WorldWideScience

Sample records for bypass filter technology

  1. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Second Quarterly Report January - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-05-01

    This report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. Because of the reported filtering (down to 0.1 microns) capability of bypass filter systems, the technology is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended usability of the oil, an oil analysis regime is used to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil, to detect undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and to evaluate the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 101,000 miles to date and some preliminary results are reported. The INEEL light-duty vehicle fleet is also being evaluated to identify candidate vehicles for inclusion in the test fleet.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  3. A Novel Half Mode Elliptic SIW (HMESIW) Filter with Bypass Coupling Substrate Integrated Circular Cavity (BCSICC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Boren; Zhao, Zhiqin; Lv, Youxin

    A novel half mode elliptic substrate integrated waveguide (HMESIW) filter with bypass coupling substrate integrated circular cavity (BCSICC) is proposed and fabricated by using standard PCB technology. Due to the use of an elliptical waveguide cavity, the tolerance sensitivity of the filter is reduced. The filter optimizing procedure is therefore simplified. The measured results demonstrate its superior performance in tolerance sensitivity and show good agreements with the simulation results.

  4. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Preventing Thermal Bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This project highlights the importance of continuous air barriers in full alignment with insulation to prevent thermal bypasses and achieve high energy performance, and recommends use of ENERGY STAR's Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist.

  7. Design of Low Power Column Bypass Multiplier using FPGA and Implementation Using FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemula Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Design of area, high speed and power efficient data path logic systems in the low power VLSI circuits has been identified as vital technology in the in the DSP computations and signal processing applications like FIR,IIR filters. Since multipliers consume most of the power in DSP computations it is very important to develop new low-power multipliers for DSP computations. The switching activity of the multiplier depends on the input bit-coefficient, if the coefficient bits are zero the corresponding rows or columns need not to be activated. By inserting more number of zeros in the multiplicand using booth recoding unit we can reduce the switching activity by shutting down the idle part of the circuit and thereby reducing the power dissipation, based on this concept we presents low power column bypass multiplier and verifies the result using FIR filter

  8. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  9. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  10. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  11. Review of containment vent filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology applied for the design and construction of containment vent filters is compiled and reviewed. The national positions leading to the selection of venting or method of filtration are extracted from position papers. Several areas of further information needs are identified

  12. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Canga, Eriona; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Hansen, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    -specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of...... implementing the drainage filter technologies including surface-flow constructed wetlands, subsurface flow constructed wetlands, and drainage well filters (www.supremetech.dk). We will present results on P retention from (i) controlled column experiments with permeable filter substrates, and (ii) a full...... on laboratory experiments and field scale monitoring, the different filter technology approaches will be compared and evaluated from a case study perspective....

  13. Technology development: HEPA filter service life test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, K.N.; Cummings, K.G.; Leck, W.C.; Fretthold, J.K.

    1995-05-31

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site) has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and also during potential design-based accidents. The operational integrity of the HEPA filter plenums is essential to maintaining the margins of safety as required by building specific Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARS) for protection of the public and environment. An Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD), USDQ-RFP94.0615-ARS, was conducted in 1994 addressing the potential inadequacy of the safety envelope for Protected Area building HEPA plenums. While conducting this USQD, questions were raised concerning the maximum service life criteria for HEPA filters. Accident scenarios in existing FSARs identify conditions that could potentially cause plugging or damage of down stream HEPA filters as a result of impaction from failed filters. Additionally, available data indicates that HEPA filters experience structural degradation due to the effects of age. The Unresolved Safety Question (USQ) compensatory measures thus require testing and analysis of used HEPA filters in order to determine and implement service life criteria.

  14. Feed technology and other methods for increasing the bypass protein for ruminants fed low quality forages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make use of crop residues, the protein and energy needs of the ruminant must be met. Inexpensive sources of rumen ammonia (urea or ammonia from ammoniation) cam meet the needs of the rumen microorganisms. The cost of protein supplementation can be reduced by using sources of high bypass protein with the sources of ammonia. Accurate evaluation of protein is necessary. Estimates of the bypass values for protein sources can be made from laboratory analyses or by directly measuring the bypass of a protein source with intestinally fistulated animals. These values are useful as supporting evidence; however, measurement of animal growth or production is the best way to obtain these bypass values. It is essential that proteins be compared below the animal's protein requirement. Otherwise, protein is not the first limiting nutrient and valid comparisons cannot be made. The protein in grain, especially corn and milo, is bypassed to a great extent and, therefore, the grain by-products are high in bypass protein. Heating reduces rumen degradation of proteins and, therefore, the drying of dehydrated alfalfa, blood meal and meat meal causes them to be high bypass protein sources. Hydrolysed feather meal and non-enzymatically browned protein are also good sources of bypass protein. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  16. Evolution of membrane oxygenator technology for utilization during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior RW

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Richard W Melchior,1 Steven W Sutton,2 William Harris,3 Heidi J Dalton4,5 1Department of Perfusion Services, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 2Cardiovascular Support Services, Inc., Dallas, TX, 3Department of Perfusion Services, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, 4Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona-College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: The development of the membrane oxygenator for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass has been an incorporation of ideology and technological advancements with contributions by many investigators throughout the past two centuries. With the pursuit of this technological achievement, the ability to care for mankind in the areas of cardiac surgery has been made possible. Heart disease can affect anyone within the general population, but one such segment that it can affect from inception includes children. Currently, congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects nationally and worldwide. A large meta-analysis study from 1930 to 2010 was conducted in review of published medical literature totaling 114 papers with a study population of 24,091,867 live births, and divulged a staggering incidence of congenital heart disease involving 164,396 subjects with diverse cardiac illnesses. The prevalence of these diseases increased from 0.6 per 1,000 live births from 1930–1934 to 9.1 per 1,000 live births after 1995. These data reveal an emphasis on a growing public health issue regarding congenital heart disease. This discovery displays a need for heightened awareness in the scientific and medical industrial community to accelerate investigative research on emerging cardiovascular devices in an effort to confront congenital anomalies. One such device that has evolved over the past several decades is the pediatric membrane oxygenator. The pediatric membrane oxygenator, in conjunction with the heart lung

  17. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. A. Pinson

    1998-07-01

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled "TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes", presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes.

  18. Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate, based on clinical postplan dose distributions, that technology can be used efficiently to eliminate the learning curve associated with permanent seed implant planning and delivery. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions evaluated 30 days after the implant of the initial 22 consecutive patients treated with permanent seed implants at two institutions were studied. Institution 1 (I1) consisted of a new team, whereas institution 2 (I2) had performed more than 740 preplanned implantations over a 9-year period before the study. Both teams had adopted similar integrated systems based on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography, intraoperative dosimetry, and an automated seed delivery and needle retraction system (FIRST, Nucletron). Procedure time and dose volume histogram parameters such as D90, V100, V150, V200, and others were collected in the operating room and at 30 days postplan. Results: The average target coverage from the intraoperative plan (V100) was 99.4% for I1 and 99.9% for I2. D90, V150, and V200 were 191.4 Gy (196.3 Gy), 75.3% (73.0%), and 37.5% (34.1%) for I1 (I2) respectively. None of these parameters shows a significant difference between institutions. The postplan D90 was 151.2 Gy for I1 and 167.3 Gy for I2, well above the 140 Gy from the Stock et al. analysis, taking into account differences at planning, results in a p value of 0.0676. The procedure time required on average 174.4 min for I1 and 89 min for I2. The time was found to decrease with the increasing number of patients. Conclusion: State-of-the-art technology enables a new brachytherapy team to obtain excellent postplan dose distributions, similar to those achieved by an experienced team with proven long-term clinical results. The cost for bypassing the usual dosimetry learning curve is time, with increasing team experience resulting in shorter treatment times

  19. AEA Technologies Battery Cell By-pass Device Activation: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Denney; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Sullivan, David; Wannemacher, Harry; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) Verify the Performance of AEA Cell Bypass Protection Device (CBPD) under simulated EOS-Aqua/Aura flight hardware configuration; (2) Assess the Safety of the hardware under an inadvertent firing of CBPD switch, as well as the closing of CBPD switch under simulated high cell impedance; and (3) Confirm that the mode of operation of CBPD switch is the formation of a continuous low impedance path (a homogeneous low melting point alloy).

  20. Holistic Privacy Impact Assessment Framework for Video Privacy Filtering Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2013-02-01

    balanced Privacy Filtering of the video frame whilst retaining the minimum of the information as negotiated per agreed process logic. Insights from this study have served the co-desi gn and deployment optimisation of privacy-preserving video filtering solutions. This UI-REF-based framework has been successfully applied to the evaluation of MediaEval 2012-2013 Privacy Filtering and as such h as served to motivates further innovation in co-design and multi-level, multi-modal impact assessment of multimedia privacy-security-balancing risk mitigati on technologies.

  1. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - ALBANY INTERNATIONAL CORP. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PRIMATEX PLUS I FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  3. Highly tunable microwave and millimeter wave filtering using photonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregelyi, Joe; Lu, Ping; Paquet, Stéphane; Celo, Dritan; Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2015-05-01

    The design for a photonic microwave filter tunable in both bandwidth and operating frequency is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The circuit is based on a single sideband modulator used in conjunction with two or more transmission fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) cascaded in series. It is demonstrated that the optical filtering characteristics of the FBGs are instrumental in defining the shape of the microwave filter, and the numerical modeling was used to optimize these characteristics. A multiphase-shift transmission FBG design is used to increase the dynamic range of the filter, control the filter ripple, and maximize the slope of the filter skirts. Initial measurements confirmed the design theory and demonstrated a working microwave filter with a bandwidth tunable from approximately 2 to 3.5 GHz and an 18 GHz operating frequency tuning range. Further work is required to refine the FBG manufacturing process and reduce the impact of fabrication errors.

  4. Separate treatment of wash water from sand filter using disc filter technology.

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the convenience and effectiveness of using a disc filter to treat washing water from the sand filters at Sundet wastewater treatment plant. The disc filter is used aiming for the reduction of suspended solids and phosphorus. The study was divided in two main experimental stages. During the first stage laboratory jar-tests were performed in order to identify which flocculation aid was more suitable, this was further on used to improve the water treatmen...

  5. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  6. The characteristics of HEPA filter and its handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Gerl; Kim, Ki Hong; Kil, Kwac Koung

    2001-12-01

    When cleaning air of radioactive or toxic contaminants, even small particles have to be removed with high efficiency as low concentrations in the air can be harmful. HEPA filter is very high efficient filter as much as its removal efficiency is more than 99.97 % for 0.3 {mu}m particles. But, because of their structural weakness, their careless handling reduce their performance easily, and there are actually many cases like that HEPA filter systems do not ensure their performance because of inadequate installations. Thus, workers that are concerned with the air cleaning system and designers of HEPA filter system must understand the characteristics of HEPA filter and their installation techniques.

  7. The study on the spam filtering technology based on Bayesian algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Chunping

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed spam filtering technology, carried out a detailed study of Naive Bayes algorithm, and proposed the improved Naive Bayesian mail filtering technology. Improvement can be seen in text selection as well as feature extraction. The general Bayesian text classification algorithm mostly takes information gain and cross-entropy algorithm in feature selection. Through the principle of Bayesian analysis, it was found that the characteristics distribution is closely related to the ab...

  8. The study on the spam filtering technology based on Bayesian algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chunping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed spam filtering technology, carried out a detailed study of Naive Bayes algorithm, and proposed the improved Naive Bayesian mail filtering technology. Improvement can be seen in text selection as well as feature extraction. The general Bayesian text classification algorithm mostly takes information gain and cross-entropy algorithm in feature selection. Through the principle of Bayesian analysis, it was found that the characteristics distribution is closely related to the ability of the feature representing class, so this paper proposes a new feature selection method based on class conditional distribution algorithm. Finally, the experiments show that the proposed algorithm can effectively filter spam.

  9. Removal of stormwater particulates by disc filter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Eriksson, Eva

    The trend in the Danish society is toward disconnection of stormwater from the combined sewers and, where needed, local treatment using the best available technologies (BAT). The aim here was to assess a fast filtration technology for removal of particulate matter in stormwater with an emphasis o...

  10. Low-cost Implementation of a Waveguide-based Microwave Filter in Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Coves Soler, Ángela María; San Blas Oltra, Ángel Antonio; Marini, Stephan; Torregrosa, Germán; Bronchalo, Enrique; Martellosio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a waveguide-based microwave filter in Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology. The use of SIW technology for implementing waveguide filters makes the presented design specially aimed for being used in undergraduate courses related to microwave engineering and filter designing. Their low cost and easiness from the filter fabrication point of view allows their use in microwave laboratory courses where students can implement ...

  11. Design and Characterization of Tapered Transition and Inductive Window Filter Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Keltouma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip tapered transition and inductive band-pass filter around 5 GHz, using Substrate Integrated Waveguide technology (SIW are studied in this paper. All the structures are designed with Finite Element Method (FEM and fabricated on a single substrate of Epoxy FR4 using a standard PCB process. The return loss of the proposed filter is better than 20 dB. The measured results for all the structures investigated show a good agreement with the simulation results.

  12. Design and Characterization of Tapered Transition and Inductive Window Filter Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri Keltouma; Feham Mohammed; Adnan Saghir

    2011-01-01

    Microstrip tapered transition and inductive band-pass filter around 5 GHz, using Substrate Integrated Waveguide technology (SIW) are studied in this paper. All the structures are designed with Finite Element Method (FEM) and fabricated on a single substrate of Epoxy FR4 using a standard PCB process. The return loss of the proposed filter is better than 20 dB. The measured results for all the structures investigated show a good agreement with the simulation results.

  13. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found. PMID:25704123

  14. Smart structures for application in ceramic barrier filter technology. Final report, August 1991--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, S.J.; Lippert, T.E

    1994-12-01

    High temperature optical fiber sensors were developed to measure the in-service stressing that occurs in ceramic barrier filter systems. The optical fiber sensors were based on improvements to the sensor design developed under the DOE/METC Smart Structures for Fossil Energy Applications contract no. DE-AC21-89MC25159. In-house application testing of these sensors on both candle and cross-flow filters were performed in the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center High-Temperature, High-Pressure Filter Test Facility and the results analyzed. This report summarizes the sensor developments, methods to apply the sensors to the filters for in-situ testing, and the test results from the four in-house tests that were performed.

  15. Removal of stormwater particulates by disc filter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Eriksson, Eva

    colloidal and nanosized particles. During the project period it rained 8.5 % of the time and the average daily rainfall was 2.9 mm/day. Based on three individual storm events it was found that 95 % of the particles were <10 µm. The nanosized particles (0.01-1.2 µm) were found to be anionic charged and in...... the size-range of 100 nm. The physical treatment of particle filtration at 10 µm was inadequate to remove the small particles identified in this project. Coagulation with a cationic coagulant and subsequently flocculation is suggested as process improvements technologies....

  16. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona;

    drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well......Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... environmental threshold values (<0.05 mg P L-1) at variable P loads and flow regimes. Intragranular diffusion made a substantial contribution to P retention and was an important filter material property. During long-term P-loading the sensitivity of flow-rate on P retention increased and further indicated the...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, TETRATEC PTFE PRODUCTS, TETRATEX 6212 FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of the size of those particles equal to and smalle...

  18. Design of Reversible Multipliers for Linear Filtering Applications in DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers in DSP computations are crucial. Thus modern DSP systems need to develop low power multipliers to reduce the power dissipation. One of the efficient ways to reduce power dissipation is by the use of bypassing technique. If a bit in the multiplier and/or multiplicand is zero the whole array of rowand/or diagonal will be bypassed and hence the name bypass multipliers. This paper presents the column Bypass multiplier and 2-D bypass multiplier using reversible logic; Reversible logic is a more prominent technology, having its applications in Low Power CMOS and quantum computations. The switching activity of any component in the bypass multiplier depends only on the input bit coefficients. The semultipliers find application in linear filtering FFT computational units, particularly during zero padding where there will be umpteen numbers of zeros. A bypass multiplier reduces the number of switching activities as well as the power consumption, above which reversible logic design acts to further almost nullify the dissipations

  19. Design of Biquad Universal Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier in 180nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents concept of universal filter using operational transconductance amplifier (OTA.The 0.18μm CMOS process is used for design and simulation. This OTA has basing current of 50μA with supply voltage ±1.25v. The design and simulation of this OTA is done using CADENCE virtuoso environment with UMC 0.18μm technology file. This paper presents a electronically tunable voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with Three input and single output using two single ended OTA and two capacitors. The proposed filter provides low-pass,High-pass,Band-pass and Band-stop by appropriately connecting the input terminals. The natural frequency and the quality factor can be set orthogonally by adjusting the circuit components.Also the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via the bias currents of OTAs.

  20. Color filter-less technology of LED back light for LCD-TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Manning; Liang, Meng; Guo, Debo; Yang, Fuhua; Wang, Liangchen; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jinmin

    2008-03-01

    Back Light Unit (BLU) and Color Filter are the two key components for the perfect color display of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) device. LCD can not light actively itself, so a form of illumination, Back Light Unit is needed for its display. The color filter which consists of RGB primary colors, is used to generate three basic colors for LCD display. Traditional CCFL back light source has several disadvantages, while LED back light technology makes LCD obtain quite higher display quality than the CCFL back light. LCD device based on LED back light owns promoted efficiency of display. Moreover it can generate color gamut above 100% of the NTSC specification. Especially, we put forward an idea of Color Filter-Less technology that we design a film which is patterned of red and green emitting phosphors, then make it be excited by a blue light LED panel we fabricate, for its special emitting mechanism, this film can emit RGB basic color, therefore replace the color filter of LCD device. This frame typically benefits for lighting uniformity and provide pretty high light utilization ratio. Also simplifies back light structure thus cut down the expenses.

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 3 days in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Life After Bypass After bypass surgery, your doctor will recommend that you join a cardiac rehabilitation program. These programs help you make lifestyle changes ...

  2. Multi-band radio-frequency filters fabricated using polyimide-based membrane transfer bonding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a polyimide-based Si membrane transfer bonding technology and its application to CMOS-compatible integration of different modes of AlN/Si composite piezoelectric MEMS resonators. The thermosetting polyimide, which has excellent chemical resistance and thermal stability, is used as a bonding adhesion, and is successfully removed as a sacrificial layer by O2 plasma to release free-standing MEMS devices. The whole process temperature is below 350 °C and compatible with CMOS LSI. Using this technology, different modes of AlN/Si resonators, which are film bulk acoustic wave resonators and wine-glass mode disk-type resonators, have been co-fabricated on the same wafer. We also fabricated a ladder-type FBAR filter with a center frequency of 7.71 GHz and a mechanically coupled disk-array filter with a center frequency of 292.8 GHz.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL-BORNE CATALYST WITH MITSUI/PUREARTH CATALYZED WIRE MESH FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with Mitsui/PUREarth Catalyzed Wire Mesh Filter manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a platinum/cerium fuel-borne catalyst in commerci...

  4. Design of Pass Band Filter in Hybrid Architecture Planar/Non-Radiative Dielectric Waveguide Integration Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizi Hanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The expansion of RF, microwave and millimeter devices has revolutionized today’s ommunication and sensor systems. Low-cost, high-performance and mass producible millimeter wave technologies are vital for commercial broadband systems. Challenging issues are commonly faced in the design of low-loss integrated circuits for example high-Q band pass filter, which the planar technique is fundamentally limited in performance. Approach: In this study, we present a design of a nonradiative dielectric waveguide band pass filter based on hybrid architecture of micro strip line and non-radiative dielectric waveguide. Results: The simulation with High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS three dimensional analyses is presented. Conclusion: The non radiative dielectric resolves most of the drawbacks of dielectric waveguide in connection with the radiation loss."

  5. Clinical Evaluation of the Sorin Synthesis™ Oxygenator With Integrated Arterial Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Gerard J.; Gardiner, Ken; Ditmore, Steve N.; Swyer, Wilfred J.; Squires, Chris; Johnstone, David R.; Power, Clarie V.; Mitchell, Lance B.; Ditmore, Jan E.; Cook, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The use of arterial line filters has long been a standard of practice in the field of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sorin Biomedica has designed an adult hollow-fiber oxygenator that not only incorporates their Mimesys® biomimicry coating technology but also has a 40-micron arterial filter as an integrated component of this unique membrane oxygenator. We did a prospective, randomized clinical trial of 54 Synthesis® coated oxygenators and compared them with 54 uncoated Monolyth Pro® oxygenators, the...

  6. Add/drop filters based on SiC technology for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we demonstrate an add/drop filter based on SiC technology. Tailoring of the channel bandwidth and wavelength is experimentally demonstrated. The concept is extended to implement a 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the visible range. The device consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure. Several monochromatic pulsed lights, separately or in a polychromatic mixture illuminated the device. Independent tuning of each channel is performed by steady state violet bias superimposed either from the front and back sides. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the long and medium wavelength channels and quench strongly the others. Back violet background has the opposite behaviour. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths. An optoelectronic model is presented and explains the light filtering properties of the add/drop filter, under different optical bias conditions

  7. Clogging the enrichment bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue that has come to be known as the bypass is the latest dispute in the continuing saga of uranium trade between the United States and the Commonwealth of Indepenent States. Bypass deals now being conducted by US utilities have drawn heavy criticism from the US Department of Commerce but are perfectly legal under the terms of the Suspension Agreements. Urged on by the United States Enrichment Corporation, the US DOC intends to stop, or at least severely restrict, bypass deals. Using a recent agreement with Kazakhstan as a case study, this article reviews the implications of such bypass deals

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS: TRI-DIM FILTER CORP. PREDATOR II MODEL 8VADTP123C23

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Predator II, Model 8VADTP123C23CC000 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Tri-Dim Filter Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 138 Pa clean and...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  11. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  12. Optimizing severe accident containment filtered vent systems - Severe accident analysis and the dry and scrubber filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Fukushima has re-emphasized the importance of the capability to protect containment integrity during severe accidents. In the area of containment filtered vent systems, advances have been made since the original systems were installed in some plants in the late eighties and nineties. The paper describes new work in developing design specific requirements and system design.

  13. A State of the Art on the Technology for Downgrading and Volume Reduction of Radioactive HEPA Filter Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Kim, Gyu Nam; Lee, Kune Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The technology development for volume reduction and self-disposal of radioactive wastes is emerging as an important issue in the world due to the increasing waste generated from a decommissioning, operation and maintenance in nuclear plants and facilities. Lots of radioactive HEPA filter waste, of which volume is bulky and packing density is relatively low, are generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair, and under decommissioning. From the fact that the management of radioactive HEPA filter waste has been known to be very difficult, it is necessary to the technology development for volume reduction and stabilization of radioactive HEPA filter wastes. Therefore, this report was reviewed to the state of art of the related technologies for a volume reduction and a downgrading of radioactive HEPA filter wastes from nuclear facilities. It is expected that the volume reduction and downgrading of radioactive HEPA filter waste through an appropriate treatment will be greatly contributed to increase in economical feasibility and safety by cutting down the disposal cost and improving disposal safety due to the reduction of the amount of disposal wastes. This report will be furnished basic data to develop the downgrading and volume reduction technologies for the treatment of radioactive HEPA filter wastes generated during the operation and maintenance and repair of not only high radioactive nuclear facilities but also relatively low radioactive nuclear facilities

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS—SOUTHERN FILTER MEDIA, LLC, PE-16/M-SPES FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The program tested the performance of baghouse filtrati...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IN-DRAIN TREATMENT DEVICE. HYDRO INTERNATIONAL UP-FLO™ FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Hydro International Up-Flo™ Filter with one filter module and CPZ Mix™ filter media was conducted at the Penn State Harrisburg Environmental Engineering Laboratory in Middletown, Pennsylvania. The Up-Flo™ Filter is designed as a passive, modular filtr...

  16. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  17. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 μm stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1 μm, and preferably 0.5 μm, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 μm steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 μm steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015% at 0.3 μm and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03% penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. We also present the results of our evaluation of competing technologies with metallic and ceramic powder

  18. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    (DIMDI, as well as by a manual search. The for-mer included the following electronic resources: SOMED (SM78, Cochrane Library - Central (CCTR93, MEDLINE Alert (ME0A, MEDLINE (ME95, CATFILEplus (CATLINE (CA66, ETHMED (ED93, GeroLit (GE79, HECLINET (HN69, AMED (CB85, CAB Abstracts (CV72, GLOBAL Health (AZ72, IPA (IA70, El-sevier BIOBASE (EB94, BIOSIS Previews (BA93, EMBASE (EM95, EMBASE Alert (EA08, SciSearch (IS90, Cochrane Library - CDSR (CDSR93, NHS-CRD-DARE (CDAR94, NHS-CRD-HTA (INAHTA, and NHS-EED (NHSEED. The present report included German and English literature published between the years 1999 and 2004. A list of the search parameters can be found in the appendix. No limits were placed on the target population, and the methodical quality of the included studies was determined using standardised checklists. Results: The studies included in this health technology assessment compared the following bypass materials: autologous vein, human umbilical vein (HUV and synthetic materials such as PTFE or Dacron®. Both the systematic reviews and the randomised controlled trials comparing autologous vein grafts to other bypass materials come to the conclusion that autologous vein is superior to all other materials. From a medical viewpoint, there are no clear differences between the various synthetic materials.To date, the subject of bypass materials in vascular surgery has not been addressed comprehensively from an economic point of view. Indeed, we were able to identify only one publication that compared the cost of various bypass materials. The remaining health economic studies did not compare costs, cost effectiveness, or quality of life associated with the use of various bypass materials. Discussion: When deciding which bypass material to use, vascular surgeons take a number of medical considerations into account, including the bypass area, the availability of autologous vein, the amount of operation time available, and the health status of the patient. The studies

  19. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative...

  20. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-04-01

    Wireless systems with emerging applications are leaning towards small size, light-weight and low cost. Another trend for these wireless devices is that new applications and functionalities are being added without increasing the size of the device. To accomplish this, individual components must be miniaturized and the system should be designed to maximize the integration of the individual components. The high level of 3D integration feasible in system on package design (SoP) concept can fulfill the latter requirement. Bandpass filters are important components on all wireless systems to reject the unwanted signals and reduce interference. Being mostly implemented with passive and distributed components, bandpass filters take considerable space in a wireless system. Moreover, with emerging bands and multiple applications encompassed in a single device, many bandpass filters are required. The miniaturization related to bandpass filters can be approached by three main ways: (1) at the component level through the miniaturization of individual bandpass filters, (2) at the system level through the use of tunable filters to reduce the overall number of filters, and (3) at the system level through the high level of integration in a 3D SoP platform. In this work we have focused on all three aspects of miniaturization of band pass filters mentioned above. In the first part of this work, a low frequency (1.5 GHz global positioning system (GPS) band) filter implemented through 3D lumped components in two leading SoP technologies, namely low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and the liquid crystal polymers (LCP) is demonstrated. The miniaturized filter is based on a second order topology, which has been modified to improve the selectivity and out-of-band rejection without increasing the size. Moreover, for the case of LCP, the filter is realized in an ultra-thin stack up comprising four metallization layers with an overall thickness of only 100 _m. Due to its ultra

  1. Improved condensate purification in a BWR plant. Waste reduction with new filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of a new filter system in one of the five filters of the condensate purification system resulted in better iron filtering and a 34% reduction of the radioactive waste in the condensate purification system. 30% mechanically purified condensate (without utilising the ional capacity) led to a slight improvement of the reactor water quality in normal operation

  2. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, BWF AMERICA, INC., GRADE 700 MPS POLYESTER FELT FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, through its Environmental Technology Verification Program, evaluated the performance of a bag house filtration product for use controlling PM2.5. The product was BWF America, Inc., filter fabric Grade 700 Polyester Felt. All tes...

  4. KfK Laboratory for Aerosol Physics and Filter Technology. Progress report and development activities in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities undertaken by the laboratory for aerosol physics and filter technology (LAF) in 1990 under the following projects are described: (1) nuclear safety research (safety and material problems of fast breeders, IWR-oriented safety research); (2) pollutant control in the environment (communal waste management, emission-reducing processes, climate research - pollutants' behaviour in the atmosphere), and (3) radioactive waste management (basic work on reprocessing technologies). The annex lists the publications by the LAF staff. (BBR)

  5. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Temperature Management during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A.; Likosky, Donald S.; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendation. PMID:26543248

  6. Filter-well technology for advanced three-dimensional cell culture: perspectives for respiratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Kelly; Pitt, Aldo; Hayden, Patrick; Prytherch, Zoë; Job, Claire

    2010-12-01

    Cell culture has long been a valuable tool for studying cell behaviour. Classical plastic substrates are two-dimensional, and usually promote cellular proliferation and inhibit differentiation. Understanding cell behaviour within complex multicellular tissues requires the systematic study of cells within the context of specific model microenvironments. A model system must mimic, to a certain degree, the in vivo situation, but, at the same time, can significantly reduce its complexity. There is increasing agreement that moving up to the third dimension provides a more physiologically-relevant and predictive model system. Moreover, many cellular processes (morphogenesis, organogenesis and pathogenesis) have been confirmed to occur exclusively when cells are ordered in a three-dimensional (3-D) manner. In order to achieve the desired in vivo phenotype, researchers can use microporous membranes for improved in vitro cell culture experiments. In the present review, we discuss the applications of filter-well technology for the advanced 3-D cell culture of human pulmonary cells. PMID:21275484

  7. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  8. Bypass Flow Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  9. Bypass Flow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  10. The Best Bypass Surgery Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Gluud, Christian; Perko, Mario J; Lund, Jens T; Andersen, Lars Willy; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hughes, Pia; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Recent trials suggest that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) using cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with a moderate- to high-risk of complications after CCAB may have addit...

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  12. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI...

  13. Bypassing AMPK Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Schlattner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a signaling hub to balance energy supply with demand. Phosphorylation of activation loop Thr172 has been considered as an essential step in AMPK activation. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Scott and colleagues show that the small molecule direct AMPK activator, A-769662, bypasses this phosphorylation event, and acts synergistically with AMP on naive AMPK.

  14. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. PMID:25743879

  15. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. A 3-D miniaturized high selectivity bandpass filter in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission zeros are used to improve the roll-off factors of filters but as a consequence, the out-of-band rejection decreases. In this work, an LTCC filter design is presented which employs a series inductor (implemented as a via hole) to improve the out-of-band rejection by introducing a third transmission zero. The filter, designed for GPS band (1.57 GHz), has one of the smallest reported foot prints ((0.063×0.048×0.005)λg) and demonstrates the highest roll off factor (16.7 dB/100 MHz) for this band. With only four LTCC layers, the design is cost effective and thus highly suitable for miniaturized, ultra-thin system-on-package applications. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  17. Axillobifemoral bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft

  18. Selective removal technology using chemical etching and excimer assistance in precision recycle of color filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pai shan PA

    2011-01-01

    Color filters are produced using semiconductor production techniques although problems with Iow yield remain to be addressed. This study presents a new means of selective removal using excimer irradiation, chemical etching, or electrochemical machining on the fifth generation TFT LCDs. The selective removal of microstructure layers from the color filter surface of an optoelectronic flat panel display, as well as complete removal of the ITO thin-films, RGB layer, or resin black matrix (BM) layer from the substrate is possible. Individual defective film layers can be removed, or all films down to the Cr layer or bare glass can be completely eliminated. Experimental results demonstrate that defective ITO thin-films, RGB layers, or the resin BM layer can now be recycled with a great precision. When the ITO or RGB layer proves difficult to remove, excimer light can be used to help with removal. During this recycling process, the use of 225 nm excimer irradiation before chemical etching, or electrochemical machining, makes removal of stubborn film residues easy, effectively improving the quality of recycled color filters and reducing fabrication cost.

  19. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  20. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  1. Technologies for Decentralized Fluoride Removal: Testing Metallic Iron-based Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the realization in the 1930s that elevated fluoride concentrations in drinking water can have detrimental effects on human health, new methods have been progressively developed in order to reduce fluoride to acceptable levels. In the developing world the necessity for filtration media that are both low-cost and sourced from locally available materials has resulted in the widespread use of bone char. Since the early 1990s metallic iron (Fe0 has received widespread use as both an adsorbent and a reducing agent for the removal of a wide range of contaminant species from water. The ion-selectivity of Fe0 is dictated by the positively charged surface of iron (hydroxides at circumneutral pH. This suggests that Fe0 could potentially be applied as suitable filter media for the negatively charged fluoride ion. This communication seeks to demonstrate from a theoretical basis and using empirical data from the literature the suitability of Fe0 filters for fluoride removal. The work concludes that Fe0-bearing materials, such as steel wool, hold good promise as low-cost, readily available and highly effective decentralized fluoride treatment materials.

  2. Design of Reversible Multipliers for Linear Filtering Applications in DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers in DSP computations are crucial. Thus modern DSP systems need to develop low powermultipliers to reduce the power dissipation. One of the efficient ways to reduce power dissipation is by theuse of bypassing technique. If a bit in the multiplier and/or multiplicand is zero the whole array of rowand/or diagonal will be bypassed and hence the name bypass multipliers. This paper presents the columnBypass multiplier and 2-D bypass multiplier using reversible logic; Reversible logic is a more prominenttechnology, having its applications in Low Power CMOS and quantum computations. The switchingactivity of any component in the bypass multiplier depends only on the input bit coefficients. Thesemultipliers find application in linear filtering FFT computational units, particularly during zero paddingwhere there will be umpteen numbers of zeros. A bypass multiplier reduces the number of switchingactivities as well as the power consumption, above which reversible logic design acts to further almostnullify the dissipations

  3. Numerical modelling of bypass transition in turbine cascades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Louda, P.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Kozel, K.

    Budapest: Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2015. [International Conference on Fluid Flow Technologies /16./. Budapest (HU), 01.09.2015-04.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : 3D turbine cascade * bypass transition model * EARSM turbulence model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  4. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  5. The impact of flattening-filter-free beam technology on 3D conformal RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of the flattening filter (FF) leads to non-uniform fluence distribution with a considerable increase in dose rate. It is possible to adapt FFF beams (flattening-filter-free) in 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) by using field in field techniques (FiF). The aim of this retrospective study is to clarify whether the quality of 3D CRT plans is influenced by the use of FFF beams. This study includes a total of 52 CT studies of RT locations that occur frequently in clinical practice. Dose volume targets were provided for the PTV of breast (n=13), neurocranium (n=11), lung (n=7), bone metastasis (n=10) and prostate (n=11) in line with ICRU report 50/62. 3D CRT planning was carried out using FiF methods. Two clinically utilized photon energies are used for a Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerator in FFF mode at 7MVFFF and 11MVFFF as well as in FF mode at 6MVFF and 10MVFF. The plan quality in relation to the PTV coverage, OAR (organs at risk) and low dose burden as well as the 2D dosimetric verification is compared with FF plans. No significant differences were found between FFF and FF plans in the mean dose for the PTV of breast, lung, spine metastasis and prostate. The low dose parameters V5Gy and V10Gy display significant differences for FFF and FF plans in some subgroups. The DVH analysis of the OAR revealed some significant differences. Significantly more fields (1.9 – 4.5) were necessary in the use of FFF beams for each location (p<0.0001) in order to achieve PTV coverage. All the tested groups displayed significant increases (1.3 – 2.2 times) in the average number of necessary MU with the use of FFF beams (p<0.001). This study has shown that the exclusive use of a linear accelerator in FFF mode is feasible in 3D CRT. It was possible to realize RT plans in comparable quality in typical cases of clinical radiotherapy. The 2D dosimetric validation of the modulated fields verified the dose calculation and thus the correct reproduction of the

  6. Crystals of the simple and complex nickel and cobalt sulfates as optical filters for the solar-blind technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenova, V. L.; Rudneva, E. B.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Published data on the design of UV optical filters for the solar-blind technology, a new trend in instrument making, are analyzed. The phase diagrams of the nickel sulfate and cobalt sulfate crystalline hydrates, the growth methods of the simple and complex nickel and cobalt sulfates and the results of studies on their structure and properties are considered. The dehydration mechanism and the factors influencing the thermal stability of the crystals are discussed. The problem of correct measurement of the dehydration temperature is addressed. Particular attention is paid to studies of correlations between the thermal stability and structural parameters of the crystals. Development trends of the title area are outlined. The bibliography includes 119 references.

  7. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    bypassing a broken or leaking candle while having a low enough pressure drop to allow the candle to be backpulse-regenerated. Forward-flow pressure drop should increase by no more than 20% because of incorporation of the fail-safe filter.

  8. Moving granular-bed filter development program, Option III: Development of moving granular-bed filter technology for multi-contaminant control. Task 14: Test plan; Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J.C.; Olivo, C.A.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    An experimental test plan has been prepared for DOE/METC review and approval to develop a filter media suitable for multi-contaminant control in granular-bed filter (GBF) applications. The plan includes identification, development, and demonstration of methods for enhanced media morphology, chemical reactivity, and mechanical strength. The test plan includes media preparation methods, physical and chemical characterization methods for fresh and reacted media, media evaluation criteria, details of test and analytical equipment, and test matrix of the proposed media testing. A filter media composed of agglomerated limestone and clay was determined to be the best candidate for multi-contaminate control in GBF operation. The combined limestone/clay agglomerate has the potential to remove sulfur and alkali species, in addition to particulate, and possibly halogens and trace heavy metals from coal process streams.

  9. Clarification of vaccines: An overview of filter based technology trends and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. PMID:26657051

  10. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  11. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  12. The Security Technology of E-commence——Intelligent Packet-filtering Firewalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Research has revealed that, in the next ten to twen ty years, the implementation of E-commence will become a new basis of economic in crease of China and other countries in the world. And the essence of implementin g E-commerce is the credit standing among the banks, the sellers and the custom ers. But the credit standing in the net ultimately depends on the security of th e network. Firewall is a useful network security technology to keep a network fr om being intruded. The rational use of firewalls can...

  13. Flow characteristics in narrowed coronary bypass graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A.; Bernad, E. S.; Petre, I.; Totorean, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Tortuous saphenous vein graft (SVG) hemodynamics was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography (CT) technology is used for non-invasive bypass graft assessment 7 days after surgery. CT investigation shown two regions with severe shape remodelling first is an elbow type contortion and second is a severe curvature with tortuous area reduction. In conclusion, the helical flow induced by vessel torsion may stabilize the blood flow in the distal part of the SVG, reducing the flow disturbance and suppressing the flow separation, but in the distal end of the graft, promote the inflammatory processes in the vessels.

  14. Environmental Technology Verification: Test Report of Mobile Source Emission Control Devices--Johnson Matthey PCRT2 1000, Version 2, Filter + Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Johnson Matthey PCRT2 1000, v.2 system is a partial continuously regenerating technology (PCRT) system that consists of a flow-through partial filter combined with a DOC. The system is designed for low temperature exhaust resulting from intermittent loads from medium and heav...

  15. Bypass Rewiring and Robustness of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    A concept of bypass rewiring is introduced and random bypass rewiring is analytically and numerically investigated with simulations. Our results show that bypass rewiring makes networks robust against removal of nodes including random failures and attacks. Especially, random bypass rewiring connects all nodes except the removed nodes on an even degree infinite network and makes the percolation threshold $0$ for arbitrary occupation probabilities. In our example, the even degree network is more robust than the original network with random bypass rewiring while the original network is more robust than the even degree networks without random bypass. We propose a greedy bypass rewiring algorithm which guarantees the maximum size of the largest component at each step, assuming which node will be removed next is unknown. The simulation result shows that the greedy bypass rewiring algorithm improves the robustness of the autonomous system of the Internet under attacks more than random bypass rewiring.

  16. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  17. Precipitation-filtering technology for uranium waste solution generated on washing-electrokinetic decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A recycling process diagram for the volume reduction of waste solution generated from washing-electrokinetic decontamination. - Highlights: • A process for recycling a waste solution generated was developed. • The total metal precipitation rate by NaOH in a supernatant after precipitation was the highest at pH 9. • The uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum was lower. • After drying, the volume of sludge was reduced to 35% of the initial sludge volume. - Abstract: Large volumes of uranium waste solution are generated during the operation of washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment used to remove uranium from radioactive soil. A treatment technology for uranium waste solution generated upon washing-electrokinetic decontamination for soil contaminated with uranium has been developed. The results of laboratory-size precipitation experiments were as follows. The total amount of metal precipitation by NaOH for waste solution was highest at pH 11. Ca(II), K(I), and Al(III) ions in the supernatant partially remained after precipitation, whereas the concentration of uranium in the supernatant was below 0.2 ppm. Also, when NaOH was used as a precipitant, the majority of the K(I) ions in the treated solution remained. The problem of CaO is to need a long dissolution time in the precipitation tank, while Ca(OH)2 can save a dissolution time. However, the volume of the waste solution generated when using Ca(OH)2 increased by 8 mL/100 mL (waste solution) compared to that generated when using CaO. NaOH precipitant required lower an injection volume lower than that required for Ca(OH)2 or CaO. When CaO was used as a precipitant, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution at pH 11 reached its lowest value, compared to values of uranium radioactivity at pH 9 and pH 5. Also, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum with CaO or Ca(OH)2 was lower than that upon

  18. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 μm stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1μm, and preferably 0.5 μm, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 μm steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 μm steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 μm and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  19. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Nonselective digital subtraction angiography of aortocoronary bypasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial DSA was performed on 225 patients with a total of 552 coronary bypasses (515 aorto-coronary venous bypasses and 37 internal mammary artery bypasses). Four hundred and ninety-five bypasses were examined in the four weeks following surgery; of these, 428 (85.9%) were patent. Demonstration of the distal anastomosis was obtained in 40.4% of bypasses of the right anterior interventricular artery and in 36.1% of the right coronary artery, at least in their proximal parts. Bypasses of smaller branches showed filling in 12.8 to 19.2%. Because of the unsatisfactory demonstration of distal vessels by non-selective intra-arterial DSA, this method is suitable only for showing the patency of a bypass in the postoperative phase, but should not be used for investigating cardiac signs and symptoms following a bypass examination. (orig.)

  1. Research on Discretization PI Control Technology of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianke Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with L-type filter, LCL-type filter is more suitable for high-power low-switching frequency applications with reducing the inductance, improving dynamic performance. However, the parameter design for the LCL filter is more complex due to the influence of the controller response performance of the converter. If the harmonic current around switching frequency can be fully suppressed, it is possible for inverter to decrease the total inductance as well as the size and the cost. In this paper, the model of the LCL filter is analyzed and numerical algorithms are adopted to analyze the stability of the closed-loop control system and stable regions are deduced with different parameters of LCL filter. Then, the minimum sampling frequencies are deduced with different conditions. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the research on the generating mechanism for the unstable region of sampling frequency.

  2. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

  3. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft

  4. Development of DWDM Filter Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DWDM technology is developing rapidly. Thin film narrow bandpass filter plays an important role in this field. This article presents some achievements in developing the DWDM narrow bandpass filters and also describes the results achieved by us.

  5. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography of aortofemoral bypasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 214 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations of aortofemoral and femorocrural bypasses were reviewed. In 90% of cases intravenous DSA was diagnostic for aortofemoral bypasses, and in 95% of cases intrarterial DSA angiograms of excellent image quality were obtained. In 82% arterial stenoses proximal to the bypass, in 62% stenoses distal to the bypass, and in only 15% stenoses involving the bypass itself could be detected. In 54% the bypass was regularly perfused. In 26% a complete occlusion could be seen. All angiograms were obtained after infusion of the low-osmolar nonionic contrast medium Iopromide, 150mg/ml. All examinations were painless, and no heat-induced motion artifacts were registered. No disturbances of vital signs were observed. DSA with a nonionic low-osmolarity contrast medium (Iopromide) is a safe and reliable technique for the examination of all surgical aortofemoral bypasses

  6. 三维过滤非织造布的工艺研究%Study on the technological process of three-dimensional filter nonwovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秉臣

    2000-01-01

    针对过滤非织造布的生产中不同工序的工艺,通过一系列实验,获得了后整理过程的最佳工艺参数,使产品的质量能满足消费者需求.%The technology of various processes in needle-punched filter non-woven production is discussed.The optimum technological parameters in fiishing process are found through a series of experments,the quality of the products can satisfy needs of customers.

  7. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  8. Mini cardiopulmonary bypass: Anesthetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsatli, Raed A.

    2012-01-01

    This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anesthetic management and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered...

  9. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  10. Bionics: prcise color tuning by interference in nature and technology-applications in surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical air-cavity filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Hartmut; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Irmer, Soeren; Roemer, Friedhard; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Ruehling, H.; Maniak, Markus; Strassner, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications. Often generation and detection of different spectral colors play key roles in communication in both, nature and technology. The latter one refers e.g. to dense wavelength division multiplex optical communication systems. This paper shows interesting parallels in tunable spectral light filtering by butterfly wings and by tunable optical filters used in optical communication systems. In both cases light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials. In this paper methodology is strongly emphasized. We demonstrate that tailored scaling allows the effectiveness of physical effects to be enhanced in nature and technology. These principles are rigorously applied in micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based filters, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning by a single control parameter. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes embedded by air-gaps in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The layers of mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of >9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained due to electrostatic actuation. Appropriate miniaturization is shown to increase the mechanical stability and the effectiveness of spectral tuning by electrostatic actuation since the relative significance of the fundamental physical forces can be shifted considerably by appropriate scaling.

  11. 无旁路湿法烟气脱硫技术分析与探讨%INVESTIGATION ON WET DESULPHURIZATION TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT BYPASS IN LARGE-SCALE COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭长仕; 王梦勤

    2011-01-01

    随着国家对火电厂环保要求的提高,火电厂湿法脱硫装置取消旁路烟道已成为发展趋势。以大唐南京下关电厂搬迁扩建2×660 MW机组烟气脱硫工程实践为例,提出了提高无旁路湿法烟气脱硫装置可靠性的各项措施及建议,为大型燃煤火电机组无烟气旁路FGD设计提供借鉴。%FGD plants without bypass is an inevitable trend in large-scale coal-fired power plants,along with higher environmental demand for coal-fired power plants.Taking the WFGD system design of a 2×600 MW unit in Datang Nanjing Power Plant as an example,the corresponding methods and suggestions of reliability for FGD without gas bypass are introduced.Measures are useful for FGD system design without bypass in large-scale coal-fired power plants.

  12. Epicardial ultrasound in coronary artery bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Budde, R.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1 Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is traditionally performed via a median sternotomy approach on cardiopulmonary bypass (arrested heart). Since the mid 1990ties, beating heart, minimally invasive and even totally endoscopic CABG are (re)explored. In all approaches to CABG, the surgeon may face several intraoperative difficulties: 1. Localization of the target coronary artery for bypass grafting. 2. Selection of the optimal anastomotic site on the target coronary artery. 3. Asses...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES: MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA‘s Environmental Technology Verification program is designed to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost effective technologies. This is done by providing high-quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those in...

  14. Performance data and limits of aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under suitable conditions and with an optimum mode of operation, aerosol filters as high-quality mechanical air filters can retain sumicron particles, which makes them nearly absolute filters at the present state of the art of air filter technology. This cautions statement shows, however, that the term absolute filter, which is often used, is not correct as an absolute retention - 100% - is never reached under the parameters valid for the various classes fo filters. (orig.)

  15. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And the bypass vessel is the so-called “internal mammary artery.” That’s an artery, as opposed to ... you very much. -- while I’m preparing the internal mammary artery for bypass. Good. All right. We ...

  16. Epicardial ultrasound in coronary artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budde, R.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1 Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is traditionally performed via a median sternotomy approach on cardiopulmonary bypass (arrested heart). Since the mid 1990ties, beating heart, minimally invasive and even totally endoscopic CABG are (re)explored. In all approaches to CABG, the surgeo

  17. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as doctors use for this operation is “TECAB,” meaning “Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass.” This procedure will ... make sure his vessels are able for bypass, meaning doing the CT angiograph for the peripheral arteries. ...

  18. Atrial fibrillation post cardiac bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Ashraf; EL-Haddad, Mohamed A.; Shenoy, Maithili; Tuliani, Tushar

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation occurs in 5-40% patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Atrial fibrillation increases mortality and morbidity in the post-operative period. We sought to conduct a comprehensive review of literature focusing on pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment of post coronary artery bypass graft atrial fibrillation.

  19. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... going to thread that up to the patient’s bypass graft using X-ray, and there you are. So what we’re going to do is manipulate this catheter into actually the artery that leads to the arm, the subclavian, which is where the bypass comes off. Let me just saw it for ...

  20. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  1. CALCULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF OUT-PIPE REAGENT CIRCULAR IRRIGATION OF GRAVEL-PACKED FILTERS OF WATER SUPPLY WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivashechkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the study of decolmatation rate of granular layer of gravel pack of well during creating inside of it flushing of reagent with given hydrodynamic parameters and determination the duration of treatment. This article deals with radical movement of chemical solutions by injection of it outside of gravel pack of filter when the flow directs to borehole axis under conditions of quasi-steady-state mode of filtration for equal yield of input and output reagent from borehole.Colmataged layer of gravel pack is schematized in the form of porous ring cylinder with outside radius which is equal to radius of line of gravel pack and the height which is equal to the length of filter made in formation drilling and inside radius which is equal to radius of filter. Initial saturation of subsoil with colmatant is given. It was accepted that reagent with given rate flows through outside surface of ring cylinder equal along all height. Near-filtering zone is given uniform and movement is quasi-steady-state.Equations’ system is composed including: joint equation of movement and mass conservation and generalized equation of kinetics, which describes kinetics of colmatant dissolution in the regime of out-pipe watering of ring gravel pack of well taking into account the change of structure of porous medium. The analytic solution of equations’ system was obtained, which allow to calculate salt content in reagent during the leaching process and to determine the specific volume of deposits in the point of gravel pack at any moment of time in the process of regent injection. The analytic dependence was obtained for calculation of duration of complete regeneration of soil grains’ layer of outer contour of gravel packing. For calculation of duration of full regeneration of the whole thickness of packing it is suggested to divide the regeneration period into a series of stages of salt transferring from subsoil. Duration of one stage is equal

  2. Selected solutions and design features from the design of remotely handled filters and the technology of remote filter handling. Previous operating experience with these components in the PASSAT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prototype filter offgas cleaning system for reprocessing plants (PASSAT) built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center a fullscale filter cell with remotely handled filters for aerosol and iodine removal and the corresponding remote handling systems for exchange, bagging out, packaging and disposal of spent filter elements has been installed and run in trial operation since July 1978. The filters and the replacement techniques have been tested for the past two years or so and so far have always worked satisfactory over the test period involving some 150 replacement events. Neither wear nor corrosion phenomena were found in the filter housings and the replacement systems. The seals and clamping devices were selected so that during operation the prescribed leak rates of -3 Torr l/s were always maintained on the filter lid, the seat of the filter element and the cell lock. The total clamping loads for the filter element and the filter lid amount to approx. 20 kN. The force necessary to separate the filter element from the filter housing is approx. 3.5 kN. No ruptures of seals or gaskets were to be detected. The design of the filters and of the handling systems has been found satisfactorily in the cold test operation so far and can be recommended for use in nuclear facilities. In all experiments conducted until now PASSAT has worked without any failure. All operating data required in the specifications were met in the test period. The maximum pressure loss in the system with loaded filter elements amounts to some 3000 mm of water. After operation with iodine and NO/sub x/, plant components exposed to 100% relative humidity and condensate showed corrosion

  3. Laparoscopic gastric bypass to robotic gastric bypass: time and cost commitment involved in training and transitioning an academic surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn-Sue, Jerome R; Winder, Josh S; Kotch, Shannon; Colello, Jacob; Docimo, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold standard procedure for weight loss. This relatively complex procedure has excellent outcomes when performed via laparoscopy. The advent of the DaVinci robotic platform has been a technological advancement. Our goal is to provide information regarding the cost, time commitment, and advantages of transitioning an LRYGB program to an RRYGB program in an academic setting. We retrospectively reviewed the last 25 laparoscopic gastric bypass procedures and the first 25 robotic gastric bypass procedures performed by a single surgeon. We compared clinical outcomes and focused on time and hospital cost during this transition phase. There was no significant demographic difference between the groups. The mean age was 41.7 (RRYGB) years vs 43.4 (LRYGM) years. The mean BMI were similar between groups, 45.3 vs 46.5 kg/m(2) for RRYGB and LRYGB. No anastomotic leaks or mortalities were noted. There was one anastomotic stricture in both groups. Excess weight loss was similar in both groups at 1 year. There was a significant increase in operative time with RRYGB, mean 241 min vs mean 174 min (p = 0.0005). Operative time fell by 25 min after the first 10 cases. The hospital cost was also increased with RRYGB mean $5922 vs $4395 (p = 0.03). Transitioning from a laparoscopic to a robotic practice can be done safely, however, the initial operative times were longer and the hospital cost was higher for robotic gastric bypass. We hope in the future that these will decrease after overcoming the learning and as the technology becomes widespread. PMID:26983848

  4. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...... = 0.005). Critical limb-ischaemia was more often present in diabetic than non-diabetic patients (DM:57%, NDM:36%, p = 0.0002). Diabetic patients had a significantly lower distal anastomosis than non-diabetic patients (p = 0.00001). There were no differences among diabetic and non-diabetic patients...... regarding three years primary and secondary patency (58% and 64% respectively), and regarding major amputations. However, the rate of minor amputations was higher in insulin-dependent compared with non-insulin-dependent diabetics, who in turn had a higher rate than non-diabetics (p

  5. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes--a transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, S M C; Ferreira Jorge, R M; Castro, P M L

    2009-10-30

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus leading to the treatment of the off-gas resulting from volatilisation. As such, a combination of an air-injection bioventing system and a biotrickling filter was applied for the treatment of contaminated soil, the latter aiming at the treatment of the emissions resulting from the bioventing process. With a moisture content of 10%, soil contaminated with toluene at two different concentrations, namely 2 and 14 mg g soil(-1), were treated successfully using an air-injection bioventing system at a constant air flow rate of ca. 0.13 dm(3) min(-1), which led to the removal of ca. 99% toluene, after a period of ca. 5 days of treatment. A biotrickling filter was simultaneously used to treat the outlet gas emissions, which presented average removal efficiencies of ca. 86%. The proposed combination of biotechnologies proved to be an efficient solution for the decontamination process, when an excessive air flow rate was applied, reducing both the soil contamination and the outlet gas emissions, whilst being able to reduce the treatment time required by bioventing only. PMID:19501963

  6. Method for optimizing output in ultrashort-pulse multipass laser amplifiers with selective use of a spectral filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2007-07-10

    A method for optimizing multipass laser amplifier output utilizes a spectral filter in early passes but not in later passes. The pulses shift position slightly for each pass through the amplifier, and the filter is placed such that early passes intersect the filter while later passes bypass it. The filter position may be adjust offline in order to adjust the number of passes in each category. The filter may be optimized for use in a cryogenic amplifier.

  7. Secondary coolant purification system with demineralizer bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear stream supply system for adequately controlling the chemistry of the secondary coolant. The invention includes means for the addition of volatile chemicals, a full flow condensate demineralizer, continuous blowdown capability, radiation detection means, a condensate demineralizer bypass line, and an auxiliary demineralizer bypass line, and an auxiliary demineralizer sized to handle full blowdown flow. The auxiliary demineralizer is cut into the system and the steam generator feedwater flow is bypassed around the full flow condensate demineralizer whenever radioactivity is detected in the secondary coolant

  8. Modulation method of scroll compressor based on suction gas bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air conditioners and heat pumps tend to work in much mild environments and part load situations rather than provide the rated full capacity under severe rated testing conditions. Both the capacity and inner compression ratio of the compressor should be regulated according to the working condition for higher energy efficiency and occupants’ comfort. A potential modulating technology of the scroll compressor, suction gas bypass, is investigated in this paper. The principle and operation method are illuminated and the adaptability is validated by experiments and simulations. As a conclusion, an appropriate suction gas bypass can reduce the inner compression loss of the scroll compressor under over compression conditions, enhance the system COP and also largely decrease the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration/heat pump system. - Highlights: ► Suction gas bypass (SGB) is an effective regulating method of scroll compressor. ► SGB reduces the inner compression loss under over compression conditions. ► SGB largely decreases the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration system.

  9. Air filtration technologies for gas turbines. Example of the measurement regarding the effect of HEPA filter to improve performance of gas turbine with radial flow compressor; Enshinshiki asshukuki wo motsu gas turbine no koseino kyuki filter no koka sokutei jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, C.; Fujita, J. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    An example of improvement of a radial compressor for higher performance is introduced. A two-stage system consisting of a coarse dust removing filter and a high efficiency filter is adopted to elongate the life of filter. A filter having large dust holding capacity and high dust removal efficiency is selected, and a filter with little initial pressure drop and large allowable pressure drop is selected. The performance is so improved that a two-stage system can provide the performance of a three-stage system. The decrease of the power output due to the fouling of the compressor is reduced by about 3% as compared with the case of using conventional filters without cleaning the compressor. In addition, the system has high efficiencies such as decrease in the frequency of filter changing and increase of steam generation. The merit of the high efficiency filter introduction is calculated to be equivalent to ten million yen-year, and the filter contributes greatly to the improvement of economical efficiency and the reliability of cogeneration facilities. Moreover, it is considered to curtail the maintenance cost. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. 基于DSP技术模拟滤波系统研究%Research on Filtering System Based on DSP Technology Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左娅

    2012-01-01

    介绍了基于DSP技术的模拟滤波系统的原理和组成,并对实验的过程及数据进行了对比分析,得出系统数据处理的方法和算法,利用该系统可将分布式光纤温度传感器系统和光栅光纤温度传感器系统所采集的温度信息进行处理。%The author introduced principles and composition of simulate filtering system based on DSP technology, and made contrastive analysis on process and data of experiment, which obtained methods and algorithms of processing data. Temperature information of distributive fiber optic temperature sensor system and grating fiber optic temperature sensor system were processed by using the system.

  11. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low-fat or nonfat hard cheeses, cottage cheese, milk, and yogurt. After gastric bypass surgery, your body will not absorb some important vitamins and minerals. You will need to take these vitamins and ...

  12. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... perfect bypass. We are often asked how you learn this. Important question. Hours and hours of suturing ... OR-Live” makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the “Request information” button ...

  13. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Artery Bypass June 10, 2009 Welcome to the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, where you ... to Maryland. Welcome to Baltimore. Welcome to the University of Maryland Medical Center here in OR-26. ...

  14. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on for coronary surgery. A very durable bypass running here and supplying the chest wall with blood. ... case the branch, the typical branch that is running between the two heart chambers is located more ...

  15. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is pulsating behind the fascia. Here is some muscle. Here we have the apex or tip of ... tissue. It then turns into the transverse thoracic muscle here. This bypass vessel has an extremely long ...

  16. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sure that we preserve this bypass vessel very well in order to achieve this. So I go ... French quick-draw Venus cardiac visions cannula as well, which will draw back, go to the heart- ...

  17. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best option for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at least one major ... Grafting This type of CABG is similar to traditional CABG because the chest bone is opened to ...

  18. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  19. Integration of BST varactors with surface acoustic wave device by film transfer technology for tunable RF filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a film transfer process to integrate barium strontium titanate (BST) metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on a lithium niobate (LN) substrate. A high-quality BST film grown on a Si substrate above 650 °C was patterned into the MIM structures, and transferred to a LN substrate below 130 °C by Ar-plasma-activated Au–Au bonding and the Si lost wafer process. Simple test SAW devices with the transferred BST variable capacitors (VCs) were fabricated and characterized. The resonance frequency of a one-port SAW resonator with the VC connected in series changed from 999 to 1018 MHz, when a dc bias voltage of 3 V was applied to the VC. Although the observed frequency tuning range was smaller than expected due to the degradation of BST in the process, the experimental result demonstrated that a tunable SAW filter with the transferred BST VCs was feasible. (paper)

  20. Phrenic Nerve Injury during Coronary Artery Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Guinn, Gene A.; Beall, Arthur C.; Lamki, Neela; Heibig, Jacques; Thornby, John

    1990-01-01

    After coronary artery bypass, some patients have diaphragmatic elevation, usually on the left side. To test our hypothesis that this phenomenon is due to phrenic nerve injury resulting from either 1) dissection of the proximal portion of the left internal mammary artery or 2) topical cooling of the heart with icy slush, we performed the following 2-part study. First, we reviewed our hospital records of 99 coronary artery bypass patients, 55 of whom had received left internal mammary artery gr...

  1. An experimental study of nerve bypass graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; LI Xue-shi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the use of a nerve "bypass" graft as a possible alternative to neurolysis or segmental resection with interposition grafting in the treatment of neuroma-in-continuity. Methods: A sciatic nerve crush injury model was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat by compression with a straight hemostatic forceps. Epineurial windows were created proximal and distal to the injury site. An 8-mm segment of radial nerve was harvested and coaptated to the sciatic nerve at the epineurial window sites proximal and distal to the compressed segment (bypass group). A sciatic nerve crush injury without bypass served as a control. Nerve conduction studies were performed over an 8-week period. Sciatic nerves were then harvested and studied under transmission electron microscopy. Myelinated axon counts were obtained. Results: Nerve conduction velocity was significantly faster in the bypass group than in the control group at 8 weeks (63.57 m/s±5.83 m/s vs. 54.88 m/s±4.79m/s, P<0.01). Myelinated axon counts in distal segments were found more in the experimental sciatic nerve than in the control sciatic nerve. Significant axonal growth was noted in the bypass nerve segment itself. Conclusion: Nerve bypass may serve to augment peripheral axonal growth while avoiding further loss of the native nerve.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  3. Kalman Filtering of Radar Technology in Air Traffic Control Surveillance System%浅析卡尔曼雷达滤波技术在空管监视系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract]Kalman filter for radar surveillance technology in air traffic control systems were analyzed. Discuss the corresponding Kalman filtering techniques: Related adaptive Kalman filtering, multi-model adaptive Kalman filter, adaptive Kalman filter information based on neural network adaptive Kalman filtering, fuzzy logic adaptive Kalman filtering, and their main advantages and disadvantages of the problem.%对卡尔曼雷达滤波技术在空管监视系统中的应用进行了分析,讨论了相应的卡尔曼滤波技术:相关自适应卡尔曼滤波、多模型自适应卡尔曼滤波、基于信息的自适应卡尔曼滤波、神经网络自适应卡尔曼滤波、模糊逻辑自适应卡尔曼滤波,并对它们主要解决的问题及优缺点进行了分析。

  4. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period

  5. Effect of common mode static filter in high-performance synchrotron power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power supply for synchrotron magnets was produced to test its performance. It has a common mode static filter of reactor type, and this filter can be bypassed. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model of the power supply can explain those measurement results. (author)

  6. Bayesian Filters in Practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, S.

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 2010, s. 217-222. ISBN 978-80-227-3353-3. [Robotics in Education . Bratislava (SK), 16.09.2010-17.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot localization * bearing only beacons * Bayesian filters Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  7. Brain microvascular function during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, H.R.; Husum, B.; Waaben, J.; Andersen, K.; Andersen, L.I.; Gefke, K.; Kaarsen, A.L.; Gjedde, A.

    1987-11-01

    Emboli in the brain microvasculature may inhibit brain activity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Such hypothetical blockade, if confirmed, may be responsible for the reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose observed in animals subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass. In previous studies of cerebral blood flow during bypass, brain microcirculation was not evaluated. In the present study in animals (pigs), reduction of the number of perfused capillaries was estimated by measurements of the capillary diffusion capacity for hydrophilic tracers of low permeability. Capillary diffusion capacity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose were measured simultaneously by the integral method, different tracers being used with different circulation times. In eight animals subjected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and seven subjected to hypothermic bypass, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, and capillary diffusion capacity decreased significantly: cerebral blood flow from 63 to 43 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 34 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose from 43.0 to 23.0 mumol/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 14.1 mumol/100 gm/min in hypothermia. The capillary diffusion capacity declined markedly from 0.15 to 0.03 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia but only to 0.08 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia. We conclude that the decrease of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by interruption of blood flow through a part of the capillary bed, possibly by microemboli, and that cerebral blood flow is an inadequate indicator of capillary blood flow. Further studies must clarify why normal microvascular function appears to be preserved during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  8. 低分压CO2回收新技术捕集水泥窑气中CO2的侧线试验%Bypass experiment for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas by low pressure CO2 recovery technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉根

    2011-01-01

    A bypass experiment facility for capturing CO2 from cement furnace flue gas is designed. A self-developed blended amine is used for CO2 capturing. The experimental results show that the CO2 volume content in the purified gas is lower than 1.41%, while the CO2 purity of the product gas is higher than 99 %. Using this technology, CO2 emission reduction can be realized. At the same time, CO2 product with high purity can be produced. This technology can be used as an effective technological support for enterprises to reduce CO2 emission.%设计了一套水泥窑气CO2捕集的侧线试验装置,利用自主研发的复合胺溶剂捕集窑气中的CO2.试验结果表明.新型复合胺溶剂能使净化气中CO2体积分数降至1.41%以下,产品气中CO2体积分数达到99%以上.采用该技术,可实现CO2减排并获得高纯度的CO2产品气,为企业的CO2减排提供技术支持.

  9. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  10. Modelling of the bypass-transition in the linear turbine blade cascade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, P.; Příhoda, Jaromír

    Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, 2012, s. 1-15. ISBN 978-3-9502481-9-7. [ECCOMAS 2012 /6./. Vienna (AT), 10.09.2012-14.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : computational fluid dynamics * bypass-transition * turbomachinery Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  12. Implementation of magnetohydrodynamic energy bypass process for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Ming; Czysz, Paul A.; Bruno, Claudio

    2004-08-01

    The global political structure has changed dramatically since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, and world changes have caused the United States to reprioritize its national hypersonic needs. The US Government has looked at the needs of the future, and the hypersonic aerospace plane is one of the systems included in alternative force structures. One hypersonic aerospace plane concept would involve magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology (i.e., the AJAX hypersonic flight vehicle concept) originally proposed by Russian scientist Vladimir Fraishtadt. This paper reports on the current progress and findings of an air-breathing horizontal takeoff and landing design concept using an MHD energy bypass injector ramjet engine being studied at MSE Technology Applications, Inc., HyperTech Concepts, and several universities for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center under a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research project. The areas that are addressed in this paper include: (1) ionization required to achieve the required energy bypass, (2) utilization of a nonequilibrium model to calculate nonequilibrium engine ionization conditions, (3) hydrocarbon fuel reforming, and (4) vehicle performance and sizing. A quasi-onedimensional electromagnetic code combined with a new scramjet model, as well as other tools, were used to examine total system performance.

  13. Wavelength Filters in Fibre Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Venghaus, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Wavelength filters constitute an essential element of fibre-optic networks. This book gives a comprehensive account of the principles and applications of such filters, including their technological realisation. After an introductory chapter on wavelength division multiplexing in current and future fibre optic networks follows a detailed treatment of the phase characteristics of wavelength filters, a factor frequently neglected but of significant importance at high bit rates. Subsequent chapters cover three-dimensional reflection of gratings, arrayed waveguide gratings, fibre Bragg gratings, Fabry-Perot filters, dielectric multilayer filters, ring filters, and interleavers. The book explains the relevant performance parameters, the particular advantages and shortcomings of the various concepts and components, and the preferred applications. It also includes in-depth information on the characteristics of both commercially available devices and those still at the R&D stage. All chapters are authored by inter...

  14. High temperature superconductors in satellite communications. High power microwave resonators and filters in planar HTSC technology. Final report; Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Systeme in der Satellitenkommunikation. Leistungstaugliche Hochfrequenz-Resonatoren und -Filter in planarer HTSL-Technologie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumfalk, A.; Kaiser, T.; Kolesov, S.; Chaloupka, H.; Piel, H.; Hein, M.

    1999-07-31

    Goal of the R and D project was the development of miniaturized HTSC resonators and filters. The work was divided into two main packages: ({alpha}) Systematic investigations of thin film samples, manufactured by partners of the common project as well as the development of characterization methods. ({beta}) Considerations of all relevant topics related to the design and manufacturing of high power filters with given specifications. The power handling capability of thin films is the most challenging issue in film production. A large variation in film quality could be observed that can cause problems in the realization of HTSC components. Employing the introduced concept of edge current free disk and ring resonators, high power HTSC filters can be realized with an improvement of 400 in power handling capability compared to other HTSC resonator types. During optimization of the unloaded quality factor, dielectric losses were identified to be the limiting factor. Two-pole, four-pole Chebyshev and four pole elliptic filters were developed and characterized and showed low loss and high power handling capability. (orig.) [German] Die Zielsetzung des F und E-Vorhabens war es, stark miniaturisierte leistungstaugliche Resonatoren und Filter auf der Basis von Hochtemperatur-supraleitenden Duennfilmen zu entwickeln. Die Arbeiten gliederten sich in zwei Teilbereiche: Einerseits wurden Methoden zur Hochfrequenz-Charakterisierung der zugrundeliegenden HTSL-Schichten entwickelt und systematische Untersuchungen an Proben schichtherstellender Verbundpartner durchgefuehrt. Andererseits wurden alle relevanten Teilprobleme zur Entwicklung hochleistungstauglicher Filter bearbeitet und entsprechende Problemloesungen entwickelt. Bei der Schichtherstellung stellte sich die geforderte Leistungstragfaehigkeit der HTSL-Schichten als besondere Herausforderung dar. Es wurde eine grosse Streuung der Filmqualitaet beobachtet, wodurch die Realisierung von Bauelementen erschwert werden kann. Die

  15. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni;

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d......CA) post-CPB and changes in neurocognitive function in patients that had undergone CABG. Materials and Methods We assessed dCA by transfer function analysis of spontaneous oscillations between arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound...

  16. Coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass: short- and mid-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Y; Mehta, Y; Kohli, V M; Kohli, V; Mairal, M; Mishra, A; Bapna, R K; Trehan, N

    1997-01-01

    From March 1994 to April 1997, 433 patients had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass in our institute. Sixty-eight patients had various organ dysfunctions and/or aortic atheroma or calcification and were regarded as high risk for cardiopulmonary bypass. In 277 patients surgery was performed through midline sternotomy, while in 156 minithoracotomy approach was used. In 361 patients single coronary artery bypass grafting was done, and in 72 two-coronary arteries were bypassed. In 63 patients who had graftable vessels in anterior wall and diffusely diseased ungraftable vessels in posterolateral and/or inferior wall, transmyocardial laser revascularisation was also done along with coronary artery bypass grafting to achieve complete myocardial revascularisation. Nine patients in this series were also subjected to simultaneous carotid endarterectomy along with myocardial revascularisation. In two patients complementary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of left circumflex coronary artery was done five days after minithoracotomy and left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass grafting. Forty-two cases were extubated in operating room. Average blood loss was 260 ml. Six patients were reexplored for postoperative bleeding. Seven patients had perioperative myocardial infarction. One developed neurological complication. Hospital mortality was 2.3 percent (10/433 cases) and four deaths were due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Nine patients developed chest wound complications. Average hospital stay after operation was six days, 423 patients were discharged from hospital and all of them were asymptomatic. During three years follow-up (range 3 to 38 months) there were three known cardiac deaths. Ninety percent (391) patients reported to the follow-up clinic and 91 percent of them were angina-free. In patients who were subjected to transmyocardial laser revascularisation along with coronary

  17. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBOT-ASSISTED MINIMALLY INVASIVE CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY OPERATION PINNACLEHEALTH HARRISBURG HOSPITAL HARRISBURG, PA 00:00:08 ... Hospital campus. We are going to witness a robot-assisted minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery operation. ...

  18. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ROBOT-ASSISTED MINIMALLY INVASIVE CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY OPERATION PINNACLEHEALTH HARRISBURG HOSPITAL HARRISBURG, PA 00:00:08 ... Hospital campus. We are going to witness a robot-assisted minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery operation. ...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for people with coronary heart disease is called "percutaneous coronary intervention" (PCI), or "stenting." This involves using a flexible ... artery disease: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention Coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with cerebrovascular ...

  1. Obstructive and enteropathic syndromes after jejunoileal bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel bypass procedures for morbid obesity have been associated with many postoperative complications. With the use of the Scott procedure, the bypassed or excluded small bowel segment has recently been the focus of 2 syndromes - 'bypass enteritis' and 'defunctioned bowel syndrome'. We describe these postoperative complications and present their significant radiologic features. (orig.)

  2. Obstructive and enteropathic syndromes after jejunoileal bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-05-15

    Small bowel bypass procedures for morbid obesity have been associated with many postoperative complications. With the use of the Scott procedure, the bypassed or excluded small bowel segment has recently been the focus of 2 syndromes - 'bypass enteritis' and 'defunctioned bowel syndrome'. We describe these postoperative complications and present their significant radiologic features.

  3. Outcomes after off-pump coronary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Diederik van

    2002-01-01

    The complications associated with in coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have led to a renewed interest in coronary bypass surgery on the beating heart. The primary objective of the Octopus Study was to compare cognitive outcome between patients randomized to off

  4. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which is used in the blood pump head and which is cyclically compressed by the pump to cause the blood to...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  7. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  8. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... completely endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic ... scrub nurse, also a lot of experience with robotics now. And Dr. Atiq Rahman, fellow here for ...

  9. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bypass graft to the LAD. We have a real long-term option. 4 So again, this is under T guidance. Anesthesia tells me that I am in the descending thoracic aorta. That means I’m on the right track. Once that is done then we sequentially ...

  10. Analysis and testing of electrorheological bypass dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindler, Jason E.; Wereley, Norman M.

    1998-06-01

    We experimentally validate nonlinear quasi-steady electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) damper models, using an idealized Bingham plastic shear flow mechanism, for the flow mode of damper operation. An electrorheological valve or bypass damper was designed, and fabricated using predominantly commercial off-the-shelf hydraulic components. Both the hydraulic cylinder and the bypass duct have cylindrical geometry, and damping forces are developed in the annular bypass via Poiseuille (flow mode) flow. Damper models assume parallel plate geometry. Three nondimensional groups are used for damper analysis, namely, the Bingham number, Bi, the nondimensional plug thickness, (delta) , and the area coefficient defined as the ratio of the piston head area, A(rho ), to the cross-sectional area of the annular bypass, Ad. In the flow mode case, the damping coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of equivalent viscous damping of the Bingham plastic material, Ceq, to the Newtonian viscous damping, C, is a function of the nondimensional plug thickness only. The damper was tested using a mechanical damper dynamometer for sinusoidal stroke of 2 inches, over a range of frequencies below 0.63 Hz. The damping coefficient vs. nondimensional plug thickness diagram was experimentally validated using these data over a range of damper shaft velocities and applied electric field. Because the behaviors of ER and MR fluid are qualitatively similar, these ER damper modeling results may be extended to analysis of flow mode MR dampers.

  11. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is in place right now. There’s usually some slack or redundancy in the balloon once we initially ... go on bypass, and then it’s without any slack in the right position, and we can inflate ...

  12. Phlegmonous Gastritis Following Coronary Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Radhi, J; Kamouna, M; Nyssen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Phlegmonous gastritis is a rare, rapidly progressive and potentially fatal gastric bacterial infection. A case of phlegmonous gastritis following a coronary bypass surgery is described. This condition was not diagnosed premortem due to the nonspecific nature of the gastrointestinal symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy may be of value in establishing the diagnosis in emergencies with culture of gastric aspirate and biopsy.

  13. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery ... see 2 the heart beating behind what we call the “pericardium,” the sack where the heart is ...

  14. Filtering Characteristics of Doubly Sinusoidal Periodic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian-Lin; Chen, Ping

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion and filtering characteristics of doubly sinusoidal periodic (DSP) medium is investigated. Based on its feature different from singly sinusoidal periodic medium, a novel dual-band filter model is realized and measured. The results show that even a single unit cell of DSP medium can provide rather good filtering performance. And the filter is of perfect compatibility with regular waveguide and substrate integrated waveguide technology.

  15. Is a fully heparin-bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Sarah; Bilal, Haris; Zaman, Mahvash; Tang, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    A best-evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is a fully heparin bonded cardiopulmonary bypass circuit superior to a standard cardiopulmonary bypass circuit?’ Altogether more than 792 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of...

  16. MODELO DE VIGILANCIA TECNOLÓGICA APOYADO POR RECOMENDACIONES BASADAS EN EL FILTRADO COLABORATIVO / TECHNOLOGY SURVEILLANCE MODEL SUPPORTED BY RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON COLLABORATIVE FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Abreu-Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La vigilancia tecnológica en centros de investigación y universidades está enfocada a realizar un seguimiento sistemático sobre el desarrollo de líneas de investigación, investigadores líderes, posibilidades de colaboración científico-tecnológica y también al conocimiento de las tendencias actuales desde la investigación. Todo lo anteriormente expresado permite guiar las investigaciones y apoyar la estrategia científico-tecnológica. El presente trabajo propone un modelo de vigilancia tecnológica apoyado de un sistema de recomendaciones, como una aplicación que está centrada en las preferencias de los investigadores en universidades y centros de investigación. Para proponer las recomendaciones se emplea el filtrado colaborativo, técnica que utiliza información del comportamiento pasado de los investigadores y de las opiniones o valoraciones de la comunidad científica a la que pertenecen. Este nuevo enfoque permite realizar propuestas de colaboración y temas de interés que se discuten en la comunidad científica en la que tiene lugar, de manera automática y proactiva.AbstractTechnology surveillance has a special place nowadays, in the success and development of R+D+i process, in research centers and academic environment. Technology surveillance in universities and research centers is focused in the constant analysis of the research lines, research leaders, collaborations chances and current trends in specific research fields. This paper presents a technology surveillance model supported by recommendations by an application that takes into account the preferences of the researchers in the academic environment. The recommender system uses the collaborative filtering technique in order to compute the behavior and past user interactions and infer the recommendations. This approach allows recommending useful, automatic and proactive collaboration possibilities and topics of interest which are discussed within the scientific

  17. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  18. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  19. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products. PMID:27478213

  20. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  2. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin;

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series with the...... bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order to...

  3. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of b...

  4. Synthesis of highly integrated optical network based on microdisk-resonator add-drop filters in silicon-on-insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Giannone, Domenico; Bogaerts, Wim; Drouard, Emmanuel; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Gaffiot, Frederic

    2009-10-01

    We analyze a highly compact optical add-drop filter topology based on a pair of microdisk resonators and a bus waveguide intersection. The filter is further assessed on an integrated optical 4×4 network for optical on-chip communication. The proposed network structure, as compact as 50×50 μm, is fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the proper operation of the fabricated devices.

  5. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  6. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  7. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system

  8. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-07-14

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system.

  9. No ethical bypass of moral status in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in reprogramming technology do not bypass the ethical challenge of embryo sacrifice. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) research has been and almost certainly will continue to be conducted within the context of embryo sacrifice. If human embryos have moral status as human beings, then participation in iPS research renders one morally complicit in their destruction; if human embryos have moral status as mere precursors of human beings, then advocacy of iPS research policy that is inhibited by embryo sacrifice concerns renders one morally complicit in avoidable harms to persons. Steps may be taken to address these complicity concerns, but in the final analysis there is no alternative to achieving clarity with respect to the moral status of the human embryo. PMID:21726260

  10. Efficiency Biliopancreatic bypass surgery in bulimia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yu I Yashkov; D K Bekuzarov; A V Nikol'skiy

    2008-01-01

    A clinical significance in the treatment of bulimia nervosa patients with morbid obesity had already been raised [10, 13], but we did not find publications on the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in these cases. There is also information about the possibility of applying the operation bilio-pancreatic bypass, effective in patients with morbid obesity with uncontrolled eating behavior for the treatment of patients with anorexia BILIM not suffering from morbid obesity. In this article the dat...

  11. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The...... literature search identified nine studies eligible for inclusion. The administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics (intraperitoneally or subfascially/subcutaneously), transversus abdominis plane block, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine may improve analgesia compared to placebo...

  12. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B.; Farkas, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish ...

  13. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Internal Thoracic Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B.

    2012-01-01

    This second report in the series on coronary artery bypass presents the authors experience and personal views on the internal thoracic artery (ITA) which date to 1966. There has been a very gradual evolution in the acceptance of this conduit which was initially compared with the saphenous vein and viewed as an improbable alternative to it. As is common with concepts and techniques which are 'outside the box' there was skepticism and criticism of this new conduit which was more difficult and t...

  14. Behavior of the polygonal HEPA filter exposed to water droplets carried by the offgas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polygonal high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter element has been developed and tested with a view to cleaning the dissolver offgas from reprocessing plants. It is likewise suited to filter process offgases generated in other plants. Due to its high dew point (about 30 degree C) the dissolver offgas, before being directed into the HEPA filter, is heated with a gas heater to approx. 100 degree C so that condensation in the pipework upstream of the filter and in the filter proper is avoided. In case of failure of the heater the offgas may undergo condensation upstream of the HEPA filter until it is bypassed to a standby heater or a standby filter system. Consequently, the filter may be loaded with water droplets. therefore, experiments have been performed with a view to estimating the behavior of the polygonal filter element when exposed to condensate droplets in a real plant. According to the experiments performed so far it can be anticipated that in case of failure of the heater the amount of condensate produced until bypassing to a standby system will not damage a new or little loaded polygonal filter element. The experiments will be carried on with the goal of investigating the behavior of a heavily loaded polygonal filter element exposed to water droplets

  15. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  16. Atypical complications of gastric bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although gastric bypass surgery continues to grow in popularity for weight loss and weight maintenance in the morbidly obese, there has been little attention given to the imaging of complications associated with these surgeries. The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the variety of gastric bypass surgery complications that can be identified radiographically, with attention to the more unusual complications. This study was performed with institutional Internal Review Board approval. We performed a 5-year retrospective review of all patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery, had complications of the surgery, and had studies performed in our department to image these complications. These studies consisted of contrast fluoroscopy and CT. We identified the more common complications of anastomotic stenoses and anastomotic leaks. We also identified six unusual complications as follow: (1) internal herniation through the small bowel mesentery, (2) internal herniation through the transverse mesocolon, (3) external herniation through the abdominal wall incision, (4) enterocutaneous fistulas, (5) antiperistaltic construction of the Roux-en-Y, and (6) incorrect anstomoses of the Roux limbs resulting in a Roux-en-O configuration. Our findings show that a thorough understanding of expected postoperative bowel configuration is essential in the evaluation of these patients. In addition, fluoroscopic evaluation should assess not only anatomy, but also motility

  17. Vein harvesting and techniques for infrainguinal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albäck, Anders; Saarinen, Eva; Venermo, Maarit

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve good long term results after bypass surgery, alongside with good inflow and outflow arteries, the bypass graft material also has an important role. The best patency and limb salvage rates are achieved with autologous vein. If great saphenous vein is not available, acceptable long-term results can be achieved with arm veins and lesser saphenous vein. The quality and size of the vein are important. A small-caliber vein, increased wall thickness, postphlebitic changes and varicosities are associated with a risk of early failure. Preoperative vein mapping with ultrasound reduces readmissions and postoperative surgical site infections. During the mapping, the vein to be used and its main tributaries are marked with a permanent marker pen. To reduce wound complication rates we recommend bridged incisions in vein harvesting. Endoscopic vein harvesting seems to have no benefit compared to open techniques in lower limb bypasses, and has been associated with higher risk of primary patency loss at one year. With deep tunneling of the graft the problems caused by wound infection can be avoided. PMID:26837257

  18. Patient's Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelminda Maria Bulhões Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis, followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS: The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery.

  19. Effects of rainfall pattern and fertilizer nitrogen on nitrogen loss in bypass flow in vertisols at the onset of rain season under tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino C.O.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bypass flow is a major avenue of fertilizer nitrogen (N loss from Vertisols under environments characterized by alternating dry and wet seasons. The study quantified the effects of rainfall intensity and frequency, and fertilizer N source and rate on N content of bypass flow in a Vertisol. We carried out two experiments. Experiment I comprised of 2 wetting status, 2 rainfall intensities, and 3 N sources. Experiment II involved 3N sources, 3N rates, and 3 levels of rainfall frequencies. In both Experiments, bypass flow was collected, filtered and analyzed for mineral N content. Wetting soil with 30mm of precipitation in 1h before fertilizer application resulted in significantly (p<0.05 higher bypass flow and mineral N content than did the no-wetting treatments. Rainfall intensity and frequency, and N rate significantly (p<0.05 increased mineral-N recovered in the bypass flow. The 3 N sources used are susceptible to loss in bypass flow.

  20. Reconsidering 'appropriate technology': the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the performance of two household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, the Danvor plastic biosand filter and the Potters for Peace Filtron ceramic filter, under ideal as well as modified operating conditions using systematic and comparable measurements. The operating variables for the biosand filter were (i) pause times between filtration runs (ii) water-dosing volumes and (iii) the effluent volume at which a filtered water sample was collected. For the ceramic filter we examined overflow filtration versus standard filtration. We used the bacterial indicators of total coliforms and Escherichia coli to quantify microbiological removal. With the biosand filter, a 12 h pause time had significantly higher total coliform removal than a 36 h pause time at the 20 l collection point (79.1% versus 73.7%; p < 0.01) and borderline significance at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 78.3%; p = 0.07). High-volume filtration (20 l) had significantly lower total coliform removal efficacy than low-volume (10 l) filtration at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 84.2%; p = 0.03). We observed a decreasing trend in total coliform removal by sample collection volume with the highest removal efficacy at the 5 l sample collection point (versus at the 10 and 20 l collection points). Using the ceramic filter, mean total coliform and E. coli removal were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in overflow filtration than in standard filtration. The findings indicate that operating conditions can reduce the effectiveness of the systems in a field-based setting and increase environmental risk exposure

  1. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  2. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-02-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the

  3. Dynamic Experimental Study of a Multi—bypass Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Two—bypass Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YonglinJu; ChaoWang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic experimental apparatus to measure the instantaneous velocity and pressure in the multibypass pulse tube refrigerator(MPTR) was designed and constructed.Some important experimental results of the instantaneous measurements of the velocity and the pressure in the MPTR with twobypass tubes during actual operation are prsented.The effects of the middle-bypass version on the dynamic pressure and mass flow rate at the cold end of the pulse tube are ev aluated from experimental measurements.DC-flow phenomena are observed in this MPTR.The reasons of the multi-bypass version improved the performance of pulse tube refrigertor are given.

  4. Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Research for Reducing Noise, Emissions, and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Schweitzer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A pictorial history of NASA development of advanced engine technologies for reducing environmental emissions and increasing performance from the 1970s to 2000s is presented. The goals of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program portion of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program are discussed, along with the areas of investigation currently being pursued by the Ultra High Bypass Partnership Element of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Program.

  5. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...... groups. Fractional loss of bicarbonate in urine was higher in controls than in bypass patients. The renal impairment is classified as distal renal tubular acidosis....

  6. Magnetic resonance angiographic assessment after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Praharaj, S S; Coulthard, A; Gholkar, A; English, P; Mendelow, A D

    1996-01-01

    Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass operation may be performed to augment the distal cerebral circulation. The bypass patency is usually assessed postoperatively with conventional cerebral angiography. Six patients are reported in whom the bypass patency was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): Two had intracavernous carotid aneurysms, three had base of skull tumours encompassing the internal carotid artery, and one had occlusion of the right internal carotid artery with ...

  7. Outcomes after off-pump coronary bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Diederik

    2002-01-01

    The complications associated with in coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have led to a renewed interest in coronary bypass surgery on the beating heart. The primary objective of the Octopus Study was to compare cognitive outcome between patients randomized to off-pump or on-pump CABG. In chapter 2, the literature suggesting that CABG may impair cognitive function is systematically reviewed and chapter 3 describes in detail the rationale and design of the O...

  8. Extra-intracranial standard bypass in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandow, Nora; von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Rosenbaum, Sverre;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic atherosclerotic vessel occlusion and cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency may benefit from extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Due to demographic changes, an increasing number of elderly patients presents with cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency. So far......, little data for EC-IC bypass surgery in elderly patients suffering occlusive cerebrovascular disease are available. We therefore designed a retrospective study to address the question whether EC-IC bypass is a safe and efficient treatment in a patient cohort ≥70 years....

  9. Jejunioleal Bypass Procedures in Morbid Obesity: Preoperative Psychological Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Warren W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Seventy patients who averaged 155 percent overweight and requested jejunioleal bypass surgery as a treatment intervention for morbid obesity were studied preoperatively for prominent psychological characteristics. (Author)

  10. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  11. Cardiac Bypass Pump Flow Management via NIRS Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Roy E.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Blackstock, Derek; LeBlanc, Jacques G.

    2003-01-01

    During cardiac surgery, bypass pumps rely on pressure monitors to evaluate flow. We studied whether it would be possible to optimize pump flow by monitoring changes in cerebral cytochrome a,a3 using NIRS to maintain cyt redox status at its pre-bypass level. Method: 18 healthy 7–45 kg swine were placed on bypass for repeated cycles of cooling and re-warming from 36 to 15 to 36°C in 3°C steps. Between each cycle, the swine's bypass pump blood flow rate was adjusted to restore cytochrome redox s...

  12. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women following gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women following gastric bypass, compared with adipose women without surgery and with a normal weight control population. DESIGN: Historical controlled cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: All women undergoing gastric bypass during the...... period 1996-2011, and subsequently giving birth. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women without gastric bypass matched on age, parity, plurality, year, and body mass index, and normal weight women. RESULTS: In 415 women giving birth after gastric bypass we found...

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  14. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  15. Hemodynamics Simulation of Stenosed Coronary Bypass Graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-jun; QIAO Aike; DU Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    By means of FEM, the physiological blood flow in coronary bypass graft is simulated. The stenosis in coronary artery is involved in the graft model,and the deformation of graft end to allow the surgical suture with a smaller diameter coronary is taken into consideration. The flow pattern, secondary flow and wall shear stress in the vicinity of anastomosis are analyzed. It is shown that a zone of low wall stress and high wall stress gradient exists downstream the toe. The floor opposed to the anastomosis is an area of high wall stress and high wall stress gradient. Both the toe downstream and the anastomosis bottom floor are prone to intimal hyperplasia.

  16. Work on the Geneva motorway bypass

    CERN Multimedia

    État de Genève, DCTI, Direction du génie civil

    2006-01-01

    Work on the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is continuing and will require the temporary closure of two sliproads allowing traffic to make a U-turn near the airport and the Palexpo exhibition centre. The sliproads on the French and Lausanne sides will be closed until autumn 2006. U-turns will still be possible via clearly marked deviations. For further information: www.autoroute-aeroport.ch We would like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva

  17. Impossible Airway Requiring Venovenous Bypass for Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan Gardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elective surgical airway is the definitive management for a tracheal stenotic lesion that is not a candidate for tracheal resection, or who has failed multiple-tracheal dilations. This case report details the management of a patient who has failed an elective awake tracheostomy secondary to the inability to be intubated as well as severe scar tissue at the surgical site. A combination of regional anesthesia and venovenous bypass is used to facilitate the surgical airway management of this patient. Cerebral oximetry and a multidisciplinary team approach aid in early detection of an oxygenation issue, as well as the emergent intervention that preserved this patient’s life.

  18. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  20. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gazyakan, MD, MSc

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass.

  1. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  2. Filter Bank Design for Subband Adaptive Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Jan Mark de

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is an important subject in the field of signal processing and has numerous applications in fields such as speech processing and communications. Examples in speech processing include speech enhancement, echo- and interference- cancellation, and speech coding. Subband filter banks have been introduced in the area of adaptive filtering in order to improve the performance of time domain adaptive filters. The main improvements are faster convergence speed and the reduction of co...

  3. Efficiency Biliopancreatic bypass surgery in bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu I Yashkov

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clinical significance in the treatment of bulimia nervosa patients with morbid obesity had already been raised [10, 13], but we did not find publications on the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in these cases. There is also information about the possibility of applying the operation bilio-pancreatic bypass, effective in patients with morbid obesity with uncontrolled eating behavior for the treatment of patients with anorexia BILIM not suffering from morbid obesity. In this article the data of clinical observation of a small sample of patients. As a result, the treatment of these patients found that severe nervous BILIM can be seen as a latent form of morbid obesity. The choice of treatment should depend not only on the initial body weight of the patient, but also on the severity of the nervous BILIM. Unsuccessful attempts at organized-balanced, conservative treatment of patients with severe bulimia nervosa may be considered a variant of surgical treatment, while bilio-pancreatic bypass surgery is considered as the most preferred operation, compared with the installation of the gastric balloon and others. All candidates for surgical treatment of obesity must identify clinical signs of bulimia nervosa, as this may influence the choice of method of operation. Further study of the role of hyperinsulinemia, secretion of ghrelin, leptin, intestinal peptide may contribute to the elucidation of the true causes of bulimia nervosa, probably has a similar origin with morbid obesity.

  4. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan; Stein, Paul C.; Kuntsche, Judith; Brandl, Martin

    (pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  6. 46 CFR 56.20-20 - Valve bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Pipe for bypasses should be at least Schedule 80 seamless... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve bypasses. 56.20-20 Section 56.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND...

  7. Reverse bias protected solar array with integrated bypass battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for protecting the photovoltaic cells in a photovoltaic (PV) array from reverse bias damage by utilizing a rechargeable battery for bypassing current from a shaded photovoltaic cell or group of cells, avoiding the need for a bypass diode. Further, the method mitigates the voltage degradation of a PV array caused by shaded cells.

  8. 基于分形技术的阶跃阻抗带通滤波器%A Step Impedance Bandpass Filter of Fractal Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 王海彬

    2014-01-01

    In view of the large design deviation caused by the current discontinuity of step impedance bandpass filter,the fractal thought was introduced.By changing the shape of step impedance resonance,the SIR bandpass filter was made as close as possible to the actual performance of the design goals based on the 3 GHZ step imped-ance based on fractal bandpass filter design and simulation.Simulation results showed that the optimized SIR bandpass filter performance within the passband fully met the actual requirements,but also ensured the harmon-ic suppression,besides,it could reduce the processing difficulty.%针对阶跃阻抗带通滤波器由于微带线电流出现不连续性问题,而造成使用经典设计方法设计的滤波器出现较大设计偏差问题,引入分形思想,通过改变阶跃阻抗谐振器形状的方法,使 SIR带通滤波器的实际性能尽可能接近设计目标,通过对3 GHz基于分形技术的阶跃阻抗带通滤波器进行设计仿真表明,经分形技术优化后的SIR带通滤波器不仅通带内性能完全符合实际要求,而且保证了对谐波的抑制,同时还能降低加工难度。

  9. Dacron or PTFE for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass. a multicenter randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L P; Lepäntalo, M; Fossdal, J E; Røder, Ole Christian; Jensen, B S; Madsen, M S; Grenager, O; Fasting, H; Myhre, H O; Baekgaard, N; Nielsen, O M; Helgstrand, U; Schroeder, T V

    2007-01-01

    To compare polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and polyester grafts (Dacron) for above knee femoropopliteal bypass.......To compare polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and polyester grafts (Dacron) for above knee femoropopliteal bypass....

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES--PUREM NORTH AMERICA LLC, PMF GREENTEC 1004205.00.0 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to provide high quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies. The Air Po...

  11. Hybrid Data Assimilation without Ensemble Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is preparing to upgrade its three-dimensional variational system to a hybrid approach in which the ensemble is generated using a square-root ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the variational problem is solved using the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation system. As in most EnKF applications, we found it necessary to employ a combination of multiplicative and additive inflations, to compensate for sampling and modeling errors, respectively and, to maintain the small-member ensemble solution close to the variational solution; we also found it necessary to re-center the members of the ensemble about the variational analysis. During tuning of the filter we have found re-centering and additive inflation to play a considerably larger role than expected, particularly in a dual-resolution context when the variational analysis is ran at larger resolution than the ensemble. This led us to consider a hybrid strategy in which the members of the ensemble are generated by simply converting the variational analysis to the resolution of the ensemble and applying additive inflation, thus bypassing the EnKF. Comparisons of this, so-called, filter-free hybrid procedure with an EnKF-based hybrid procedure and a control non-hybrid, traditional, scheme show both hybrid strategies to provide equally significant improvement over the control; more interestingly, the filter-free procedure was found to give qualitatively similar results to the EnKF-based procedure.

  12. Pixelated filters for spatial imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Karine; Lequime, Michel; Lumeau, Julien; Abel-Tiberini, Laetitia; Savin De Larclause, Isabelle; Berthon, Jacques

    2015-10-01

    Small satellites are often used by spatial agencies to meet scientific spatial mission requirements. Their payloads are composed of various instruments collecting an increasing amount of data, as well as respecting the growing constraints relative to volume and mass; So small-sized integrated camera have taken a favored place among these instruments. To ensure scene specific color information sensing, pixelated filters seem to be more attractive than filter wheels. The work presented here, in collaboration with Institut Fresnel, deals with the manufacturing of this kind of component, based on thin film technologies and photolithography processes. CCD detectors with a pixel pitch about 30 μm were considered. In the configuration where the matrix filters are positioned the closest to the detector, the matrix filters are composed of 2x2 macro pixels (e.g. 4 filters). These 4 filters have a bandwidth about 40 nm and are respectively centered at 550, 700, 770 and 840 nm with a specific rejection rate defined on the visible spectral range [500 - 900 nm]. After an intense design step, 4 thin-film structures have been elaborated with a maximum thickness of 5 μm. A run of tests has allowed us to choose the optimal micro-structuration parameters. The 100x100 matrix filters prototypes have been successfully manufactured with lift-off and ion assisted deposition processes. High spatial and spectral characterization, with a dedicated metrology bench, showed that initial specifications and simulations were globally met. These excellent performances knock down the technological barriers for high-end integrated specific multi spectral imaging.

  13. Conditional analysis of the instantaneous wall friction during by-pass transition of rough wall boundary layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Mazur, Oton; Uruba, Václav

    Budapest : Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2012 - (Vad, J.), s. 963-970 ISBN 978-963-08-4587-8. [International Conference on Fluid Flow Technologies /15./. Budapest (HU), 04.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : by-pass transition * conditional analysis of the wall friction * CTA * rough wall boundary layer * transitional intermittency factor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  15. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes — A transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, S.M.C.; Jorge, R.M. Ferreira; Castro, P. M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the mostcommonsources of soil pollution. However, themajor drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, ...

  16. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  17. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass during pectus excavatum repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Craner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum is a chest wall deformity that produces significant cardiopulmonary disability and is typically seen in younger patients. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum or Nuss procedure has become a widely accepted technique for adult and pediatric patients. Although it is carried out through a thoracoscopic approach, the procedure is associated with a number of potential intraoperative and post-operative complications. We present a case of cardiac perforation requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass in a 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome and previous mitral valve repair undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. This case illustrates the importance of vigilance and preparation by the surgeons, anesthesia providers as well as the institution to be prepared with resources to handle the possible complications. This includes available cardiac surgical backup, perfusionist support and adequate blood product availability.

  18. Current status of coronary artery bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Surgical revascularization for atherosclerotic heart disease, also called coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was first performed in 1962, and is one of the great achievements in medicine. Relief of angina, improvement of exercise tolerance, and the realization of survival benefit have been documented.1 CABG has been used in multi-vessel disease and left main stenosis for over 40 years.2 In the last two decades the mortality of CABG has decreased to less than 2% despite an aging population with increased risk factors. However, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially with drug-eluting stents, has been challenging CABG, While PCI has improved, CABG has also progressed with better peri-operative management, a higher use of arterial grafting, off-pump surgery, and improved techniques with minimally invasive surgical options.3,4

  19. Innovative Double Bypass Engine for Increased Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sanjivan

    Engines continue to grow in size to meet the current thrust requirements of the civil aerospace industry. Large engines pose significant transportation problems and require them to be split in order to be shipped. Thus, large amounts of time have been spent in researching methods to increase thrust capabilities while maintaining a reasonable engine size. Unfortunately, much of this research has been focused on increasing the performance and efficiencies of individual components while limited research has been done on innovative engine configurations. This thesis focuses on an innovative engine configuration, the High Double Bypass Engine, aimed at increasing fuel efficiency and thrust while maintaining a competitive fan diameter and engine length. The 1-D analysis was done in Excel and then compared to the results from Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) software and were found to be within 4% error. Flow performance characteristics were also determined and validated against their criteria.

  20. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt

    2005-01-01

    Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  1. Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass: mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, P; Vaurs, C; Barigou, M; Hanaire, H

    2016-03-01

    Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass can be severe, but is uncommon, and is sometimes only revealed through monitoring glucose concentrations. The published literature is limited by the heterogeneity of the criteria used for diagnosis, arguing in favour of the Whipple triad with a glycaemia threshold of 55 mg/dl as the diagnostic reference. Women who lost most of their excess weight after gastric bypass, long after the surgery was performed, and who did not have diabetes before surgery are at the greatest risk. In this context, hypoglycaemia results from hyperinsulinism, which is either generated by pancreas anomalies (nesidioblastosis) and/or caused by an overstimulation of β cells by incretins, mainly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose absorption is both accelerated and increased because of the direct communication between the gastric pouch and the jejunum. This is a post-surgical exaggeration of a natural adaptation that is seen in patients who have not undergone surgery in whom glucose is infused directly into the jejunum. There is not always a correspondence between symptoms and biological traits; however, hyperinsulinism is constant if hypoglycaemia is severe and there are neuroglucopenic symptoms. The treatment relies firstly on changes in eating habits, splitting food intake into five to six daily meals, slowing gastric emptying, reducing the glycaemic load and glycaemic index of foods, using fructose and avoiding stress at meals. Pharmacological treatment with acarbose is efficient, but other drugs still need to be validated in a greater number of subjects (insulin, glucagon, calcium channel blockers, somatostatin analogues and GLP-1 analogues). Lastly, if the surgical option has to be used, the benefits (efficient symptom relief) and the risks (weight regain, diabetes) should be weighed carefully. PMID:26508374

  2. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the one-twelfth grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  3. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the sector grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  4. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the one-twelfth grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  5. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  6. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  7. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  8. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper discs from freshly killed deer. The discs were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens. PMID:17336401

  9. Seasonal Variation of Climatological Bypassing Flows around the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; ZHANG Renhe

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated diagnostically the seasonal variation of the bypassing flows caused by the splitting effect of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The relationships among the splitting bypassing flows around the TP to precipitation in China,the westerly jet stream,and the thermal status over the TP are revealed.The bypassing flows occur from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively,and they disappear from the 29th to the 58th pentad.They are strongest in winter from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively.During the rebuilding of the bypassing flows from mid-October to mid-February,they are the main cause of precipitation over southeastern China.The enhancement of the bypassing flow intensity in March cau cause the precipitation to increase in the early stage of the persistent spring rain over southeastern China.From winter to summer,the seasonal transition of the bypassing flows in the lower troposphere precedes that of the westerly jet stream axis in the upper troposphere to the west of the TP by ~4 pentads,while from summer to winter lags by ~4 pentads.The seasonal variation of the thermal status over the TP plays an important role in the bypassing flows around the TP.The strengthening of the heating over the TP weakens the bypassing flows,and the increase in cooling over the TP is related to the rebuilding and strengthening of the bypassing flows.

  10. A study of recursive digital filtering in time domain. Application to matched filters synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, digital filters are defined as linear operators commutative with translations in the Hilbert space BL2. Then Recursive Digital Filters are introduced as a subset corresponding to digital filters described by a difference equation satisfying to some conditions. The second part is devoted to the description of a method for computing coefficients of a recursive digital filter from a pattern in the time-domain. Different variants are studied and their results are compared. Last part is an investigation of problems regarding technological realization of recursive digital filters, particularly the question of stability. A design of programmable recursive digital filter is given; performances of this design are tested in a simulation of a detection problem by matched filtering. (author)

  11. Coronary bypass using bilateral internal mammary arteries in an achondroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alassal, Mohamed Abdulwahab; Youssef, Mostafa; Koudieh, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting for ischemic heart disease in achondroplastic dwarfs is very rare. Shortage of veins and inadequate vein quality may cause difficulties during surgery. Only 2 cases of coronary bypass surgery in an achondroplastic dwarf, in which the left internal mammary artery and vein grafts were used, have been reported. We describe the case of a 55-year-old male achondroplastic dwarf who had triple-vessel coronary disease and underwent successful coronary bypass surgery using one saphenous vein graft and bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. The anatomic and surgical challenges in achondroplasia are highlighted. PMID:24887865

  12. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after bypass operations on the lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prevent bypass thrombosis, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed on 32 stenoses in 25 patients following vascular surgery. Seventeen patients showed 23 stenoses at the level of the anastomoses or in the bypass itself; 8 patients exhibited 9 stenoses proximal or distal to the bypass. Twenty-two patients underwent successful PTA and showed an increase in the ankle/arm Doppler index from 0.38±0.13 to 0.76±0.11 after PTA. The long-term patency rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 75%, 57% and 39%, respectively. The reason for three unsuccessful PTAs are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Luit; Wetterslev, Jørn; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A; Gluud, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear.......Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear....

  14. Filter synthesis using Genesys S/Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    S/Filter includes tools beyond direct synthesis, including a wide variety of both exact and approximate equivalent network transforms, methods for selecting the most desirable out of potentially thousands of synthesized alternatives, and a transform history record that simplifies design attempts requiring iteration. Very few software programs are based on direct synthesis, and the additional features of S/Filter make it a uniquely effective tool for filter design.This resource presents a practical guide to using Genesys software for microwave and RF filter design and synthesis. The focus of th

  15. Charge domain filter operating up to 20 MHz clock frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, R.A.J.; Wallinga, H.

    1983-01-01

    An analog sampled data low pass third order Butterworth filter has been realised in a buried channel CCD technology. This Charge Domain Filter, composed of transversal and recursive CCD filter sections, has been tested at clock frequencies up to 20 MHz.

  16. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  17. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  18. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  19. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  20. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Anthony G; Relle, Margaret A; Lombardi, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2-9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287

  1. Duplicate Data Delete Technology Based on MD5 and Bloom Filter%基于MD5和布鲁姆过滤器的重复数据删除算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车玉婧; 胡波; 费向东

    2011-01-01

    针对目前重复数据处理技术的低效性和不可靠性,本文提出了一种基于MD5算法和布鲁姆过滤器的重复数据删除算法。新算法采用两级布鲁姆过滤器并有效结合MDS算法的方式,在发挥布鲁姆过滤器空间效率的同时汲取了MD5算法的可靠性,使得文件级别和数据块级别的重复数据删除策略交替工作。测试分析表明,新算法性能稳定并且实现了高效且可靠的重复数据删除功能。%Aimed at the inefficiency and unreliability of the data de-duplication teclmology, a solution to this problem which based on MD5 algorithm and Bloom Filter technology is put forward in this paper.The new algorithm is the effective combination of MD5 algorithm and Bloom Filter structure.Profiting from less space occupancy of Bloom Filter and reliability of MD5 algorithm,the new algorithm can work under the alternate mode of file-level data de-duplication tactic and data-block-level data de-duplication tactic.Testing and analysis indicate that the new algorithm has achieved an efficient and secure data de-duplication function.

  2. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check their blood sugar several times a day. Other problems that patients with morbid obesity have ... a lap band and he’s discharged the next day. With the gastric bypass, the patient comes in ...

  3. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and are morbidly obese have higher incidents of heart problems. The other things that we see are ... used for multiple surgical procedures. It’s used for heart procedures, the CABG, coronary artery bypass, valve procedures, ...

  4. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gastric bypass Roux-en-Y is a superior procedure than the lap band. That given, we ... of the robot has been shown to be superior to the laparoscopic cases, that this will also ...

  5. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anthony Gonzalez, and welcome to South Miami Hospital. We’re here for a live webcast, a fully robotic gastric bypass, as I mentioned, we’re in the operating room at South Miami ...

  6. Severe hypoglycaemia post-gastric bypass requiring partial pancreatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, M E; McMahon, G; Mun, E C;

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Postprandial hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass for obesity is considered a late manifestation of the dumping syndrome and can usually be managed with dietary modification. We investigated three patients with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia unresponsive...

  7. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you a detailed account of how the operation works. During that time, I’d like to answer ... you’ll understand it. Basically, the gastric bypass works on two different principals for weight loss, one ...

  8. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The feet are in this direction. And the robot is brought and docked over the patient’s body ... this location where I will be using the robot to perform this fully robotic gastric bypass. So ...

  9. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I am Dr. Anthony Gonzalez, and welcome to South ... live webcast, a fully robotic gastric bypass, as I mentioned, we’re in the operating room at ...

  10. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needs to be bypassed. So I feel more confident that I can go ahead and start taking ... more so as people become more familiar and confident with their skills. 00:39:31 JOHN PENNOCK, ...

  11. Alveolar proteinosis lung lavage using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, A P; Pelias, A; Johnston, R F; Goel, I P; Hakki, H I; Oslick, T; Shinnick, J P

    1981-01-01

    An adult case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented with an arterial oxygen tension of 27 mmHg (3.6 kPa) while breathing air. Dangerous hypoxaemia during lung lavage was avoided by using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I ... study in 1991 at the National Institute of Health in Washington, D.C. And what they looked ...

  13. Antiplatelet therapy at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremke, Michael; Jensen, Mariann Tang; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz; Hindsholm, Karsten; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this multicentre cohort study was to examine the relationship between antiplatelet therapy (APT) at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and postoperative bleeding complications, transfusion requirements and adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: A matched...

  14. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... later, there was laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. The learning curve, which is the time that it takes for the surgeon to learn surgery from open to laparoscopic, used to be ...

  15. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I ... robotic prostatectomy, which is probably the standard of care today for prostate cancer. This is our eighth ...

  16. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I am Dr. Anthony Gonzalez, and welcome to South Miami Hospital. We’ ...

  17. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gastrectomy. Another question is, “Does gastric bypass eliminate diabetes?” The morbidly obese patients that we see are those patients that have diabetes mellitus type II, and that’s diabetes associated with ...

  18. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of reinforce this. This has been a really beautiful case. There’s really no bleeding, even though we ... on BAPTISTHEALTH.NET and joining us for this beautiful fully robotic gastric bypass. I hope that Dr. ...

  19. Association of sex with patency of femorodistal bypass grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, H R; Schroeder, T V; Simms, M H;

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence for superior patency in infra-inguinal bypass procedures in men compared to women. A large, prospectively planned series was investigated in order to confirm this finding and to determine the origin of this difference in outcome....

  20. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we have an added dimension, and the depth perception is incredible and just aids the surgery a ... later, there was laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. The learning curve, which is the time that it takes ...

  1. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gastric bypass. So without further adieu, let me send you out, right outside our doors to my ... everything else that’s going into it, it will send the same signal to the brain that you’ ...

  2. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Harrisburg Hospital campus. We are going to witness a robot-assisted minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery ... you're starting to do and maybe give a little background on the patient's condition? 00:00: ...

  3. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... later, there was laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. The learning curve, which is the time that it takes ... that you can do it proficiently; however the learning curve with robotic surgery is much shorter. In ...

  4. Collider bypass diode thermal simulations and measurements for the SSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostamzadeh, C.; Tool, G.

    1993-05-01

    Warm bypass diodes will be used as a component of a quench protection system to bypass an exponentially decaying current of 36 sec. time constant and peak current of 7000 A. Temperature excursions due to approximately 252 Kilo Ampere Sec. are studied using ANSYS, a finite element analysis program. A parabolic current waveform of similar energy but higher MIITs (1058 MIIT) was applied to the bypass circuit and temperature excursion was measured at various locations. The procedure of current waveform generation and thermal measurements is illustrated in this paper. A comparison of simulation technique with actual measurements confirms the accuracy of the bypass diode assembly model. This assembly is installed at the SSC half-cell string test facility and results are extremely encouraging.

  5. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... done in two dimensions. Here we have an added dimension, and the depth perception is incredible and ... just a restrictive type of procedure. There’s no combined procedure like with the gastric bypass. So the ...

  6. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... operative procedure, the live procedure, you’ll understand it. Basically, the gastric bypass works on two different ... a small portion of the stomach and divide it from the rest of the stomach, and that’s ...

  7. Value of Optical Bypass in Packet Ring Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly examines the value of optical bypass scheme in packet ring networks. An Integer Linear Program (ILP) formulation is presented and analytical results under different traffic patterns are given.

  8. Normoxic and Hyperoxic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cyanotic congenital heart disease comprises a diverse spectrum of anatomical pathologies. Common to all, however, is chronic hypoxia before these lesions are operated upon when cardiopulmonary bypass is initiated. A range of functional and structural adaptations take place in the chronically hypoxic heart, which, whilst protective in the hypoxic state, are deleterious when the availability of oxygen to the myocardium is suddenly improved. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass delivers hyperoxic...

  9. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  10. Bypass flow computations on the LOFA transient in a VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bypass flow in the prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is not intentionally designed to occur, but is present in the gaps between graphite blocks. Previous studies of the bypass flow in the core indicated that the cooling provided by flow in the bypass gaps had a significant effect on temperature and flow distributions for normal operating conditions. However, the flow and heat transports in the core are changed significantly after a Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA). This study aims to study the effect and role of the bypass flow after a LOFA in terms of the temperature and flow distributions and for the heat transport out of the core by natural convection of the coolant for a 1/12 symmetric section of the active core which is composed of images and mirror images of two sub-region models. The two sub-region models, 9 × 1/12 and 15 × 1/12 symmetric sectors of the active core, are employed as the CFD flow models using computational grid systems of 70.2 million and 117 million nodes, respectively. It is concluded that the effect of bypass flow is significant for the initial conditions and the beginning of LOFA, but the bypass flow has little effect after a long period of time in the transient computation of natural circulation. -- Highlights: • Effect of with/without bypass flow through gaps between hexagonal blocks is studied. • Role of natural convection by the bypass flow after a loss of flow accident. • Two regions of the one-twelfth symmetric sector of the active core are in CFD models. • 70.2 million cell mesh employed for CFD computations with 15 and 9 × 1/12 sectors. • The reference model is based on modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR)

  11. Controllability and Operability Analysis of Heat Exchanger Networks Including Bypasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, S; Balcazar-López, L.; Sánchez-Márquez, J. A.; González-García, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of bypasses in heat exchanger networks on theoretical control properties and closed-loop behavior was investigated. According to theoretical control properties obtained using the singular value decomposition technique, the presence of bypasses increases flexibility of the heat exchanger network. This result was corroborated using closed-loop dynamic simulations using a proportional integral controller and a proportional integral controller with dynamic estimati...

  12. Coronary artery bypass grafting in an achondroplastic dwarf.

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer, J M; Perry, D; Crowley, J; Moran, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    To our knowledge, coronary bypass for complications of coronary artery disease in achondroplasia has not previously been described. Achondroplasia, in and of itself, is not a contraindication to coronary bypass. Although the anatomic reserve of saphenous vein is less in achondroplastic dwarfs than in people of normal stature, that vessel and the internal mammary artery can be harvested in routine fashion. A 60-year-old woman with several risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent succ...

  13. Fault Tolerant Parallel Filters Based On Bch Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Mohana Krishna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital filters are used in signal processing and communication systems. In some cases, the reliability of those systems is critical, and fault tolerant filter implementations are needed. Over the years, many techniques that exploit the filters’ structure and properties to achieve fault tolerance have been proposed. As technology scales, it enables more complex systems that incorporate many filters. In those complex systems, it is common that some of the filters operate in parallel, for example, by applying the same filter to different input signals. Recently, a simple technique that exploits the presence of parallel filters to achieve multiple fault tolerance has been presented. In this brief, that idea is generalized to show that parallel filters can be protected using Bose– Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes (BCH in which each filter is the equivalent of a bit in a traditional ECC. This new scheme allows more efficient protection when the number of parallel filters is large.

  14. Distributed Kalman-Consensus Filtering for Sparse Signal Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yisha Liu; Haiyang Yu; Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    A Kalman filtering-based distributed algorithm is proposed to deal with the sparse signal estimation problem. The pseudomeasurement-embedded Kalman filter is rebuilt in the information form, and an improved parameter selection approach is discussed. By introducing the pseudomeasurement technology into Kalman-consensus filter, a distributed estimation algorithm is developed to fuse the measurements from different nodes in the network, such that all filters can reach a consensus on the estimate...

  15. Bypass Selection for Control of Heat Exchanger Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin; LUO Xionglin; HOU Benquan; BAI Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Considering the flexibility and controllability of heat exchanger networks (HENs),bypasses are widely used for effective control of process stream target temperatures.However,the optimal location for the bypass is generally difficult to design with the trade-off between controllability and capital investments.In this paper,based on the steady-state model of heat exchanger networks the optimal bypass location was firstly selected by iteratively calculating the non-square Relative Gain Array (ns-RGA).To simplify the calculation process,rules of bypass selection were also proposed.In order to evaluate this method,then,the structural controllability of heat exchanger networks was analyzed.With both the consideration of the controllability and capital investments,the bypasses locations were finally selected.A case study on the HEN in Crude Distillation Unit was presented in which the ns-RGA and structural controllability were used to select bypasses and also to evaluate the results.

  16. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-05-11

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

  17. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  18. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  19. Variations in dietary intake after bypass surgery for obesity. Possible relation to development of fatty liver after jejunoileal bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogus, J.; Blumenthal, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Consumption of nutrients and food energy was compared, with concomitant chemical and radiologic measurements of hepatic fat content, preoperatively and postoperatively in 25 patients who underwent gastric or jejunoileal bypass for obesity. Patients in the two operative groups ingested similar quantities of food before surgery. After surgery, caloric intake from all sources decreased in both groups but to a significantly greater extent in the gastric bypass patients. During the first six months postoperatively, the 13 gastric bypass patients showed no changes in hepatic fat content, whereas substantial increases in liver fat uniformly occurred in the 12 patients who had jejunoileal bypasses. It is suggested that dietary carbohydrate may have contributed to the accretion of liver fat in these 12 patients.

  20. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  1. Filters with random transmittance for improving resolution in filter-array-based spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J; Lee, Woong-Bi; Lee, Heung-No

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, we introduce a method for improving the resolution of miniature spectrometers. Our method is based on using filters with random transmittance. Such filters sense fine details of an input signal spectrum, which, when combined with a signal processing algorithm, aid in improving resolution. We also propose an approach for designing filters with random transmittance using optical thin-film technology. We demonstrate that the improvement in resolution is 7-fold when using the filters with random transmittance over what was achieved in our previous work. PMID:23481932

  2. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  3. Introduction to Kalman Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document is an introduction to Kalman optimal Filtering applied to linear systems. It is assumed that the reader is already aware of linear servo-loop theory, frequency-domain Filtering (continuous and discrete-time) and state-space approach to represent linear systems. Generally, Filtering consists in estimating a useful information (signal) from a measurement (of this information) perturbed by a noise. Frequency-domain Filtering assumes that a frequency-domain separation exists between...

  4. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  5. Filtering in Finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautier, Delphine; Javaheri, Alireza; Galli, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an introduction to various Filtering algorithms and some of their applications to the world of Quantitative Finance. We shall first mention the fundamental case of Gaussian noises where we obtain the well-known Kalman Filter. Because of common nonlinearities, we will be discussing the Extended Kalman Filter.

  6. Adaptive acoustooptic filter

    OpenAIRE

    Psaltis, Demetri; Hong, John

    1984-01-01

    A new adaptive filter utilizing acoustooptic devices in a space integrating architecture is described. Two configurations are presented; one of them, suitable for signal estimation, is shown to approximate the Wiener filter, while the other, suitable for detection, is shown to approximate the matched filter.

  7. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  8. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  9. Alpha Removal Process Filter Cleaning Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is developing a process to treat radioactive waste that is low in cesium-137, but high in strontium-90, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) personnel asked Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) personnel to provide recommendations for chemically cleaning the Alpha Removal Process filters. The authors reviewed previous SRTC filter cleaning experience with bench-scale radioactive filters and pilot-scale simulant filters from tests with simulated and actual waste. From reviewing the previous filter cleaning data and assuming the heel in the 512-S filtration system is 85 gallons or less, the authors recommendations and approach to the inquiry are contained in this report

  10. Development of technology and equipment for trapping emissions from a vitrification line, including the manufacture of selected nodes (flow separator, NOx absorber, aerosol filters)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology was designed of a processing line for trapping nitrogen oxides emerging during the treatment of liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. In this design, absorption with a chemical reaction is combined with subsequent trapping of the then formed aerosols of the acids on a sprayed fibrous insert flown through by the gas treated. The degree of absorption is 94% and more for NO2, and 43% on average for NO. (J.B). 10 tabs., 3 figs., 11 refs

  11. The Effects of Exercise Cardiac Rehabilitation on Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yalfani; F. Nazem; R. Safiarian; M. Jargeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Despite advancement in technology such as coronary artery bypasses grafting (CABG) prevalence of anxiety and depression remain high after cardiac events, which have been found to influence recovery process, recurrent cardiac events and patients’ quality of life. Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) as part of secondary prevention aims to improve patients’ physical, psychological and quality of life (QoL) status. As there is lack of study in this area in Iran, the present stud...

  12. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  14. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  15. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  16. Gas Cleaning with Granular Bed Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ødegård, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    A literature study is first presented then the practical experiments are described. The theoretical chapter provides an overview of filtration mechanisms and available gas cleaning technologies, with an emphasis on hot gas and cake filtration. The experimental chapters describe the setup and testing of the filter tray test rig and the L10-56 test rig. The filter tray test rig was built, instrumentation was installed and programming performed. Puff-back calibration and heating tests were pe...

  17. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting: initial Connecticut experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellides, G; Maragh, M R; Smith, J M; Kopf, G S; Ezekowitz, M; Remetz, M; Elefteriades, J A

    1997-03-01

    We report the initial Connecticut experience with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. This procedure allows bypass grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery utilizing the internal mammary artery as the conduit. The procedure is minimally invasive because it is performed through a mini-thoracotomy incision in the fourth anterior intercostal space and it is conducted without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The procedure has been applied to 13 patients operated between February and October 1996. All but one patient selected were poor candidates for conventional coronary artery bypass surgery because of advanced age (6), chronic renal failure/dialysis/kidney transplant (4), redo status with vulnerable grafts (1), severe peripheral vascular disease (6), severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4). All patients survived operation and were discharged in good condition. Mean postoperative intubation time was seven hours and mean hospital stay was 4.5 days despite the very high pre-existing comorbidity of these patients. All patients are alive at the current follow-up time. Two patients required a conventional bypass procedure for occlusion of the minimally invasive graft, the first because of diffuse disease in the target artery and the second attributable to the technical limitations of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting; both tolerated the subsequent procedure well. All patients are now angina-free. All four grafts studied by routine postoperative angiography were widely patent. Routine post-operative exercise nuclear imaging was normal in an additional patient. This procedure of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting offers significant advantages compared to the conventional bypass procedure (short hospital stay, quick recovery, and, especially, avoidance of cerebrovascular accidents caused by the heart-lung machine). This minimally invasive procedure is expected to apply to a growing percentage of

  18. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  19. Infiltration and Bypass Flow of Cracking Puddled Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Islam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of infiltration and bypass flow was conducted in a wet soil bin with three different soils treatments (sandy loam, clay loam and clay soil to determine the swelling behaviour of cracking puddled soils by watering and its impact on bypass flow. Infiltration rate for the soils was recorded after puddling the soils. Then the puddled soils were allowed to dry for a period of up to 15 days. After that the plots were rewetted in order to observe the swelling and bypass behaviour of cracked soils. From this study it is observed that the infiltration rates of puddled soils were very low (0.03-0.05 mm h-1 mainly due to the puddling effect. The study indicates that cracks on puddled soils at 15th day�s of drying are effectively irreversible. The maximum bypass flow was recorded for the clay loam soil. During the first day, the flow rate was extremely high at 313 mm h-1. But this higher rate gradually reduced from the second day and onwards. The bypass flow rate for the clay loam and clay soil was almost same. The study reveals that it is not possible to swell up shrinkage cracks on puddled soils by watering alone. Re-working of the soil is necessary to seal the cracks.

  20. The influence of core bypass flow during SBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many parameters affect the behaviour of a NPP during a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). The bypass flow between the core side and the downcomer is one of them. Different PWRs have different values of core bypass flow. In spite of the complexity of the real situation in the primary system during SBLOCA, some fundamental details of the phenomena can be explained with simplified mathematical models, which relate on basic parameters of the primary coolant. These models define the conditions for loop seal clearance and final results are confirmed with measured values. The analysis presented in the paper refers to Bethsy Test 9.1.b SB LOCA scenario, with variation of core bypass flow. Basic RELAP5 input model calculation results show very good agreement with the experimental data. The core liquid level depression before loop seal clearance is lower in case of smaller core bypass flow. This affects the fuel clad temperature because of different heat transfer mechanisms. Time of loop seal clearance is delayed with larger core bypass flow and consequently lower differential pressure between downcomer and core. (author)

  1. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  2. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate sitespecific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Canga, Eriona; Heckrath, Goswin Johann;

    2012-01-01

    typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic...... Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies targeting P-retention and N-removal in agricultural subsurface drainage. The project studies different approaches of implementing the filter technologies including drainage well filters as well as...... project further explores the denitrification capacity and potential green house gas emissions in different types of constructed wetlands and filter solutions. Sensitivity analyses using integrated models will provide filter design parameters for optimized filter performance and allow analysis of cost...

  3. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  4. Scheme of adaptive polarization filtering based on Kalman model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lizhong; Qi Haiming; Qiao Xiaolin; Meng Xiande

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of adaptive polarization filtering algorithm in order to suppress the angle cheating interference for the active guidance radar is presented. The polarization characteristic of the interference is dynamically tracked by using Kalman estimator under variable environments with time. The polarization filter parameters are designed according to the polarization characteristic of the interference, and the polarization filtering is finished in the target cell. The system scheme of adaptive polarization filter is studied and the tracking performance of polarization filter and improvement of angle measurement precision are simulated. The research results demonstrate this technology can effectively suppress the angle cheating interference in guidance radar and is feasible in engineering.

  5. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  6. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  7. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  8. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    OpenAIRE

    Arathy Rajagopal; B. Geethanjali; Arulprakash P

    2014-01-01

    A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers...

  9. Morphing ensemble Kalman filters

    OpenAIRE

    Beezley, Jonathan D.; Mandel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A new type of ensemble filter is proposed, which combines an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with the ideas of morphing and registration from image processing. This results in filters suitable for non-linear problems whose solutions exhibit moving coherent features, such as thin interfaces in wildfire modelling. The ensemble members are represented as the composition of one common state with a spatial transformation, called registration mapping, plus a residual. A fully automatic registration m...

  10. Morphing Ensemble Kalman Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Beezley, Jonathan D.; Mandel, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A new type of ensemble filter is proposed, which combines an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with the ideas of morphing and registration from image processing. This results in filters suitable for nonlinear problems whose solutions exhibit moving coherent features, such as thin interfaces in wildfire modeling. The ensemble members are represented as the composition of one common state with a spatial transformation, called registration mapping, plus a residual. A fully automatic registration met...

  11. Kalman Filter Neuron Training

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Haruhiko; KOYAMA, Shuhei; HONAMI, Nobuo; Kuwabara, Takao

    1991-01-01

    An attempt of implementing Kalman filter algorithm in the procedure for training the neural network was made and evaluated. The Kalman filter neuron training program (KNT) was coded. The performance of Kalman filter in KNT was compared to commonly used neuron training algorithm. The study revealed that KNT requires much less calculation time to accomplish neuron training than commonly used other algorithms do. KNT also gave much smaller final error than any other algorithms tested in this study.

  12. Study of slow sand filtration with backwash and the influence of the filter media on the filter recovery and cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernando Hymnô; Pizzolatti, Bruno Segalla; Schöntag, Juliana Marques; Sens, Maurício Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Slow sand filters are considered as a great alternative for supplying drinking water in rural and/or isolated areas where raw water that is treatable with this technique is available. Some studies used backwashing as an alternative for cleaning the slow sand filter with the goal of applying the technology in small communities, since filters that supply water to a small number of people do not require much space. In this study the influence of the effective diameter on water quality in the filters and cleaning system was evaluated. A pilot system with six filters was built: three filters were conventionally cleaned by scraping and the other three were cleaned by backwashing, each with a different effective diameter of filter medium. Most filters had an average turbidity of less than 1.0 NTU, the turbidity required at the output of the filters by the Brazilian Ministry of Health Ordinance. In the study, the filters cleaned by scraping with smaller-diameter filter beds effectively filtered water better but had worse effective production. The opposite occurs in the case of backwashed filters. PMID:26789389

  13. Full turbine bypass system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increase in the weight of electric power network, vigilant watch is kept on the toughness of nuclear power plants against disturbances on the side of the network. Basically speaking, it is desirable that reactors continue operation even in case the station is removed from the network due to an outside disturbance. In order to meet this requirement, the application of a full-load turbine bypass system for 1,100-MW-class nuclear power plants has been planned; the development of system components was advanced; the reliability of the full-load turbine bypass system was confirmed through simulation tests. The process of development is outlined here. (author)

  14. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H; Wiik, A; Schroeder, T V; Secher, N H

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... concentration of troponin I (n = 8). In conclusion, tissue injury was reflected by increases in muscle enzymes in plasma. We found an inverse correlation between lower leg electrical impedance and volume, but the deviation in electrical impedance was approximately twice that of the leg volume. Electrical...... impedance appears to be a useful method for the evaluation of lower leg oedema after distal bypass surgery....

  15. Divertor bypass in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, C. S.; LaBombard, B.; Danforth, R.; Pina, W.; Silveira, M.; Parkin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Alcator C-Mod divertor bypass has for the first time allowed in situ variations to the mechanical baffle design in a tokamak. The design utilizes small coils which interact with the ambient magnetic field inside the vessel to provide the torque required to control small flaps of a Venetian blind geometry. Plasma physics experiments with the bypass have revealed the importance of the divertor baffling to maintain high divertor gas pressures. These experiments have also indicated that the divertor baffling has only a limited effect on the main chamber pressure in C-Mod.

  16. Surgical cartographic navigation system for endoscopic bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Arun; Mayoral, Rafael; Jacobs, Stephan; Grunert, Ronny; Moeckel, Hendrik; Korb, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic bypass grafting with the da Vinci system is still challenging and needs high level of experience and skill of the surgeon. Therefore, it is necessary to support the surgeon with enhanced vision and augmented reality. The augmentation of the patient model into the view of the endoscope is a direct approach to enhance support. The results of a preclinical study are shown in this paper. The method applied is suitable for endoscopic bypass grafting and in general applicable to minimal invasive surgery. The system was designed as an open architecture to facilitate easy transfer of the methodology into other surgical domain applications. PMID:18002243

  17. Mathematical Model of Suspension Filtering and Its Analytical Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normahmad Ravshanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work develops mathematical model and computing algorithm to analyze, project and identify the basic parameters of filter units operation and their variation range. On their basis, numerical analytic solution of the problem of ionized liquid solutions filtering was obtained. Computing experiments, resulting in graphic format were presented. Analysis of calculation results enables to determine the optimum modes of filter units operation, used in liquid ionized solutions filtration technology, in food preparation, in drug production and for drinking water purification. Selection of the most suitable parameters contributes to the improvement of economic and technologic efficiency of production and filter units operability.

  18. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John R; Bingham, Clifton O; Boonen, Annelies; Brooks, Peter; Conaghan, Philip G; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Dougados, Maxime; Furst, Daniel E; Gossec, Laure; Guillemin, Francis; Helliwell, Philip; Hewlett, Sarah; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert B; March, Lyn; Mease, Philip J; Østergaard, Mikkel; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and...... interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  20. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  1. Managing the Inflammatory Response after Cardiopulmonary Bypass : Review of the Studies in Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammat

  2. Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI before coronary artery bypass surgery: impact of myocardial scar extent on bypass flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to relate the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI to intraoperative graft flow in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirty-three CAD patients underwent LGE MRI before surgery using an inversion-recovery GRE sequence (turboFLASH). Intraoperative graft flow in Doppler ultrasonography was compared with the scar extent in each coronary vessel territory. One hundred and fourteen grafts were established supplying 86 of the 99 vessel territories. A significant negative correlation was found between scar extent and graft flow (r = -0.4, p -1; p < 0.0001). In summary, the extent of myocardial scar as defined by contrast-enhanced MRI predicts coronary bypass graft flow. Beyond the probability of functional recovery, preoperative MRI might add value to surgery planning by predicting midterm bypass graft patency. (orig.)

  3. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  4. Robust Light Filters Support Powerful Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) light filters developed by Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc. of Westerville, Ohio -- using SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Langley Research Center -- employ porous silicon and metal mesh technology to provide optical filtration even at the ultra-low temperatures required by many IR sensors. With applications in the astronomy community, Lake Shore s SBIR-developed filters are also promising tools for use in terahertz imaging, the next wave of technology for applications like medical imaging, the study of fragile artworks, and airport security.

  5. Natural headland sand bypassing; towards identifying and modelling the mechanisms and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Ab Razak, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural headland sand bypassing: Towards identifying and modelling the mechanisms and processes contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms and processes of sand bypassing in artificial and non-artificial coastal environments through a numerical modelling study. Sand bypassing processes in general are a relevant but poorly understood topic. This study attempts to link the theory and physics of sand bypassing processes which is significantly important in definition of coastal sedimentar...

  6. The Daala Directional Deringing Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Valin, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the deringing filter used in the Daala royalty-free video codec. The filter is based on a non-linear conditional replacement filter and is designed for vectorization efficiency. It takes into account the direction of edges and patterns being filtered. The filter works by identifying the direction of each block and then adaptively filtering along the identified direction. In a second pass, the blocks are also filtered in a different direction, with more conservative thresho...

  7. TR PIV Experimental Investigation on Bypass Transition Induced by a Cylinder Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan-Qi; JIANG Nan

    2011-01-01

    @@ The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved(TR)particle image velocimetry(PIV) in a water channel.The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure andto track its evolution along the streamvise.At the beginning of transition,with the decent of cylinder wake vortex,the secondary vortex structure is induced near the vall.As the secondary vortex moves dovnstream,it is induced to lift up by the wake vortex,meanwhile they are diffused and dissipated.According to the method of spatial conditional average,a low-speedhump is found in the near-wallregion along the bypass transition zone,accompanied by a low-speed region in the free stream occupied by the vake vortex.With further downstream,the hump in the near-wall region becomes more and more obvious.At the later stage of transition zone,hairpin vortex can be seen by conditional-averaged low-pass filtered vorticity.The hairpin head is almost vertical to the wall with an inclination angle of about 90°,which is attributed to the additional lift-up behavior induced by wake vortex.It can be concluded that in the process of bypass transition,the wake vortex would not only induce the secondary vortex but also leaven its growth and evolution,resulting in the robust and rapidly growing hairpin vortex.%The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved (TR)particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a water channel. The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure and to track its evolution along the streamwise. At the beginning of transition, with the decent of cylinder wake vortex, the secondary vortex structure is induced near the wall. As the secondary vortex moves downstream, it is induced to lift

  8. Reconfigurable ring filter with controllable frequency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Wahab, Norfishah; Mohd Salleh, Mohd Khairul; Ismail Khan, Zuhani; Abd Rashid, Nur Emileen

    2014-01-01

    Reconfigurable ring filter based on single-side-access ring topology is presented. Using capacitive tuning elements, the electrical length of the ring can be manipulated to shift the nominal center frequency to a desired position. A synthesis is developed to determine the values of the capacitive elements. To show the advantage of the synthesis, it is applied to the reconfigurable filter design using RF lumped capacitors. The concept is further explored by introducing varactor-diodes to continuously tune the center frequency of the ring filter. For demonstration, two prototypes of reconfigurable ring filters are realized using microstrip technology, simulated, and measured to validate the proposed concept. The reconfigured filter using lumped elements is successfully reconfigured from 2 GHz to 984.4 MHz and miniaturized by 71% compared to the filter directly designed at the same reconfigured frequency, while, for the filter using varactor-diodes, the frequency is chosen from 1.10 GHz to 1.38 GHz spreading over 280 MHz frequency range. Both designs are found to be compact with acceptable insertion loss and high selectivity. PMID:25121132

  9. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. Computer-Generated Holographic Matched Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Steven Frank

    This dissertation presents techniques for the use of computer-generated holograms (CGH) for matched filtering. An overview of the supporting technology is provided. Included are techniques for modifying existing CGH algorithms to serve as matched filters in an optical correlator. It shows that matched filters produced in this fashion can be modified to improve the signal-to-noise and efficiency over that possible with conventional holography. The effect and performance of these modifications are demonstrated. In addition, a correction of film non-linearity in continuous -tone filter production is developed. Computer simulations provide quantitative and qualitative demonstration of theoretical principles, with specific examples validated in optical hardware. Conventional and synthetic holograms, both bleached and unbleached, are compared.

  13. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Håkon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (ENKF), thereby yielding a multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLENKF) which has provably superior asymptotic cost to a given accuracy level. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  14. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Filtering every global constraint of a CPS to are consistency at every search step can be costly and solvers often compromise on either the level of consistency or the frequency at which are consistency is enforced. In this paper we propose two randomized filtering schemes for dense instances...

  15. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  16. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyle, Mark Don; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Archibald, Kip Ernest; Brewer, Ken Neal; Pierson, Kenneth Alan; Shackelford, Kimberlee Rene; Kline, Kelli Suzanne

    1999-03-01

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

  17. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available

  18. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Archibald; K. Brewer; K. Kline; K. Pierson; K. Shackelford; M. Argyle; R. Demmer

    1999-02-01

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

  19. Emergency bypass post percutaneous atrial ablation: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2010-11-01

    A 34-year-old male undergoing percutaneous atrial ablation procedure for paroxysmal fibrillation required emergency sternotomy for cardiac tamponade. The patient had been anticoagulated and had received plavix and aspirin prior to and during the ablation procedure. Seven units of red cell concentrate had been transfused in the cardiac catherisation laboratory. On arrival in theatre, the patient was hypotensive, but was awake on induction of anaesthesia. No recordable blood pressure with non-invasive monitoring was observed. A sternotomy was immediately performed and, on evacuation of the pericardium, a bleeding site was not visible. The patient was commenced on cardiopulmonary bypass. Bleeding site was identified and the defect closed. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with minimal inotropic support and made an uneventful recovery. Bypass time was 38 minutes. A literature review showed a 1% incidence of post-ablation bleeding(1). The incidence of reverting to bypass for such an event has not been reported previously. During these procedures, it might be wise to have the cardiothoracic team notified while atrial ablation procedures are being performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  20. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doing robotic gastric bypasses, we would do a hybrid. We would do part of it laparoscopically and ... if they’re using the robot, it’s a hybrid procedure. But now we’re doing them fully ...

  1. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that we see are those patients that have diabetes mellitus type II, and that’s diabetes associated with obesity. And there’s no question that ... The other question is, “Does gastric bypass eliminate diabetes and does the sleeve?” It’s not the type of -- it’s not actually the type of procedure ...

  2. Cycling firing method for bypass operation of bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabar, Zivan

    1982-01-01

    The bridge converter comprises a number of switching elements and an electronic logic system which regulated the electric power levels by controlling the firing, i.e., the initiation of the conduction period of the switching elements. Cyclic firing of said elements allows the direct current to bypass the alternating current system with high power factor and negligible losses.

  3. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  4. A device for a noninvasive evaluation of coronary bypass grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, J J; Lamser, D G; Herr, M D

    1994-01-01

    A new device is presented for evaluating the patency of coronary bypass grafts. Bypass grafts are located within the chest cavity using a Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique that creates frontal plane tomographic images. The tomographic image pixels are mapped into computer memory and displayed. A display pointer is used to mark the position of the bypass graft. The computer uses that information to subsequently position a radiation detector, such that it "looks" at the location of the bypass graft within the closed chest. The patency of the graft is then evaluated by monitoring an X-ray induced iodine fluorescence transient in the graft, subsequent to a peripheral intravenous contrast injection. This imaging and graft evaluation device is relatively inexpensive and its application does not require cutdowns or catheterization. The associated radiation dose is 1/10 to 1/50 of that associated with alternative X-ray graft patency evaluation techniques. Preliminary testing has been performed on mechanical and animal models. PMID:18218544

  5. Integral bypass diodes in an amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, J. J.; Flaisher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film, tandem-junction, amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules were constructed in which a part of the a-Si alloy cell material is used to form bypass protection diodes. This integral design circumvents the need for incorporating external, conventional diodes, thus simplifying the manufacturing process and reducing module weight.

  6. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Slaa, A.; Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.; Ho, G. H.; Moll, F. L.; van der Laan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial lower-limb edema affects the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery. Edema has impairing effects on the microvascular and the macrovascular circulation, causes discomfort and might delay the rehabilitation process of the patient. However, the pathophysiology of this e

  7. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality, myo...

  8. Turbulent spots detection during boundary layer by-pass transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáš, Pavel; Elsner, W.; Mazur, Oton; Uruba, Václav; Wysocki, M.

    -, č. 80 (2009), s. 16-19. ISSN N R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760614; GA MŠk MEB050810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent spot * boundary layer * by-pass transition * turbulent spot detection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Bypassing of a barrier by dissociated and superlattice dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhushan, Karihaloo

    1975-01-01

    Very simple procedures are used to calculate the upper and lower bounds for the applied stress required for the leading extended (superlattice) dislocation in a group of n coplanar screw dislocations of like sign with Burgers vector b to bypass a noncoplanar perfect screw dislocation with Burgers...... vector mb (m...

  10. A device for a noninvasive evaluation of coronary bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new device is presented for evaluating the patency of coronary bypass grafts. Bypass grafts are located within the chest cavity using a Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) technique that creates frontal plane tomographic images. The tomographic image pixels are mapped into computer memory and displayed. A display pointer is used to mark the position of the bypass graft. The computer uses that information to subsequently position a radiation detector, such that it looks at the location of the bypass graft within the closed chest. The patency of the graft is then evaluated by monitoring an X-ray induced iodine fluorescence transient in the graft, subsequent to a peripheral intravenous contrast injection. This imaging and graft evaluation device is relatively inexpensive and its application does not require cutdowns or catheterization. The associated radiation dose is 1/10 to 1/50 of that associated with alternative X-ray graft patency evaluation techniques. Preliminary testing has been performed on mechanical and animal models

  11. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influence of bypass on tire noise and offer the tire designer a better approach to improve tire comfort ability. By virtual of numerical simulation method, the influence of bypass structure parameters, such as the width of junction pipe, the volume of resonance cavity, on tire noise were analyzed in this study. The result shows that the circumferential grooves with bypass not only bring down pipe resonance noise of circumferential grooves but also decrease far-field radiated noise of tire. Besides, with a certain resonant cavity, the width of junction pipeline between the circumferential grooves and the resonance cavity plays an important role in the improvement of tire noise. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  12. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PINNACLEHEALTH HARRISBURG HOSPITAL HARRISBURG, PA 00:00:08 JOHN PENNOCK, MD: Welcome this evening to PinnacleHealth Harrisburg ... artery bypass surgery operation. My name is Dr. John Pennock. I'm going to introduce you shortly ...

  13. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.

  14. Implicit Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  15. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  16. Research on Purification of Domestic Sewage by Artificially Strengthened Ecological Filter Bed in North China

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yue

    2013-01-01

    Artificially strengthened filter bed is an innovative wastewater treatment technology based on the coupling of eco-contact oxidation filters and artificial wetlands purification mechanism. By small scale laboratory equipment, the effects of cascade aeration, filter type, filter clogging and other ecological factors on the operation effect of artificial filter bed were studied. As indicated by the results, the pretreatment of cascade aeration had obvious effect and could satisfy the oxygen req...

  17. Reoperations for occluded arterial bypasses in the lower limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background We reviewed the outcomes of reoperations for 29 patients (30 limbs) who had undergone occluded arterial bypass in the lower limbs from May 1996 to September 2005. Methods The 30 lower limbs of the 29 patients with arteriosclerotic obstruction received 44 reoperations, including thrombectomy alone (group T, 27) and inflow or outflow reconstruction plus thrombectomy (group C, 17). Among the 17 operations in group C, 17.6% (3/17) were inflow reconstructions involving the axillary-femoral (1), aorta-iliac (1) and aorta-femoral (1) arteries, and 76.4% (13/17) outflow reconstructions involving the femoral-popliteal bypass-tibial (8), femoral-tibial (1), femoral-popliteal bypass-popliteal arteries below the knee (2), and the femoral-popliteal bypass-tibial-peroneal trunk (2). One patient (1 limb) underwent both inflow and outflow reconstructions with an iliac arterial stent and a graft-popliteal anastomosis patch. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were used in the inflow or outflow reconstructions abve the knee. Autovenous grafts or autovenously combined PTFE grafts were used in the outflow reconstructions below the knee. Results The percentages of Fontaine stage III and IV before primary operation and reoperation were 60% (18/30) and 86.7% (26/30), respectively (P0.05). Among 42 reoperations, 19 failed within 1 month in groups T (16) and C (3) (P0.05). The rate of limb salvage was 64.29% (18/28). Conclusions The percentages of Fontaine stage III and IV before reoperation may be much higher than those before primary operation. Thrombectomy plus inflow/outflow reconstruction creates patency better than thrombectomy alone for re-occluded bypass.

  18. DATA BYPASSING ARCHITECTURE AND CIRCUIT DESIGN FOR 32-BIT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoyi; Yao Qingdong; Liu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a design method of ByPassing Unit(BPU) in 32-bit Digital Signal Processor(DSP)-MD32. MD32 is realized in 0,18μm technology, 1.8V and 200 MHz working clock. It focuses on the Reduced Instruction Set Computer(RISC) architecture and DSP computation capability thoroughly, extends DSP with various addressing modes in a customized DSP pipeline stage architecture. The paper also discusses the architecture and circuit design of bypassing logic to fit MD32 architecture. The parallel execution of BPU with instruction decode in architecture level is applied to reduce time delay. The optimization of circuit that serial select with priority is analyzed in detail, and the result shows that about half of time delay is reduced after this optimization. Examples show that BPU is useful for improving the DSP's performance.The forwarding logic in MD32 realizes 8 data channels feedback and meets the working clock limit.

  19. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    OpenAIRE

    F. Binczyk; J. Śleziona; P. Gradoń

    2011-01-01

    The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The ...

  20. Development of Graphical User Interface For Microwave Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Djengomemgoto

    2016-01-01

    This research project aims at developing a low-cost, time-effective and a stand-alone graphical user interface (GUI) that will be used to design microwave filters. Throughout the projects, the main theory behind the technology of microwave filters, their generalized mathematical equations and the analysis of their different circuit topologies have been reviewed. This review helps to extract the necessary information needed for the design of microwave filters. Besides, the guiding principles a...

  1. Conjugate Gradient Acceleration of Non-Linear Smoothing Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, Andrew; Malyshev, Alexander,

    2015-01-01

    The most efficient signal edge-preserving smoothing filters, e.g., for denoising, are non-linear. Thus, their acceleration is challenging and is often performed in practice by tuning filter parameters, such as by increasing the width of the local smoothing neighborhood, resulting in more aggressive smoothing of a single sweep at the cost of increased edge blurring. We propose an alternative technology, accelerating the original filters without tuning, by running them through a special conjuga...

  2. Treatment of Wastewater from Backwashing Process Sand Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Miletić, S.; Panjkret, V.; Zečević, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the process of raw water treatment for use in the petrochemical industry, one of the most important treatments is the filtration process with process sand filters. A by-product of the filtration process of raw water is wastewater. The wastewater results from the technological process of backwashing process sand filters. Wastewater from backwashing sand filters is unsuitable for further use, since it is contaminated with residual suspended matter and chemical compounds that are added in the...

  3. Experimental Investigation of In Situ Cleanable HEPA Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, S.A.

    2001-04-11

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) located at Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) is currently conducting research and development experimentation to develop a replacement of the conventional high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system currently used by commercial industry and DOE facilities. It has been determined that a cleanable or regenerable HEPA filter system may be the most cost effective and efficient HEPA filter system to be considered for use in a more safe and reliable work environment.

  4. Defueling filter test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor (TMI-2) has sustained core damage creating a significant quantity of fine debris, which can become suspended during the planned defueling operations, and will have to be constantly removed to maintain water clarity and minimize radiation exposure. To accomplish these objectives, a Defueling Water Cleanup System (DWCS) has been designed. One of the primary components in the DWCS is a custom designed filter canister using an all stainless steel filter medium. The full scale filter canister is designed to remove suspended solids from 800 microns to 0.5 microns in size. Filter cartridges are fabricated into an element cluster to provide for a flowrate of greater than 100 gals/min. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) under contract to GPU Nuclear Corporation has evaluated two candidate DWCS filter concepts in a 1/100 scale proof-of-principle test program at BandW's Lynchburg Research Center. The filters were challenged with simulated solids suspensions of 1400 and 140 ppm in borated water (5000 ppm boron). Test data collected includes solids loading, effluent turbidity, and differential pressure trends versus time. From the proof-of-principle test results, a full-scale filter canister was generated

  5. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  6. Smoke and pollutant filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smoke and pollutant filtering device comprising a mask having a filter composed of a series of contiguous, serial layers of filtering material. The filter consists of front and rear gas permeable covers, a first filter layer of pressed vegetable matter, a second filter layer comprising a layer of activated charcoal adjacent a layer of aqua filter floss, a third filter comprising a gas permeable cloth situated between layers of pressed vegetable matter, and a fourth filter layer comprising an aqua filter floss. The first through fourth filter layers are sandwiched between the front and rear gas permeable covers. The filtering device is stitched together and mounted within a fireretardant hood shaped to fit over a human head. Elastic bands are included in the hood to maintain the hood snugly about the head when worn

  7. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  8. HEPA filter jointer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-02-01

    A HEPA filter jointer system was created to remove nitrate contaminated wood from the wooden frames of HEPA filters that are stored at the Rocky Flats Plant. A commercial jointer was chosen to remove the nitrated wood. The chips from the wood removal process are in the right form for caustic washing. The jointer was automated for safety and ease of operation. The HEPA filters are prepared for jointing by countersinking the nails with a modified air hammer. The equipment, computer program, and tests are described in this report.

  9. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  10. Trajectory probability hypothesis density filter

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fernández, Ángel F.; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter for sets of trajectories. The resulting filter, which is referred to as trajectory probability density filter (TPHD), is capable of estimating trajectories in a principled way without requiring to evaluate all measurement-to-target association hypotheses. As the PHD filter, the TPHD filter is based on recursively obtaining the best Poisson approximation to the multitrajectory filtering density in the sense of minimising the K...

  11. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1...... filter and the DD2 filter. It also contains functions for Unscented Kalman filters as well as several versions of particle filters. The toolbox requires MATLAB version 7, but no additional toolboxes are required....

  12. Effectiveness of adverse effects search filters: drugs versus medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrah, Kelly; Mierzwinski-Urban, Monika; Cimon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study tested the performance of adverse effects search filters when searching for safety information on medical devices, procedures, and diagnostic tests in MEDLINE and Embase. Methods The sensitivity of 3 filters was determined using a sample of 631 references from 131 rapid reviews related to the safety of health technologies. The references were divided into 2 sets by type of intervention: drugs and nondrug health technologies. Keyword and indexing analysis were performed on references from the nondrug testing set that 1 or more of the filters did not retrieve. Results For all 3 filters, sensitivity was lower for nondrug health technologies (ranging from 53%–87%) than for drugs (88%–93%) in both databases. When tested on the nondrug health technologies set, sensitivity was lower in Embase (ranging from 53%–81%) than in MEDLINE (67%–87%) for all filters. Of the nondrug records that 1 or more of the filters missed, 39% of the missed MEDLINE records and 18% of the missed Embase records did not contain any indexing terms related to adverse events. Analyzing the titles and abstracts of nondrug records that were missed by any 1 filter, the most commonly used keywords related to adverse effects were: risk, complications, mortality, contamination, hemorrhage, and failure. Conclusions In this study, adverse effects filters were less effective at finding information about the safety of medical devices, procedures, and tests compared to information about the safety of drugs. PMID:27366123

  13. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  14. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest; Conaghan, Philip G; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Dougados, Maxime; Furst, Daniel E; Guillemin, Francis; Gossec, Laure; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert B M; Mackie, Sarah L; Matteson, Eric L; Mease, Philip J; Merkel, Peter A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to...... construction, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of...

  15. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Beaton, Dorcas; Boonen, Annelies; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest; Conaghan, Philip G; Dougados, Maxime; Duarte, Catia; Furst, Daniel E; Guillemin, Francis; Gossec, Laure; Heiberg, Turid; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Hewlett, Sarah; Kirwan, John R; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert B; Mease, Philip J; Østergaard, Mikkel; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; Wells, George

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets the...... criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed that there...... is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. Molecular circuits for dynamic noise filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, Christoph; Seelig, Georg; Rullan, Marc; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-04-26

    The invention of the Kalman filter is a crowning achievement of filtering theory-one that has revolutionized technology in countless ways. By dealing effectively with noise, the Kalman filter has enabled various applications in positioning, navigation, control, and telecommunications. In the emerging field of synthetic biology, noise and context dependency are among the key challenges facing the successful implementation of reliable, complex, and scalable synthetic circuits. Although substantial further advancement in the field may very well rely on effectively addressing these issues, a principled protocol to deal with noise-as provided by the Kalman filter-remains completely missing. Here we develop an optimal filtering theory that is suitable for noisy biochemical networks. We show how the resulting filters can be implemented at the molecular level and provide various simulations related to estimation, system identification, and noise cancellation problems. We demonstrate our approach in vitro using DNA strand displacement cascades as well as in vivo using flow cytometry measurements of a light-inducible circuit in Escherichia coli. PMID:27078094

  18. The Band Pass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano, Lawrence J.; Terry J. Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    The `ideal' band pass filter can be used to isolate the component of a time series that lies within a particular band of frequencies. However, applying this filter requires a dataset of infinite length. In practice, some sort of approximation is needed. Using projections, we derive approximations that are optimal when the time series representations underlying the raw data have a unit root, or are stationary about a trend. We identify one approximation which, though it is only optimal for one...

  19. Kalman Filtering in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tusell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Support in R for state space estimation via Kalman filtering was limited to one package, until fairly recently. In the last five years, the situation has changed with no less than four additional packages offering general implementations of the Kalman filter, including in some cases smoothing, simulation smoothing and other functionality. This paper reviews some of the offerings in R to help the prospective user to make an informed choice.

  20. Feedback Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tao; Mehta, Prashant G.; Meyn, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    A new formulation of the particle filter for nonlinear filtering is presented, based on concepts from optimal control, and from the mean-field game theory. The optimal control is chosen so that the posterior distribution of a particle matches as closely as possible the posterior distribution of the true state given the observations. This is achieved by introducing a cost function, defined by the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence between the actual posterior, and the posterior of any particle....

  1. Filtered Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Niehaus

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is economically important but also typically incomplete: we "filter" our communication. This paper analyzes the consequences of filtering. In the model, homogeneous agents share knowledge with their peers whenever the private benefits exceed communication costs. The welfare implications of this transmission mechanism hinge on whether units of knowledge complement, substitute for, or are independent of each other. Both substitutability and complementarity generate externaliti...

  2. Novel quaternion Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    Choukroun, Daniel; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Kalman filter for estimating the attitude-quaternion as well as gyro random drifts from vector measurements. Employing a special manipulation on the measurement equation results in a linear pseudo-measurement equation whose error is state-dependent. Because the quaternion kinematics equation is linear, the combination of the two yields a linear Kalman filter that eliminates the usual linearization procedure and is less sensitive to initial estimation errors. Genera...

  3. Retina-inspired Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model “virtual retina”. This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatiotemporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina- insp...

  4. Filtering Solid Gabor Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Lagae, Ares; Drettakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Solid noise is a fundamental tool in computer graphics. Surprisingly, no existing noise function supports both high-quality anti-aliasing and continuity across sharp edges. In this paper we show that a slicing approach is required to preserve continuity across sharp edges, and we present a new noise function that supports anisotropic filtering of sliced solid noise. This is made possible by individually filtering the slices of Gabor kernels, which requires the proper treatment of phase. This ...

  5. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as IO.2 and (F number-sign)2 over the intensity range from 1014 to 2xlO15 W/CM2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  6. Kalman Filtering in R

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Tusell

    2011-01-01

    Support in R for state space estimation via Kalman filtering was limited to one package, until fairly recently. In the last five years, the situation has changed with no less than four additional packages offering general implementations of the Kalman filter, including in some cases smoothing, simulation smoothing and other functionality. This paper reviews some of the offerings in R to help the prospective user to make an informed choice.

  7. A novel rapid genotyping technique for Collie eye anomaly: SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method applicable to blood and saliva specimens on Flinders Technology Associates filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a canine inherited ocular disease that shows a wide variety of manifestations and severity of clinical lesions. Recently, a CEA-associated mutation was reported, and a DNA test that uses conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has now become available. The objective of the current study was to develop a novel rapid genotyping technique by using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR for future large-scale surveys as a key part in the strategy to eradicate CEA by selective breeding. First, a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for genotyping of CEA was developed and evaluated by using purified DNA samples from normal, carrier, and affected Border Collies in which genotypes had previously been determined by conventional PCR. This real-time PCR assay demonstrated appropriate amplifications in all genotypes, and the results were consistent with those of conventional PCR. Second, the availability of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA card) as DNA templates for the real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using blood and saliva specimens to determine suitability for CEA screening. DNA-containing solution prepared from a disc of blood- or saliva-spotted FTA cards was available directly as templates for the real-time PCR assay when the volume of solution was 2.5% of the PCR mixture. In conclusion, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR combined with FTA cards is a rapid genotyping technique for CEA that can markedly shorten the overall time required for genotyping as well as simplify the sample preparation. Therefore, this newly developed technique suits large-scale screening in breeding populations of Collie-related breeds. PMID:20807925

  8. Development and Behavior of Metallic Filter Element and Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena during Filter Regeneration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, J.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic filters have revealed to have good thermal resistance and chemical corrosion resistance, but they are brittle and lack of toughness, and liable to rupture under large temperature swings. Metallic filters with their high strength and toughness and good heat conduction ability have showed good thermal shock resistance, 310S and FeAl intermetallic filter elements have exhibited additionally good chemical corrosion resistance in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmosphere( Sawada 1999 and Sunil et al. 1999). The behavior of metallic filter elements at high temperature was investigated and the filtration efficiency of the filter units for hot gas from a coal gasifier unit was tested. Pulse-jet cleaning of filter elements is a key component in the operation of the filtration unit. The pulse-jet is introduced into the filter element cavities from the clean side, and the dust cakes on the outer surfaces of the filter elements are detached and fall into the filter vessel. Sequential on-line cleaning of filter element groups yields a filter operation with no shutdown for filter regeneration. Development of advanced technologies in the design and operation of the pulse cleaning is one of the important tasks in order to increase the system reliability, to improve the filter life and to increase the filtering performance. The regeneration of filter element in gas filtration at high temperature plays a very important role for the operation of the process. Based on experimental observation and field operation, a numerical model is set up to numerically simulate the momentum and heat transport phenomena in the regeneration process, which is essential for understanding of the process, the optimization of process parameters and improvement of the design of the structure of venturi nozzle and the configuration of the apparatus.

  9. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  10. Miniaturized superconducting microwave filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present methods for the miniaturization of superconducting filters. We consider two designs of seventh-order bandpass Chebyshev filters based on lumped elements and a novel quasi-lumped element resonator. In both designs the area of the filters, with a central frequency of 2-5 GHz, is less than 1.2 mm2. Such small filters can be readily integrated on a single board for multi-channel microwave control of superconducting qubits. The filters have been experimentally tested and the results are compared with simulations. The miniaturization resulted in parasitic coupling between resonators and within each resonator that affected primarily the stopband and increased the bandwidth. The severity of the error depends on the design in particular, and was less sensitive when a groundplane was used under the inductances of the resonators. The best performance was reached for the quasi-lumped filter with central frequency of 4.45 GHz, quality factor of 40 and 50 dB stopband

  11. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-05-01

    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  12. Tunable filters for JWST Fine Guidance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Neil; Evans, Clinton; Greenberg, Elliot; Gregory, Phil; Scott, Alan; Thibault, Simon; Poirier, Michel; Doyon, Rene; Hutchings, John B.; Alexander, Russ

    2004-10-01

    The Canadian contribution to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission will be the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), incorporating a science-observing mode using tunable filters. We describe here the requirements, the opto-mechanical design concept and bread-board test results for the JWST FGS tunable filters. The FGS requires two continuously tunable filters over the wavelength ranges 1.2 - 2.4 microns and 2.4 - 4.8 microns each having a spectral resolution in the range of R~70 to 200. The selected implementation uses dielectric coated Fabry-Perot etalon plates with a small air gaps. The design finesse is ~30 and the filters are used in 3rd order. The operating temperature is ~35K. Current coating designs provide implementations that require only five blocking filters in each wavelength range to suppress unwanted orders. The filters will be scanned via the use of low voltage piezo-electric transducers. We present results from cryogenic tests of coating samples, PZT actuators and a structural model. The PZT actuators were found have a displacement of ~3.3 microns at 30K with an applied voltage of 125V, more than sufficient for the required scan of the Fabry-Perot plate spacing. The prototype etalon coating was found to be very stable cryogenically, having a measured change of transmission of only ~1% at 77K. The same coating on a 12.7 mm thick substrate, similar to that planned for the filter, was found to have a 18 nm peak-to-valley surface figure change when cooled to 30K. These results demonstrate that the development of tunable filters for the JWST FGS is on track to meet the technology readiness requirements of the program.

  13. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands, Yolo Bypass, California: Spatial and seasonal variations in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Stephenson, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of water quality, including mercury species, was evaluated in agricultural and managed, non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, an area managed for multiple beneficial uses including bird habitat and rice farming. The study was conducted during an 11-month period (June 2007 to April 2008) that included a summer growing season and flooded conditions during winter. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in surface water varied over a wide range (0.1 to 37 ng L−1 unfiltered; 0.04 to 7.3 ng L−1 filtered). Maximum MeHg values are among the highest ever recorded in wetlands. Highest MeHg concentrations in unfiltered surface water were observed in drainage from wild rice fields during harvest (September 2007), and in white rice fields with decomposing rice straw during regional flooding (February 2008). The ratio of MeHg to total mercury (MeHg/THg) increased about 20-fold in both unfiltered and filtered water during the growing season (June to August 2007) in the white and wild rice fields, and about 5-fold in fallow fields (July to August 2007), while there was little to no change in MeHg/THg in the permanent wetland. Sulfate-bearing fertilizer had no effect on Hg(II) methylation, as sulfate-reducing bacteria were not sulfate limited in these agricultural wetlands. Concentrations of MeHg in filtered and unfiltered water correlated with filtered Fe, filtered Mn, DOC, and two indicators of sulfate reduction: the SO4 2 −/Cl− ratio, and δ34S in aqueous sulfate. These relationships suggest that microbial reduction of SO4 2−, Fe(III), and possibly Mn(IV) may contribute to net Hg(II)-methylation in this setting.

  14. Distributed Kalman-Consensus Filtering for Sparse Signal Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisha Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Kalman filtering-based distributed algorithm is proposed to deal with the sparse signal estimation problem. The pseudomeasurement-embedded Kalman filter is rebuilt in the information form, and an improved parameter selection approach is discussed. By introducing the pseudomeasurement technology into Kalman-consensus filter, a distributed estimation algorithm is developed to fuse the measurements from different nodes in the network, such that all filters can reach a consensus on the estimate of sparse signals. Some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Modern analog filter analysis and design a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the fundamentals, the present book describes methods of designing analog electronic filters and illustrates these methods by providing numerical and circuit simulation programs. The subject matters comprise many concepts and techniques that are not available in other text books on the market. To name a few - principle of transposition and its application in directly realizing current mode filters from well known voltage mode filters; an insight into the technological aspect of integrated circuit components used to implement an integrated circuit filter; a careful blending of basi

  16. Miniature Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EBG Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A new design of a planar microwave filter, based on rejection band properties of an electrically small electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure, is proposed. The proposed EBG structure demonstrates effective impedance manipulation, exhibits a simple analysis, and is about three times smaller...... as compared to stepped-impedance hairpin (SIH) resonators with similar response. The new bandpass filter has a reduced footprint and can be fabricated in standard thick-film manufacturing technology. Measured and simulated results exhibit good agreement. The measured results show improvement in the filter...... characteristics in comparison to existing SIH filter design....

  17. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  18. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T G; Djurhuus, C; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Laustsen, J; Hasenkam, J M; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of arteriovenous fistulas combined with varying degrees of stenosis on distal bypass hemodynamics and Doppler spectral parameters. METHODS: In an in vitro flow model bypass stenoses causing 30%, 55%, and 70% diameter reduction were induced...... the systolic pressure drop from 31% to 48% and had significant impact on all waveform parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Distal arteriovenous fistulas enhance pressure loss across stenoses and affect downstream velocity waveform configuration. The presence of a combined fistula and a stenosis mimics the distal...... 10 cm upstream of a fistula with low outflow resistance. Flow and intraluminal pressure were measured proximal to the stenosis and downstream of the fistula. The waveform parameters peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, pulsatility index, and pulse rise time were determined from midstream...

  19. Analyses of 1/15 scale Creare bypass transient experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RELAP4 analyses of several 1/15 scale Creare H-series bypass transient experiments have been done to investigate the effect of using different downcomer nodalizations, physical scales, slip models, and vapor fraction donoring methods. Most of the analyses were thermal equilibrium calculations performed with RELAP4/MOD5, but a few such calculations were done with RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP4/MOD7, which contain improved slip models. In order to estimate the importance of nonequilibrium effects, additional analyses were performed with TRAC-PD2, RELAP5 and the nonequilibrium option of RELAP4/MOD7. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether results from Westinghouse's calculation of the Creare experiments, which were done with a UHI-modified version of SATAN, were sufficient to guarantee SATAN would be conservative with respect to ECC bypass in full-scale plant analyses

  20. Outflow distribution at the distal anastomosis of infrainguinal bypass grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R K; How, T V; Bakran, A; Brennan, J A; Harris, P L

    2004-03-01

    Outflow distribution at the distal anastomosis of infrainguinal bypass grafts remains unquantified in vivo, but is likely to influence flow patterns and haemodynamics, thereby impacting upon graft patency. This study measured the ratio of distal to proximal outflow in 30 patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass for lower limb ischaemia, using a flow probe and a transit-time ultrasonic flow meter. The mean outflow distribution was approximately 75% distal to 25% proximal, with above knee anastomoses having a greater proportion of distal flow (84%) compared to below knee grafts (73%). These in vivo flow characteristics differ significantly from those used in theoretical models studying flow phenomena (50:50 and/or 100:0), and should be incorporated into future research. PMID:14757463

  1. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  2. Access pricing, bypass and universal service in post

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A postal regulator typically faces two issues which make the design of efficient access pricing especially difficult and which complicate the process of liberalizing the industry. First, universal service obligations, together with the presence of fixed costs, require retail prices to depart from the underlying marginal costs of the incumbent provider. Second, competing firms may be able to bypass the incumbent’s delivery network. Within a simple and stylized framework, this note ...

  3. Effects of Deep Breathing Exercises after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Deep breathing exercises are widely used in the postoperative care to prevent or reduce pulmonary complications, but no scientific evidence for the efficacy has been found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of the thesis was to describe postoperative pulmonary function and to evaluate the efficacy of deep breathing exercises performed with or without a blow bottle device for positive expiratory pressure (PEP) 10 cmH2O or an inspiratory resistance-positive expirator...

  4. An Efficient Bypassing Void Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Since the sensor node’s distribution in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is irregular, geographic routing protocols using the greedy algorithm can cause local minima problem. This problem may fail due to routing voids and lead to failure of data transmission. Based on the virtual coordinate mapping, this paper proposes an efficient bypassing void routing protocol to solve the control packet overhead and transmission delay in routing void of WSN, which is called EBVRPVCM. The basic idea is to t...

  5. Constitutive modeling of coronary artery bypass graft with incorporated torsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horný, L.; Chlup, Hynek; Žitný, R.; Adámek, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2009), s. 273-277. ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : coronary artery bypass graft * constitutive model * digital image correlation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2009 http:// web .tuke.sk/sjf-kamam/mmams2009/contents.pdf

  6. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) ... coronarien - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery हिन्दी ( ...

  7. CULTURAL DIAGNOSIS AND BYPASSING; THE EFFECT ON SUCCESSFUL INTERNATIONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews Adugudaa Akolaa

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and its effect on business continue to propel firms to look beyond local markets for opportunities for market development and as a source of growth. However, Cultural differences in various markets continue to exert enormous pressure on international market operations as a result of cultural bypassing or misdiagnosis and this requires international marketers to undertake robust cultural analysis to ensure successful market servicing strategies. This paper reviews and discusses t...

  8. Adherence to treatment after coronary bypass surgery: Psychological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Maria V. Iakovleva

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a problem of great importance and striking magnitude. Its consequences are increased health care costs and poor health outcomes. It defined the objective of this research, which is the study of psychological characteristics of patients with different degrees of adherence to rehabilitation treatment after coronary bypass surgery. Ninety male and female patients with CHD, aged 46---71, were examined. The study was carried out using the questionnaire of wa...

  9. Successful cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetics with anaphylactoid reactions to protamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, W. S.; Reid, K G; Hider, C F; Davidson, I. A.; Boulton, F. E.; Yap, P L

    1984-01-01

    Two insulin dependent diabetics with previous anaphylactic like (anaphylactoid) reactions to protamine underwent successful cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery surgery. Platelet concentrates instead of protamine were used to neutralise their systemic heparinisation. In both cases the anaphylactoid reactions first became apparent after administration of protamine sulphate at the end of cardiac catheterisation. These cases show that adverse reactions to protamine need not be a contraindi...

  10. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA...

  11. Factors influencing early results of femoro-femoral crossover bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoro-femoral crossover bypass is an extraanatomic reconstruction used for revascularization of lower limb with contralatateral femoral artery as an inflow vessel, and the graft placed in the suprapubic region. We perform this procedure when anatomic reconstruction is not possible or is contraindicated. Objective. To analyze the influence of different risk factors on early patency of femoro-femoral crossover bypass. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the results of 88 femoro-femoral bypass grafting during an 11-year period. There were 66 (75% males and 22 (25% females of average age 64.93 years (42-79 years. In 76 patients the operations were performed due to critical limb ischemia. Revascularization was urgent in 12 patients, while 76 patients were elective. Dacron prosthesis was used in 81 patients, while PTFE was used in 7 patients. Statistical analysis was made by logistic regression. Results. During hospitalisation the graft remained patent in 82 patients, and graft thrombosis occurred in 6 patients. Limb salvage rate was 90.91%. Early morbidity rate (within the first post-operative month was 13.64%, while early mortality rate was 4.55%. Using logistic regression we established that early graft patency was statistically more significant in males (p<0.05. Age (p=0.07 and hypertension (p=0.08 appeared to be predicting influence of the graft patency on the border of the accepted statistical significance level. Conclusion. Femoro-femoral crossover bypass is a good alternative for revascularization in high risk patients for standard anatomic reconstructions due to comorbid conditions or local problems.

  12. A review of 155 extra-anatomic bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, M.C.; Mikulin, T; Hopkinson, B R; Makin, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Extra-anatomic bypass grafting has been used as treatment for patients with aorto-iliac disease who were considered unfit for aortic surgery. Eighty five percent of the patients had ischaemic pain at rest or skin necrosis. One hundred and three femorofemoral (FF) grafts, 40 axillounifemoral and 12 axillobifemoral grafts were performed. Femoropopliteal extension grafts were performed in 39 cases. The three year cumulative graft patency rate was 69% for FF grafts and 48% for both types of axill...

  13. Geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte psychosozialer Variablen bei aortokoronarer Bypass-Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery women display not only higher mortality rates, but also report more restrictions in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). So far, the causes for this gender gap could not be fully explained by clinical variables. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the role of psychosocial variables during recovery following CABG. Six specific problems concerning perioperative gender differences in HRQoL, depression, social su...

  14. Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP)-bypass mevalonate pathways for isopentenol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Aram; George, Kevin W; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2016-03-01

    Branched C5 alcohols are promising biofuels with favorable combustion properties. A mevalonate (MVA)-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway for C5 alcohols was constructed in Escherichia coli using genes from several organisms, and the pathway was optimized to achieve over 50% theoretical yield. Although the MVA pathway is energetically less efficient than the native methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, implementing the MVA pathway in bacterial hosts such as E. coli is advantageous due to its lack of endogenous regulation. The MVA and MEP pathways intersect at isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), the direct precursor to isoprenoid-derived C5 alcohols and initial precursor to longer chain terpenes, which makes independent regulation of the pathways difficult. In pursuit of the complete "decoupling" of the MVA pathway from native cellular regulation, we designed novel IPP-bypass MVA pathways for C5 alcohol production by utilizing promiscuous activities of two enzymes, phosphomevalonate decarboxylase (PMD) and an E. coli-endogenous phosphatase (AphA). These bypass pathways have reduced energetic requirements, are further decoupled from intrinsic regulation, and are free from IPP-related toxicity. In addition to these benefits, we demonstrate that reduced aeration rate has less impact on the bypass pathway than the original MVA pathway. Finally, we showed that performance of the bypass pathway was primarily determined by the activity of PMD. We designed PMD mutants with improved activity and demonstrated titer increases in the mutant strains. These modified pathways would be a good platform for industrial production of isopentenol and related chemicals such as isoprene. PMID:26708516

  15. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Jian Yang; Shizhou Ying

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influe...

  16. Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Leick AM; Ratliff PD; Shely RN; Lester WC; Short MR

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a multimodal approach to post-operative pain control consisting of opioid and non-opioid agents administered simultaneously has been used to provide synergistic effects and reduce opioid-related adverse effects. This is a retrospective, cohort study involving coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients who received scheduled intravenous IV acetaminophen 1gm every 6 hours for 4 doses starting at surgery end time with opioids administered as needed versus opioids as monother...

  17. Early chest tube removal after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mirmohammad-Sadeghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no clear data about the optimum time for chest tube removal after coronary artery bypass surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the chest tube removal time following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery on the clinical outcome of the patients. Material and Methods: An analysis of data from 307 patients was performed. The patients were randomized into two groups: in group 1 (N=107 chest tubes were removed within the first 24 hours after surgery, whereas in group 2 (N=200, chest tubes were removed in the second 24 hours after surgery. Demographics, lactate and pH at the beginning, during and after the operation, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, inotropic drugs administration, length of ICU stay, and mortality data were collected. Respiratory rate and pain level was assessed. Results: In these surgeries, the mean± standard deviation for the aortic clamping time was 49.18±17.59 minutes and cardiopulmonary bypass time was 78.39±25.12 minutes. The amount of heparin consumed by the second group was higher (P <0.001 which could be considered as an important factor in increasing the drainage time after the surgery (P =0.047. The pain level evaluated 24 hours post-operation was lower in the first group, and the difference in the pain level between the 2 groups evaluated 30 hours post-operation was significant (P=0.016. The mean time of intensive care unit stay was longer in the second group but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Early extracting of chest tubes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery when there is no significant drainage can lead to pain reduction and consuming oxygen is an effective measure after surgery toward healing; it doesn′t increase the risk of creation of plural effusion and pericardial effusion.

  18. Research on Purification of Domestic Sewage by Artificially Strengthened Ecological Filter Bed in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Artificially strengthened filter bed is an innovative wastewater treatment technology based on the coupling of eco-contact oxidation filters and artificial wetlands purification mechanism.By small scale laboratory equipment,the effects of cascade aeration,filter type,filter clogging and other ecological factors on the operation effect of artificial filter bed were studied.As indicated by the results,the pretreatment of cascade aeration had obvious effect and could satisfy the oxygen requirements of artificially strengthened ecological filter bed.Through the analysis on the purification results of volcanic and gravel filter,the effluent quality of volcanic filter was better than that of gravel filter.With the advantages of low operations costs and good effluent quality,the artificially strengthened ecological filter bed has great value to be popularized in North China.

  19. Assessing Patient bypass Behavior Using Taxi Trip Origin–Destination (OD Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gege Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients prefer to use the best hospitals even if there are one or more other hospitals closer to their homes; this behavior is called “hospital bypass behavior”. Because this behavior can be problematic in urban areas, it is important that it be reduced. In this paper, the taxi GPS data of Beijing and Suzhou were used to measure hospital bypass behavior. The “bypass behavior index” (BBI represents the bypass behavior for each hospital. The results indicated that the mean hospital bypass trip distance value ranges from 5.988 km to 9.754 km in Beijing and from 4.168 km to 10.283 km in Suzhou. In general, the bypass shares of both areas show a gradually increasing trend. The following hospitals exhibited significant patient bypass behavior: the 301 Hospital, Beijing Children’s Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The hospitals’ reputation, transport accessibility and spatial distribution were found to be the main factors affecting patient bypass behavior. Although the hospital bypass phenomena generally appeared to be more pronounced in Beijing, the bypass trip distances between hospitals were found to be more significant in Suzhou.

  20. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of acute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenberg M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Lichtenberg1, Matthias Käunicke1, Birgit Hailer1,21Cardiovascular Clinic, Vascular Center, Katholisches Klinikum Essen, Germany; 2University of Witten/Herdecke, GermanyAbstract: Acute and subacute ischemia of the legs in acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion is a dramatic situation that endangers the survival of the limbs, depending on the severity of the ischemia. Different therapy options like percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy procedures, which include rotational thrombectomy, have become available in recent years, in addition to local lysis and surgical thrombectomy. Surgical thrombectomy using the Fogarty catheter technique, in particular, shows an increased incidence of perioperative complications but only small technical success rates in randomized trials. On the other hand, local lysis is associated with increased costs due to resource-consuming measures, such as intensive monitoring and repeat angiographies, in addition to bleeding complications. In the past, further development of the Straub Rotarex® system as an endovascular therapy option has demonstrated good success leading to amputation-free survival in multiple studies. At the same time, a low rate of complications with use has been documented. Most examinations have been conducted in the thigh. To date, there are little investigational data on its use in acutely and subacutely occluded femoropopliteal bypasses. In this paper, the current study-based significance of the Rotarex system for this indication is analyzed based on the existing literature and the authors' own experiences with 22 patients.Keywords: acute limb ischemia, femoropopliteal bypass, local lysis, rotational thrombectomy

  1. Ileal loop interposition:an alternative biliar y bypass technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felipe JF Coimbra; Alessandro L Diniz; Heber SC Ribeiro; Wilson L Costa Jr.; Eduardo NP Lima; André L Montagnini

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common condition in advanced digestive cancer. Palliative procedures can improve quality of life and allow patients to attempt a systemic treatment. Bilioenteric anastomosis is still the procedure of choice for patients in many centers. When a surgical bypass is not possible, biliary drainage can be done by placing endoscopic or transparietal stents, which are less durable methods even when an expandable stent is employed. METHODS: A 47-year-old male with an excellent clinical status and a previous cholecystectomy and an exploratory laparotomy for advanced gastric cancer was referred with obstructive jaundice. A preoperative CT scan showed a dilated bile duct and a small mass at the distal hepatic hilum. No other signs of metastasis were found. A surgical bilioenteric anastomosis was indicated. At surgery, a distal choledochal obstruction and a mesenteric retraction by a lymph node mass prevented the jejunum to ascend for a bilioenteric anastomosis. Surgically, an alternative bilioenteric bypass was performed by means of an ileal loop interposition between the bile duct and the jejunum. RESULT: The recovery of the patient was uneventful and his bilirubin levels normalized after one week. The patient was then referred for systemic chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: This alternative biliary bypass can be safely and easily performed, and may be a good alternative for patients already referred for surgery because of a better life expectancy and when the jejunum is not an alternative.

  2. Development of filters and housings for use on active plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New designs of housings for conventional HEPA filters have been developed and are now in use. A further design is planned for future use. The main features to be developed are the engineering of double door systems to replace bag posting and other methods of filter changing which expose personnel to hazardous environments and the addition of a secondary containment to reduce the role of the gasket seal in the filtration efficiency. Also under development are circular geometry filters of HEPA standard which offer significant advantages over rectangular filters for applications requiring remote shielded change facilities. Two types of filter construction are being evaluated, conventional radial flow cartridge filters and spiral-wound, axial-flow filters. The application of circular filters for primary filter systems on active plant is in hand. A push-through change system has been developed for a new cell facility under construction at Harwell. Existing rectangular filters on a high activity cell are being replaced with clusters of small cartridge filters to overcome changing and disposal problems. A similar system but using 1700 m3/h filters for large volume off-gas treatment is also being studied. A remote change shielded filter installation is being developed for use in high alpha, beta, gamma extract systems. The design incorporates large cartridge filters in sealed drums with remote transfer and connection to duct work in the facility. A novel application of the use of double-lid technology removes the need for separate shut off dampers and enables the drums to be sealed for all transfer operations

  3. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO2, UO2, U3O8, AmO2, NpO2, CmO2, and ThO2 in mixtures of the following: HNO3-HF; HNO3-HF-H2SO4; and HNO3-(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO3-0.23M (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na2CO3-KNO3 fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO2-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO2 was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na2CO3-30 wt% KNO3 (heated for 1 h at 9500C). 23 figs., 14 tables

  4. Investigation on Treatment of Spent Filters Trapping Emitted Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to develop the technology to treat spent ceramic filters safely which have trapped emitted gases from the pre-treatment processes of pyroprocess. Investigations were made on the characteristics of representative immobilising materials and processes widely used, and the current situation of immobilising technology domestically and internationally. Based on this report, we intend to develop immobilising materials and processes appropriate to spent filter in the future

  5. Low Loss Tunable Filters in Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Sirci, Stefano; Martínez Pérez, Jorge Daniel; Taroncher Calduch, Mariam; Boria Esbert, Vicente Enrique

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the design and experimental results of compact low-loss filters, based on the extension of the classical coaxial waveguide resonator to Substrate Integrated Waveguide technology, are successfully demonstrated. The design, fabrication and measurement of a continuously tunable cavity resonator and a two-pole filter at S-band in single-layer SIW technology are presented. These structures keep the low-cost fabrication scheme of single-layer PCB processing, while requiring less...

  6. Development of cleanable HEPA filters - recleaning of deep pleated HEPA filters by flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine particle dusts with diameters less than about 2 μm, often emitted from high temperature industrial processes, cannot be sufficiently well removed from gas streams using current methods. Frequently concentrated in this small size range are heavy metals, the emission of which poses a growing environmental threat in the form of soil contamination. Current HEPA filter technology, via removal efficiencies for submicron particles some of three orders of magnitude above those of bag filters or electrostatic precipitators, offers the potential for practically eliminating fine particle emissions. A cost effective means of high efficiency gas cleaning, with total operating expenses comparable to those of conventional methods for larger particles, is offered by the development of cleanable HEPA filter units. In case of recleaning HEPA filter media by reverse flow at 1 m/s the stable filtration of fine particle dusts with diameters > 0.3 μm may be possible. Experimental investigations had been performed concerning the dependance of static pressure inside a filter pleat from several pleat configurations and the recleaning device during the recleaning process. The results are compared with a model predicting pressure and velocity profiles inside a filter pleat during the recleaning by reverse flow. Results from field tests with an improved filter configuration are also presented. (orig.)

  7. Kalman Filtering for Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, Thomas; Tang, Lie; Robert G. Landers; Balakrishnan, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presented a methodology, based on stochastic process modeling and Kalman filtering, to filter manufacturing process measurements, which are known to be inherently noisy. Via simulation studies, the methodology was compared to low pass and Butterworth filters. The methodology was applied in a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process to filter data

  8. Shape Preserving Filament Enhancement Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2001-01-01

    Morphological connected set filters for extraction of filamentous details from medical images are developed. The advantages of these filters are that they are shape preserving and do not amplify noise. Two approaches are compared: (i) multi-scale filtering (ii) single-step shape filtering using conn

  9. Design of a cavity filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cavity filter was developed for the SSRF 0-mode beam feedback. The filter is used to pick up the 500 MHz signal from the storage ring beam. The Superfish was used to simulate the model of the cavity bandpass filter. The design method, parameters of the filter and results of beam measurements are described in this paper. (authors)

  10. Renovation work on the Geneva motorway bypass

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The motorway maintenance work currently in progress includes repair work on the Vernier bridge. Temporary traffic restrictions will be in place during summer 2006. From 12 June 2006, for a period of 11 weeks Traffic arriving from the route de Vernier (in the direction of the city centre) will not be able to turn left onto the Vernier bridge to join the motorway but will be deviated via the route de Pré-Bois. From 3 July 2006, for a period of 8 weeks Traffic arriving from the Vernier motorway tunnel (in the direction of Lausanne) and exiting onto the route de Vernier will not be able to turn left. Vehicles will be deviated via the road that runs parallel to the motorway, then via the route de Meyrin and the route de Pré-Bois. Users are invited to follow the road signs in place. For further information: Tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch State of Geneva Department of Construction and Information Technology Civil Engineering Department

  11. Renovation work on the Geneva motorway bypass

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The motorway maintenance work currently in progress includes repair work on the Vernier bridge. Temporary traffic restrictions will be in place during summer 2006. From 12 June 2006, for a period of 11 weeks Traffic arriving from the route de Vernier (in the direction of the city centre) will not be able to turn left onto the Vernier bridge to join the motorway but will be deviated via the route de Pré-Bois. From 3 July 2006, for a period of 8 weeks Traffic arriving from the Vernier motorway tunnel (in the direction of Lausanne) and exiting onto the route de Vernier will not be able to turn left. Vehicles will be deviated via the road that runs parallel to the motorway, then via the route de Meyrin and the route de Pré-Bois. Users are invited to follow the road signs in place. For further information: Tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch State of GenevaDepartment of Construction and Information Technology Civil Engineering Department

  12. Asymmetric Baxter-King filter

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Ginters

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an extension of the symmetric Baxter-King band pass filter to an asymmetric Baxter-King filter. The optimal correction scheme of the ideal filter weights is the same as in the symmetric version, i.e, cut the ideal filter at the appropriate length and add a constant to all filter weights to ensure zero weight on zero frequency. Since the symmetric Baxter-King filter is unable to extract the desired signal at the very ends of the series, the extension to an asymmetric filter...

  13. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  14. Ultrathin Nanostructured Metals for Highly Transmissive Plasmonic Subtractive Color Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic color filters employing a single optically-thick nanostructured metal layer have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to colorant-based color filtering technologies, due to their reliability, ease of fabrication, high color tunability. However, their relatively low transmission efficiency (~30%) is an important challenge that needs to be addressed. The present work reports, for the first time, a novel plasmonic subtractive color filtering scheme that exploits the counter-intuitive phenomenon of extraordinary low transmission (ELT) through an ultrathin nanostructured metal film. This approach relies on a fundamentally different color filtering mechanism than that of exsiting plasmonic additive color filters, and achieves unusually high transmission efficiencies of 60~70% for simple architectures. Furthermore, owing to short-range interactions of surface plasmon polaritons at ELT resonances, our design offers high spatial resolution color filtering with compact pixel size close t...

  15. Recent development of robotic coronary artery bypass graft%机器人冠状动脉旁路移植术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    As an evolutionary process, the robotic technology has been recently applied in the minimally invasive surgery. The robotic surgical system can provide cardiac surgeons with less invasive manner and dexterity manipulation in coronary artery bypass graft. The robotic minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft usually includes robotic internal thoracic artery harvesting, robotic assistant coronary artery bypass graft and totally robotic coronary artery bypass graft.%机器人手术系统作为一种全新的手术工具已逐步应用于微创外科领域。机器人冠状动脉旁路移植术是微创冠状动脉搭桥的前沿技术,具有创伤小、操作精细等优点,常见的术式为:机器人下内乳动脉游离、机器人辅助下冠状动脉旁路移植术和全机器人冠状动脉旁路移植术。

  16. Anti-clogging filter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  17. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  18. METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-01-02

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

  19. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  20. Boolean filters of distributive lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambasiva Rao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of Boolean filters in a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice and characterize the class of all Boolean filters. Further a set of equivalent conditions are derived for a proper filter to become a prime Boolean filter. Also a set of equivalent conditions is derived for a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice to become a Boolean algebra. Finally, a Boolean filter is characterized in terms of congruences.

  1. DOE HEPA filter test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL)

  2. DOE HEPA filter test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  3. A low-loss, continuously tunable microwave notch filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    The development in high-end microwave transceiver systems toward the software defined radio has brought about the need for tunable frontend filters. Although the problem is being tackled by the microwave community, there still appears to be an unmet demand for practical tunable filter technologies....... With this motivation, this work presents a tuning method that delivers a resonator Q0 of 2000–3621 within a minimum tuning ratio of 1:1.42. A continuously tunable notch filter based on this tuning method is presented. The design is manufactured, measured, and verified. It is shown that the tuning technology compares...

  4. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S Faritous

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is an important recognized complication occurring during cardiovascular surgery procedures. This study was done to assess the perioperative risk factors related to postoperative pulmonary complications and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: It was a retrospective study on 5,497 patients, including 31 patients with prolonged ventilatory support and 5,466 patients without it; from the latter group, 350 patients with normal condition (extubated in 6-8 hours without any complication were selected randomly. Possible perioperative risk factors were compared between the two groups using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Among the 5,497 women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, 31 women needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV, and 15 underwent tracheostomy. After logistic regression, 7 factors were determined as being independent perioperative risk factors for PMV. Discussion: Age ≥70 years old, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤30%, preexisting respiratory or renal disease, emergency or re-do operation and use of preoperative inotropic agents are the main risk factors determined in this study on women undergoing CABG.

  5. Fuzzy filters in BCI-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lele; Wu, C; Mamadou, T.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fuzzy filters and weak filters in BCI-algebras and discuss their properties. Then we establish some relations among filters, fuzzy filters, and weak filters in BCI-algebras.

  6. Single-periodic-film optical bandpass filter

    CERN Document Server

    Niraula, Manoj; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Resonant periodic surfaces and films enable new functionalities with wide applicability in practical optical systems. Their material sparsity, ease of fabrication, and minimal interface count provide environmental and thermal stability and robustness in applications. Here we report an experimental bandpass filter fashioned in a single patterned layer on a substrate. Its performance corresponds to bandpass filters requiring perhaps 30 traditional thin-film layers as shown by an example. We demonstrate an ultra-narrow, high-efficiency bandpass filter with extremely wide, flat, and low sidebands. This class of devices is designed with rigorous solutions of the Maxwell equations while engaging the physical principles of resonant waveguide gratings. The proposed technology is integration-friendly and opens doors for further development in various disciplines and spectral regions where thin-film solutions are traditionally applied.

  7. Ferroelectric electronically tunable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cylindrical cavity is loaded with a ferroelectric rod and is resonant at the dominant mode. The loaded cylindrical cavity is a band pass filter. As a bias voltage is applied across the ferroelectric rod, its permittivity changes resulting in a new resonant frequency for the loaded cylindrical cavity. The ferroelectric rod is operated at a temperature slightly above its Curie temperature. The loaded cylindrical cavity is kept at a constant designed temperature. The cylindrical cavity is made of conductors, a single crystal high Tc superconductor including YBCO and a single crystal dielectric, including sapphire and lanthanum aluminate, the interior conducting surfaces of which are deposited with a film of a single crystal high Tc superconductor. Embodiments also include waveguide single and multiple cavity type tunable filters. Embodiments also include tunable band reject filters. 10 figs

  8. Kalman filter modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of appropriate state-space models for Kalman filtering applications is studied. The so-called model is completely specified by four matrix parameters and the initial conditions of the recursive equations. Once these are determined, the die is cast, and the way in which the measurements are weighted is determined foreverafter. Thus, finding a model that fits the physical situation at hand is all important. Also, it is often the most difficult aspect of designing a Kalman filter. Formulation of discrete state models from the spectral density and ARMA random process descriptions is discussed. Finally, it is pointed out that many common processes encountered in applied work (such as band-limited white noise) simply do not lend themselves very well to Kalman filter modeling.

  9. Glove-box filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a device for simply and rapidly assembling and dissassembling the filters used inside sealed enclosures, such as glove-boxes and shielded cells equipped with nippers or manipulators, said filters being of the type comprising a cylindrical casing containing a filtering member, the upper portion of said casing being open so as to allow the gases to be cleaned to flow in, whereas the casing bottom is centrally provided with a hole extended outwardly by a threaded collar on which is screwed a connecting-sleeve to be fixed to the mouth of a gas outlet pipe. To a yoke transverse bar is welded a pin which can be likened to a bent spring-blade, one arm of which welded to said transverse bar, is rectilinear whereas its other arm is provided with a boss cooperating with a cavity made in a protrusion of said pipe, right under the mouth thereof

  10. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John; van der Heijde, Désirée; Østergaard, Mikkel; Schett, Georg; Landewé, Robert B; Maksymowych, Walter P; Naredo, Esperanza; Dougados, Maxime; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Bingham, Clifton O; Brooks, Peter M; Beaton, Dorcas E; Gandjbakhch, Frederique; Gossec, Laure; Guillemin, Francis; Hewlett, Sarah E; Kloppenburg, Margreet; March, Lyn; Mease, Philip J; Moller, Ingrid; Simon, Lee S; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; Wakefield, Richard J; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter; Conaghan, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... evaluated using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although there was...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  11. Generalized Filtering Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Grigori, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new preconditioning technique that is suitable for matrices arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs on unstructured grids. The preconditioner satisfies a so-called filtering property, which ensures that the input matrix is identical with the preconditioner on a given filtering vector. This vector is chosen to alleviate the effect of low frequency modes on convergence and so decrease or eliminate the plateau which is often observed in the convergence of iterative methods. In particular, the paper presents a general approach that allows to ensure that the filtering condition is satisfied in a matrix decomposition. The input matrix can have an arbitrary sparse structure. Hence, it can be reordered using nested dissection, to allow a parallel computation of the preconditioner and of the iterative process.

  12. Digital filters in spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is presented the development and application of the digital signal processing for different multichannel analysis spectra. The use of the smoothing classic methods in applications of signal processing is illustrated by a filters discussion; autoregressive, mobile average and the ARMA filters. Generally, simple routines of lineal smoothing do not provide appropriate smoothing of the data that show the local ruggedness as the strong discontinuities; however the indicated development algorithms have been enough to leave adapting to this task. Four algorithms were proven: autoregressive, mobile average, ARMA and binomial methods for 5, 7, and 9 of data, everything in the domain of the time and programmed in Mat lab. (Author)

  13. Die filosofiese filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L F. Schulze

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Filter is ’n opvanger. Dit kan dien as ’n suiweraar wat die onsuiwerhede in vog of water opvang en terughou. Dit kan egter ook dien om ligstrale van ’n bepaalde golflengte op te vang en weg te hou van die oë of van die lens van ’n kamera. Hierdeur word die beeld of omgewing wat ek sien of fotografeer, gekleur. Ons gebruik die woord filter hier in lg. sin, hoewel die meeste mense dit nie as sodanig wil sien of erken nie, maar meen om dit bloot as suiweraar te gebruik.

  14. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting it is...... possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  15. A new design concept for realising highly tunable microwave filters using recursive principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mouzannar, W.; Billonnet, L.; Jarry, B.; Guillon, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, new active monolithic microwave integrated bandpass filters employing recursive principles are developped. A 7 GHz fixed center frequency filter with 2% bandwidth, and a tunable filter with 2.5 GHz tuning range around 8 GHz, are succesfully implemented employing 0.2 um GaAs P-HEMT monolithic technology, and exhibit excellent measured performances.

  16. ETV TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS GLASFLOSS INDUSTRIES EXCEL FILTER, MODEL SBG24242898

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Excel Filter, Model SBG24242898 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Glasfloss Industries, Inc. The pressure drop across the filter was 82 Pa clean and 348 Pa...

  17. Design and manufacturing of band-rejection filters based on long period gratings for applications in next generation access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybka, Kamil; Śmietana, Bartosz; Szarniak, Przemysław; Dłubek, Michał

    2015-12-01

    An engineering tool for designing LPG-based filters is reported. Band-rejection filters for telecom applications have been designed and manufactured and an automated mass production technology has been developed. The technology utilizes single-shot LPG writing with a double CO2 laser beam. The paper discusses also the critical process parameters controlled to shape the spectral characteristics of manufactured filters.

  18. Key technologies of microwave photonic filter based on fiber Bragg grating%采用光纤光栅研究微波光子滤波器的关键性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽; 祁春慧; 宁提纲; 高嵩; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    The ROF technology developed greatly with the gradually increase needs of wide band wireless communication, and microwave photonic devices has become one of the hot research spots. For microwave photonic filter (MPF) can process RF signal in the optical domain, it has attracted more and more attention. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) has unique characteristics of wavelength selection and dispersion, so it is one of the best choice to build the MPF. Based on the theory analysis, some typical MPF structures based on FBG were given, and the key factors affecting the performance of MPF were analyzed, including the incoherence, high quality factor, negative coefficient, tenability and reconstruction. A MPF structure based on FBG was put forward, it had the characteristics of flat response, high quality factor and negative coefficient. The theoretical model for analyzing the one order infinite taps MPF was developed, and the optimal condition for getting the high quality factor was obtained, the theoretical analysis results are in good accord with the real MPF structure simulation result based on FBG.%宽带无线通信的带宽瓶颈促进了ROF技术的发展,并使微波光子器件成为研究热点之一.微波光子滤波器(MPF)实现了在光域内直接对微波信号的处理功能,受到了众多研究者的关注.光纤光栅(FBG)具有独特的波长选择和色散特性,是构成MPF结构的最佳可选光器件之一.在理论分析MPF的基础上,结合基于FBG的MPF典型结构给出了影响MPF性能的关键因素,即非相干性、高品质因数、负系数、可调谐性和可重构性.对一阶无限抽头MPF结构进行了建模分析,并提出一种基于FBG的具有平坦、负系数和高品质因数特性的MPF,得出获得高品质因数的最佳条件,理论分析结果和基于FBG的MPF结构的实际仿真结果相吻合.

  19. Effects of topical hypothermia on postoperative inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kadan, Murat; Erol, Gokhan; Savas Oz, Bilgehan; Arslan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to examine the effects of topical hypothermia on inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods Fifty patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were included the study. They were randomised to two groups. Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (28–32°C) was performed on both groups using standardised anaesthesiology and surgical techniques. Furthermore, topical cooling with 4°C saline was performed on patients...

  20. Why caretakers bypass Primary Health Care facilities for child care - a case from rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kahabuka Catherine; Kvåle Gunnar; Moland Karen; Hinderaker Sven

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on health care utilization in low income countries suggests that patients frequently bypass PHC facilities in favour of higher-level hospitals - despite substantial additional time and financial costs. There are limited number of studies focusing on user's experiences at such facilities and reasons for bypassing them. This study aimed to identify factors associated with bypassing PHC facilities among caretakers seeking care for their underfive children and to expl...

  1. Effect of Dextrose-Crystalloid Priming Solution on Fluid Requirements and Urine Output During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Samuel; Hacker, Jerriann

    1986-01-01

    We examined the influence of the addition of dextrose to crystalloid cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution. Ten patients received only lactated Ringer's solution during the perioperative period and as their cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution, while ten others, managed identically in all other respects, received only 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution (D 5LR). During cardiopulmonary bypass, patients who did not receive glucose required more supplementary fluid (20.0 vs 2.2 ml Kg−...

  2. Cost Performance and Efficacy of Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Fumikazu; Mukai, Shogo; Tamura, Kentaro; Shimazutsu, Kazufumi; Okuma, Kazuhide; Ihara, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (Off-Pump CABG) may provide an alternative form of surgical revascularization by avoiding the unwanted complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, particularly in high-risk patients. To clarify the efficacy and cost performance of Off- Pump CABG, we studied the postoperative course of Off-Pump CABG and compared it to On- pump coronary artery bypass grafting (On-Pump CABG). From Aug. 1998 to Feb. 2002, twenty-eight patients who had preoperative complicatio...

  3. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Minca, Eugen C; Kowalski, David

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we investigated the roles of Rad5 and analyzed the DNA structures that form during damage bypass at site-specific stalled forks present at repli...

  4. Economic comparison of an improved nuclear filter system considering space, operation, testing, and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an all-welded charcoal adsorber design for increased system iodine removal efficiency has provided certain other unique advantages of particular interest to nuclear power plant personnel involved in health/safety, operation, maintenance, testing and space allocation for nuclear filter systems. The design features providing these unique advantages have been refined and tested and are available and installed on operating reactors as the HECA filter system. Health/safety aspects of the system are improved through the use of a unique pneumatic conveying system which eliminates the need for entrance of maintenance personnel into the filter housing during removal and replacement of spent charcoal and; thereby, minimizes radiation exposure of occupational personnel. Operational and maintenance costs, after capital investment, for nuclear filter systems being of particular interest to utility operations management are compared with conventional iodine absorber systems. The material cost savings in charcoal replacement with the system can exceed capital investment costs for given operating conditions. Testing and retest for by-pass leakage location and correction experiences are described and comparisons drawn between the HECA system and conventional designs. Space allocation improvements for actual nuclear filter system installations are described using the HECA system in conjunction with 1500 CFM ''superflow'' absolute filter modules. Features of the separatorless absolute superflow filter that complement the like design features of the all-welded HECA charcoal adsorber are described and operational and test data are presented. (U.S.)

  5. Survey of HEPA filter experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter applications and experience at Department of Energy (DOE) sites was conducted to provide an overview of the reasons and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures. Results indicated that approximately 58% of the filters surveyed were changed out in the three year study period, and some 18% of all filters were changed out more than once. Most changeouts (63%) were due to the existence of a high pressure drop across the filter, indicative of filter plugging. Other reasons for changeout included leak-test failure (15%), preventive maintenance service life limit (13%), suspected damage (5%) and radiation buildup (4%). Filter failures occurred with approximately 12% of all installed filters. Of these failures, most (64%) occurred for unknown or unreported reasons. Handling or installation damage accounted for an additional 19% of reported failures. Media ruptures, filter-frame failures and seal failures each accounted for approximately 5 to 6% of the reported failures

  6. The importance of urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein in animal production: The situation in tropical Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grasslands of Latin America sustain 25% of the world cattle population. Most of the cattle are located in tropical Latin America. There are two predominant systems of production, dual purpose and beef, with diets based primarily on cultivated or native pastures and to a minor extent on conserved feeds and fibrous agricultural by-products. Urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein supplements are recently introduced technologies that could contribute to solution of some of the feeding constraints of the systems. The use of bypass protein has been mainly studied using fish meal as a supplement to medium quality basal feeds. Large live weight gain responses have been obtained with growing animals, but the influence on milk yield of dual purpose animals is small or non-existent. Supplements with fish meal offered once a day did not increase the utilization of basal fibrous diets in the rumen and were not able to sustain adequate levels of ammonia nitrogen throughout the day. Lower responses have been obtained with other bypass protein sources. The use of urea-molasses blocks has been investigated less. The major impact of this technology should be in extensive grazing systems with diets based on native pastures low in nitrogen. The scarce evidence available indicates that the sporadic consumption of blocks in these conditions prevents them from fulfilling the main objective, which is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day. But there is still a positive effect on live weight change and reproduction during the dry season. The blocks should be adapted to this situation by incorporation of sources of slow nitrogen release. (author). 45 refs, 7 tabs

  7. Comparative study of the protective effect using hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Pei-li; FU Qing-lin; ZHANG Xin-zhong; ZHANG-Jie; QIN Yuan-xu; CUI Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the detrimental influence of normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary by-pass during open - heart surgery on immunity function,cytokines and complements. Methods Forty patients with con-genital or rheumatic heart disease were randomized to receive the two strategies: normothermie CPB (study group) andhypothermic CPB (control group) ,20 cases in each group. Venous blood samples were collected at each time points ofpreoperation, end of CPB, day 1,4,7,14 postoperatively to examine the plasma level of IL - 2, TNF - α, C3, C4, IgG,IgM, IgA, CD3, CD4, CD8. Results IL -2 in both groups decreased significantly at day 1,4, and returned to normal atday 7 postoperatively. IL - 2 in control group was significantly lower than that in study group postoperatively. TNF - α intwo groups was all higher at time points of end of CPB,day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group,it returned to normallevel at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in control group, it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before oper-ation ,and returned to normal at day 14 postoperatively. C3 in study group was significantly lower at time points of endof CPB,day 1,7 postoperatively than that in control group;C3 in both groups was all higher at time points of end ofCPB, day 1,4 postoperatively;in study group, it returned to normal level at day 7 postoperatively, whereas in controlgroup,it was still higher at day 7 postoperatively than that before operation and returned to normal at day 14 postopera-tively. CA in study group at time points of end of CPB, day 1 postoperatively was significantly lower than that in controlgroup;C4 in both groups was all lower at time points of end of CPB, day 1,4 postoperatively than that before operation.The results showed that IgA after operation in both groups was significantly lower than that before operation, and re-turned to normal at day 7 postoperatively;IgA in study group at day 1 postoperatively was higher than that in controlgroup. IgG in

  8. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446. [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant ostatní: NSF DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  10. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  11. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  12. Efficient Iterated Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Ionides, Edward; Frydendall, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    -Rao efficient. The proposed estimator is easy to implement as it only relies on non-linear filtering. This makes the framework flexible as it is easy to tune the implementation to achieve computational efficiency. This is done by using the approximation of the score function derived from the theory on Iterative...

  13. Mirrors as power filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer mirrors offer advantages in power filtering compared to total reflection mirrors in both wiggler and undulator beams at third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction. These advantages come at the expense of increased absorbed power in the mirror itself, and of added complexity of beamline optical design. This paper discusses these aspects

  14. Morphing and Ensemble Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, J.; Beezley, J.; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel; Eben, Kryštof

    Prague: Institute of Computer Science of the AS CR, v.v.i, 2010, s. 1-9. [Workshop on "GHG reduction using IT" /2./. Prague (CZ), 28.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data assimilation * Kalman filter Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  15. Rotating drum filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  16. Magnetic-Optical Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Formicola, I; Pinto, C; Cerulo, P

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic-Optical Filter (MOF) is an instrument suited for high precision spectral measurements for its peculiar characteristics. It is employed in Astronomy and in the field of the telecommunications (it is called FADOF there). In this brief paper we summarize its fundamental structure and functioning.

  17. Parzen Particle Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Erdogmus, Deniz; Principe, Jose C.

    Using a Parzen density estimator any distribution can be approximated arbitrarily close by a sum of kernels. In particle filtering this fact is utilized to estimate a probability density function with Dirac delta kernels; when the distribution is discretized it becomes possible to solve an...

  18. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Lewis, E.L.; Luthy, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, AmO/sub 2/, NpO/sub 2/, CmO/sub 2/, and ThO/sub 2/ in mixtures of the following: HNO/sub 3/-HF; HNO/sub 3/-HF-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; and HNO/sub 3/-(NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO/sub 3/-0.23M (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/ as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO/sub 2/-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO/sub 2/ was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-30 wt% KNO/sub 3/ (heated for 1 h at 950/sup 0/C). 23 figs., 14 tables.

  19. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC....... Furthermore, its pressure drop changed very little during the 5 months of service, and it had the added benefit of removing a large fraction of ozone from the airstream. If similar results are obtained over a wider variety of soiling conditions, such filters may be a viable solution to a long recognized...

  20. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.