. West and Central Africa — Addressing new challenges | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... From his office in Dakar, Senegal, IDRC West and Central Africa Regional ... Privatization of former common land often spells trouble for herders and ... First, the region is increasingly dry, meaning that a source of water that is ...

  19. American Indians, Place Meanings and the Old/New West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy

    2002-01-01

    The American West includes millions of acres of national parks, forests and other protected lands. These landscapes are often associated with sense of place and place meanings for those who live there and for people who go there for recreation and tourism. American Indian place meanings regarding national parks and protected areas are often very different from those of...

  20. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  1. 76 FR 45609 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Gateway West 230/500...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... respondent will be available for public inspection at the locations listed below during their business hours... Idaho, Nevada, and Wyoming and Prospective Draft Land Use Plan Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Gateway West Transmission Line Project DEIS and prospective draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments. The DEIS...

  2. Lessons from West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    ACTION RESEARCH FOR GREATER ACCOUNTABILITY ... the strengths and weaknesses of legal frameworks in regulating LSLAs through desk reviews. The frameworks ... holders, researchers have identified land tools ... legal gaps.

  3. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  4. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  5. The West Dean Archaeological Project: research and teaching in the Sussex Downs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005/2006 West Dean College and the associated West Dean Estate in West Sussex have provided the home for practical training of Institute of Archaeology students, for both the initiation ritual of the Experimental Archaeology Course (“Prim Tech” and for the field training courses undertaken at the end of the first year. It is also the location of a long-term research project, aimed at understanding human occupation and land use in this part of the South Downs from prehistory to the present day. In this article the authors describe the first two years of activity of the West Dean Archaeological Project.

  6. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics Near Ross Island and Over West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong

    The atmospheric boundary layer dynamics near Ross Island and over West Antarctica has been investigated. The study consists of two parts. The first part involved the use of data from ground-based remote sensing equipment (sodar and RASS), radiosondes, pilot balloons, automatic weather stations, and NOAA AVHRR satellite imagery. The second part involved the use of a high resolution boundary layer model coupled with a three-dimensional primitive equation mesoscale model to simulate the observed atmospheric boundary layer winds and temperatures. Turbulence parameters were simulated with an E-epsilon turbulence model driven by observed winds and temperatures. The observational analysis, for the first time, revealed that the airflow passing through the Ross Island area is supplied mainly by enhanced katabatic drainage from Byrd Glacier and secondarily drainage from Mulock and Skelton glaciers. The observed diurnal variation of the blocking effect near Ross Island is dominated by the changes in the upstream katabatic airflow. The synthesized analysis over West Antarctica found that the Siple Coast katabatic wind confluence zone consists of two superimposed katabatic airflows: a relatively warm and more buoyant katabatic flow from West Antarctica overlies a colder and less buoyant katabatic airflow from East Antarctica. The force balance analysis revealed that, inside the West Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the pressure gradient force associated with the blocked airflow against the Transantarctic Mountains dominates; inside the East Antarctic katabatic wind zone, the downslope buoyancy force due to the cold air overlying the sloping terrain is dominant. The analysis also shows that these forces are in geostrophic balance with the Coriolis force. An E-epsilon turbulence closure model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of sodar backscatter. The results show that the model is capable of qualitatively capturing the main features of the observed sodar backscatter. To

  7. Gendering Palestinian Dispossession : Evaluating Land Loss in the West Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Caitlin

    Despite increasing attention to Palestinian territorial dispossession, there is inadequate attention paid to how this dispossession is gendered in its legitimising discourses and practices. Inattention to gender results in a failure to understand the power relations at play in the processes through

  8. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  9. 75 FR 76483 - Land Acquisitions; Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ....953 meters), thence South 38[deg]18'29'' East a distance of 460.63 feet (140.400 meters) to a POINT OF.../4\\4 of Section 16, Township 16 North, Range 22 East. Said parcel of land being described by meters... 399.49 feet (121.764 meters) West of the SE corner of said SE\\1/4\\ SW\\1/4\\; thence West along said...

  10. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  11. 75 FR 60804 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Butte Wind Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wind Power Right-of-Way, Crook and Deschutes Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way and by this Notice... Register notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Storo, BLM West Butte Wind Power Right of Way...

  12. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  13. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  14. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  15. Impact of Rainfall, Sales Method, and Time on Land Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...

  16. Climatic data for Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire : 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Alex M.; Buso, D.C.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire, includes a study of evaporation. Those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies are presented, including: water surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  17. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  18. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  19. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  20. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Coming to a landscape near you: Natural resource changes in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank Sturges; Linda Joyce; Tom Brown; Curt Flather; Miranda Mockrin; Matt Reeves

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades, population growth, economic growth, and associated land-use changes - in concert with climate change - will influence forests and rangelands in the Interior West. Society’s demand for ecosystem goods and services continues to increase as human and biophysical change alter the productive capacity of these lands. The 2010 RPA Assessment uses...

  1. Women in Bamenda : survival strategies and access to land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Adri van den

    1993-01-01

    This report is a historical-anthropological study of the survival strategies of urban women in the town of Bamenda in West Cameroon, insofar as they are related to changing access to land. The emphasis is on historical developments from the sixties on, a period in which the commercialization and

  2. Intermountain West Military Training Lands Planting Guide: Selecting Seed Mixtures for Actively Used Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    the following rating system: 1 = Poor – difficult 2 = Fair 3 = Medium 4= Good 5 = Excellent – easy A = Annual – reproduction from seed S... Reproduction from seed V = Reproduction vegetative (rhizomes or stolons) and from seed The table uses the following abbreviations for vegetative...types to which the species is adapted: a. A = Aspen- conifer ; b. AW = Annual weed; c. BB = Blackbrush; d. BG = Black greasewood; e. BS

  3. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  4. Trends in State and Federal land use law relating to inventories, monitoring and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A description and analysis of selected State and Federal laws relating to land use inventories, monitoring, and evaluation is presented. Legal requirements and information systems for land use in the following states are reviewed: Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia.

  5. Local land management in Benin with special reference to pastoral groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); T. Djedjebi

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA review of local land management experiences in West Africa reveals that the resolution of conflicts over the uses of resources between herders and farmers depends on factors like land and water rights, promotion of the interests of pastoral groups and the Intervention of

  6. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  7. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  8. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  9. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  10. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... software. Quantitative data was compiled in a Microsoft Access database and analyzed in Excel. Land-use and livelihood changes are taking place rapidly in the study sites. Overall, land-use change underwent transformation away from subsistence shifting cultivation to cash crops, intensive agriculture...

  12. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  13. Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able

  14. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  15. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  16. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  17. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  18. The dwindling role of population pressure in land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a contemporary coupled human-environmental system on a small island in the South West Pacific. It describes the historical change of the resource management strategies, notably the agricultural land use, in this former subsistence system. Our conceptual mindset draws on Boserup......’s classic theories of land use intensification as well as on her more recently proposed heuristic framework to describe development processes that underpin land use system change. We illustrate how land use has become partially disconnected from the local population pressure and therefore remains relatively...... stable while the larger livelihood portfolio has undergone significant diversification. At present, the agricultural system is a supplement to a range of strategies that support the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Contains parcels, subdivisions, CSMs, Condominiums, Rights of Way and supporting annotation. Data within the City of West Bend are maintained by the City. Some areas are mapped at 1:1200, Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2013. Contains parcels, subdivisions, CSMs, Condominiums, Rights of Way and supporting annotation. Data within the...

  20. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  1. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  2. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  3. Response of the Water Cycle of West Africa and Atlantic to Radiative Forcing by Saharan Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Sud, Yogesh C.; Walker, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of the atmospheric water cycle and climate of West Africa and the Atlantic to radiative forcing of Saharan dust are studied using the NASA finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), coupled to a mixed layer ocean. We find evidence in support of the "elevated heat pump" (EHP) mechanism that underlines the responses of the atmospheric water cycle to dust forcing as follow. During the boreal summer, as a result of large-scale atmospheric feed back triggered by absorbing dust aerosols, rainfall and cloudiness are enhanced over the West Africa/Easter Atlantic ITCZ, and suppressed over the West Atlantic and Caribbean. region. Shortwave radiation absorption by dust warms the atmosphere and cools the surface, while long wave has the opposite response. The elevated dust layer warms the air over Nest Africa and the eastern Atlantic. The condensation heating associated with the induced deep convection drives and maintains an anomalous large-scale east-west overturning circulation with rising motion over West Africa/eastern Atlantic, and sinking motion over the Caribbean region. The response also includes a strengthening of the West African monsoon, manifested in northward shift of the West Africa precipitation over land, increased low-level westerlies flow over West Africa at the southern edge of the dust layer, and a near surface energy fluxes, resulting in cooling of the Nest African land and the eastern Atlantic, and a warming in the West Atlantic and Caribbean. The EHP effect is most effective for moderate to highly absorbing dusts, and becomes minimized for reflecting dust with single scattering albedo at 0.95 or higher.

  4. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  5. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  6. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  7. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  8. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  9. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  10. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  11. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  12. Conservation of greater sage-grouse on public lands in the western U.S.: Implications of recovery and management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Aaron J. Harp; Bruce L. Welch; Nancy Shaw; John W. Connelly; Kerry P. Reese; Clait E. Braun; Donald A. Klebenow; E. Durant McArthur; James G. Thompson; L. Allen Torell; John A. Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    The role of the Policy Analysis Center for Western Public Lands is to provide integrated social, economic and ecological analyses of public land policies that affect communities in the West. Its mission is to help rural communities, policy makers, resource managers, resource users and others understand, analyze and engage effectively in the public-land policy process...

  13. Rapid dynamic thinning events during 1985-2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...

  14. Natural Reforestation Reclaims a Watershed: A Case History from West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...

  15. Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands.

  16. Biogeographical and anthropogenic determinants of landscape-scale patterns of raptors in West African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Komdeur, Jan

    Strong raptor population declines have recently been reported in sub-Saharan West Africa, where the pressure on wildlife and their supporting habitats is particularly high. This makes it imperative to understand the role of land-use on landscape-scale patterns of raptors and to define priority areas

  17. 78 FR 79707 - Notice of Public Meeting, Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Resource Advisory Council on matters of planning and management of the Gateway West Project (sections 8 and... Interior, through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS...

  18. Frontier lands: Oil and gas statistical overview, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Canada's frontier lands consist of offshore and onshore areas outside the provinces which fall under federal authority. These lands cover some 10.2 million km 2 and include the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and areas off the east and west coasts and in the far north. A statistical summary is presented of oil and gas activities in these frontier lands for 1992. Information provided includes activity status and wells drilled on frontier lands, a resource inventory, oil and gas production, land holdings and status, licenses concluded, petroleum-related employment on frontier lands, and petroleum expenditures on frontier lands. Highlights of activities include the first commercial production of crude oil from the Panuke oil field on the Scotian Shelf; a continued decrease in exploration activity on the frontier lands; the introduction of legislation to eliminate restrictions on foreign ownership of production licences on frontier lands; and the resolution to the Canada-France maritime boundary dispute by the International Court of Arbitration. 9 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Land Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, as one of the main driving forces promoting sustainable economic growth, has increased the area of industrial land use significantly. Industrial land use manifests that the competition between it and other kinds of land use is growing. During the last decade in China, many targeted industrial land use policies have been enacted to stimulate appropriate industrial land use and to promote healthy economic development. However, it is difficult for scholars and governments of rapidly developing countries to judge and evaluate the performance of such policies. Based on statistical data gathered over almost 10 years and an idea called “industrial land equivalent” (ILE, this paper analyzes the contribution made by the implementation of industrial land use policy to economic development, using a Cobb-Douglas production function by which to quantify the influence of land institutions and land regulation systems. The result of the study shows that factors, such as industrial land, labor and capital, all play an important role in GDP growth. Additionally, it is found that industrial land institutions and regulation systems have a strongly positive influence on economic development. It was also found that the influence of policy in eastern China is greater than that in the west and that repeated, short-term land regulation has a negative effect on the economy. Therefore, it is profoundly important for the Chinese economy that a stable and durable industrial land use policy be maintained as the industrial center migrates to the Midwest. The research philosophy and method offered by this paper have great significance for the quantitative evaluation of policy performance.

  20. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image. This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away. This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  1. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  2. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    on fieldwork in a village in the new lands; it is inhabited by graduates who have received land under the Mubarak Project. The analysis shows that they move there in hope of making a better life especially for their children. Nevertheless, the settlers have difficulties building a sense of belonging to the new....... This paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based...

  3. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  4. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  5. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  6. Monitoring Urban Land Cover/land Use Change in Algiers City Using Landsat Images (1987-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchachi, B.; Zhong, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring the Urban Land Cover/Land Use change detection is important as one of the main driving forces of environmental change because Urbanization is the biggest changes in form of Land, resulting in a decrease in cultivated areas. Using remote sensing ability to solve land resources problems. The purpose of this research is to map the urban areas at different times to monitor and predict possible urban changes, were studied the annual growth urban land during the last 29 years in Algiers City. Improving the productiveness of long-term training in land mapping, were have developed an approach by the following steps: 1) pre-processing for improvement of image characteristics; 2) extract training sample candidates based on the developed methods; and 3) Derive maps and analyzed of Algiers City on an annual basis from 1987 to 2016 using a Supervised Classifier Support Vector Machine (SVMs). Our result shows that the strategy of urban land followed in the region of Algiers City, developed areas mostly were extended to East, West, and South of Central Regions. The urban growth rate is linked with National Office of Statistics data. Future studies are required to understand the impact of urban rapid lands on social, economy and environmental sustainability, it will also close the gap in data of urbanism available, especially on the lack of reliable data, environmental and urban planning for each municipality in Algiers, develop experimental models to predict future land changes with statistically significant confidence.

  7. International Land Coalition: Women's access to land

    OpenAIRE

    International Land Coalition (ILC)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Land Coalition (ILC) started as the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty. This is a global alliance of intergovernmental, governmental and civil-society organizations committed to rural poverty eradication. On their website, (on the left click on documents) the link presents a list of resources related to the role of women and access to land. There are case studies and country reports in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya and Nepal, as wel...

  8. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  9. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... land-based livelihoods. The paper presents an empirical case study of the village of Na Nhang Neua in Nambak District, Luang Prabang Province, using a mixed methods approach to investigate the positive and negative implications for household agricultural strategies, income generation and food security...

  10. The Environment Analysis in the CE-3 Landing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Gao, X.; Yan, W.; Zou, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the environment and select detecting objects for the Yutu Rover, NAOC used the DEM and DOM data obtained by CE-2, geological data released by USGS, and high resolution image captured by CE-3 and LRO-NAC to analyze the topographical characteristic, geologic age, Geomorphological feathers and new dust distribution in two scale levels. The first level is 45km×75km, and another one is 4km×4km. The center of the study region is the CE-3 landing site (19.51°W, 44.12°N). The following is the initial conclusions: (1) CE-3 landed on a relatively flat region in the Mare Imbrium with an elevation of -2615m. The geological age of the landing site belongs to young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is just on the intersection area of these two stratums. (2) The landing site lies on the edge of a lunar mountain with a decline tendency from west to east, and the topographic slope and roughness of the landing region is low, which is the typical characteristic of lunar mare. There is a big crater with diameter of 430 meters in the west of the landing site, and lots of stones in different colors on the rim of this crater, shown in the Figure2. (3) By comparing the images captured by LRO-NAC before and after the landing, much lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume during the landing of CE-3. The change scope is about 60m with from east-west and 135m length from south-north. The direction of landing is from south-north, so the length is larger than the width, shown in the figure 3. (4) In the initial stage, the Yutu Rover was suggested to move in south direction and late in north direction, which would get more scientific data and result.

  11. A GCM Study of Responses of the Atmospheric Water Cycle of West Africa and the Atlantic to Saharan Dust Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    2009-01-01

    The responses of the atmospheric water cycle and climate of West Africa and the Atlantic to radiative forcing of Saharan dust are studied using the NASA finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), coupled to a mixed layer ocean. We find evidence of an "elevated heat pump" (EHP) mechanism that underlines the responses of the atmospheric water cycle to dust forcing as follow. During the boreal summerr, as a result of large-scale atmospheric feedback triggered by absorbing dust aerosols, rainfall and cloudiness are ehanIed over the West Africa/Eastern Atlantic ITCZ, and suppressed over the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. Shortwave radiation absorption by dust warms the atmosphere and cools the surface, while longwave has the opposite response. The elevated dust layer warms the air over West Africa and the eastern Atlantic. As the warm air rises, it spawns a large-scale onshore flow carrying the moist air from the eastern Atlantic and the Gulf of Guinea. The onshore flow in turn enhances the deep convection over West Africa land, and the eastern Atlantic. The condensation heating associated with the ensuing deep convection drives and maintains an anomalous large-scale east-west overturning circulation with rising motion over West Africa/eastern Atlantic, and sinking motion over the Caribbean region. The response also includes a strengthening of the West African monsoon, manifested in a northward shift of the West Africa precipitation over land, increased low-level westerlies flow over West Africa at the southern edge of the dust layer, and a near surface westerly jet underneath the dust layer overr the Sahara. The dust radiative forcing also leads to significant changes in surface energy fluxes, resulting in cooling of the West African land and the eastern Atlantic, and warming in the West Atlantic and Caribbean. The EHP effect is most effective for moderate to highly absorbing dusts, and becomes minimized for reflecting dust with single scattering albedo at0

  12. A multi- sensor system for land mine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahid, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this review article, description and discussion are given to the methods and techniques which can be used to remove the millions of land mines that are buried in the ground of more than 60 countries worldwide. These buried land mines cause very serious social and economical problems especially in countries such as Egypt with nearly 23 millions land mine contaminating very vast areas in the northern cost of the western desert, north and west of Sinai, Suez Gulf and western cost of the Red Sea. This will challenge scientists in different related disciplines to find a specific, rapid and cost effective detection techniques to remove the millions of land mines from the ground of their countries. It is worth mentioning that the real problem in demining is not defusing the mines but locating them in the ground

  13. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...... and personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  14. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  15. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  16. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  17. Lands directorate publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The directorate has a lead role in providing advice to the federal government on land use policy in Canada. The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) Program has produced significant amounts of data pertaining to the capability of Canadian lands to support agriculture, forestry, recreation, wildlife and sport fish. A list of CLI reports is presented in this publication. In addition, and capability maps have been compiled for agricultural, forestry, recreation and wildlife and are listed and described in this publication. (KRM)

  18. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  19. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  20. Mozambique - Rural Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation strategy for the Land Project is comprised of four components-an impact evaluation of the institutional strengthening activity (Activity II),...

  1. Monitoring land use/land cover changes using CORINE land cover data: a case study of Silivri coastal zone in Metropolitan Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rüya

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess changes in land use/land cover patterns in the coastal town of Silivri, a part of greater Istanbul administratively. In the assessment, remotely sensed data, in the form of satellite images, and geographic information systems were used. Types of land use/land cover were designated as the percentage of the total area studied. Results calculated from the satellite data for land cover classification were compared successfully with the database Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE). This served as a reference to appraise the reliability of the study presented here. The CORINE Program was established by the European Commission to create a harmonized Geographical Information System on the state of the environment in the European Community. Unplanned urbanization is causing land use changes mainly in developing countries such as Turkey. This situation in Turkey is frequently observed in the city of Istanbul. There are only a few studies of land use-land cover changes which provide an integrated assessment of the biophysical and societal causes and consequences of environmental degradation in Istanbul. The research area comprised greater Silivri Town which is situated by the coast of Marmara Sea, and it is located approximately 60 km west of Istanbul. The city of Istanbul is one of the largest metropolises in Europe with ca. 15 million inhabitants. Additionally, greater Silivri is located near the terminal point of the state highway connecting Istanbul with Europe. Measuring of changes occurring in land use would help control future planning of settlements; hence, it is of importance for the Greater Silivri and Silivri Town. Following our evaluations, coastal zone of Silivri was classified into the land use groups of artificial surfaces agricultural areas and forests and seminatural areas with 47.1%, 12.66%, and 22.62%, respectively.

  2. Cover Crops in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sasakawa Global 2000 — Bénin, 04 BP 1091, Cotonou, Benin ..... and West African farmers have been remarkably creative with GMCCs, developing and ...... Journal d'agriculture tropicale et de botanique appliquée, 4(5). ...... political; the best approach is therefore thought to be to accept this limitation and work with it.

  3. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  4. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  7. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  8. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  9. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  10. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  11. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  12. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  13. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  14. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  15. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  17. Determination of Some Land and Soil Characteristics of Siirt Province with Geographic Information System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif ÖZYAZICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine some land and soil characteristics of Siirt province and to make database using Geographic Information System (GIS. The study area covers about 562619.5 ha. Firstly, digital elevation model was formed using topographic map of the Siirt province and after this process slope, aspect, elevation and hill shade maps were also produced. In addition to that, some data produced General Directory of Rural Services and climate data were used in this study. According to study results, west part of the Siirt province has almost flat area whereas, hilly and mountain area locate in north and east part of it. Therefore, slope degree increase from west to north and east ways. More than half of the study area’s soil types (65% is Brown forest soils. Besides, according to land use and land cover map about 44% and 31% of the study area covers by shrubbery-brush and pastures, respectively. According to erosion maps, approximately %90 of the Siirt province lands has medium, severe and very severe erosion problem. Lands that are suitable for agricultural activities are very limited in Siirt Province. Only about 9% of the total land was classified as I, II and III land capability classes. Moreover, investigated depth map of the study area about 85% of the study area has very shallow and shallow soil depth. Deep soils found on plain and valley located at west part of the study area.

  18. Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

  19. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    are carried out on the land usually effect changes in its cover. ... The FAO document on land cover classification systems, (2000) partly answers this ... over the surface land, including water, vegetation, bare soils and or artificial structures. ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover ...

  20. LAND GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEALS IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It starts with an examination of the recent increase in land investments in ... postcolonial name for the former colonial “native reserves” in which the majority of ... in the north-northwest corner of Zimbabwe would receive a proportion of .... 7 See, for example, Hany Besada, Doing Business in Fragile States: The private sector ...

  1. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  2. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  3. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  4. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  5. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  6. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  7. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  9. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  11. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  12. Enabling Data Access for Environmental Monitoring: SERVIR West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, G.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    SERVIR is a join effort between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development to form regional partnerships and bring satellite-based earth monitoring and geographic information technologies to bear on environmental issues. The recently established SERVIR node for West Africa aims to "connect space to villages" and enable response to environmental change at the national and local level through partnering with a network of organizations in the region. Comprehensive services—data streams, analysis methods and algorithms, and information products for decision making—to support environmental monitoring of five critical issues identified by West African network members are being designed and developed: ephemeral water, charcoal production, locusts, groundwater, and land use/land cover change. Additionally, climate change information is critical for planning and context in each of these issues. The selection of data and methods is a collaborative effort, with experts in the region working with experts at NASA and the scientific community to best meet information monitoring requirements. Design and delivery of these services requires capacity development in a number of areas, including best practices in data management, analysis methods for combining multiple data streams, and information technology infrastructure. Two research centers at Columbia University are implementing partners for SERVIR West Africa, acting to support capacity development in network members through a combination of workshops, training, and implementation of technologies in the region. The presentation will focus on efforts by these centers to assess current capabilities and improve capacity through gathering requirements, system design, technology selection, technology deployment, training, and workshops.

  13. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Plutonium contamination in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Lokan, K.H.; Richardson, C.K.; Williams, G.A.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear weapons trials conducted at Maralinga from 1960 to 1963 resulted in contamination of large areas of land with low levels of plutonium. Ground and aerial surveys and soil sampling conducted between 1984 and 1987 showed that this contamination extended beyond the boundaries of the area still controlled by the Commonwealth Government into the Maralinga Tjarutja lands. Levels of contamination beyond the boundaries of the former test range were found to be low, and were generally undetectable for all but the most sensitive measurement techniques. Soil sampling combined with long laboratory counting was initially used to define the trace levels but the contamination was found to be particulate with a surface density of particles too low for this to be a generally useful technique. The results are presented of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry using a portable germanium (Ge) detector to measure contamination levels of plutonium to well below 1 kBq m -2 in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands to the north and north-west of the Maralinga test site. 8 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  15. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and

  16. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  17. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  18. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  19. Human well-being and land cover types in the southeastern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Gyawali; R. Fraser; J. Schelhas; Y. Wang; W. Tadesse; J. Bukenya

    2009-01-01

    The west-central region of Alabama is rich in natural resources.  Yet changes in land use seem unrelated to improvements in human well-being.  Satellite imagery and U.S. census data for 1980 and 2000 were analyzed to test whether changes in land cover were related to changes in a human well-being index-of income, employment and education at the Cenus Block Group (CBG)...

  20. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    increased from 1974 to 2004, the increased area of shrubbery land was the greatest, while the area of forest, artificial forest, waters, glacier and snow covered land decreased. The biggest decreased area was forest land. The biggest LUCC was the transformation from forest land to shrubbery land, the transformation from forest land to rangeland and agriculture land was the second. The main area of LUCC located at Nujiang River valley, between 2200-3700m of the east slope in the Gaoligong Mountain and 2800-3900m of the west slope of the Biluo Snow Mountain. From the valley to peak of mountain, the main land use type was transited from built-up land, agricultures land, artificial forest land to natural forest, shrubbery and grass land. The natural forest was the main land in the past 30 years. The main driving forces were the increase of population of local area, the governmental policies (Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grass Land Projects, etc.) and urbanization. In order to accelerate the sustainable development of society economy and the ecological environment protection in this ecological fragile zone, strict management should be adopted to adjust the behaviors of human beings. Finally, VCM (variable clumping method) curve had been used to analyses the internal spatial distribution difference of land-use/land cover which shown that the landscape fragmentation was increased, the number of patches was added, the distance between patches was diminished during the past thirty years (1974-2004).

  1. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  2. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  3. A skilful prediction scheme for West China autumn precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Song, Wenling; Dong, Wenjie; Ke, Zongjian; Sun, Linhai; Wen, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    West China is one of the country's largest precipitation centres in autumn. This region's agriculture and people are highly vulnerable to the variability in the autumn rain. This study documents that the water vapour for West China autumn precipitation (WCAP) is from the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea and the Western Pacific. A strong convergence of the three water vapour transports (WVTs) and their encounter with the cold air from the northern trough over Lake Barkersh-Lake Baikal result in the intense WCAP. Three predictors in the preceding spring or summer are identified for the interannual variability of WCAP: (1) sea surface temperature in the Indo-Pacific warm pool in summer, (2) soil moisture from the Hexi Corridor to the Hetao Plain in summer and (3) snow cover extent over East Europe and West Siberian in spring. The cold SSTAs contribute to an abnormal regional meridional circulation and intensified WVTs. The wet soil results in greater air humidity and anomalous southerly emerging over East Asia. Reduced snow cover stimulates a Rossby wave train that weakens the cold air, favouring autumn rainfall in West China. The three predictors, which demonstrate the influences of air-sea interaction, land surface processes and the cryosphere on the WCAP, have clear physical significance and are independent with each other. We then develop a new statistical prediction model with these predictors and the multilinear regression analysis method. The predicted and observed WCAP shows high correlation coefficients of 0.63 and 0.51 using cross-validation tests and independent hindcasts, respectively.

  4. Optimizing land use pattern to reduce soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sokouti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is one of the main problems can affect ecological balance in watersheds. This study aimed to determine the optimal use of land to reduce erosion and increase the resident's income of Qushchi watershed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Income and expenses for the current land uses were calculated with field studies. Damages resulting from the soil erosion were estimated by soil depth equal to the specified land uses. For three different options including the current status of land uses without and with land management, and the standard status of land uses, multi-objective linear programming model was established by LINGO software. Then the optimization problem of the land use was solved by simplex method. Finally, the best option of land use was determined by comparing erosion rate and its cost in each scenario. Then the circumstances and the recommended conditions were compared. The results indicated that the current surface area of current land uses is not suitable to reduce erosion and increase income of residents and should change in the optimum conditions. At the optimum level, there should change horticulture area of 408 to 507 (ha, irrigated land area of 169 to 136 (ha and dry farming of 636 to 570 (ha, while conversion of rangeland area not indispensable. In addition, the results showed that in case of the optimization of land use, soil erosion and the profitability of the whole area will decrease 0.75% and increase 3.68%, respectively. In case of land management practices, soil erosion will decrease 42.27% and the profitability increase 21.39% while in the standard conditions, soil erosion will decrease 60.95% and profitability will increase 24.20%. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the horticulture and range land areas have the greatest impact on the increasing profitability and reducing soil erosion of Qushchi watershed. So, it is recommended using Education and Extension to promote

  5. Land use/land cover and scale influences on in-stream nitrogen uptake kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Tim; McGlynn, Brian; McNamara, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Land use/land cover change often leads to increased nutrient loading to streams; however, its influence on stream ecosystem nutrient transport remains poorly understood. Given the deleterious impacts elevated nutrient loading can have on aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative to improve understanding of nutrient retention capacities across stream scales and watershed development gradients. We performed 17 nutrient addition experiments on six streams across the West Fork Gallatin Watershed, Montana, USA, to quantify nitrogen uptake kinetics and retention dynamics across stream sizes (first to fourth order) and along a watershed development gradient. We observed that stream nitrogen (N) uptake kinetics and spiraling parameters varied across streams of different development intensity and scale. In more developed watersheds we observed a fertilization affect. This fertilization affect was evident as increased ash-free dry mass, chlorophylla, and ambient and maximum uptake rates in developed as compared to undeveloped streams. Ash-free dry mass, chlorophylla, and the number of structures in a subwatershed were significantly correlated to nutrient spiraling and kinetic parameters, while ambient and average annual N concentrations were not. Additionally, increased maximum uptake capacities in developed streams contributed to low in-stream nutrient concentrations during the growing season, and helped maintain watershed export at low levels during base flow. Our results indicate that land use/land cover change can enhance in-stream uptake of limiting nutrients and highlight the need for improved understanding of the watershed dynamics that control nutrient export across scales and development intensities for mitigation and protection of aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier...... for the development of the agricultural and rural sector. The main finding is that land fragmentation is often hampering agricultural and rural development when both land ownership and land use is highly fragmented....

  7. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  8. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  9. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  10. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about .... Examining the specific types of relations that women have to land reveals the ways ..... information – builds capacity to acquire sound qualitative data and, thereby, ...

  11. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  12. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  13. Ethiopia: Land Opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Tommerup, Emil; Valciukaite, Silvestra; Gulbinaite, Simona; Wang, Yizhuo

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, many foreign companies have been attracted to invest in Ethiopian land, Karuturi is one of the largest land investors in Ethiopia and it also claimed its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. As a developing country with high ranking in corruption, there might be potential risk for investing in Ethiopia, the problem arises: Why does Karuturi invest its production in Ethiopia and even doing CSR? Focused on this problem within the case study of Karuturi, we implemented analysis ...

  14. Rehabilitation of disturbed land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...

  16. Breeding performance of the Grasshopper Buzzard (Butastur rufipennis) in a natural and a human-modified West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Krimpen, R.R.D.; Wijk, van H.J.; Zanden, S.; Iongh, de H.H.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Snoo, de G.R.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined raptor reproduction in response to land-use change in sub-Saharan Africa, hampering conservation efforts to address regional declines. To further our understanding of mechanisms underlying the dramatic declines of West African raptors, we examined the relationship between

  17. Black-tailed Godwits in West African winter staging areas : habitat use and hunting-related mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Kamp, van der J.; Monteiro, H.; Ndiaye, I.; Wymenga, E.; Zwarts, L.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the Dutch Black-tailed Godwit population depends largely on high adult survival. Adult survival may be influenced by hunting pressure and land use change in the wintering area, the West African coastal zone. Here we examine hunting pressure on and habitat use of Black-tailed

  18. Riparian buffer design guidelines for water quality and wildlife habitat functions on agricultural landscapes in the Intermountain West: Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Buffler

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no scientific literature examining appropriate riparian buffer widths for water quality for streams on private agriculturally dominated lands in arid regions of the Intermountain West. The initial step in this research effort was a review of buffer research as documented in the literature in other physiographic regions of the United States. Research...

  19. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  20. Soil salinity and acidity : spatial variabil[it]y and effects on rice production in West Africa's mangrove zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the mangrove environment of West Africa, high spatial and temporal variability of soil constraints (salinity and acidity) to rice production is a problem for the transfer and adoption of new agronomic techniques, for land use planning, and for soil and water management. Recently, several

  1. Agricultural investments and farmer-fulani pastoralist conflict in West African drylands : A northern Ghanaian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Sebastiaan; Weesie, Ruben; Zoomers, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    In the Global South, there is a push to drive agricultural modernisation processes through private sector investments. In West African drylands, land concessions are required for such agri-businesses are often negotiated through customary authorities, and inject large amounts of money into localised

  2. Geochemical mapping using stream sediments in west-central Nigeria: Implications for environmental studies and mineral exploration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, Dan J.; Knights, Katherine V.; Key, Roger M.; Johnson, Christopher C.; Ayoade, Emmanuel; Adekanmi, Michael A.; Arisekola, Tunde M.; Okunlola, Olugbenga A.; Backman, Birgitta; Eklund, Mikael; Everett, Paul A.; Lister, Robert T.; Ridgway, John; Watts, Michael J.; Kemp, Simon J.; Pitfield, Peter E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of regional geochemical mapping using stream sediments from central and south-western Nigeria. A total of 1569 stream sediment samples were collected and 54 major and trace elements determined by ICP-MS and Au, Pd and Pt by fire assay. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to explore the data, following appropriate data transformation, to understand the data structure, investigate underlying processes controlling spatial geochemical variability and identify element associations. Major geochemical variations are controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as chemical weathering and winnowing processes, more subtle variations are a result of land use and contamination from anthropogenic activity. This work has identified placer deposits of potential economic importance for Au, REE, Ta, Nb, U and Pt, as well as other primary metal deposits. Areas of higher As and Cr (>2 mg/kg and >70 mg/kg respectively) are associated with Mesozoic and younger coastal sediments in SW Nigeria. High stream sediment Zr concentrations (mean >0.2%), from proximal zircons derived from weathering of basement rocks, have important implications for sample preparation and subsequent analysis due to interferences. Associated heavy minerals enriched in high field strength elements, and notably rare earths, may also have important implications for understanding magmatic processes within the basement terrain of West Africa. This study provides important new background/baseline geochemical values for common geological domains in Nigeria (which extend across other parts of West Africa) for assessment of contamination from urban/industrial land use changes and mining activities. Regional stream sediment mapping is also able to provide important new information with applications across a number of sectors including agriculture, health, land use and planning.

  3. Validation of land use / land cover changes for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Caspersen, Ole Hjort

    2018-01-01

    This report presents applied methods and results for a validation of land use and land cover changes for 1990 and 2014-2016. Results indicate that generally, accuracies of land use and land cover. However, afforestation and particularly deforestation are significantly overestimated....

  4. The Urban Land Question, Land Reform and the Spectre of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The country's urban land reform mechanism, that is, land restitution, has so far been very marginal in making urban land or property available to the landless and/or homeless people. As a result, since 2014, the country is facing new aggressive extrajudicial land occupations in urban areas spearheaded by the ultra-left ...

  5. Wave transformation and attenuation along the west coast of India: Measurements and numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Rashmi, R.; Jyoti, K.

    ] “Impact of sea-breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India,” Journal of Earth System Science,115(2), 229-234. Rani, S.I., Radhika, R., Subrahamanyam, D.B., Denny, P.A., Kunhikrishnan, P.K. [2010] “Characterization of sea/land breeze circulation...., Praveena, K. [2001] “Study of sea breeze and land breeze along the west coast of Indian sub-continent over the latitude range 15°N to 8°N during INDOEX IFP-99 (SK-141) cruise,”Current Science, 80, 85-88. Sullivan, P.P., Edson. J.B., Hristov, T., Mc...

  6. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities.

  7. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  8. Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands. However the multiple function of the parkland system can only be fulfilled if parkland species diversity is adequately managed.This thesis is focused on assessing the woody species diversity in the pa...

  9. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    R. MESFIN; A. TESFAYE

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76%) of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate f...

  10. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-01-01

    Study region: Jarrah forest in south west Australia. Study focus: The hydrological response to bauxite mining in the jarrah forest could differ from other land uses such as timber harvesting or clearing for agriculture, since mining involves excavation of the upper regolith in addition to changes in forest cover due to clearing and subsequent rehabilitation. Three catchments, one subject to mining, a second subject to an intensive forest thinning treatment and an untreated control were mon...

  11. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  12. Vertical structure of the boundary layer. a comparison between land and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    The structure and the energetics of the boundary layer have been studied simultaneously over land and sea off Goa Coast just before the onset of south west monsoon. The Radiosonde data obtained at 00 GMT (0530 IST) are used in the present...

  13. Climate and Land-Cover Change Impacts on Stream Flow in the Southwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation change in arid and semi-arid climatic regions of the American West are a primary concern in sustaining key ecosystem services such as clean, reliable water sources for multiple uses. Land cover and climate change impacts on stream flow were investigated in a southeast ...

  14. The Cretaceous-Tertiary sea floor off Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.

    A study of the bathymetric and linear magnetic anomalies between Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) revealed a Mesozoic sequence of linear magnetic anomalies, M0 to M12 (108-126 Ma), a fracture zone offset (is...

  15. Improving and Securing Women's Access to Land in Sénégal | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project was devised following a regional roundtable aimed at identifying research and advocacy priorities that would favour women's access to land in West Africa. ... Institution. Environmental Development Action in the Third World. Institution Country. Senegal. Institution Website. http://www.enda.sn ... Related content ...

  16. Landing quality in artistics gymnastics is related to landing symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Čuk, Ivan; Marinšek, Miha

    2017-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted f...

  17. West Europe Report, No. 2166.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    the land of the revolution. And the Irish people have a very romantic view of the French people. Experience has shown us that France is still the...and abetting the confusion of missions. That is a habit that sometimes puts the GIGN is situations that can only be called high comedy . Take the

  18. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  20. Spatiotemporal Variation of China’s State-Owned Construction Land Supply from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available State-owned construction land is the dominant legal land source for construction in China and its supply influences urban expansion, house prices, and economic development, among other factors. Surprisingly, limited attention has been directly devoted to the spatiotemporal variation in land supply or the driving factors. This paper applied a centroid model and hotspot analysis, and created a newly increased construction land dependence-degree index (NCD to present the spatiotemporal variations of China’s construction land supply magnitude and pattern from 2003 to 2014, using land supply data from 339 cities. A two-way fixed effect model was introduced to reveal the influence of the socio-economic driving factors. The results showed that China’s state-owned construction land supply area (CLSA and newly increased construction land supply area (NCSA both increased during the period from 2003 to 2014, the geographic centroid of CLSA and NCSA moved northwest. NCD showed an overall increasing trend, and hotspots with high NCD migrated from the east region to the west region and shifted from an “east hot and west cold” pattern in 2003 to an “east cold and west hot” pattern in 2014. The gross domestic product (GDP has a U-shape effect on CLSA and NCD. The population, average annual wage of workers, and investment in fixed assets (fiv have positive effects on CLSA, and fiv also has a positive effect on NCD. The increasing ratio of tertiary industry added value to secondary industry added value reduces CLSA and NCD, and the effects of state policies vary from year to year. Different land supply policies should be implemented for cities in different development stages.

  1. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  2. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  3. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  4. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  5. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  6. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  7. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  8. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  9. Land use change and crop rotation analysis of a government well district in Rashda village – Dakhla Oasis, Egypt based on satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kato

    2012-12-01

    The land use change analysis showed that the extension of cultivated land was already completed by the 1980s in the North and South subdistricts, after which it spread toward the West. Because the altitude in the West subdistrict is lower than the wells, irrigation water could be distributed adequately if the condition of the irrigation channel was well maintained. The relationship between the irrigation level and plant production was not favorable in the West compared with other subdistricts. The cultivated area in the West district has been increasing since the 1970s. According to the crop rotation analysis, the different productivity of the subdistricts was caused by several factors, including the land altitude and the distance from the well, as well as other factors such as social relationships in the village.

  10. Land use and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Koomen, E.; Moel, de, H.; Steingröver, E.G.; Rooij, van, S.A.M.; Eupen, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    Land use is majorly involved with climate change concerns and this chapter discusses and reviews the interrelationships between the vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation aspects of land use and climate change. We review a number of key studies on climate change issues regarding land productivity, land use and land management (LPLULM), identifying key findings, pointing out research needs, and raising economic/policy questions to ponder. Overall, this chapter goes beyond previous reviews ...

  11. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10 6 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10 6 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10 6 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  12. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  13. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  14. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  15. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  16. Land values and planning: a common interest of land policy and land taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichfield, N

    1979-06-01

    This paper focuses on a relatively neglected area of land policy: the relation between land use and land value as influenced by land-use planning. It discusses the need for and nature of land-use planning, the relationship of planning and land value, the compensation-betterment problem, and some particular issues of current relevance. It concludes that there is a need to ensure that valuation officers and planners complement each other in their respective tasks rather than undermine each other as happens when they do not understand the interaction of land values and planning.

  17. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  18. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  19. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in Senegal work on the land in agriculture. Senegal is a country ... the private sphere of the family, by the head of the household, following the ... Diop Sall led an IDRC-supported study covering Senegal's six ... ment is in the balance, she says.

  20. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    halting environmental degradation and moving toward more sustainable forms of .... governmental organizations aware of the discrepancy between land laws and actual ... grounds that this would disrupt gender relations and family structure. ... pay off debts and buy their grandchildren new clothes. As a practical step ...

  1. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.; van de Minne, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical

  2. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in many African countries have a legal right to own land, but ... And so, Banda says, “we've come to see that changing the law and the ... Because the people in charge ... women's insecure tenure, despite gender-neutral statutory laws.

  3. Het gemaakte land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, A.; Dirkx, G.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In deze bijdrage komt aan bod hoe zeer de natuur van ons land gevormd is door menselijk handelen. De grote verscheidenheid die hert Nederlandse landschap kenmerkt is sterk bepaald door verschillen in landgebruik. Iedere streek kent zijn eigen boerderijen, gewassen, veerassen, verkavelingspatronen en

  4. Land, structure and depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; van de Minne, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model that enables us to disentangle the value of a property into the value of land and the value of structure. For given reconstruction costs, we are able to estimate the impact of physical deterioration, functional obsolescence and vintage effects on the structure and

  5. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  6. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    him a drink in the trading centre. You cannot win at that level.” This points to the need to “address the loopholes in the decen- tralization of land strategies,” says Ahikire. Although local courts provide hope for rural women who lack the means to appear at magistrates' court, they need the tools to be more effective.

  7. Using the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Corey; Pecore, John

    2018-01-01

    Land use and development are complex issues rooted in ecology and environmental science as well as in politics and economics. This complexity lends itself to a problem-based learning (PBL) lesson for environmental science students. In the lesson described in this article, students investigated developing a city-owned, 13-acre site where a shopping…

  8. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  9. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total ... Authors publish in the Journal with the understanding that they assign their copyright to the West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology.

  10. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  11. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  12. Medical women of the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  13. Land Tenure Practices and Women's Right to Land : Implications for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's right to land in Anglophone Cameroon is subject to two conflicting regimes, customary and statutory. ... and how access to land (or lack of it) affects women's economic status and ... Giving girls and women the power to decide.

  14. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... 49.86% of the land cover has been converted to other land uses, ... management information system and policies that will ensure sustainable management of fragile ...... growth in agricultural output such as food and fiber.

  15. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  16. Evaluating The Land Use And Land Cover Dynamics In Borena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS was an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate, and spatial pattern of land use change. Three land use and land cover maps were produced by analyzing remotely sensed images of Landsat satellite imageries at three time points (1972,1985,and 2003) .

  17. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  18. Land Tenure Practices and Women's Right to Land : Implications for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's right to land in Anglophone Cameroon is subject to two conflicting regimes, customary and statutory. This grant will allow a team of researchers to examine women's right to land under statutory and customary law, and how access to land (or lack of it) affects women's economic status and participation in the ...

  19. Promotion of inclusive land governance to improve women's land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The general objective of this action research project is to help increase women's access to and control over land and their involvement in decision-making for responsible, sustainable land governance, in the context of large-scale land acquisition in Senegal. Its objectives are to establish the conditions to improve women's ...

  20. Between 'Land Grabs' and Agricultural Investment: Land Rent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article suggests the need to rectify the gaps in the land transfer contracts and most importantly, the need to render the government a custodian (and not owner) of land in conformity with the FDRE Constitution and to ensure that the termination of land use rights is decided by courts so that executive offices would not ...

  1. Land Tenure and Land Reform in Namibia. | Amoo | Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... problems relating to the ownership and administration of the communal lands. Within the parameters of the Constitution, pieces of legislation have been promulgated and new policies have been formulated aimed at both land distribution and land reform. Review of Southern African Studies Volume 3 No. 1 June 1999, pp.

  2. The transition from diffuse to focused extension: Modeled evolution of the West Antarctic Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Audrey D.; Harry, Dennis L.

    2007-03-01

    Two distinct stages of extension are recognized in the West Antarctic Rift system (WARS). During the first stage, beginning in the Late Cretaceous, extension was broadly distributed throughout much of West Antarctica. A second stage of extension in the late Paleogene was focused primarily in the Victoria Land Basin, near the boundary with the East Antarctic craton. The transition to focused extension was roughly coeval with volcanic activity and strike-slip faulting in the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains. This spatial and temporal correspondence suggests that the transition in extensional style could be the result of a change in plate motions or impingement of a plume. Here we use finite element models to study the processes and conditions responsible for the two-stage evolution of rifting in the WARS. Model results indicate that the transition from a prolonged period of broadly distributed extension to a later period of focused rifting did not require a change in the regional stress regime (changes in plate motion), or deep mantle thermal state (impingement of a plume). Instead, we attribute the transition from diffuse to focused extension to an early stage dominated by the initially weak accreted lithosphere of West Antarctica, and a later stage that concentrated around a secondary weakness located at the boundary between the juvenile West Antarctica lithosphere and Precambrian East Antarctic craton. The modeled transition in extension from the initially weak West Antarctica region to the secondary weakness at the West Antarctic-East Antarctic boundary is precipitated by strengthening of the West Antarctica lithosphere during syn-extensional thinning and cooling. The modeled syn-extensional strengthening of the WARS lithosphere promotes a wide-rift mode of extension between 105 and ˜ 65 Ma. By ˜ 65 Ma most of the extending WARS region becomes stronger than the area immediately adjacent to the East Antarctic craton and extension becomes concentrated near the

  3. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  4. INFLATE: INFlate Landing Apparatus Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V. V. K.; Da-Poian, V. D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Our project, named INFLATE (INFlatable Landing Apparatus Technology), aims at reducing space landing risks and constraints and so optimizing space missions (reducing cost, mass, and risk and in the same time improving performance).

  5. Benin - Access to Land - Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This evaluation presents evidence from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial of a land formalization program. This study examines the links between land...

  6. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    and physically. With this perspective in mind the chapter outlines the history of production of spatial knowledge about the environments of New Zealand. This is not only to provide an overview of understandings of the environment, but also to investigate and illustrate the close ties between knowledge......The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... settlers could hardly have been more surprised when they arrived in the thirteenth century. At the time of this first Polynesian settlement, New Zealand was a land not only without humans, but without any terrestrial mammals except for a few species of bats. In their absence the avifauna had proliferated...

  7. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  8. Land cover change or land use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land

  9. American Attitudes Toward the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    The colonial attitude toward land depended on the climate of the area and the culture of the settlers. With independence came a national attitude that land represented economic and political freedom for the individual. Abundant land fostered unregulated lumbering, mining, and farming. Today environmental awareness has created the conservation…

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  11. Projecting regional climate and cropland changes using a linked biogeophysical-socioeconomic modeling framework: 1. Model description and an equilibrium application over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Ahmed, Kazi Farzan; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy; Ji, Zhenming

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural land use alters regional climate through modifying the surface mass, energy, and momentum fluxes; climate influences agricultural land use through their impact on crop yields. These interactions are not well understood and have not been adequately considered in climate projections. This study tackles the critical linkages within the coupled natural-human system of West Africa in a changing climate based on an equilibrium application of a modeling framework that asynchronously couples models of regional climate, crop yield, multimarket agricultural economics, and cropland expansion. Using this regional modeling framework driven with two global climate models, we assess the contributions of land use change (LUC) and greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentration changes to regional climate changes and assess the contribution of climate change and socioeconomic factors to agricultural land use changes. For future cropland expansion in West Africa, our results suggest that socioeconomic development would be the dominant driver in the east (where current cropland coverage is already high) and climate changes would be the primary driver in the west (where future yield drop is severe). For future climate, it is found that agricultural expansion would cause a dry signal in the west and a wet signal in the east downwind, with an east-west contrast similar to the GHG-induced changes. Over a substantial portion of West Africa, the strength of the LUC-induced climate signals is comparable to the GHG-induced changes. Uncertainties originating from the driving global models are small; human decision making related to land use and international trade is a major source of uncertainty.

  12. LANDING QUALITY IN ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS IS RELATED TO LANDING SYMMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinšek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  13. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  14. Facilitating smallholder tree farming in fragmented tropical landscapes: Challenges and potentials for sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M; Healey, John Robert

    2017-08-01

    Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households and key informant interviews of state agricultural officers. Land at both study sites is typically fragmented due to conversion of forest to agriculture and community settlement. Local land use challenges are associated with pressures of population increase, poverty, deforestation, shortage of forest products, lack of community-scale management, weak tenure, underdeveloped markets, government decision-making with insufficient involvement of local people, and poor extension services. Despite these challenges, smallholder tree farming is found to be successful from farmers' perspectives. However, constraints of local food crop cultivation traditions, insecure land tenure, lack of capital, lack of knowledge, lack of technical assistance, and perceived risk of investing in land due to local conflict (in Bangladesh) limit farmers' willingness to adopt this land use alternative. Overcoming these barriers to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological balance between supply and demand based on cultivated land ecological footprint method in Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinghuan; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to construct the indicators of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity, basing on the relation of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity supply and demand, applying the model of Cultivated Land Ecological Footprints and the method of CIS and considering the factors of cultivated land production, taking the statistical data of 2015 as an example, and then made a systematic evaluation of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou Province. The results show that (1) the spatial distribution of supply and demand of cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou is unbalanced, and the northern and eastern parts are the overloading area, the middle, the south and the west parts are the balance area. (2) From the perspective of cultivated land structure, the crops with ecological carrying capacity surplus were rice, vegetables and peanuts, among which rice was the highest and the ecological balance index was 0.7354. The crops with ecological carrying capacity overload were potato, wheat, maize, rapeseeds, soybeans and cured tobacco, of which the index of potato up to 7.11, other types of indices are less than 1.5. The research can provide the ecological security early warning, the overall plan of land use and sustainable development of the area cultivated land with scientific evidence and decision support.

  16. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of balanced consolidation of social legislation in a reasonable ratio of land rights and the interests of society as a whole, as well as local communities, citizens and legal entities established by them are general in nature and require specificity it is. Proved that one way of solving this problem is the establishment of restoictions of land rights, restrictions in land use. However, the mechanism of regulation establishment, implementation and termination of restrictions on the rights to land are not very functional and needs improvement. Current legislation in Ukraine does not contain a balanced set of regulations that would determine the nature and objectives of the restrictions, including encumbrances of land rights, their types, the reasons establishing and implementing restrictions of ownership and other rights to land and so on. Based on our analysis, we provide scientifically grounded suggestions on improving the legal framework, particularly, in terms of restrictions on land use and registration in the land management process, as an important means of influence on those rights in order to ensure rational land use and protection it is. Proved that the efficiency of administrative decisions during setting restrictions on land use purpose and usage of land is possible on the basis of land zoning, thus, it is necessary to adopt the Law of Ukraine "On land zoning." In addition, the current classification of land use restrictions, which was proposed by prominent scientists in Ukraine AM Tretyak (classification of restrictions in land use by functional features, and D.S. Dobryak and D.I. Babmindra (classification of restrictions on land use based on their placement by owners and land users, is complemented by types, namely: legal, environmental, ecological, technological, sanitation, urban and special. In the result of scientific studies,we have proposed a model of methodological process of land management actions on formation

  18. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  19. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaut, J.C.; Abbadie, L.; Lavenu, F.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  20. Agent-based land markets: Heterogeneous agents, land proces and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn C.; van der Veen, A.; Amblard, F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a spatially explicit agent-based model of a bilateral land market. Heterogeneous agents form their bid and ask prices for land based on the utility that they obtain from a certain location (houte/land) and base on the state of the market (an excess of demand or supply). We underline the

  1. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  2. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  3. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Modelling the potential impacts of afforestation on extreme precipitation over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoulami, Romaric C.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Ajayi, Ayodele E.

    2018-05-01

    This study examines how afforestation in West Africa could influence extreme precipitation over the region, with a focus on widespread extreme rainfall events (WEREs) over the afforestation area. Two regional climate models (RegCM and WRF) were applied to simulate the present-day climate (1971-2000) and future climate (2031-2060, under IPCC RCP 4.5 emission scenario) with and without afforestation of the Savannah zone in West Africa. The models give a realistic simulation of precipitation indices and WEREs over the subcontinent. On average, the regional models projected future decreases in total annual wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT) and total annual daily precipitation greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of daily precipitation threshold (R95pTOT) and increases in maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) over Sahel. Over Savannah, the models projected decreases in PRCPTOT but increases in R95pTOT and CDD. Also, an increase in WEREs frequency is projected over west, central and east Savannah, except that RegCM simulated a decrease in WEREs over east Savannah. In general, afforestation increases PRCPTOT and R95pTOT but decreases CDD over the afforestation area. The forest-induced increases in PRCPTOT and decreases in CDD affect all ecological zones in West Africa. However, the simulations show that afforestation of Savannah also decreases R95pTOT over the Guinea Coast. It further increases WEREs over west and central Savannah and decreases them over east Savannah because of the local decrease in R95pTOT. Results of this study suggest that the future changes in characteristics of extreme precipitation events over West Africa are sensitive to the ongoing land modification.

  5. Unmet dental and orthodontic need of children with special healthcare needs in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R C; Wiener, M A

    2012-01-01

    Of children aged 0-17 years in the USA, an estimated 11 203 616 (15.1%; 95% CI: 14.8, 15.3) are Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). The state of West Virginia, the heart of Appalachia, has a land mass which is 97.65% rural with previously identified high overall dental need and oral health disparities. It is home to an estimated 70 609 CSHCN, or 18.5% (95% CI: 17.0, 19.9) of the state's children in 2009-2010. The purpose of this study was to determine the parent/guardian's perceived unmet dental care need of CSHCN in West Virginia. Data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was used to determine prevalence. A telephone survey of 59 941 parents/guardians of CSHCN (1149 from West Virginia) for the dental interview was conducted in 2009-2010. Nationwide, 26.7% (25.9, 27.5) of parents/guardians reported their CSHCN had dental care or orthodontia needs other than preventive care. In West Virginia, the perceived dental care or orthodontia needs other than preventive dental care need was 26.5% (22.2, 30.0). Unmet national dental care need other than preventive dental care was 5.4% (5.0, 5.9) and in West Virginia 5.0% (2.4, 7.5). CSHCN have significant unmet dental needs. Parents/guardians in West Virginia reported similar unmet need compared with national reporting. Policies to address the health care of CSHCN should include dental needs. The clinical implications are that CSHCN have a variety of needs, including orthodontia. The benefits of orthodontic referrals should be considered in treatment planning options for CSHCN.

  6. Evaluation of high-resolution climate simulations for West Africa using COSMO-CLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrick; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2017-04-01

    The climate change modeling activities within the WASCAL program (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) concentrate on the provisioning of future climate change scenario data at high spatial and temporal resolution and quality in West Africa. Such information is highly required for impact studies in water resources and agriculture for the development of reliable climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this study, we present a detailed evaluation of high simulation runs based on the regional climate model, COSMO model in CLimate Mode (COSMO-CLM). The model is applied over West Africa in a nested approach with two simulation domains at 0.44° and 0.11° resolution using reanalysis data from ERA-Interim (1979-2013). The models runs are compared to several state-of-the-art observational references (e.g., CRU, CHIRPS) including daily precipitation data provided by national meteorological services in West Africa. Special attention is paid to the reproduction of the dynamics of the West African Monsoon (WMA), its associated precipitation patterns and crucial agro-climatological indices such as the onset of the rainy season. In addition, first outcomes of the regional climate change simulations driven by MPI-ESM-LR are presented for a historical period (1980 to 2010) and two future periods (2020 to 2050, 2070 to 2100). The evaluation of the reanalysis runs shows that COSMO-CLM is able to reproduce the observed major climate characteristics including the West African Monsoon within the range of comparable RCM evaluations studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain, especially in the Sahel zone. The added value of the higher resolution of the nested run is reflected in a smaller bias in extreme precipitation statistics with respect to the reference data.

  7. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  8. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... and professionals for implementing the new land policy. The curriculum combines the diploma and the bachelor level and it combines the key areas of land surveying, land management and physical planning....

  9. Review of Land Use and Land Cover Change research progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yue; Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Pei

    2018-02-01

    Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) can reflect the pattern of human land use in a region, and plays an important role in space soil and water conservation. The study on the change of land use patterns in the world is of great significance to cope with global climate change and sustainable development. This paper reviews the main research progress of LUCC at home and abroad, and suggests that land use change has been shifted from land use planning and management to land use change impact and driving factors. The development of remote sensing technology provides the basis and data for LUCC with dynamic monitoring and quantitative analysis. However, there is no uniform standard for land use classification at present, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the collection and analysis of land cover data. Globeland30 is an important milestone contribution to the study of international LUCC system. More attention should be paid to the accuracy and results contrasting test of land use classification obtained by remote sensing technology.

  10. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  11. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  12. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  13. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  15. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  16. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the .... cause antibody depression, alter white blood cell counts,.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  19. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    stress. Researchers from Birzeit Univer- sity and Canada's Queen's University studied more than ... Research Institute, West Bank. The economy of ... youth. Research findings will inform the work ... Grantee: The American Near East. Refugee ...

  20. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, globalization has put a new spin on igration, which results in greater economic opportunities for the developed ...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  3. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  4. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  5. Writing the west: critical approaches to Shane

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, R

    2007-01-01

    Representations of the American West have perhaps resonated most strongly in the western film genre, yet at the same time, the literary Western is a highly developed and sophisticated genre in its own right. Meanwhile, critical approaches to the West have become increasingly wide-ranging, spanning historical/literary studies; film/cultural studies; genre; gender studies; philosophy, structuralism and, most recently, post-modernism. In light of such critical diversity, this article places a li...

  6. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  7. Worship of Land

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The ritual shown in this video was performed in a sacred place with a single poplar tree which is situated near the village of Khar-Buluk. In the beginning of the video, the Head Lama of Kalmykia, Telo Tulku Rinpoche, welcomes all who are present. He tells the people the following:'A ritual of gazr tyaklgn (worship of land) has already been performed twice in this sacred place. The single poplar tree here is more than a hundred years old. There is also a spring nearby which has medicinal wate...

  8. No Woman's Land (Performance)

    OpenAIRE

    Garton, Rosie; Rippel, IIdiko

    2017-01-01

    'No Woman's Land' (performance) is 1 hr 15 minute large-scale, multi-media performance work. In 1945, Ildikó’s grandmother Lucia Rippel, expelled from her place of birth, walked 220 miles across the fractured landscape of Europe, with her two small children and all her belongings dragged in a cart. In 2015, Ildikó and Rosie retraced her footsteps, crossing borders, climbing fences, bleeding, crying and blistering, carrying their flat-pack children. The performance is a response to ou...

  9. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  10. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  11. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  12. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  13. Case study and lessons learned from the ammonium nitrate explosion at the West Fertilizer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboureur, Delphine M.; Han, Zhe; Harding, Brian Z.; Pineda, Alba; Pittman, William C.; Rosas, Camilo; Jiang, Jiaojun; Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • In-depth technical analysis of the West, Texas ammonium nitrate incident. • Regulatory analysis for compliance with federal, state and local regulations. • Facility siting and land use planning implications. • Need for local coordination of risk information and emergency planning. - Abstract: In West, Texas on April 17, 2013, a chemical storage and distribution facility caught fire followed by the explosion of around 30 tons of ammonium nitrate while the emergency responders were trying to extinguish the fire, leading to 15 fatalities and numerous buildings, businesses and homes destroyed or damaged. This incident resulted in devastating consequences for the community around the facility, and shed light on a need to improve the safety management of local small businesses similar to the West facility. As no official report on the findings of the incident has been released yet, this article first investigates the root causes of the incident, and presents a simplified consequence analysis. The article reviews the regulations applicable to this type of facility and recommended emergency response procedures to identify gaps between what happened in West and the current regulations, and discusses how the current regulations could be modified to prevent or minimize future losses. Finally, the federal response that followed the incident until the publication of this paper is summarized.

  14. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  15. Case study and lessons learned from the ammonium nitrate explosion at the West Fertilizer facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboureur, Delphine M.; Han, Zhe; Harding, Brian Z.; Pineda, Alba; Pittman, William C.; Rosas, Camilo; Jiang, Jiaojun; Mannan, M. Sam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In-depth technical analysis of the West, Texas ammonium nitrate incident. • Regulatory analysis for compliance with federal, state and local regulations. • Facility siting and land use planning implications. • Need for local coordination of risk information and emergency planning. - Abstract: In West, Texas on April 17, 2013, a chemical storage and distribution facility caught fire followed by the explosion of around 30 tons of ammonium nitrate while the emergency responders were trying to extinguish the fire, leading to 15 fatalities and numerous buildings, businesses and homes destroyed or damaged. This incident resulted in devastating consequences for the community around the facility, and shed light on a need to improve the safety management of local small businesses similar to the West facility. As no official report on the findings of the incident has been released yet, this article first investigates the root causes of the incident, and presents a simplified consequence analysis. The article reviews the regulations applicable to this type of facility and recommended emergency response procedures to identify gaps between what happened in West and the current regulations, and discusses how the current regulations could be modified to prevent or minimize future losses. Finally, the federal response that followed the incident until the publication of this paper is summarized.

  16. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... respective adjacent land owner for the appraised fair market value. The adjacent landowners are Acquistapace... County. Proposed for sale to West Bay LLC, for the appraised fair market value of $8,000.00. Parcel No. 2... County. Proposed for sale to Leo Moore Trust, for the appraised fair market value $1,150.00. Parcel No. 3...

  17. Breeding performance of the grasshopper buzzard (Butastur rufipennis) in a natural and a human-modified West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Kortekaas, Kim; van Krimpen, Roderick R. D.; van Wijk, Rien; van der Zanden, Saskia; de Iongh, Hans H.; Heitkonig, Ignas M. A.; de Snoo, Geert R.; Komdeur, Jan; Heitkönig, Ignas M.A.

    Few studies have examined raptor reproduction in response to land-use change in sub-Saharan Africa, hampering conservation efforts to address regional declines. To further our understanding of mechanisms underlying the dramatic declines of West African raptors, we examined the relationship between

  18. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  19. Land availability for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-01-01

    Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate.

  20. Mangrove diversity in the Serewe Gulf of Lombok Island West Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansah, Sugiyarto, Mahajoeno, Edwi

    2017-08-01

    Mangrove forests are a valuable economic resource as important breeding grounds and nursery sites for various animal species, stabilizing coastal lands and offering protection against storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise. Mangrove forest growing along the coastline of Serewe Gulf. The Serewe Gulf has great potential in tourism and sea cultivation sector. The research was conducted in the Serewe Gulf of Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara for 2 months (November up to December 2016). The objective of this research is to determine the diversity of mangrove in the Serewe Gulf, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara using belt transect method. The identification result shows that there are 9 families with 9 types such as Rhizophoraceae (Rhizophora mucronata), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia officinalis), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba), Casuarinaceae (Casuarina equisetifolia), Bignoniaceae (Dilochnadrone sthaceae), Malvaceae (Hibiscus tiliaceus), Lythraceae (Pemphis adicula), Aizoaceae (Sesivium portulacastrum), and Euphorbiaceae (Ricinus communis). The diversity of mangrove types in the research area is in medium rate with H' index of 1.668.

  1. ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE TOURIST ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY ON NORTH-WEST AND CENTER OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Duma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we continue the research work that we intended it over the years on regional tourism in recent years, the evolution of certain regions and understanding economic phenomena and disparities between regions. As such, they work in computing capacity and activity status of tourist accommodation in the North West and Centre regions known to me (the author who also develop in terms of tourism quite similar. We used comparative methods to analyze statistical data taken from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, the study stretching over a period of several years, and last but not least, analysis of land proposed in the two study regions (North-West and Central region.

  2. Inventory and surveillance of natural resources as a contribution to land utilization planning in the Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, K F

    1980-09-01

    The destructive land-use practices observed in large parts of the Sahel of West-Africa as a consequence of increasing population pressure must be replaced by sustained-yield management, e.g., by agro-sylvo-pastoral land-use systems. Information and planning aids required can only be obtained through the inventory and subsequent monitoring of the natural, renewable resources, i.e. water, range- and wood lands. Because of the extent and inaccessibility of the Sahel, an inventory design combining clustered fieldplots and large-scale aerial photography is being considered as most efficient in statistical and economical terms. Evidently, an inventory cannot solve the serious problems in the Sahel, but its results can contribute essentially towards defining better land-use policies and towards more effective management of the natural resource base.

  3. Identification of environmental covariates of West Nile virus vector mosquito population abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawinski, Patricia R; Mackay, D Scott

    2010-06-01

    The rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNv) in North America is a major public health concern. Culex pipiens-restuans is the principle mosquito vector of WNv in the northeastern United States while Aedes vexans is an important bridge vector of the virus in this region. Vector mosquito abundance is directly dependent on physical environmental factors that provide mosquito habitats. The objective of this research is to determine landscape elements that explain the population abundance and distribution of WNv vector mosquitoes using stepwise linear regression. We developed a novel approach for examining a large set of landscape variables based on a land use and land cover classification by selecting variables in stages to minimize multicollinearity. We also investigated the distance at which landscape elements influence abundance of vector populations using buffer distances of 200, 400, and 1000 m. Results show landscape effects have a significant impact on Cx. pipiens-estuans population distribution while the effects of landscape features are less important for prediction of Ae. vexans population distributions. Cx. pipiens-restuans population abundance is positively correlated with human population density, housing unit density, and urban land use and land cover classes and negatively correlated with age of dwellings and amount of forested land.

  4. OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -1 2 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) OPAL Netlogo Land Condition Model...Fulton, Natalie Myers, Scott Tweddale, Dick Gebhart, Ryan Busby, Anne Dain-Owens, and Heidi Howard August 2014 OPAL team measuring above and...online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CERL TR-14-12

  5. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  6. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  7. Agricultural Crown Land in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum industry's interest in provincial crown land in the agricultural area of Saskatchewan has grown over the last two decades. Agricultural land is regulated by the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture and Food, Lands Branch. Since 1974 surface lease contracts by oil and gas companies have increased from 1,400 to the present 3,700. Resource lands are regulated by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. There are 8.8 million acres of crown agricultural land in Saskatchewan, most of which is held without title. Crown land management is meant to provide a long term management approach to crown lands that balances economic, environmental and social benefits for present and future generations. The oil and gas industry is an important participant in crown land management. Revenues from petroleum and gas surface leasing, and seismic licensing totals more than five million dollars annually. In 1995/96, there were 54 companies establishing new oil and gas leases on crown land in Saskatchewan. This paper provides details of current policies which apply to petroleum and gas leasing and seismic exploration, and environmental guidelines for companies developing well sites, compressor and metering stations, access roads and easements. 3 tabs

  8. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  9. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de...... analytic tools that had seemed to have timeless applicability with new frameworks, concepts, and theoretical tools. What difference does land control make? These contributions to the debates demonstrate that the answers have been shaped by conflicts, contexts, histories, and agency, as land has been...

  10. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

  11. Impact of Land Use Land Cover Change on East Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukoti, N.; Xue, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    Humans modify the Earth's terrestrial surface on a continental scale by removing natural vegetation for crops/grazing. The current rates, extents and intensities of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are greater than ever in history. The earlier studies of Land-atmosphere interactions used specified land surface conditions without interannual variations. In this study using NCEP CFSv2 coupled with Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) model, biogeophysical impacts of LULCC on climate variability, anomaly, and changes are investigated by using the LULCC map from the Hurtt et al. (2006, 2011), which covered 66 years from 1950-2015 with annual variability. We combined the changes in crop and pasture fractions and consider as LULCC. A methodology had been developed to convert the Hurtt LULCC change map with 1° resolution to the GCM grid points. Since the GCM has only one dominant type, when the crop and pasture frction value at one point was larger than the critical value, that grid was assigned as degraded. Comprehensive evaluation was conducted to ensure the consistence of the trend of land degradation in the Hurtt's map and in the GCM LULCC map. In the degraded point, trees were changed to low vegetation or grasses, and low vegetation to bare soil. A set of surface parameters such as leaf area index, vegetation height, roughness length, and soil parameters, associated with vegetation are changed to show the degradation effects. We integrated the model with the potential vegetation map and the map with LULCC from 1950 to 2015, and the results indicate the LULCC causes precipitation reduction globally, with the strongest signals over monsoon regions. For instance, the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produced significant precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. Meanwhile, it has also found that the LULCC enhances the surface warming during the summer in monsoon

  12. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  13. West Nile Virus: Seroprevalence in Animals in Palestine and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Manasrah, Mu'taz; Mizrahi, Rotem; Nasereddin, Abed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Lustig, Yaniv; Gelman, Boris; Schvartz, Gili; Steinman, Amir

    2017-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel. Sera samples were collected from 717 animals from Palestine and Israel (460 horses, 124 donkeys, 3 mules, 50 goats, 45 sheep, and 35 camels). Two hundred and ten horses were sampled twice. The level of WNV antibodies was determined using commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit. Seroprevalence in equids was 73%. Seroprevalence in Israel (84.6%) was significantly higher than in Palestine (48.6%). Seroprevalence in horses (82.6%) was significantly higher than in donkeys and mules (39.3%). Multivariable statistical analysis showed that geographical area, landscape features (altitude), environmental factors (land surface temperature during the day [LSTD]), species, and age significantly influenced WNV seroprevalence. Fourteen of 95 (14.7%) sheep and goats and 14/35 camels (40%) sampled in Palestine were seropositive for WNV. Of the horses that were sampled twice, 82.8% were seropositive for WNV at the first sampling, and all remained seropositive. Three of the seronegative horses, all from Palestine, converted to positive when resampled (8.5%). The results indicate that domestic animals in Palestine were infected with WNV in the past, and the seroconversion indicates that WNV was circulating in Palestine in the summer of 2014. Control measures to prevent human infection should be implemented in Palestine. Anti WNV antibodies in domestic animals suggest that those species can be used as

  14. Comparison of Agricultural Drought Indicators over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G. J.; Turner, W.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors critical environmental variables that impact food production in developing countries, including over 30 countries in Africa. Much of this work focuses on the identification of agricultural drought using remotely sensed and modeled estimates of conditions. These variables estimate precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, water availability for crops and soil moisture - among others - at a critical time, or accumulated over intervals within the season. Frequently, these variables are used in a "convergence of evidence" approach to identify the location and severity of agricultural drought over a region. While much work has gone into identifying and calculating these key indicators, little attention has been given to the relationships between these variables. This work explores the relationship between four key agricultural drought indicators over West Africa to determine the extent to which they are providing unique information and also to expose where certain variables may not be adding independent information to the identification of agricultural drought and the potential for food insecurity. These variables investigated in this study are the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) and modeled soil moisture (SM) from the FEWSNET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS). We look at 35 years of data (1982-2016) over West Africa and identify the primary growing season for the region, then compare the four variables above during this prime season. Because the computational costs of calculating these different indicators varies, we seek to identify where products that are less cost/data intensive adequately capture the same information as the more intensive indicators. The outcome highlights where particular products are most useful for the identification of agricultural drought over the region.

  15. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  16. Experiences with Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.; Gorgan, Maxim; Palmer, David

    2012-01-01

    . In many cases the fragmentation of land parcels has prevented the land market from developing. As a result of increasing political awareness of the problems, in 2004 the Government of Moldova requested assistance from the World Bank to address the situation. This led to a feasibility study and ultimately...

  17. Land governance and land deals in Africa: opportunities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the converging focus on “governance” by those donors and scholars who promote investment in land in Africa as well as by scholars and activists who criticize what they call “land grabs.” This focus on governance is particularly found in terms of understanding and assessing socio-economic ...

  18. Land tenure security and land investments in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Ierland, van E.C.; Berg, van den M.; Shi, X.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of perceived land tenure security in China on farmers' decisions to invest in relatively long-term land quality improvement measures, taking into account the potential endogeneity of tenure security. Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  19. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  20. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  1. Monitoring land cover changes by remote sensing in north west Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Timothy Steven

    The Mediterratiean coastal strip of Egypt is a semi-arid environment which supports a variety of agricultural practices ranging from irrigated sedentary agriculture to semi-nomadic pastoralism. The sedentarisation of the nomadic Bedouin coupled with an increase in population of both people and livestock and a decrease in the extent of the rangelands, has resulted in severe pressure being exerted upon the environment. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation offers the potential to aid regional management by complementing conventional techniques of vegetation mapping and monitoring. This thesis examines the different techniques available for vegetation mapping using visible and near infrared spectral wave bands. The different techniques available for vegetation mapping using remotely sensed data are reviewed and discussed with reference to semi-arid environments. The underlying similarity of many of the techniques is emphasised and their individual merits discussed. The spectral feature-space of Landsat data of two representative study areas in northern Egypt is explored and examined using graphical techniques and principal components analysis. Hand held radiometric field data are also presented for individual soil types within the region. It is proposed that by using reference data for individual soil types, improved estimates of vegetation cover can be ascertained. A number of radiometric corrections are applied to the digital Landsat data in order to convert the arbitrary digital values of the different spectral bands into physical values of reflectance. The effect of this standardization on the principal components is examined. The stratified approach to vegetation mapping which was explored using the field data is applied in turn to the digital Landsat images. Whilst the stratified approach was not found to offer significant advantages over the non-stratified approach in this case, the analysis does serve to provide an accurate datum against which to measure vegetation. In conclusion a satellite based system for operational vegetation monitoring is proposed.

  2. Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37° E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were ana...

  3. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  4. Implementing Herpetofaunal Inventory and Monitoring Efforts on Corps of Engineers Project Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    neonatal American alligators. Journal of Herpetology 31:318-321. Bailey, L. L., T. R. Simons, and K. H. Pollock. 2004. Estimating site occupancy and...Ecology of the turtle Pseudemys concinna in the New River, West Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 25:72-78. Burnham, K. P., D. R. Anderson, and J. L...and crocodilians, 6th edition. Lawrence, KA: The Center for North American Herpetology . Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and amphibians

  5. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  6. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  7. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  8. Electricity sector integration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

  9. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  10. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  11. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  12. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  13. MODERN LAND MANAGEMENT UKRAINE: CONCEPT, ESSENCE, TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak Anton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of

  14. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  15. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  16. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  17. Spatiotemporal Patterns and its Instability of Land Use Change in Five Chinese Node Cities of the Belt and Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, P. L.; Ren, H. G.

    2017-09-01

    It has long recognized that there exists three different terrain belt in China, i.e. east, central, and west can have very different impacts on the land use changes. It is therefore better understand how spatiotemporal patterns linked with processes and instability of land use change are evolving in China across different regions. This paper compares trends of the similarities and differences to understand the spatiotemporal characteristics and the linked processes i.e. states, incidents and instability of land use change of 5 Chinese cities which are located in the nodes of The Silk Road in China. The results show that on the whole, the more land transfer times and the more land categories involved changes happens in Quanzhou City, one of eastern China than those in central and western China. Basically, cities in central and western China such as Changsha, Kunming and Urumuqi City become instable while eastern city like Quanzhou City turns to be stable over time.

  18. Coupling West WRF to GSSHA with GSSHApy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The West WRF output data is in the gridded NetCDF output format containing the required forcing data needed to run a GSSHA simulation. These data include precipitation, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, and solar radiation. Tools to reproject, resample, and reformat the data for GSSHA have recently been added to the open source Python library GSSHApy (https://github.com/ci-water/gsshapy). These tools have created a connection that has made it possible to run forecasts using the West WRF forcing data with GSSHA to produce both streamflow and lake level predictions.

  19. Audit committees in West Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Bowrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the regulatory framework governing audit committees (AC of publicly traded companies in the West Indies and examines the extent to which the provisions of these AC regulations are similar to the International Federation of Accountants guidelines for AC. Also, it examines the actual AC policies of publicly traded West Indian firms and determines whether they vary systematically with industry affiliation or firm size. The sample comprised companies traded on Barbados, Jamaica Stock Exchange, and Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchanges in 2002. Larger companies and those in the financial industry provided better audit committee disclosures than their smaller counterparts and those in non-financial industries.

  20. Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

  1. Development of land cadastral system in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2012-01-01

    The article gives reasonable prospects for usage of land cadastre information, it’s place and role in land management. Foreign experience in the land cadastre has been explored and analyzed. It is proposed to improve the information system of land resources to ensure effective environmentally-save land use.

  2. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Land subsidence is a global problem, but a global land subsidence map is not available yet. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence, as land subsidence causes extensive damage (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). With the global land subsidence map

  3. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  4. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  5. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DEGRADED LAND UTILIZATION AS FODDER LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voloshuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider theoretical and practical prospects of creating biofitocenozes on degraded lands. The problems of soil erosion in Ukraine are discussed. The division of lands into 5 groups is given in view of a degree eroded of a soil cover, exposing by their erosion, the parameters of a relief, etc. Show prospect of creation biofitocenozes on these lands, to select the greatest productive grass associations. The technological operations before crop and entering of various dozes of organic and mineral fertilizers are specified.

  6. Evaluation of Land Suitability and Potential Production of Gambir Uncaria gambir Roxb. L) at Salido Saribulan, Pesisir Selatan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuni, Juniarti

    2017-04-01

    Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb. L) is a specific commodity of export in West Sumatra. Area of Gambir tree increases about 8 % per year in West Sumatera and until 1998 its production increased about 17% per year. However, in 1999 its area does not parallel with its production. In the last five years, the volume of export increases about 82.81%, while its value of export reaches US 2.5/kg. Therefore, this commodity has a strategic value for city's earnings. One of predicted causes is the use of unappropriated land. The aim of this research is to measure levels of land suitability in the buffer zone. TNKS (The National Park Kerinci-Seblat) in order to get the area, which is suitable for growing commodity of Gambir tree. To evaluate land suitability, quantitative model from FAO is used by combining environmental data, climate and condition of land (physical and chemical characteristic of the land). Estimation of Radiation Thermal Production Potential (RPP). Every data is measured (rating) individually and included in several mathematical formulas. After that, potential production of a land based on climate (Climate Production Potential) = CPP) is obtained quantitatively. By changing certain variant of this model program, it can predict the result of the plant in another area. By entering the real data of a land plant production, this model can predict the real plant production of land (Land Production Potential= LPP). Salido Saribulan area is included in class of land suitability S3f which is suitable for growing Gambir tree with a limitation factor of nutrient retention. Potential of actual gambir production at Salido Saribulan is 5 ton/ha, which is higher than actual gambir production.

  7. Land and building valuation in Cuba: from land without value to land as financial asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn Cuba, the government authorities define the priorities for land and property distribution. One might expect that those official development programs would take account of the value of land and buildings. But that is not so, although there is a growing awareness of its importance. When

  8. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  9. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  10. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  11. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  12. Highest and best use of agricultural land in multifunctional land market evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, rural lands are important for agricultural production, land value strongly related to productive potential of land income based and measurable. Transition towards multifunctional rural environment, income from land not only...

  13. On pilgrimage with biblical women in their land(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Wainwright

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent sociological and anthropological studies have provided models for examining pilgrimage both in its ancient and contemporary manifestations. Such models can facilitate an examination of the phenomenon of study tours to biblical lands and the multivalence of the discourses associated with such tours. The first part of the article engaged critically with the literature in order to open up some frameworks for examining the study tour to biblical lands. Feminist critical biblical scholarship with its potential for a feminist hermeneutic of creative imagination contributes to the multivalence around the study tour. Therefore, the second part of the article engaged this scholarship in relation to an imagined tour with women of the biblical lands. The article highlighted significant issues for consideration for those planning a study tour of biblical lands, especially in terms of the consideration that ought to be paid to gender.

  14. Bureau of Land Management Surface Land Ownership (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — These data were collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and at the various field offices. This...

  15. land registration and land investment: the case of tigray region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    percent level) were found to be more likely to make investments on land. .... 2A measurement error on the dependent variable does not destroy the unbiasedness ...... In this case, households with relatively older heads, although not significant.

  16. Tsunami exposure estimation with land-cover data: Oregon and the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N.

    2009-01-01

    A Cascadia subduction-zone earthquake has the potential to generate tsunami waves which would impact more than 1000 km of coastline on the west coast of the United States and Canada. Although the predictable extent of tsunami inundation is similar for low-lying land throughout the region, human use of tsunami-prone land varies, creating variations in community exposure and potential impacts. To better understand such variations, land-cover information derived from midresolution remotely-sensed imagery (e.g., 30-m-resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery) was coupled with tsunami-hazard information to describe tsunami-prone land along the Oregon coast. Land-cover data suggest that 95% of the tsunami-prone land in Oregon is undeveloped and is primarily wetlands and unconsolidated shores. Based on Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rs), correlative relationships are strong and statistically significant (p < 0.05) between city-level estimates of the amount of land-cover pixels classified as developed (impervious cover greater than 20%) and the amount of various societal assets, including residential and employee populations, homes, businesses, and tax-parcel values. Community exposure to tsunami hazards, described here by the amount and relative percentage of developed land in tsunami-prone areas, varies considerably among the 26 communities of the study area, and these variations relate to city size. Correlative relationships are strong and significant (p < 0.05) for community exposure rankings based on land-cover data and those based on aggregated socioeconomic data. In the absence of socioeconomic data or community-based knowledge, the integration of hazards information and land-cover information derived from midresolution remotely-sensed imagery to estimate community exposure may be a useful first step in understanding variations in community vulnerability to regional hazards.

  17. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  18. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  19. Solar radiation at Parsons, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Patric; Stanley Caruso

    1978-01-01

    Twelve years of solar radiation data, measured with a Kipp-Zonen pyranometer, were recorded near Parsons, West Virginia. The data agree well with calculated values of potential and average radiation for the vicinity and are applicable to the central Appalachian region.

  20. West Virginia Dropout Study, 1985-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Div. of General and Special Educational Development.

    Reported in this document are dropout statistics from the State of West Virginia for the school year 1985-86. This annual survey of the 55 county school systems has been conducted since the 1968-69 school year. Topics surveyed include Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) status, exit interviews, grade at exit, month dropout left…