WorldWideScience

Sample records for bylaws

  1. 12 CFR 552.5 - Bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (iii) Bylaw provisions that adopt the language of the model or optional bylaws in OTS's... body or bodies of law selected for its corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such...

  2. Proposed Bylaws Changes Open for Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlein, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    AGU members are invited to comment on proposed changes to AGU's bylaws. The updates reflect changes required by Washington, D. C., law and changes enacted by the AGU Board of Directors and Council during the transition in 2010-2012 to a new governance structure. Members can view and comment on the proposed changes at http://sites.agu.org/leadership/agu-bylaws-comment-period/. The comment period is open until 18 November.

  3. 9 CFR 201.4 - Bylaws, rules and regulations, and requirements of exchanges, associations, or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prevent the legitimate application or enforcement of any valid bylaw, rule or regulation, or requirement... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bylaws, rules and regulations, and... Applicability of Industry Rules § 201.4 Bylaws, rules and regulations, and requirements of exchanges...

  4. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon adoption...

  5. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  6. The Specification of an Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Bhatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An Expert System is a computer program that simulates the human intelligence and behaviour in specific and limited domains. It is used to solve problems with tricks, shortcuts and heuristics i.e. rules of thumb. Checking a Plan (Map to verify its compliance with building bylaws is a complex task mainly due to various rules and the exceptions to those rules. Humans are prone to make errors in such situations. Due to the problems faced by Building Control Department, HDA ( Hyderabad Development Authority there is a strong need to develop a computerized system. In this research we have developed a prototype named as ESBBC (Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance for HDA that can help in their building plan checking system. The proposed solution is merging three frameworks, i.e. Java an OOP (Object Oriented Programming language, Prolog- a rule based language and MS Access- for database. The solution is fulfilling the three main requirements of the HDA, i.e. Determination of whether a particular plan is in compliance with predefined building bylaws or not. (2 Offering search facility. (3 Maintaining records of plans which are entered for compliance checking. We have checked plans of 20 properties according to HDA building regulations using ESBBC and presented their results. The results show that ESBBC has capability to identify errors made by humans.

  7. Relationships between community characteristics and municipal smoke-free bylaw status and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace; Campbell, Sharon; Cameron, Roy; Brown, Stephen; Eyles, John

    2007-02-01

    Municipal smoke-free spaces bylaws are a common population-level intervention to address the prominent health risks associated with exposure to second-hand smoke. In Canada, bylaw prevalence is increasing, but inequities in level of protection across communities remain as bylaws vary from place to place. Little is known about the role of place in this policy disparity. To address this gap, this study examined associations between community characteristics and municipal smoke-free spaces policy outcomes to elucidate how ecological conditions are associated with bylaw status and strength. Smoke-free public place and workplace bylaws were obtained from all municipalities with a population of >or=5000 in the provinces of Alberta (N=78) and Ontario (N=245), Canada. Bylaws were assigned a strength score (ranging 0-100) rating the degree of bylaw comprehensiveness, restrictiveness and enforcement provisions. These data were then linked to socio-demographic data from the Canadian Census (1996) and the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001). Logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop models for municipal bylaw status and strength using community factors including: socio-demographics, municipality type, health region smoking rates, and provincial tobacco control environment. Study findings suggest that community characteristics play a key role in the status and strength of municipal smoke-free bylaws. As smoking bans continue to emerge world-wide under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, knowledge about conditions that promote policy success will be critical for those in need of immediate information to maximize policy-making in their own settings. Use of community profiles that consider socio-demographics along with broader contextual factors can aid decision-makers, public health advocates, and researchers in identifying similar jurisdictions with a successful smoke-free spaces policy and communicating with them about

  8. Municipal bylaw to reduce cosmetic/non-essential pesticide use on household lawns - a policy implementation evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Donald C; Vanderlinden, Loren; Leah, Jessica; Whate, Rich; Mee, Carol; Bienefeld, Monica; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Campbell, Monica

    2011-01-01

    .... We describe the development and implementation of a cosmetic/non-essential pesticide bylaw by a municipal health department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and assess changes in resident practices...

  9. Assessment of codes, by-laws and regulations relating to air wells in building design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Sharifah Fairuz Syed; Karamazaman, Nazli

    2017-10-01

    Codes and by-laws concerning air well design (for buildings and lavatories) in Malaysia has been established in the Malaysian Uniform Building By-Laws UBBL number 40 (1) and (2) since the 1980s. Wells are there to fulfill the ventilation and daylighting requirements. The minimum well area according to building storey height are compared between UBBL and the Singapore's well requirements from the Building Construction Authority BCA. A visual and graphical representation (with schematics building and well diagrams drawn to scale) of the minimum well sizes and dimensions is given. It can be seen that if the minimum requirement of well size is used for buildings above 8 storeys high, a thin well resulted which is not proportionate to the building height. A proposed dimension is graphed and given to be used in the UBBL which translated to graphics (3 dimensional buildings drawn to scale) created a much better well proportion.

  10. ByLaws for the Governance of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the rules of governance for the Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association. This includes election procedures for filling vacancies on the SPD board, an all-purpose voting procedure, and definitions for the roles and responsibilities of each SPD board member. The voting procedures can also be used to amend the by-laws, as well as to create, dissolve, or consolidate vacant SPD board positions.

  11. Financial and Transactional Bylaw of Universities and Faculties of Medical Sciences: Opportunities and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Abolhallaje

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: According to developments related to the relative autonomy of universities and acquired extensive powers by the board of trustees of universities of medical sciences and healthcare services in a twenty-year perspective of country and in the context of the fourth and fifth socio-economic cultural development of country, necessity of developing financial and transactional bylaw of universities of medical sciences has become increasingly clear throughout country. Materials and Methods: Grounded theory is the qualitative methodology used for this study in order to identify the threats and opportunities of new financial tax bylaw of universities and faculties of medical sciences and through the study of documents, surveys of experts and beneficiaries and elites by Delphi method. Results: Releasing potential of public administration in order to control sources and uses, increasing management confidence in documented decision making, establishing organizational concentration on controlling costs, providing conditions of decision-making according to financial reports, independency in firing and hiring manpower by adopting specific provisions and creating independency in method of keeping accounts are among the most important opportunities. While poor organizational structure, lack of knowledge and skills in the existing structure, mental processes caused by reactions and incompatibility of staff, lack of criteria and rules in selection appointment and dismissal of managers and employees, lack of discipline and proper mechanisms in order to pursue the purposes, calculating financial burden and human resources required and finally, passing through traditional thinking and management system are among the most threats. Conclusion: Considering the mentioned threats and opportunities, financial and transactional bylaw of universities and faculties of medical sciences was basically revised and modified in January 2006, and then after

  12. A Content Analysis of Media Coverage of the Introduction of a Smoke-Free Bylaw in Vancouver Parks and Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizimuzo T. C. Okoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city’s parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media on public perception of the bylaw in order to inform the media advocacy work of public health interest groups. We compiled a data set of newspaper articles (n = 90 and conducted a quantitative content analysis to examine content related to the outdoor smoke-free policy, including article slant, topics related to smoking and tobacco control, and any equity-related concerns raised. Newspaper coverage in Vancouver was largely supportive of the outdoor smoke-free bylaw. However, concerns over rights were frequently discussed in letters to the editor. Such equity concerns were rarely discussed in news articles, showing a potential disconnect between the concerns expressed in the media by members of the public and the coverage provided by print media.

  13. A Content Analysis of Media Coverage of the Introduction of a Smoke-Free Bylaw in Vancouver Parks and Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefzadeh, Arezu; Rice, Wendy; Pederson, Ann; Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city’s parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media on public perception of the bylaw in order to inform the media advocacy work of public health interest groups. We compiled a data set of newspaper articles (n = 90) and conducted a quantitative content analysis to examine content related to the outdoor smoke-free policy, including article slant, topics related to smoking and tobacco control, and any equity-related concerns raised. Newspaper coverage in Vancouver was largely supportive of the outdoor smoke-free bylaw. However, concerns over rights were frequently discussed in letters to the editor. Such equity concerns were rarely discussed in news articles, showing a potential disconnect between the concerns expressed in the media by members of the public and the coverage provided by print media. PMID:24052134

  14. RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM AND DEMOCRACY ENCOUNTERED: A Case of Prostitution Bylaw of Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Fauzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the bylaw on prostitution issued by the Bantul authority in May 2007. It specifically examines the relation between the involvement of religious symbolism, the call for public participation and political interests in the legislation process. The paper argues that, on the one hand, the law relates prostitution to issues of immorality, social illness, and the degradation of women due to economic discrimination or sexual exploitation. The subject of prostitution has been extended, covering not only sex workers and pimps, but everyone committing indecent acts, such as showing a ‘sexy’ performance. On the other hand, this regulation is considered to be ambiguous in determining the standard of public morality and, therefore, puts women in a marginalised position. That the implementation of this law contributes to institutionalising the criminalisation against women is another fact which is believed to diminish the meaning of democracy. The government is blamed as taking too much care with procedural democracy but giving less attention to education and employment opportunities.[Artikel merupakan hasil studi peraturan daerah tentang larangan pelacuran yang dikeluarkan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Bantul pada Mei 2007. Studi ini menguji keterkaitan antara simbol-simbol keagamaan, partisipasi publik, dan kepentingan politik yang muncul dan menyertai proses legislasi. Penulis berpendapat bahwa pada satu sisi, dalam peraturan tersebut, pelacuran dikaitkan dengan perusakan terhadap nilai agama dan sosial serta penurunan martabat perempuan, terlepas akibat diskriminasi ekonomi atau eksploitasi seksual. Subjek pelacuran ternyata juga diperluas, tidak hanya pekerja seks dan mucikari, tetapi setiap orang yang melakukan perbuatan cabul, seperti berpenampilan seksi. Pada sisi yang lain, ukuran moralitas publik dalam peraturan ini dianggap kurang jelas dan menempatkan perempuan pada posisi yang terpinggirkan. Bahwa penerapan peraturan

  15. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

  16. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  17. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

  18. By-law from December 12, 2005 relative to nuclear pressure systems; Arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This by-law deals with the specifications relative to the design, fabrication and conformability evaluations of nuclear pressure system, i.e. systems that may lead to a radioactive contamination in the case of failure. The main safety requirements of these systems are recalled in appendixes (nondestructive testing and qualification). (J.S.)

  19. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  20. [Declaration of the Chilean Academy of Medicine of Law 20.850 "On clinical trials of pharmaceutical products and medical devices" and of the bylaw that will regulate its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gloría; Valdés, Gloría; Roessler, Emilio; Valdivieso, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    In Chile, high cost treatments required by selected medical conditions are financed by the State, according to Law 20.850. A bylaw under discussion by the Senate regulates clinical trials, posing complex issues that will endanger local interest in front-line research: 1) The exclusive and mandatory control bestowed to the Institute of Public Health during all stages of the trials and also the surveillance of institutions performing clinical trials, overriding their Clinical Research Review Boards; 2) The 10 year period during which any adverse event is assumed to have been caused by the medication or devise evaluated by the trial, unless the contrary is proven in a judicial process; 3) Individuals submitted to the trials are entitled to free post trial access to the treatment received during the study, financed by the trial supporting entities and as long as the drug or devise is considered to be useful. While agreeing with the need to have a National Registry of Clinical Trials, we predict that the mentioned critical issues in the bylaw will lead to difficulties and unnecessary judicial processes, thus limiting clinicians' interest in performing research. We propose to modify the bylaw, excluding responsibilities on events associated with the natural evolution of the medical condition, with patients' ageing or with comorbidities and clinical events considered unpredictable when the protocol was accepted. We recommend that the free post trial access should be a joint decision involving the patient and the attending physician, taking in consideration that the volunteer has been exposed to risks and burdens, or when discontinuation of treatment entails a vital risk until the treatment under study has been approved and becomes available in the national market.

  1. [Declaration of the Chilean Academy of Medicine of Law 20.850 “On clinical trials of pharmaceutical products and medical devices” and of the bylaw that will regulate its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López S, Gloria; Valdés S, Gloria; Roessler B, Emilio; Valdivieso D, Vicente

    2017-03-01

    In Chile, high cost treatments required by selected medical conditions are financed by the State, according to Law 20.850. A bylaw under discussion by the Senate regulates clinical trials, posing complex issues that will endanger local interest in front-line research: 1. The exclusive and mandatory control bestowed to the Institute of Public Health during all stages of the trials and also the surveillance of institutions performing clinical trials, overriding their Clinical Research Review Boards; 2.The 10 year period during which any adverse event is assumed to have been caused by the medication or devise evaluated by the trial, unless the contrary is proven in a judicial process; 3. Individuals submitted to the trials are entitled to free post trial access to the treatment received during the study, financed by the trial supporting entities and as long as the drug or devise is considered to be useful. While agreeing with the need to have a National Registry of Clinical Trials, we predict that the mentioned critical issues in the bylaw will lead to difficulties and unnecessary judicial processes, thus limiting clinicians’ interest in performing research. We propose to modify the bylaw, excluding responsibilities on events associated with the natural evolution of the medical condition, with patients’ ageing or with comorbidities and clinical events considered unpredictable when the protocol was accepted. We recommend that the free post trial access should be a joint decision involving the patient and the attending physician, taking in consideration that the volunteer has been exposed to risks and burdens, or when discontinuation of treatment entails a vital risk until the treatment under study has been approved and becomes available in the national market.

  2. By-law from June 20, 2002 relative to the boilers belonging to a new or modified facilities with a power greater than 20 MWth; Arrete du 20 juin 2002 relatif aux chaudieres presentes dans une installation nouvelle ou modifiee d'une puissance superieure a 20 MWth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This by-law defines the arrangements to be implemented for the operation of boilers with a power greater than 20 MWth. These arrangements concern: the prevention and monitoring of atmospheric and water pollutions (gaseous and liquid effluents, combustion products, by-products), the conditions of rejection in the environment, the prevention of explosion risks, the storage of pulverulent products, and the maintenance of the facility. (J.S.)

  3. By-law from July 4, 2003, relative to the technical prescriptions of design and operation for the connection of a power generating facility to the public power transportation grid; Arrete du 4 juillet 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques de conception et de fonctionnement pour le raccordement au reseau public de transport d'une installation de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This by-law fixes the constructive and organisational dispositions that must fulfill the power generating facilities in order to make their connection to the public power grid conformable with the objectives of the decree from June 27, 2003. The dispositions concern: the voltage, connection scheme, protection systems, earthing, domain of operation, frequency adjustment and quality of current, communication and remote control systems of the power generating facility. (J.S.)

  4. By-law from July 4, 2003 relative to the technical prescriptions of design and operation for the direct connection of a power consuming facility to the public power transportation grid; Arrete du 4 juillet 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques de conception et de fonctionnement pour le raccordement direct au reseau public de transport d'une installation de consommation d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This by-law fixes the constructive and organisational dispositions that must fulfill the power consuming facilities, including those having a power generation group, in order to make their direct connection to the public power grid conformable with the objectives of the decree from June 27, 2003. The dispositions concern: the power, connection scheme, protection systems, earthing, domain of operation, possible disturbances, communication and remote control systems of the power consuming facility. (J.S.)

  5. By-Laws | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIH Fellows Editorial Board (FEB) offers a free and confidential editorial service for NIH fellows. The Board members edit manuscripts, abstracts, book chapters, clinical protocols, and grant submissions and offer suggestions for grammar, structure, and style, but not for scientific content. The Board provides valuable training and editorial experience to its members for academic as well as nonacademic scientific careers.

  6. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE: CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS AND STANDARDS; APPROVED JUNE 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    As Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP), I offer my sincere appreciation to the many individuals who worked on the 2000 revision of the NELAC standards. I would like to give special recognition to th...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 701 - Federal Credit Union Bylaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... qualifications for membership: Entrance fee—FCUs may not vary the entrance fee among different classes of members... may establish differing par values for different classes of members or types of accounts, provided..., the remaining board members may participate using audio or video teleconference methods. The other...

  8. The 2910 by-law and the atmosphere protection plan; L`arrete 2910 et plan de protection de l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.Ph. [Ministere de l`Environnement et du cadre de vie, 92 - Neuilly (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives a detailed overview of the French air pollution regulations concerning the installations of combustion and the classified installations (heating plants, turbines, engines, fossil-fuel power plants, refineries and other installations or combustion processes). Other international or European community actions for the abatement of industrial and air pollution are described and future regulations are evoked. (J.S.)

  9. Application of the 2910 by-law to coal-fired heating plants; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of the new French regulation about medium power thermal equipments on small coal-fired combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) in particular concerning the limit values of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust emissions. (J.S.)

  10. 77 FR 25168 - Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC); ASC Rules of Operation; Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Federal Housing Finance Agency. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws outlining the ASC's... amended numerous provisions in Title XI. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws outlining...

  11. La anomia y su relación con el estatuto actual del sufrimiento en la sociedad // Anomia and its relationship with the present bylaw of suffering in the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma López Arranz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo relacionar el exceso de goce en las patologías de la post-modernidad con la anomia en la que se sumerge nuestra sociedad, dañando el entramado social. La falta de regulación de lo simbólico es la responsable del penar en demasía. La tecnología, la globalización y el discurso capitalista convierten al sujeto de deseo en un sujeto tomado por el goce. La propuesta del psicoanálisis es despertar al sujeto de su dormidera de goce, la brújula es la ética del deseo. // The aim of this paper is to relate the excess of pleasure in post-modernity pathologies to the anomia immerse in our society, damaging the social structure. Lack of symbolic regulation is responsible for excessively suffering. The technology, the globalization, and the capitalist speech become subject of desire in a subject took for the pleasure. The psychoanalysis proposal is to wake up the subject of his/her pleasure sleepiness, the compass is the pleasure ethics.

  12. 75 FR 42375 - Kisatchie National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... be held at the Northwestern State University Friedman Student Union, President's Room, 735 University... bylaws. (4) Discussion on a project proposal acceptance process. (5) Development of future meeting...

  13. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Race Learn More Home Sample Page About the Foundation Mission Board of Directors Committees/Working Groups Bylaws Committee Finance Committee Communications Committee Education Committee Nominating Committee Research ...

  14. Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Race Learn More Home Sample Page About the Foundation Mission Board of Directors Committees/Working Groups Bylaws Committee Finance Committee Communications Committee Education Committee Nominating Committee Research ...

  15. Cancer and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Race Learn More Home Sample Page About the Foundation Mission Board of Directors Committees/Working Groups Bylaws Committee Finance Committee Communications Committee Education Committee Nominating Committee Research ...

  16. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Race Learn More Home Sample Page About the Foundation Mission Board of Directors Committees/Working Groups Bylaws Committee Finance Committee Communications Committee Education Committee Nominating Committee Research ...

  17. 75 FR 9985 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... present is duly elected to the Board.\\3\\ Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the Board... to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. Currently, NASDAQ OMX By-Laws provide that... & Governance Committee then considers the resignation offer and recommends to the Board whether to accept it...

  18. Society of Gynecologic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Member Login Home About Mission Strategic Plan Leadership Bylaws History Past Presidents Past TeLinde Lectures Past Distinguished Surgeon ... Search Member Login Home About Mission Strategic Plan Leadership Bylaws History Past Presidents Past TeLinde Lectures Past Distinguished Surgeon ...

  19. 77 FR 75243 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... of its By-laws to clarify that Section 6 of that Article, pertaining to OTC Index Options, are... submitted to OCC for clearing. Article XVII of the By-Laws governs index options in general and OCC is...); Notice of Extension of Review Period of Advance Notice to Establish the Legal and Operational Framework...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limitation. See Standard Federal Credit Union Bylaws, Art. III, section 5(a). Similar disclosures are...) (first name) (middle name) (street address)(apartment number) (city) (state) (zip code) (home telephone... held by one member under NCUA Standard FCU Bylaws, Art. III, section 2, that this should be stated in...

  1. 76 FR 45883 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... and Regulatory Element programs via computer at testing centers operated by vendors under contract... forth in Section 4(c) of Schedule A to the FINRA By-Laws and all Regulatory Element programs. In... Change FINRA is proposing to amend Section 4(c) of Schedule A to the FINRA By-Laws to address...

  2. The feasibility and benefits of using high-strength concrete for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the studies on this type of concrete, this paper has deal with the feasibility and benefits of using HSC for construction purposes in earthquake prone areas. The results of this study show that in case of respecting the bylaw constrains and conformity of new bylaws with this type of concrete, it is hoped to use it as a ...

  3. 78 FR 9443 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...'s spouse, parents, children and siblings, whether by blood, marriage or adoption, or anyone residing... amendment of the by-laws (``NASDAQ OMX By-Laws'') of the NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (``NASDAQ OMX''), the parent... organizations owned by NASDAQ OMX--do not have disproportionate influence on its governance.\\16\\ Moreover, the...

  4. 75 FR 25012 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Amendments to the By-Laws of The NASDAQ OMX Group... Substance of the Proposed Rule Change BSECC is filing the proposed rule change relating to amendments to the By-Laws of its parent corporation The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (``NASDAQ OMX'').\\4\\ \\4\\ Article Eighth...

  5. 75 FR 25010 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Amendments to the By-Laws of The NASDAQ OMX Group... Substance of the Proposed Rule Change SCCP is filing the proposed rule change relating to amendments to the By-Laws of its parent corporation The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (``NASDAQ OMX'').\\4\\ \\4\\ Article Eighth...

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care System ACS Surgery News Statements About ACS About ACS Overview Governance Governance Overview Governance Overview Bylaws College Officials Executive Staff Committees Board of Regents Board of Governors ...

  7. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care System ACS Surgery News Statements About ACS About ACS Overview Governance Governance Overview Governance Overview Bylaws College Officials Executive Staff Committees Board of Regents Board of Governors ...

  8. 78 FR 62362 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Amendment to Bylaws to Enable Any One Board Member to Request That a Matter Set for ] Notational Voting Be...., Washington, DC. This Board meeting will be Webcast live via the Internet and subsequently made available on...

  9. Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... Meeting OMED 2017 AOCD Session Meeting Feedback Sponsors Corporate Members Exhibitors Information for Corporate Members Publications DermLine ...

  10. 78 FR 21650 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Commission, along with other corporate governance documents.\\8\\ \\7\\ See Section 3(a)(27) of the Act, 15 U.S.C... NYSE Arca Holdings Bylaws, along with other corporate documents, are rules of the Exchange \\7\\ and must...

  11. 76 FR 1641 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Charter and By-Laws, a review of ethics rules applicable to the Board's activities, and briefings from OJP... identification and allow extra time prior to the meeting. Persons interested in communicating with the Board...

  12. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal of Dental Hygiene ADHA Update Author Guidelines Advertising Subscribe Resources ADHA Listserv About ADHA Leadership & Governance Board of Trustees Officers & Bios Bylaws & Ethics Leadership Development House of Delegates Organizational Structure Constituent ...

  13. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG ... diseases. Our guidelines reflect the current state-of-the-art scientific work and are based on the principles ...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Models Surgeons as Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care System ACS Surgery News Statements About ACS About ACS Overview Governance Governance Overview Governance Overview Bylaws College Officials Executive ...

  15. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Models Surgeons as Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care System ACS Surgery News Statements About ACS About ACS Overview Governance Governance Overview Governance Overview Bylaws College Officials Executive ...

  16. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG Digital Guide ACG Affinity Programs ACG Resources International Affiliate ... Volunteerism Guide ACG Professionalism and Wellness Initiative Medical Links State GI Societies For Your Patients Brochures Podcasts ...

  17. 12 CFR 627.2755 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribute the remainder of the assets of the institution to the owners of stock, participation certificates, and other equities in accordance with the priorities for impairment set forth in the bylaws of the...

  18. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... worldwide call themselves an ACG Member. Join the community of clinical gastroenterologists committed to providing quality in ... Professionalism and Wellness Initiative Governors Committees ACG Magazine [New!] ACG Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ ...

  19. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG Digital Guide ACG Affinity Programs ACG Resources International Affiliate ... Whether you are working on a consumer health story, an article for healthcare providers or need access ...

  20. Bruising Hands and Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... needed. Protective sleeves can be ordered over the internet. Back to Index The medical information provided in ...

  1. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations. (a) General provision. Any cost incurred for any communication by a membership organization, including a labor organization, to... administer the organization, pursuant to the organization's articles, bylaws, constitution or other formal...

  2. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG Digital Guide ACG Affinity Programs ACG Resources International Affiliate ... ACG's Annual Scientific Meeting and the latest clinical science. Whether you are working on a consumer health ...

  3. Structure and Function of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest Policy Meeting Minutes Archive History Mission ... the innermost layer. Blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, oil glands and sweat glands are located in the ...

  4. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... performance measures, Membership update, Election of TAMWG chair and vice-chair for 2011, and TAMWG bylaws... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This...

  5. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bylaws, SOPs, and Guidelines Leadership and Operations Center Network Coordinating Center Statistical and Data Management Center Performance ... Accessibility Our Mission The mission of the ACTG Network is to cure HIV infection and reduce the ...

  6. Smoke-free medical students' meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Colin; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years...... to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside....

  7. Beaver Management in Norway - A Review of Recent Literature and Current Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the total protection of the beaver (Castor fiber) in Norway in 1845, beaver management has undergone numerous changes as population development, resource exploitation goals and management objectives have evolved. Presently, new beaver management by-laws are being developed. This report briefly summarizes the historical development of beaver management in Norway, reviews the recent literature of particular relevance for the development new by-laws and makes recommendations for t...

  8. 17 CFR 232.102 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic format its articles of incorporation, by-laws or investment advisory agreement (in the case of a registered investment company or a business development company). (d) Each electronic filing requiring... the Investment Company Act (§ 270.0-4, § 270.8b-23 and § 270.8b-32 of this chapter) and Rule 303 of...

  9. Communities' perception on the impact of decentralised forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities' perception on the impact of decentralised forest management on access to forest resources and occurrence of illegal tree harvesting in north eastern ... it was difficult to link access and occurrence of illegal activities with management regimes due to lack of operational management plans and approved bylaws.

  10. The Mobilization of the Formal Normative Rules in an Educational Institution: A Sociological Study in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The formal dimension can greatly condition the operation of an organization. The present article aims to study the mobilization of organizations' formal structures within educational institutions. To achieve this goal, I analyze the situations between 1858 and 1913 in which the bylaws and/or regulations of the "Disadvantaged Children's…

  11. 77 FR 55885 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... organization). The proposal would amend the definition by adding language to the parenthetical to clarify that... proposed revisions to the By-Law definitions would incorporate current rule language from the definitions... the rule language modified and added to the definitions of non-public and public arbitrator when FINRA...

  12. 20 CFR 900.3 - Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Composition. 900.3 Section 900.3 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.3 Composition. Pursuant to the Bylaws, the Joint Board consists of three members appointed by the Secretary of the...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.504 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misapplication of any law, rule, or regulation issued for the purpose of affecting conditions of employment..., but does not include— (1) An organization which, by its constitution, bylaws, tacit agreement among..., preferential or nonpreferential civil service status, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping...

  14. 25 CFR Appendix A to Part 1000 - Model Compact of Self-Governance Between the Tribe and the Department of the Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tribe, under the authority of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Tribe (hereinafter referred to as the... commence and must remain in effect as provided by Federal law or agreement of the parties. Section 2... due process right under the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, 25 U.S.C. 1301, et seq., to protect all...

  15. 76 FR 67523 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... lenders supporting the facility. OCC believes that, in addition to the authority it already has to pledge...'s authority to use, and the manner in which OCC may use, a defaulting clearing member's margin.../components/docs/legal/rules_and_bylaws/sr_occ_11_15.pdf . An essential element of OCC's risk management...

  16. 29 CFR 4002.11 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 4002.11 Section 4002.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.11 Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as may be approved from time to...

  17. 33 CFR 148.105 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... opinion by a registered professional engineer specializing in soil mechanics concerning: (1) The... certificate of formation; the partnership agreement or articles of association; the current by-laws; the... latter survey will require more extensive analysis of the soil, and detailed study to determine its...

  18. 75 FR 56631 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... interpretation with respect to the meaning, administration, or enforcement of an existing rule. At any time... change is to amend Interpretation and Policy .01 under Article VI, Section 11A of OCC's By-Laws to allow... Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change The principal purpose of this rule change is to amend Interpretation...

  19. 7 CFR 735.100 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Bylaws; and (iii) Permits to do business; and (3) For a limited partnership, an executed limited partnership agreement; and (4) For a limited liability company: (i) Articles of organization or similar... to the warehouse operator's control of the facility including all contiguous storage space with...

  20. 76 FR 25397 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... to the By-Laws, the FINRA Regulation Board of Directors determines the boundaries of the districts... District Committee structure and governance to, among other things, adjust the size and composition of...; Eliminate the Advisory Council; Amend the qualification requirements and prescribe further term limits for...

  1. 36 CFR 901.1 - Title and office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 901.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION § 901.1 Title and office. (a) Title. The name of the Corporation is the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation. (b) Office. The office of the Corporation shall be in the city of...

  2. 75 FR 38576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... directors.'' Under the Corporation's corporate governance guidelines previously adopted by the Board of... in the Bylaws the existing policy of the Corporation aimed at ensuring better corporate governance... Board. The Board will then decide, through a process managed by the Nominating and Governance Committee...

  3. 75 FR 23831 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... quorum is present is duly elected to the Board. Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the... OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote standard for... to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In SR-NASDAQ-2010-025, The NASDAQ Stock Market...

  4. 75 FR 23827 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... directors at which a quorum is present is duly elected to the Board. Under Corporate Governance Guidelines... OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote standard for... proposed making certain amendments to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In SR-NASDAQ-2010...

  5. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norine G.

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  6. 12 CFR 650.20 - Powers and duties of the receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) All rights, titles, powers, and privileges of the Corporation and of any stockholder, officer, or... directors of the Corporation under law and the charter, articles, and bylaws of the Corporation. (2) Take... with section 8.41(f) of the Act to meet the ongoing administrative expenses or other liquidity needs of...

  7. 25 CFR 273.16 - Powers and duties of Indian Education Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powers and duties of Indian Education Committee. 273.16... Powers and duties of Indian Education Committee. (a) Consistent with the purpose of the Indian Education...) The organizational papers and by-laws of the Indian Education Committee may include additional powers...

  8. Water resources issues in Tarkwa municipality, southwest Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive water resources management plan in the form of an environmental impact statement including the delineation of groundwater protection zones is recommended to address water issues in Tarkwa. Public education on environmental issues, enactment and enforcement of by-laws arising from this plan ...

  9. Practices and Challenges in the Provision of Pre-Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    ii) To mobilize and support LGAs to set up satellite pre-primary classes in difficult and hard-to-reach areas; iii) To sensitize LGAs to enforce by-laws in order to promote correct school-age enrolment in pre-primary education; iv) To mobilize the private sector to continue supporting the provision of pre- primary education;.

  10. 36 CFR 901.4 - Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Direct and manage the day-to-day operations and work of the Corporation. (5) Supervise planning and... Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION § 901.4 Officers. (a) General provisions. The corporate officers of the Corporation shall consist...

  11. 77 FR 57602 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... review of individual S&P 500 Index put and call options positions that are in the money by varying... the By-Laws governs index options in general and OCC is proposing amendments to Article XVII in order... Proposed Rule Change The proposed rule change would allow OCC to provide central clearing of index options...

  12. 77 FR 59431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... volatility skew. A review of individual S&P 500 Index put and call options positions that are in the money by.... Article XVII of the By-Laws governs index options in general and OCC is proposing amendments to Article... proposed changes contained in the advance notice will permit OCC to provide central clearing of index...

  13. 76 FR 41537 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Council, see FINRA Rule 9331 and FINRA Regulation By-Law Article V, Sec. 5.13, a Hearing Officer, see... materially adverse to FINRA's interests.\\13\\ By augmenting the protections imposed by state bar ethical rules..., on official business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Copies of the filing also will be...

  14. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionalism and Wellness Initiative Governors Committees ACG Magazine [New!] ACG Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG Digital Guide ACG Affinity Programs ACG Resources International Affiliate Societies Disclosure Policy Auxiliary Members who Advanced to Fellowship ...

  15. Handbook for the Society for General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Music Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the organizational framework of the Society for General Music. Contains basic explanations of purpose, goals, and establishment; bylaws concerning personnel, the General Music Council, an editor, the Executive Committee, and the composition and function of the Council; membership; officers; publications; editorial board; and nomination,…

  16. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  17. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  18. CQ No. 25

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    policing of shebeens.1 By describing incidents of alcohol-related law enforcement, this article suggests that ..... These include by-laws relating to noise, parking, graffiti, zoning, public drinking and loitering. Within Law. Enforcement there exists a Liquor Enforcement and ... of illegal substances or firearms, which rely on.

  19. 78 FR 28267 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Change To Add Provisions to the By-Laws To Facilitate the Use of the Stock Loan/Hedge Program by Canadian... Commission to approve a proposed rule change of a self-regulatory organization if it finds that such proposed... facilitating the inclusion of Canadian Clearing Members in OCC's Stock Loan/Hedge Program, the rule change...

  20. 78 FR 18382 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Change To Add Provisions to the By- Laws To Facilitate the Use of the Stock Loan/Hedge Program by... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change The purpose of... changes to OCC By-Laws achieve this by facilitating participation by Canadian Clearing Members in OCC's...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4361 - Acceptable ownership arrangements and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copies of the declaration, bylaws and other rules governing the condominium, and other books, records and... enforceable and binding document must state in a reasonable manner the overall development plan of the... legally enforceable and binding document, the development of the required portion of the condominium must...

  2. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics matters investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2010, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, and special projects were activities of the Ethics…

  3. 7 CFR 28.161 - Disputes involving contracts for shipment of cotton from United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States to a contract made under the rules of the association or exchange. (b) The submission of samples... with the rules of the association or exchange shall be deemed to be a submission to the Department. (c... articles, rules, or bylaws of the association or exchange, such determinations may be evidenced by awards...

  4. Towards Improving Content and Instruction of the "TESOL/TEFL for Special Needs" Course: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Action research (AR)--as a participatory, problem-oriented methodology--has been employed recently in Egypt to resolve complicated classroom and learning problems, and provide context-based solutions. Simultaneously, new "special education" courses have been included recently in the university bylaws of Egyptian colleges of education.…

  5. 13 CFR 119.11 - What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation, by-laws, proof of IRS tax-exempt status, financial statements, and reference contacts. (2) A... hardware, software and internet capabilities. (5) In the event the applicant is a collaborative, a plan for..., financial management, and business training and counseling. (7) A list of grants received, and/or contracts...

  6. 76 FR 69783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Exchange intends to maintain the fair representation of its Trading Permit Holders in the selection of its... consistent with the Act, including Section 6(b)(3) of the Act relating to the fair representation of C2... Representative Director Nominating Body as provided in Section 3.2 of the Bylaws. Under Section 3.2, the...

  7. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2008, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, convention programs, ethics publications,…

  8. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. This article is a summary of the talks and workshops of 2009, ethics adjudication, ethics education and…

  9. Smoking on the margins: a comprehensive analysis of a municipal outdoor smoke-free policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Ann; Okoli, Chizimuzo T; Hemsing, Natalie; O'Leary, Renée; Wiggins, Amanda; Rice, Wendy; Bottorff, Joan L; Greaves, Lorraine

    2016-08-22

    This study examined the formulation, adoption, and implementation of a ban on smoking in the parks and beaches in Vancouver, Canada. Informed by Critical Multiplism, we explored the policy adoption process, support for and compliance with a local bylaw prohibiting smoking in parks and on beaches, experiences with enforcement, and potential health equity issues through a series of qualitative and quantitative studies. Findings suggest that there was unanimous support for the introduction of the bylaw among policy makers, as well as a high degree of positive public support. We observed that smoking initially declined following the ban's implementation, but that smoking practices vary in parks by location. We also found evidence of different levels of enforcement and compliance between settings, and between different populations of park and beach users. Overall success with the implementation of the bylaw is tempered by potential increases in health inequities because of variable enforcement of the ban; greatest levels of smoking appear to continue to occur in the least advantaged areas of the city. Jurisdictions developing such policies need to consider how to allocate sufficient resources to enhance voluntary compliance and ensure that such bylaws do not contribute to health inequities.

  10. Smoking on the margins: a comprehensive analysis of a municipal outdoor smoke-free policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Pederson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the formulation, adoption, and implementation of a ban on smoking in the parks and beaches in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Informed by Critical Multiplism, we explored the policy adoption process, support for and compliance with a local bylaw prohibiting smoking in parks and on beaches, experiences with enforcement, and potential health equity issues through a series of qualitative and quantitative studies. Results Findings suggest that there was unanimous support for the introduction of the bylaw among policy makers, as well as a high degree of positive public support. We observed that smoking initially declined following the ban’s implementation, but that smoking practices vary in parks by location. We also found evidence of different levels of enforcement and compliance between settings, and between different populations of park and beach users. Conclusions Overall success with the implementation of the bylaw is tempered by potential increases in health inequities because of variable enforcement of the ban; greatest levels of smoking appear to continue to occur in the least advantaged areas of the city. Jurisdictions developing such policies need to consider how to allocate sufficient resources to enhance voluntary compliance and ensure that such bylaws do not contribute to health inequities.

  11. 24 CFR 965.205 - Qualified PHA-owned insurance entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cost containment measures, as evidenced by an annual budget; (iv) The entity maintains sound... organizational documentation, as evidenced by copies of the articles of incorporation, by-laws, business plans... becoming effective. (d) Professional evaluations of performance. Audits and actuarial reviews are required...

  12. 77 FR 61647 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... (``NFA''). \\5\\ See FINRA By-Laws, Schedule A, Sec. 1(a). FINRA initially adopted the TAF in 2002 as a... June 1, 2012, the NFA submitted an NFA Interpretive Notice to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') regarding the NFA's assessment fee on diminutive notional value contracts and security futures...

  13. Report on the meetings of the International Organization for Crystal Growth Executive Council and General Assembly held during ICCGE-18 in Nagoya (Japan) August 7-12, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Hanna A.

    2017-06-01

    The International Organization for Crystal Growth (IOCG) Executive Committee, Council and General Assembly met in the week 7-12 August 2016. Participation quorum was achieved at all the meetings. The following changes in the Constitution, already approved at ICCGE-17 for the second time, were moved to be presented to the IOCG General Assembly for the third and final approval. 7.a The International Conference on Crystal Growth, ICCG is renamed to the International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (ICCGE) and all references to ICCG in the constitution and By-laws are changed to ICCGE. 7.b The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article III Section 1 will read as "The Executive Committee shall consist of the five Officers, the Past President, the Chairman or Chairmen of the past ICCGE the Chairman or Chairmen of the next ICCGE and up to ten additional members elected by the Council." 7.c The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article IV Section 1 includes the sentence: "The Council may also include ex-officio members as described in the Bylaws" There was no change to the Bylaws. All provisional amendments are included in the IOCG Constitution and Bylaws with different text colors. The amendments that were approved for the third time and are definitive are inserted with no special color as part of standard text.

  14. Planning the neighbourhood economy: Land-use plans and the economic potential of urban residential neighbourhoods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Risselada, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between zoning by-laws, as put forward in governmental land-use plans and the viability of urban residential neighbourhood economies. The Dutch planning tradition has long been characterized by strict separation of functions and topdown planning. We

  15. Medical surveillance of outside workers in base nuclear facilities; Surveillance medicale des travailleurs exterieurs dans les installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Here are described two bylaws relative to the training of doctors in charge of the radiation protection of outside enterprises workers and susceptible to intervene in nuclear facilities, and to the entitlement clauses of medical services in charge to make the medical surveillance of outside enterprises workers intervening in nuclear facilities. (N.C.).

  16. 22 CFR 203.5 - U.S. PVO annual documentation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accrual basis in accordance with GAAP by an independent CPA; an OMB Circular A-133 audit, if applicable... report or similar document that describes overall program activities for the same year as the audit..., or bylaws and any changes in the tax-exempt status. (c) Submission is due within six months after the...

  17. Contesting sharia : state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huda, Yasrul

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how Sharia, commonly called Perda Sharia (Sharia by-law) in Indonesia, was legislated on the provincial, regional and municipal level in West Sumatra. This process began after the government started a decentralization policy in 2000. Although the law of local autonomy prescribes

  18. 29 CFR 452.107 - Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... member of the labor organization unless the union's constitution and bylaws require him to be a member... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observers. 452.107 Section 452.107 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS...

  19. 29 CFR 452.49 - Other union rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other union rules. 452.49 Section 452.49 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... and that any rights guaranteed him by the constitution and bylaws are protected. Similarly, a union...

  20. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to be included in the union's constitution and bylaws, but they must be observed. A labor... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  1. 76 FR 60572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... recommendations based on experience and lessons learned from the recent financial crisis. In March 2011, CPSS and... (Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-58158 (July 15, 2008), 73 FR 42646 (July 22, 2008) (SR-OCC-2007-20.... II. Description of the Proposal This proposed rule change would revise OCC's By-Laws and Rules to...

  2. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... changes in the extent and nature of FOCI which could affect the offeror's answers to the questions in... offeror's answers to the questions in Standard Form 328. Notice of changes in ownership or control which... of the company's articles of incorporation and an attested copy of the company's by-laws, or similar...

  3. 78 FR 30944 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of an Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    .... For example, OCC believes the proposed changes do not affect OCC's liquidity forecasting procedures... limited to stock options, and the definition of ``expiration date'' in certain articles of the By-Laws... to manage the risks presented to it. The operational processing of stock option contracts with...

  4. 75 FR 36461 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... of the rule. \\3\\ See FINRA By-Laws, Article V, Section 4(a) (Retention of Jurisdiction). FINRA is... that its members have an obligation under existing laws to protect confidential customer records and... (Safeguarding Confidential Customer Information). Frequently, members and persons that respond to requests...

  5. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a) or...

  6. Guidelines and Regulations for the Establishment and Operation of Missouri Extended Employment Sheltered Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Rex R.

    Determination of the need for workshops for handicapped people, development of a new corporation, the adoption of bylaws, financial considerations, federal laws, workshop staff, resource material, state law, regulations, and forms, and procedures for establishing an extended employment workshop are mentioned and expanded in appendixes. Appendixes…

  7. Governance of Open Source Software Foundations: Who Holds the Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Prattico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article attempts to discover who holds the power in open source software foundations through the analysis of governance documents. Artificial neural network analysis is used to analyse the content of the bylaws of six open source foundations (Apache, Eclipse, GNOME, Plone, Python, and SPI for the purpose of identifying power structures. Results of the research suggest that: i the actions of an open source software foundation are centered around one of three groups: Members, Chairman/President/Executive Director, and Board of Directors; ii in only one of the six foundations is the Board of Directors responsible for both the community and the product; and iii artificial neural network analysis of the content of bylaws provides unbiased insights of the power structure of open source software foundations. These results may prove useful to those who contribute to open source foundations and use their products and services.

  8. Regulation imposed to nuclear facility operators for the elaboration of 'waste studies' and 'waste statuses'; Reglementation imposee aux exploitants d'installations nucleaires pour l'elaboration ''des etudes dechets'' et ''des bilans dechets''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-04

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) aims at validating the new versions of the guidebook for the elaboration of 'waste studies' for nuclear facilities and of the specifications for the elaboration of 'waste statuses' for nuclear facilities. This paper includes two documents. The first one is a guidebook devoted to nuclear facility operators which fixes the rules of production of waste studies according to the articles 20 to 26 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (waste zoning conditions and ASN's control modalities). The second document concerns the specifications for the establishment of annual waste statuses according to article 27 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (rational management of nuclear wastes). (J.S.)

  9. Guidebook of the wind farm developer; Guide du developpeur de parc eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this document is to give help to developers in their approach of setting up and realization of quality wind farm projects well-integrated in the human and natural environment. It gathers the existing administrative procedures and includes the new regulations enforced recently: by-law from June 8, 2001, law from January 3, 2003, by-law from March 7, 2003, decree from March 27, 2003, law from July 2, 2003, impact study decree from August 1, 2003, inter-ministry circular from September 10, 2003. This guidebook comprises a main text completed by technical files in appendix. Each file includes some expert testimonies and a list of available tools for additional information about the analyzed topic. (J.S.)

  10. Policies and regulations in Mexico with regard to genetic technology and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenarez Ortiz, Claudia; Ortiz Garcia, Sol

    2016-01-01

    In 1988 the first application for field trials of a GMO was formally received in Mexico. Since then a Biosafety law, few bylaws and national official standards were enacted in order to regulate the safe use of GMOs and to evaluate, control and avoid adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Law on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms was enacted in 2005 in order to comply with international obligations derived from the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety signed by Mexico in ...

  11. PROCESS OF LEGAL RECONGITION FOR THE AMMATOA KAJANG ADAT COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Willem van der Muur; Adriaan Bedner

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses governance as it appears in the making of a regional bylaw that grants legal recognition to an indigenous adat community in South-Sulawesi. This process represents a move away from a traditional government approach. The coalition of legal drafters, which included state officials, community members and civil society, engaged in a joint effort of participatory law making. An analysis of this process addresses questions on how the decision-making process developed, what th...

  12. The ESM and the Principle of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nes Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note analyses a peculiar feature of the ESM, namely the lack of an acceptable set of standards for the fundamental democratic principle of transparency. Moving from the particular nature of this mechanism, we will highlight the most critical concerns connected to secrecy, confidentiality and inviolability of documents, looking not only at the ESM Treaty but also at relevant documents approved by its bodies (in particular the Code of Conduct and the By-Laws.

  13. Furnaces. The manufacturer turns to the engineering office; Les fours. Le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Selas SA, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the actions carried out by the Selas company involved in the manufacturing of industrial furnaces in order to respect the environmental regulations of the French 2910 by-law: particularity of industrial furnaces, activities of the Selas company (surface cleaning process for iron and stainless steel sheets, quenching of glass panes), reduction of dust, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and organic compound emissions from combustion systems and burners. (J.S.)

  14. Evolution Of International Governmental Organisations Concerning Danube River

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Jura

    2014-01-01

    The international rivers are water courses that separate or cross the territories of several states and which are navigable up to discharging in the sea. The Congress of Vienna (1815) sets forth certain principles of the regime of navigation on European international rivers and the notion of international rivers. The Conference of Berlin (1885) institutes the freedom of navigation on the rivers Congo and Niger. During the Conference of Barcelona (1921) a convention and a by-law we...

  15. Analysis of the healthcare waste management status in Tehran hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Malekahmadi, Fariba; Yunesian,Masud; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nadafi, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of healthcare waste management, following the ratification of the Waste Management law in 2005 and the subsequent approval of its executive bylaw in 2006 and finally the healthcare waste management criteria passing by the parliament in 2008, a review on the status of healthcare waste management is needed to implement the mentioned law properly. Findings In this retrospective study during six months period all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehra...

  16. The World Bank Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Boards of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

  17. Position on the quality of discharges to municipal sewer systems from petroleum marketing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Municipalities have by-laws that control the quality and quantity of liquid effluents discharged into sewer systems in an effort to prevent shock loading to sewage treatment plants, to protect sewers from corrosion, and to protect public and environmental health. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) has produced a set of best management practices (BMP) to help control discharge quality and quantity from petroleum marketing facilities such as gasoline service stations, automobile service and repair stations, car washes, and fuel storage facilities. Once incorporated, municipalities will be able to audit these facilities against the BMPs. The principles for developing by-laws for municipal sewer use include a level playing field for all facilities, effective consultation regarding public policy development, consistency among jurisdictions, and achievable effluent criteria. The CPPI notes that in some by-laws, effluent criteria is not practically achievable as some parameters have been set at levels more stringent than drinking water standards. The CPPI believes the BMPs will encourage operators to do whatever is economically practical to reduce substances of concern that are discharged into sewers.

  18. ANALISIS YURIDIS NORMATIF SINKRONISASI PERATURAN DAERAH DENGAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henni Muchtar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this reformation era, local administrations need to concern about the recognition and protection of human rights. This article proposed research questions; what kind of bylaws is considered violating human rights from juridical normative view and its synchronization with existing human rights instruments? The above question is based on the idea that in every development plan is not free from public awareness/sense of justice, as well as legal benefit and certainty, which may offend human rights instruments. The research used normative juridical research, which is the method of legal research by researching library materials or secondary materials. This is a normative juridical research on issues concerning the synchronization bylaws with human rights. The research findings based on the study on Pesisir Selatan Regency Regulation No. 8 of 2007 on Nagari Administration, it is not compatible with Human Rights Act No. 39 of 1999. This can be seen from the lack of explicit accommodation on cultural identity of Minangkabau ethnic communities such as indigenous customary court, the function of Kerapatan Adat Nagari, and customary symbols as well as customary title that are overlooked in the regulations. Furthermore, when viewed from the perspective of Civil and Political Rights Act No. 11 of 2005, it is reflected that identity of titles such as titles of tribe, clan, and family is not a concern of the nagari administration. Thus it is a violation of the civil rights of indigenous peoples. Likewise, viewed from the ILO Convention 169 of 1990 on Indigeus Peoples (protection against indigenous peoples, the central government to local administrations must accommodate the interests of indigenous peoples in the state and administration. The separation of the interests indigenous and the nagari government is considered a human rights violation. Keywords: bylaws, human rights, indigenous peoples, nagari

  19. The regulation of clinical chemistry in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brguljan, Pika Mesko

    2011-01-01

    The practice of medical biochemistry in Slovenia includes clinical biochemistry (including toxicology, therapeutic drug monitoring, endocrinology, molecular diagnostics, immunology), hematology and coagulation. To start the vocational medical biochemistry training programme it's necessary to have a completed university degree (second cycle) in pharmacy, chemistry, biochemistry, medicine or other relevant university study and 1 year supervised practical training in medical laboratories, completed with mandatory state exam at Ministry of Health. The duration of vocational training programme is 4 years and is completed with final exam. The title after passed final examination is Medical biochemistry specialist. In October 2005 EC4 (Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine) approved Equivalence of standards of Slovenian national standards for medical biochemistry specialists. Since 2006 it is mandatory to be registered and to have valid license for medical biochemistry specialists and other professionals in laboratory medicine with at least university degree (second cycle) of education. Laboratory medicine in Slovenia is regulated globally through the Law of health-care activity and particularly through the Bylaw of laboratory medicine. The latter is based on standard ISO 15189, ratified in 2004. The Bylaw envisages granting working license to laboratories, valid for 5 years period. Granting of working licenses is ongoing process and first licenses have been granted in 2009. Important improvement toward the quality requirements for medical laboratories can be observed in the last 5 years. Parallel with the Bylaw of medical laboratories, Slovenian Accreditation (SA), the legal national accreditation body, started the initiative for accreditation of medical laboratories according to ISO 15189. It is in the implementation phase.

  20. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  1. Electronic sealing and smart card: a French innovation answering the VOC directive request; Scellement electronique et carte a puce: une innovation francaise repondant a la directive COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    The European Commission adopted in December 1994 the 94/63 directive which aims at reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Two French by-laws from December 8 and 19, 1995 reuse this directive and their implementation has an important impact on the methods used to meter the quantities of delivered products. In the framework of the European standardization works, the French professionals of the M100 commission have proposed a solution based on advanced technologies: the electronic sealing and the smart card. (J.S.)

  2. The Surgery Club- A Model for Development of Graduate Entrepreneurial Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kakkar, Rosie; Nawrocki, Philip; Northumbria University; St Georges' University, Grenada

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a reflective journey through the process of development of an extra- curricular project. A group of medical students on the St Georges Programme in their first year of medicine were keen to specialise in surgery in their clinical years yet to come. The idea of a ‘Surgery Club’ was thus born. Paperwork was submitted, to ensure recognition of the Club by the Institution, setting the bylaws, the constitution and a mission statement along with budgeting projections for the Term to c...

  3. Governance Vote Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert; Shirey, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Voting by the membership for proposed changes to AGU bylaws and articles of incorporation was completed on 13 November 2009. The proposed changes would expand AGU's Council to focus it on science; shift the business and fiduciary responsibility for AGU to a newly created, smaller Board of Directors, freeing the Council to focus on science policy and other science-related matters; and modernize AGU's governing documents to reflect current practice in not-for-profit governance. All background information was provided in the 15 September 2009 issue of Eos and in subsequent issues.

  4. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works; Le traitement des sites arretes aux houilleres de bassin du centre et du midi et la procedure d'arret des travaux miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, J.P. [Houilleres de Bassin du Centre et du Midi, Dir. des Sites Arretes, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2003-07-01

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  5. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  6. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  7. Evolution Of International Governmental Organisations Concerning Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The international rivers are water courses that separate or cross the territories of several states and which are navigable up to discharging in the sea. The Congress of Vienna (1815 sets forth certain principles of the regime of navigation on European international rivers and the notion of international rivers. The Conference of Berlin (1885 institutes the freedom of navigation on the rivers Congo and Niger. During the Conference of Barcelona (1921 a convention and a by-law were elaborated concerning the regime of navigable ways of international interest.

  8. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  9. The medicolegal aspects of proctoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Edward H; Harwell, John D

    2002-07-01

    Virtually every medical staff ensures surgeons technical competency by requiring a proctoring process. However, rarely do medical staff bylaws specify the relationship between completion of proctoring and acquisition of medical staff privileges. For this reason surgeons failing to acquire privileges because of adverse proctor evaluations might be subject to National Practitioners Data Bank reporting. Few proctors understand what their responsibilities are should they witness malpractice being committed. In the State of California, case law has demonstrated that proctors are immune from liability should they allow substandard practices to continue and fail to intervene on the patient's behalf. Alternatively, if the proctor intervenes on a Good Samaritan basis they are most likely protected from malpractice liability. We recommend the implementation of two processes to avoid legal pitfalls: (1) Liability can be minimized if proctoring consents are obtained that clearly delineate the proctor's responsibilities during the operation. (2) Medical staff bylaws should clearly specify the temporal relationship between application of privileges, duration of proctoring process and final acquisition of clinical privileges.

  10. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  11. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology.

  12. Extending Mental Health Diagnostic Privileges to Social Workers in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Austin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bill 78, An Act to amend The Social Workers Act, was passed in 2013 in Saskatchewan, allowing social workers to diagnose mental health disorders. Social workers previously had diagnostic privileges until the Psychologists Act was passed in 2002. The goal of the reform is to reduce wait times to access mental health services and diagnoses. The reform was introduced following extensive lobbying by the Saskatchewan Association of Social Workers (SASW and during a time of increased recognition of mental health issues both provincially and nationally. The reform will be implemented using regulatory instruments through the SASW and its by-laws, however the by-laws – updated to include provisions for Authorized Practice Endorsement, or in other words diagnosis of mental health disorders – have not, to date, been implemented. Accordingly, an evaluation of the reform has also not yet been conducted. Overall this reform is expected to improve access to mental health services, however concerns remain about availability of government funding and programs for treatment and services following diagnosis.

  13. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives.

  14. Comparative study of ceramic tiles produced in the Town of Goytacazes / RJ (Brazil); Estudo comparativo de telhas ceramicas produzidas no municipio de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Pacheco, A.T.; Carreiro, R.S; Petrucci, L.J.T., E-mail: lezira@ig.com.br [Fundacao de Apoio a Escola Tecnica (FAETEC), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro Vocacional Tecnologico - Ceramica

    2011-07-01

    The city of the Campos dos Goytacazes, situated in the region north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, presents characteristics place that it enter the producing greater of blocks and ceramic roofing tiles for the domestic market. This work makes a study enters four manufacturers of ceramic roofing tiles of the city of the Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, to analysis comparatively its results according to in agreement the characterization submitted to dilatometry, Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction for the physical tests the tiles were collected after burning and the tests under Bylaw NBR 15310. The results had indicated a significant variation in the values of water absorption of each manufacturer. The same ones demonstrate that the ceramic roofing tiles of Campos of the Goytacazes present a uniformity in the results, being that it needs technological accompaniment during the manufacture process, to improve its properties and its quality for adequacy to the normative parameters of the ABNT. (author)

  15. Introducing the International Confederation of Plastic Surgery Societies: ICOPLAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhorst, Hinne A; Badran, Hassan; Clarke, Howard M; Cooter, Rodney; Evans, Gregory R D; Kirschbaum, Julio Daniel; Koh, Kyung Suk; Lazier, Carol; Murphy, Robert X; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Piccolo, Nelson Sarto; Perks, Graeme

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the formation of the International Confederation of Plastic Surgery Societies (ICOPLAST) as a novel, transparent, dynamic, and proactive confederation of national plastic surgery societies. ICOPLAST aspires to provide a voice for the entire international community of plastic surgeons. ICOPLAST has been designed to benefit the patient, plastic surgery as a profession, and each individual plastic surgeon. Its principal objective is to enhance international communication, education, and advocacy processes to ultimately improve patient outcomes for plastic surgery patients globally. The new ICOPLAST's focus is to add true value for patients. ICOPLAST's evolution, philosophy, governance, and bylaws are explained and all societies worldwide are encouraged and cordially invited to join. An open and warm invitation is provided. Additional information is found at www.ICOPLAST.org.

  16. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by methanation, and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par methanisation, et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, control, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from April 16, 2002, of the approximation rules and some models of certificates are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  17. Application of game theory and new institutional economics in establishing a National Voluntary Organisation for Professional Evaluation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jobin

    2017-07-01

    Results and conclusion: To break this barrier, we proposed a new deal to the leaders that had the advantages of reshaping the ‘rules of the game’. We proposed a federation of associations, akin to a coalition in game theory. The result was that all leaders came together under this umbrella organisation, to celebrate the evaluation year in 2015 and committed under the Abuja Declaration on Evaluation to register and establish an association, with an elected board, a written constitution and election bylaws. The association is governed by a Board of Trustees, which is chaired by the former Minister of Planning. Elections are planned for the end of 2017.

  18. Building a Roll-Off Roof Observatory A Complete Guide for Design and Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, John

    2009-01-01

    Almost every practical astronomer who takes the pursuit to its second level aspires to a fixed, permanent housing for his telescope, permitting its rapid and comfortable use and avoiding hours of setting-up time for each observing session. A roll-off roof observatory is the simplest and by far the most popular observatory design for today’s practical astronomers. Building a Roll-off Roof Observatory will help you decide whether to embark on the venture and will certainly provoke your enthusiasm for the project. The author, both an amateur astronomer and professional landscape architect, answers many of the common questions asked around observatory construction covering the following topics: Site planning, zoning, and by-law requirements common to most states, towns and municipalities Opportunities for locating the observatory Tailoring the observatory for your particular use Tools and structural components required to build it Variations in footing design to suit your soil conditions Variations possible in ...

  19. Challenges for Better thesis supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Laleh; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Yunesian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Conduction of thesis by the students is one of their major academic activities. Thesis quality and acquired experiences are highly dependent on the supervision. Our study is aimed at identifing the challenges in thesis supervision from both students and faculty members point of view. This study was conducted using individual in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The participants were 43 students and faculty members selected by purposive sampling. It was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering using content analysis method. Our data analysis resulted in 162 codes, 17 subcategories and 4 major categories, "supervisory knowledge and skills", "atmosphere", "bylaws and regulations relating to supervision" and "monitoring and evaluation". This study showed that more attention and planning in needed for modifying related rules and regulations, qualitative and quantitative improvement in mentorship training, research atmosphere improvement and effective monitoring and evaluation in supervisory area.

  20. The Code of Professional Conduct for the Neurocritical Care Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Michael; Bonomo, Jordan; Bar, Barak; Collins, Edward; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Garvin, Rachel; Glickman, Scott; Grossman, Jonah; Henderson, Galen; Lawson, Tom; Mahanes, Dea; McFarlin, Jessica; Monchar, Sarah; Peled, Harry; Szalados, James

    2015-10-01

    Part of the responsibility of a professional society is to establish the expectations for appropriate behavior for its members. Some codes are so essential to a society that the code itself becomes the central document defining the organization and its tenets, as we see with the Hippocratic Oath. In that tradition, we have revised the code of professional conduct for the Neurocritical Care Society into its current version, which emphasizes guidelines for personal behavior, relationships with fellow members, relationships with patients, and our interactions with society as a whole. This will be a living document and updated as the needs of our society change in time.Available online: http://www.neurocriticalcare.org/about-us/bylaws-procedures-and-code-professional-conduct (1) Code of professional conduct (this document) (2) Leadership code of conduct (3) Disciplinary policy.

  1. Maximizing engagement in the American Psychological Association and its affiliated professional associations: 2012 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    APA Bylaws Article XI.7 requires that the Policy and Planning Board report annually by publication to the membership and review the structure and function of the Association as a whole every fifth year. This report offers a framework for how to strategically and systematically provide a range of high-value engagement opportunities across membership cohorts and activities. The first section provides a selected overview of literature related to engagement and offers some general considerations for incorporating research into evaluating and refining member engagement activities. Next, survey findings on why individuals join membership organizations are reviewed. Finally, 10 engagement domains as a framework for designing, evaluating, and monitoring the impact of engagement initiatives and activities are presented.

  2. Modular plants with high power gas engines (1 to 30 MWe); Centrales modulaires a moteurs gaz de forte puissance (de 1 a 30 MWe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haushalter, J. [Wartsila (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies about the high power gas engines manufactured by Waertsilae NSD Corporation company. The first par recalls the NO{sub x} and CO air pollution regulations worldwide, the German TA-Luft standards and the French 2910 by-law according to the engine type (2 and 4 stroke, dual-fuel, natural gas, LPG, others..) and to the type of pollutants (NO{sub x}, dusts, SO{sub 2}, CO, noise..). The second part presents the Waertsilae NSD Corporation concept of gas-fueled spark ignition engines (Otto cycle, emissions, performances, technology, fuel system, combustion optimization, fuel-air ratio regulation, pollution control equipment) and of the `pure energy` global concept of plants. (J.S.)

  3. Economic Criminal Acts according to Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bajram Ukaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the criminal offences against economy in the Criminal Code of Kosovo, which are increasingly becoming an important object of study, both at national and international levels. The criminal offences against economy are in principle blanket nature offences, guiding nature, since the vast majority of such norms are further delineated in other bylaws, while the criminal code provisions provide on criminal offences, thereby guiding towards another legal or sub-legal provision. Economic and financial crimes in Kosovo are already making a remarkable increase, as proven by statistical records of state authorities. The increased rate of economic crimes is a result of many factors and circumstances present in Kosovo, which may be different from regional countries. The inefficient fight and prevention of organized crime and corruption in the period between 1999-2010 was stimulated and favoured by several specific factors that are elaborated in this article.

  4. An Evaluation of Iranian Judges’ Decisions about The Act of Embryo Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanifar, Alireza; Behjati Ardekani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Embryo donation was one of the infertility treatment methods introduced to the Iranian legal system in 2003 (Act of Embryo Donation) and its by-law passed in 2005 after nu- merous discussions. Embryo donation is a new legal issue in Iran. No similar act has been previously legis- lated in the legal system; however, on the other hand, the importance of the judicial pro- cedure in its execution cannot be ignored since during this treatment process the infertile couples must refer to the court. In this paper, we analyzed 80 court decisions that concerned permission for embryo do- nation during 2006-2011. The decisions were made for couples who requested this treat- ment and referred to Avicenna Fertility Center (Tehran, Iran). In this study, we analyzed the decisions and regulations for the demands, in addition to the medical and legal view- points of the judges. The differences among the judges’ decisions and in the ways of investigating were discussed. PMID:26246885

  5. Intelligent Chatter Bot for Regulation Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luise María Daniela López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents a functional prototype, named PTAH, implementing a linguistic model focused on regulations in Spanish. Its global architecture, the reasoning model and short statistics are provided for the prototype. It is mainly a conversational robot linked to an Expert System by a module with many intelligent linguistic filters, implementing the reasoning model of an expert. It is focused on bylaws, regulations, jurisprudence and customized background representing entity mission, vision and profile. This Structure and model are generic enough to self-adapt to any regulatory environment, but as a first step, it was limited to an academic field. This way it is possible to limit the slang and data numbers. The foundations of the linguistic model are also outlined and the way the architecture implements the key features of the behavior.

  6. Intelligent Chatter Bot for Regulation Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luise, María Daniela López; Pascal, Andrés; Saad, Ben; Álvarez, Claudia; Pescio, Pablo; Carrilero, Patricio; Malgor, Rafael; Díaz, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    This communication presents a functional prototype, named PTAH, implementing a linguistic model focused on regulations in Spanish. Its global architecture, the reasoning model and short statistics are provided for the prototype. It is mainly a conversational robot linked to an Expert System by a module with many intelligent linguistic filters, implementing the reasoning model of an expert. It is focused on bylaws, regulations, jurisprudence and customized background representing entity mission, vision and profile. This Structure and model are generic enough to self-adapt to any regulatory environment, but as a first step, it was limited to an academic field. This way it is possible to limit the slang and data numbers. The foundations of the linguistic model are also outlined and the way the architecture implements the key features of the behavior.

  7. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International, Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  8. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien, P.J.; Fournel-Fleury, C.; Bolliger, Adrian Marc

    2007-01-01

    After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP)was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has...... approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1...... congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges...

  9. A contribution to study the immigration from Sub Saharan Africa to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Maffia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though in Argentina we have immigrants from Sub Saharan Africa arriving at the end of the Nineteenth Century and beginning of the Twentieth Century such as those from South Africa and Cape Verde, this new immigration from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, among other countries, during the last decade of the Twentieth Century and first decade of the Twenty-first Century appears in a different historical and political context. This new migration is facing legal regimes and increasingly restrictive administrative by-laws, framed in the growing economic globalization.This work is part of the first results of a research on this migration from an anthropological perspective. This study, which began in 2009, takes into account contributions made by history, political sciences, demography, among other disciplines, making use of articles written by African and Non-African social scientists. We are convinced that in this exchange of views our limitations may be overcome.

  10. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  11. Efficiency of the functioning of the state control system for the safety and quality of animal products in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyryliuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals the results of evaluating the effectiveness of the state control system (supervision on the safety and individual indicators of the quality of livestock products in Ukraine. The necessity of application of such components of efficiency as legislation, management and its organizational structure, inspection and laboratory service, information, training and communications is substantiated. It has been determined that during a sufficiently long period of time (until 2015, the system of state control (supervision was archaic and actually focused on the principles of command and administrative economy. The modern tendencies and specifics of the improvement of the Ukrainian control system in the direction of its harmonization with the European one are shown. The emphasis was on significant volumes of work that needed to be done in a very short time, as well as in the absence of adequate funding and appropriate skilled specialists. The emergence of clarity and unambiguousness in determining the responsibility of market operators for violating the legislation requirements in the field of production and circulation of animal origin food products was emphasized. Along with the achievements, there were identified systemic problems related to the technical regulation of safety assurance processes and individual quality indicators in Ukraine. Also it was noted and revealed that legislation in the area of guaranteeing the quality and safety of livestock products in Ukraine remains incomplete and not fully developed. The necessity of development of a number of by-laws and allocation of necessary financing for effective functioning of the state control system over product safety is substantiated. Article specified on the presence of insufficient number of professional inspection and laboratory services is underlined. The mechanisms of avoiding corruption risks and excessive pressure on the subjects of the livestock production market are

  12. 24. ATSR congress - Proceedings; 24e congres ATSR - Recueil des conferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    This document brings together the available abstracts and presentations given at the 24. congress of the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the radiation protection actors, and the change in activity and practices: 1 - the new CIPR general recommendations (J-F. Lecomte); 2 - November 2007 legal changes in the public health law (M. Ammerich); 3 - November 2007 legal changes in the labour law (T. Lahaye, M. Ammerich); 4 - events and culture in radiation protection: 2008 situation at EDF (Y. Garcier, H. Delabre); 5 - TSN (nuclear transparency and safety) law and the new nuclear safety authority (M. Bourguignon); 6 - industrial radiography charter in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (PACA): presentation, participants, works in progress, stakes (S. Mocaer, N. Grolleau); 7 - Dosimetric study of an industrial gamma-graphy workplace (D. Paul, M. Pizzorno); 8 - experience feedback of controls and inspections at a gamma-graphy workplace in PACA region (G. Veyret et N. Grolleau); 9 - experience feedback from the industrialist's viewpoint, respect of the charter, evaluation questionnaire (S. Mocaer, D. Guillet); 10 - new regulation, CAMARI by-law, national monitoring committee (T. Lahaye); 11 - patient's radiation protection in medical imaging service: actions and regulations (G. Dandis, S. Simon); 12 - patients radiation protection principles in medical imaging (H. Leclet, M. Madoux); 13 - the exposure sheet, its implementation challenges in an operating room with image intensifiers (A. Bourdeloie); 14 - building up of a radiation protection control approach for patients in radiotherapy (L. Kueny); 15 - impact of recent advances in scintiscanning on patients and personnel exposure (S. Balduyck); 16 - Dose rates evaluation during scintiscanning for dependent patients (G. Fagot); 17 - dealing with patients dosimetry: from the regulatory obligation to the daily practice of a medical imaging service (J

  13. 23. ATSR congress - Proceedings; 23eme congres de l'ATSR - Recueil des conferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the 23. congress of the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR): 1 - J-F. Lecomte (CIPR): International commission of radiological protection (ICRP)'s recommendations; 2 - T. Lahaye (DGT): presentation of the 'worker's decree'; 3 - C. Marchal (DGSNR): Nuclear safety authority (ASN) viewpoint: first controllers' experience feedback; 4 - F. Rollinger (IRSN): missions of the IRSN's public expert for workers radiation protection; 5 - J-C. Varin (Areva NC): technical, organisational and managerial aspects of the implementation of new regulatory dispositions about radiation protection technical controls at La Hague facility; 6 - J-J. Radecki (Areva NC): enforcement of the radiological zoning by-law at Areva facilities; 7 - D. Miniere (EDF): implementation of the ALARA approach at EDF's nuclear power plants; 8 - D. Lefer (EAMEA): situation in the army and issues generated by the new decree; 9 - L. Ridel (DGA SPN): waste management aspect in the framework of submarines dismantling; 10 - D. Giordan (CMIR 78): the workers' decree: from practice to intervention; 11 - N. Barrey (CHU Bordeaux): enforcement of the May 2004 by-law and experience feedback; 12 - J-C. Mozziconacci (CH Bourges): zoning, reclassification and implementation of the medical imaging operational dosimetry in a medium size hospital; 13 - J. Bino (AMEST Lille): recommendations and technical instructions for labour doctors; 14 - K. Zarraa (CERAP): decree impact on approved organisations; 15 - D. Morio (COFREND): difficulties encountered with the implementation of radiographical devices; 16 - B. Carrez (Ponts et Chaussees): workplace studies and operational dosimetries: essential tools at public work sites; 17 - G. Imbard (CEA): evolution of workers regulation, adaptation of practices at Marcoule site; 18 - M. Ammerich (CEA): ambiguities and enforcement difficulties of

  14. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  15. ANDRA, 2006 activity report; ANDRA, Rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  16. [History Of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko

    2013-09-01

    This review analyses historical sources on the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar over the past two centuries. The development of these two professional fields in the context of public health was regulated through a number of bylaws, such as Normativum Sanitatum from the time of the Habsburg Monarchy. Coroner examinations were performed by physicians, surgeons, and laymen using special instructions such as the famous booklet by nobleman and county medical officer Vilim Peičić from 1914. Forensic autopsy was performed by surgeons, primary or secondary hospital physicians in case of sudden or suspicious in-hospital deaths, whereas outpatient forensic autopsies were performed by county or town medical officers and district physicians at the request of investigating authorities (police, court, or general attorney's office). This historical review should serve as the basis for further historical research into this field in Croatia so as to obtain deeper insight into the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system, two professions that have always been a vital factor in public health.

  17. Electronic sealing of tank trucks and smart card. Description of the technical solutions of the M 100 commission. Electronic sealing, 'pilot' operations in the Lyon region; Scellement electronique des camions citernes et carte a puce. Description des solutions techniques de la commission M 100. Scellement electronique, operation 'pilotes' en region lyonnaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauterie, M. [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L' Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the prevention and abatement of atmospheric pollution, the European commission adopted in December 1994 the 94/63 directive in favor of the abatement of the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Two French by-laws from December 8 and 19, 1995 reuse this directive. Its implementation requires important modifications of facilities (refineries, depots) for the storage, loading and delivery of gasoline. The electronic sealing of tank trucks, a solution based on advanced technologies, is under standardization. In order to become a European reference standard, this solution needs to be examined by the CEN/TC 296 GT8 committee, specialized in electronic equipments and in tanks for the transportation of dangerous materials. This dossier comprises three parts: a description of the regulatory requirements of the device for transfer of measured quantities (DTQM), a description of the technical solutions adopted by the M 100 commission which participate to works of the GT8 committee, and the pilot-test operations of electronic sealing performed in the Lyon region. (J.S.)

  18. A mission in evolution: the International Society of Nephrology in the past 10 years--2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2011-05-01

    The International Society of Nephrology is now 50 years old! It has dedicated the year 2010 to celebrate its Gold Anniversary in many ways, including documentation of its progress during the past decade, following an earlier article addressing the period 1960-2000. The present article describes the changing mission of the Society in the direction of achieving its ultimate vision of "global elimination of kidney disease." While maintaining its leadership in the promotion of science, it became the prime driving force in capacity building for the diagnosis, prevention and management of kidney disease in the developing world. The society has recently modified its directive from addressing only the physicians providing renal care to supporting other health care providers, and sharing in community education on how to avoid kidney disease. This required the acquisition of new skills in publishing, marketing, politics and fund-raising, which could only be handled by professional management, which the Society has utilized since 2003. It also necessitated enlargement of the leadership circle to include members from all over the world, for which reason the constitution had to be amended twice during the past decade, and the bylaws re-written in 2007. The pride that International Society of Nephrology takes from its scientific and outreach achievements is the fuel that drives its machinery to endless horizons in the humanitarian arena.

  19. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by cogeneration facilities and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations de cogeneration et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, tariffing periods and energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, controls, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from July 31, 2001, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is an additional clause concerning the operation and tariffs of purchase when the cogeneration facility is in a dispatch mode. (J.S.)

  20. PROCESS OF LEGAL RECONGITION FOR THE AMMATOA KAJANG ADAT COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van der Muur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses governance as it appears in the making of a regional bylaw that grants legal recognition to an indigenous adat community in South-Sulawesi. This process represents a move away from a traditional government approach. The coalition of legal drafters, which included state officials, community members and civil society, engaged in a joint effort of participatory law making. An analysis of this process addresses questions on how the decision-making process developed, what this meant for the outcomes and to what extent this new form of governance served the interests of all parties involved. Penulisan ini membahas proses pembuatan peraturan daerah yang memberikan pengakuan hukum atas sebuah komunitas adat di Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia. Proses tersebut merupakan sebuah gagasan baru tentang pendekatan partisipatif oleh pemerintah yang menjauh dari pendekatan pada umumnya. Gabungan tim perancang peraturan, turut menyertakan pejabat pemerintahan, anggota masyarakat dan organisasi masyarakat. Analisis yang ada menjawab bagaimana perkembangan suatu proses pengambilan keputusan, serta tujuan dari hasil yang ada dan sejauh mana bentuk tata kelola pemerintahan yang baru dapat melayani semua pihak yang terlibat.

  1. Embryo Donation in Iranian Legal System: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Milanifar, Alireza; Masrouri, Roudabeh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments and newly-discovered methods for infertility treatment including in vitro fertilization and third party reproduction raise many questions and challenges with different ethical, legal, sociological and psychological dimensions. In Islamic countries, despite great developments in using this technology, the questions concerned with recognition of IVF methods and third party reproduction and legalization of this method are still the challenging ones. The approach of a few Shiite clerics to this issue has facilitated the legalisation of infertility treatment in Iran. The Iranian Parliament, with reference to Shiite clerics' opinions (Fatwa), enacted the Act concerning Embryo Donation to Infertile Couples and its bylaw which can be considered as a successful example of legalization of third party reproduction in an Islamic country. The aforementioned Act permits embryo donation through artificial insemination from legally married couples to infertile couples. However, many of the legal aspects of this event are not specified in this Act and in many cases it added several uncertainties. This uncertainty, especially regarding the rights and duties of recipients and the child, causes important problems which generate more concerns. This article aimed to review the advantages and flaws of the Act. It is believed that the enactment of the aforementioned Act is an important step but an insufficient measure in this field. Important issues have been left unanswered and unclear in this Act which should be considered by legislators in any future revision of it. PMID:26913231

  2. The Bologna reform of subject teacher education in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protner Edvard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of carrying out the principles of the Bologna reform in the education of subject teachers in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Drawing upon official documents, particularly laws and by-laws, study programmes and constituent documents of individual universities, the comparative analysis of the reform processes between 2004 and 2013 is made within a relatively homogeneous area in teacher education that existed before the break-up of the former joint state. Positive effects and weak points of the reform activities are observed and detected. The analysis has shown that by implementing the Bologna process the differences in the training of subject teachers among the states and universities, and even among individual universities, increased significantly compared to the previous state of education. This is evident not only in the simultaneous implementation of different models (i.e., the duration of studies (3+2, 4+1, 5+0, but also in concurrent application of simultaneous and successive forms of acquiring teacher competences, different academic titles, and particularly in the greatest issue - different levels of education at which teachers acquire teaching competences for the same teacher profile.

  3. Workplace Bullying in Healthcare: Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, By Becky

    2015-01-01

    As many as 53.5 million American workers have experienced workplace bullying, which can cost organizations an estimated $200 billion annually in lost productivity, increased sick d ays, increased med ical claims, legal costs, and staff turnover. Bullying can occur in any profession, but for many reasons it is most prevalent in healthcare. Bullying behavior in healthcare has been reported and documented in literature for over 35 years. Although physicians are often considered to be the primary culprit of bullying, healthcare bullies can be one any one of the professionals who work in the organization including nurses, radiology technologists, pharmacists, ancillary staff personnel, administrators, or other non-physician staff members. The first installment of the series focused on defining bullying and its impact on the organization. Part 2 discussed three legal protections for the bully to include at-will laws, unions, and bylaws related to physician privileging. The final installment in this series will evaluate specific bully types and implementing processes to address inappropriate behavior.

  4. Interações entre aeroporto, cidade e região: desafios para uma ação a respeito do caso de São José dos Campos (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study on airports highlights the need for a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the interactions between these urban facilities and the development of cities and regions, considering the different regional contexts in Brazil. It also suggests using monitoring and management systems as well as planning tools to be applied to these interactions. To support the analysis and help understand these issues, this article presents a survey of São Jose dos Campos Airport and how it interacts with the city and with urban and regional development in the Paraíba Valley, state of São Paulo. This article also graphically illustrates how the sprawling São Jose dos Campos gradually surrounded its airport and maps show the environmental impact of air and airport traffic on the city. Considering the many issues involving growth and development of this airport, this study suggests ways for local government authorities to use planning and management tools created by Brazil's Estatuto da Cidade (City Bylaw and IT systems, studies and analyses that can provide ongoing monitoring of the situation and enable joint action among the parties involved.

  5. ADAPTACIÓN DE LA LEY DE COOPERATIVAS DEL PAÍS VASCO A LAS NORMAS INTERNACIONALES DE CONTABILIDAD (Apuntes para una nueva configuración del régimen del capital en las Sociedades Cooperativas/ADAPTATION OF THE LAW OF CO-OPERATIVES OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY TO THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier DIVAR GARTEIZ-AURRECOA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La Legislación vasca de cooperativas remite a la libre decisión de cada sociedad para que los estatutos puedan prever la existencia de aportaciones a capital social no exigibles, pero reembolsables por decisión de la cooperativa, permitiendo, así, contabilizar las aportaciones de los socios como recurso propio. Con la modificación de la Ley se ha pretendido únicamente adecuar el texto a la NIC 32 y no introducir las anheladas medidas para facilitar la financiación de las empresas cooperativas con fondos propios./The Basque Legislation of cooperative societies sends to the free decision of every society in order that the bylaws could foresee the existence of contributions to share capital not eligible, but refundable for decision of the cooperative society, allowing to assess, this way, the contributions of the associates as own resource. With the modification of the Law one has tried to adapt only the text to the NIC 32 and not to introduce the longed measurements to facilitate the funding of the cooperative companies with own funds.

  6. Conflict-resolution mechanisms maintaining an agricultural system. Early modern local courts as an arena for solving collective-action problems within Scandinavian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid access to low-cost local arenas to resolve conflicts among appropriators is one of the principles that characterise robust common-pool resource (CPR institutions. In spite of this insight, we have little knowledge about how such institutions solved collective-action problems in early modern Scandinavia, when CPRs were an important part of production. Arenas to resolve conflicts among appropriators range from informal meetings among users to formal court cases. This paper focuses on local courts, rather than laws and by-laws, within the Scandinavian legal origin and how these courts developed as arenas for CPR conflict resolution. Court rulings from Leksand Parish in central Sweden were the backbone for this study. The results indicate that access to a low-cost arena was more important to the peasants than rapid access to the courts. Successful conflict resolution could take years to accomplish and it was more important for the court to embed their decisions in people’s minds than to come to a quick resolution. Further, I demonstrate that the court laid the foundation for disputing parties to solve conflicts among themselves. Lay judges – peasants from the region – came to play an important role in conflict resolution. Thus, in the 17th and 18th centuries, the court played a central role in maintaining agricultural CPRs.

  7. New national foreign trade legislation on subsidies and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the subsidies are one of the main sources of restrictions in international trade, and a disturbance factor of liberalization process in that field, which is particularly emphasized in the times of economic crises. Due to its economic impact, such behavior causes unavoidably the implementation of countervailing measures. However, as its extensive use has the potential to turn them into the instrument of protectionism, it is necessary to deploy the appropriate legal rules in order to determine precisely the conditions and regime for the use of such subsidies, as well as the implementation of countervailing measures in the case of violation of that regime. The processes of liberalization of our foreign trade system and constant foreign trade deficit make the need for protection of our own economy and creating of appropriate set of defense instruments against non-permitted/illegal subsidies in our law more and more relevant. The reply to that need in new economic circumstances was the enactment of a new Law on Foreign Trade Operations in 2009 and, in particular the enactment of the accompanying bylaws. Its rules in the field of subsidies have been largely harmonized with the requirements of the World Trade Organizations, and consequently with the European Union standards, in both the conceptual aspect and aspect of individual solutions. However, there is still a chronic issue of the lack of institutional and appropriate human resources assumptions for its full and optimum implementation.

  8. Corporate and philanthropic models of hospital governance: a taxonomic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B J; Alexander, J A

    1993-08-01

    We assess the theoretical integrity and practical utility of the corporate-philanthropic governance typology frequently invoked in debates about the appropriate form of governance for nonprofit hospitals operating in increasingly competitive health care environments. Data were obtained from a 1985 national mailed survey of nonprofit hospitals conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) and the Hospital Research and Educational Trust (HRET). A sample 1,577 nonprofit community hospitals were selected for study. Representativeness was assessed by comparing the sample with the population of non-profit community hospitals on the dimensions of bed size, ownership type, urban-rural location, multihospital system membership, and census region. Measurement of governance types was based on hospital governance attributes conforming to those cited in the literature as distinguishing corporate from philanthropic models and classified into six central dimensions of governance: (1) size, (2) committee structure and activity, (3) board member selection, (4) board composition, (5) CEO power and influence, and (6) bylaws and activities. Cluster analysis and ANCOVA indicated that hospital board forms adhered only partially to corporate and philanthropic governance models. Further, board forms varied systematically by specific organizational and environmental conditions. Boards exhibiting more corporate governance forms were more likely to be large, privately owned, urban, and operating in competitive markets than were hospitals showing more philanthropic governance forms. Findings suggest that the corporate-philanthropic governance distinction must be seen as an ideal rather than an actual depiction of hospital governance forms. Implications for health care governance are discussed.

  9. Gerakan Sosial Pedagang Kaki Lima (Studi Tentang Hegemoni pada Pedagang Kaki Lima Di Pasar Bambu Kuning Kota Bandar Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Hermanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research aiming to study the street vendors’ social movement in the city of Bandar Lampung, particularly in Bambu Kuning market, by using the Marxist conflict perspective. The Bandar Lampung municipal policy to sweep the street vendors has caused them to resist. This research is qualitative, using observation technique, participative observation, in-depth interviews, and library research for data collecting. There are five important discoveries in the research; 1 street vendors movement, in Marxist conflict perspective, is a resistant act both openly and closely or latent. 2 Sweeps by Bandar Lampung municipality, which is based on public agreement on certain values such as bylaws Perda No 8 Tahun 2000 which aims at the street vendors, is a form of hegemony. 3 Movement by the street vendors, both openly and latently, which is perceived as a resistance in this research, is a counter hegemony. 4 Hegemony, resistance, negotiation, and compromise are indispensable things in a conflict between the ruling class and the subject class. 5 In Bambu Kuning market, there are people who control the street vendors as well as subordinated by the Bandar Lampung municipality. They are the market thugs usually called preman. Their position in the Bambu Kuning case is in “grey area” or not clear; representing none of both the street vendors and the municipality. Key words: social movement, street vendors, hegemony, resistance

  10. Proceedings of CanWEA's 21. annual conference and trade show 2005. On-line ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Wind energy presents significant potential in the Canadian energy mix. The Canadian Wind Energy Association has established a national wind target of 10,000 MW of wind power capacity by 2010. The focus of this conference was on federal wind policy, as well as issues concerning research and development and interconnection with electrical grids. Small wind policy developments with details of bylaws and funding scenarios were also examined, as well as various provincial policies and initiatives. Other topics of discussion included energy capture; technical challenges in remote communities; wind and First Nations communities; dynamic analyses of various wind-hydro systems; wind energy as a social development tool; wind energy and the development of a greenhouse gas offset systems; environmental assessment guidance with reference to birds; and wind energy and industrial development. In addition, new wind power technologies were examined. Various provincial policy updates were presented. Issues concerning wind forecasting and the modelling of climatological reference data were discussed. Marketing strategies for wind power producers were presented. Canadian grid interconnection standards were reviewed and issues concerning education and training were examined in relation to the industry's projected growth. Various international policies and strategies were reviewed. Insurance and risk assessment strategies in the wind power industry were examined. Ninety-four presentations were given at this conference, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Measuring LEED–NC applicability in design for hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marie Cracknell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mounting awareness of climate change in recent years has led the construction industry to initiate new approaches toward sustainable building design, yet stakeholders in hospitality development still hesitate to build green. This reluctance is due to perceived high guest expectations of comfort levels and amenity access among these properties. Research was conducted to determine precisely which green building innovations present the most significant barriers to incorporating sustainability into design for hospitality. Average LEED credit implementation rates among 28 existing LEED hotel projects were calculated and compared with average credits employed among common commercial building projects. 15 of those projects’ designers also offered survey opinions on which sustainable innovations were most commonly avoided in their approaches for hospitality. The results indicate that certain credits do experience decreased popularity among hospitality projects, yet guest comfort was not the only barrier identified. Cost of implementation and local applicability affected by climate and local bylaws were also found as major role players in the selection of credits specific to hospitality design. Conclusions are presented according to the data and recommendations made to support further growth and success in future applications of LEED sustainable design in hospitality.

  12. Technical-economic justification of the choice of heat source autonomous heating schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the priority tasks of improving the fuel efficiency in the Russian Federation is the development of district heating systems. Such a policy spelled out in the Federal law “On heat supply” dated 27.07.2010 No. 190-FZ, the number of bylaws and regulations of the government. However, there is strong growth of low-rise, primarily residential construction in the country. Today major Russian cities are surrounded by settlements and gardening, where the laying of heat networks economically not justified. In the current environment are higher requirements for energy efficiency schemes for Autonomous heat supply heat sources to meet the seasonal and year-round loads, and also search of alternative ways of using the heat systems with heat pumps and solar systems. The paper discusses options for using in the circuits Autonomous heating such heat sources, like traditional and condensing hot water boilers. In this experiment you performed the study on the impact of modes of heating systems to customers in fuel efficiency. This is very important for technical applications results efficient operation of the systems of Autonomous heat supply.

  13. The Accra experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno-amarteifio, N

    1995-11-01

    This case study by the Mayor of Accra, Ghana, discusses urban growth and government efforts at city management of education, town councils, the environment, health, and business. Accra struggles to balance city population growth with infrastructure and services. Suburbs are formed daily. The central Municipal Authority is creating a new system of government that aims to include a broad segment of the population. Departments and agencies have been decentralized. Sub-metro governments were created with town councils as the governing bodies. Town councils are elected by the residents and are comprised of unit committees, which are formed from one or two neighborhoods. Each level of government sends representatives to the next level of government. The neighborhoods are in charge of environmental management. Public tribunals are oversight bodies that adjudicate violations of municipal by-laws. The Health Department has new equipment and vehicles, detects sanitation violations, and participates in the arraignment of violators before tribunals. Health inspectors are encouraged to live in the communities that they supervise and to participate in community activities. The city is investing in education. The city has subcontracted with a mass media firm to produce a package of films on topical events that will be taken to densely populated areas for informing the community about city affairs. The city encourages private business development.

  14. Report of the community government leaders conference : preparing for the pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presented details of a conference held by political leaders and key staff from community governments in the Mackenzie Valley to discuss the Mackenzie Gas Project review process. The intent was to ensure that communities know and use the regulatory process to ensure their interests are represented. Another key focal point was the identification of impacts and benefits on community government programs and services. The conference was divided into 3 sections: (1) providing information to community leaders; (2) knowledge sharing among leaders; and (3) the identification of issues and strategies. Key concerns included the need for more intervener funding; technical support; specific information on the project proposal at the community level; and the adequacy of the proponents' plans for mitigation and monitoring. Overuse and increased wear and tear on community infrastructure was also a major concern. Communities with experience dealing with the impacts of resource development presented outlines of best practices, which emphasized the need for comprehensive advance planning and open communication. Knowledge sharing sessions identified how communities can access and participate in review processes. Issues concerning funding sources and the inadequacy of existing resources were discussed, as well as various bylaws that communities could adopt to regulate and manage development activities. It was concluded that the project proponents were committed to working with individual communities to identify impacts and opportunities. Ten PowerPoint presentations were given, and various roundtable discussions were held. refs., tabs, figs.

  15. Actual Problems of Administrative Responsibility for Admission to Driving a Person Who Is Under the Influence of Alcohol or Who Does Not Have the Right to Drive a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina V. Kuyanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study are the norms of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses providing for the grounds and procedure for bringing to administrative responsibility of officials and legal entities for admission of a person to driving who is under the influence of alcohol or who does not have the right to drive a vehicle. The object of the study is public relations, developing in the field of road safety. The Author, in the framework of the article, pays attention to the peculiarities of regulation of the public relations under consideration by by-laws; problems of law application practice; explanations of the judicial authorities that allow to unify the practice of resolving the relevant category of cases, to ensure the most effective protection of the rights and legitimate interests of society and the state in the field of road safety. Proposals specifying certain provisions of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses are formulated

  16. Estatutos Sindicales, la Fuente Olvidada: El caso de las estructuras sindicales de empleados de comercio Union Statutes, the forgotten source: The case of the structures of trade union employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Abal Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estatutos sindicales, junto a la Ley de Asociaciones Sindicales, definen las dinámicas de funcionamiento y los métodos de participación y decisión al interior de las estructuras sindicales. Son piezas fundamentales de la organización interna. En el presente trabajo se analizan las sucesivas reformas registradas por los estatutos correspondientes al Sindicato de Empleados de Comercio de Lanús Y Avellaneda con el objeto de definir los rasgos principales de la estructura sindical de la región y sus relaciones con la federación.The union statutes, together with the Trade Unions Act, define the dynamics of functioning and the methods of participation and decision to the interior of the union structures. They are fundamental pieces of the internal organization. In the present work there are analyzed the successive reforms registered by the bylaws corresponding to the Union of Employees of Trade of Lanús And Avellaneda in order to define the principal features of the union structure of the region and his relations with the federation.

  17. In Defence of Reason: Religion, Science, and the Prince Edward Island Anti-Abortion Movement, 1969-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the Prince Edward Island Right to Life Association (RTLA) lobbied medical professionals, hospital boards, politicians, and neighbours to prevent the Charlottetown and Summerside hospital corporations, the only abortion providers on the Island, to eliminate their Therapeutic Abortion Committees. Because abortion committees were not mandatory and only hospital boards were responsible for establishing committees at accredited hospitals, the RTLA elected pro-life members to the boards and voted against abortion committee bylaws to establish barriers to abortion access. By holding key positions within the hospital corporations, pro-life activists ensured that abortion provisions were no longer legally or medically permissible in Island hospitals. This article draws on RTLA and government records, newspaper articles, as well as interviews with pro-life activists, to highlight the avenues through which the organization created a prominent social movement. By contesting the scientific reasoning for abortion, the RTLA quickly became a countermovement not only to the pro-choice movement, but also to the mainstream medical community.

  18. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  19. Palliative Care-Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Rudina; Çarçani, Valbona; Prifti, Fatmir; Huta, Kristo; Xhixha, Ali; Connor, Stephen R

    2018-02-01

    Sixty percent of cancer patients are diagnosed with advanced stages of disease and those diagnosed in early stages face challenges to receive adequate treatment. Palliative care has had significant developments in recent years in Albania because of a close partnership with the Ministry of Health, local nonprofit organizations, and the Open Society Foundation Albania. In 2011, a five-year action plan for palliative care as one of four parts of the National Cancer Control Plan was approved. At the end of 2014, the first palliative care law was approved by Parliament. Palliative care by-laws, documents, standards, clinical protocols, and guidelines for adults and children have been developed. Training and education are being provided to primary care professionals. Curricula on palliative care have been developed for the faculty of medicine, nursing high schools, and social work. About 80% of essential medications used in palliative care are available in Albania, 50% of these are paid for and have some access restrictions, and meanwhile the opiophobia still remains an enormous barrier. In the last three years, significant progress has been made in service provision. From only one public palliative care service in 2013, there are now eight palliative care services in eight of the 11 regional hospitals. By the end of 2016, it is expected that palliative care services will be available in all regional hospitals in the country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  1. Kalla yarning at Matagarup: Televised legitimation and the limits of heritage-making in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Kerr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is directed towards furthering understandings of popular television news reporting on Aboriginal solidarity gatherings at Matagarup on Heirisson Island, a state-registered Aboriginal Heritage Site in Perth, Western Australia. In doing so, it also seeks to identify the practical limits of heritage making in disrupting the legitimization of state action not recognizing such heritage claims. In 2012 and 2015, Aboriginal citizens gathering and camping at the heritage site were subject to police raids legitimized by popular media organizations reporting a breach of municipal bylaws prohibiting camping and fires on Heirisson Island. This paper examines a shift in popular television reporting over the three years towards acknowledging that Aboriginal people should be able to assemble, without police harassment, around a fire at the site. The most radical shift in reporting is observable in Nine News coverage of events. For this reason, eight televised items from Nine News in 2015 are analysed alongside Nine News reporting described in the authors’ previous study of reporting of events at Matagarup in 2012. The paper identifies and discusses the implications of two key dialogical processes in the news production: Firstly, a process of cross-cultural reading and shared understandings of fire as hearth, and secondly a process of reproducing a dominant discursive tradition locating home for Aboriginal people outside the city.

  2. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the legislative year 2012: minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 24-26, 2012, Washington, DC, and August 2 and 5, 2012, Orlando, Florida, and minutes of the February, June, August, October, and December 2012 meetings of the Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S

    2013-01-01

    These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports, some of which will be published elsewhere. Copies of these reports were distributed to Council and are on file in the Central Office. As long as the supply lasts, extra copies of many of the reports are available from the Central Office. These minutes are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. The main topical headings are I. Minutes of Meetings; II. Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; III. Ethics; IV. Board of Directors; V. Divisions and State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations; VI. Organization of the APA; VII. Publications and Communications; VIII. Convention Affairs; IX. Educational Affairs; X. Professional Affairs; XI. Scientific Affairs; XII. Public Interest; XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs; XIV. International Affairs; XV. Central Office; and XVI. Financial Affairs. Changes to the language of the American Psychological Association (APA) Bylaws, Association Rules, or motions of the items are noted as follows throughout these proceedings: Bracketed material is to be deleted; underlined material is to be added.

  3. Building a roll-off roof or dome observatory a complete guide for design and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, John Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design.  Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design. Building a Roll-Off or Dome Observatory will help you decide whether to embark on the venture and will certainly increase your enthusiasm for the project. The author, both an amateur astronomer and a professional landscape architect, answers many of the common questions asked about observatory construction, covering the following topics: • Zoning, and by-law requirements common to most states, towns and municipalities • Where to locate the observatory • How to tailor the observatory for your particular needs • Tools and structural components required • Possible variations in de...

  4. Edificio para la nueva sede social de la empresa nacional de electricidad, S. A. Madrid/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Población, Eleuterio

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and execution of ENDESA building, in Madrid, is fully described. It is a compound of a twelve-storeyed and a two-storeyed buildings, separated by a garden. Being placed in a central district, a special adaptation to the bylaws was necessary concerning the volume and use conditions. Among its most remarkable characteristics it could be pointed out the subjection to a modular frame, the adequacy of the spaces for the activities that are to be developped in it and the adopted solutions for its closure.En el presente artículo se describe detalladamente el proyecto y ejecución del edificio ENDESA, en Madrid, compuesto por dos edificios de doce alturas uno, y dos el otro, unido por un espacio ajardinado. En céntrica situación ha exigido una especial adaptación a las Ordenanzas Municipales en cuanto a condiciones de volumen y uso. Entre sus características más notables pueden señalarse IQ sujeción a una red modular, la adecuación del espacio a las actividades que en él se desarrollarán y las soluciones adoptadas para su cerramiento.

  5. Problems and Prospects of Curbside Parking in Lahore: PolicyImplications for Effective Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALMAN SABIR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lahore is a fast-growing metropolis experiencing rapid growth in people and vehicle population. This unprecedented growth has led to urban sprawl, dependency on motorized transport, and increased parking space demands throughout the city limits. Off-street parking supply is insufficient and the demand is met mainly by roadside parking with and without any authorization. Parking on the roads and sidewalks has resulted in reduction in traffic capacity, traffic speed variation, accidents and disruption in smooth flow of traffic. Though the government has adopted measures in the past to streamline roadside parking activities, these efforts have proved counter-productive. This paper provides a critical analysis of the existing parking situation in Lahore based on detailed surveys and interviews. It presents an assessment of the functional performance of selected parking sites located at various roads. The findings not only provide significant evidence of the problems caused by haphazard curbside parking but also highlight its prospects if managed properly. The paper argues that absence of by-laws governing curbside parking, weak institutions, and inadequate public transport are the main causes of prevailing parking crisis. It concludes that development of curbside parking regulations in line with urban transport policy is a first step towards managing existing and future curbside parking resources in Lahore.

  6. The Provision of the Disabled Facilities in Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Yuhainis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Person with Disabilities Act 2008 has become an eye opener towards the provision of disabled facilities in all public buildings especially regarding healthcare accessibility. The aim of this research is to analyse the provision of the disabled facilities provided in a public hospital in Perak, Malaysia. To support the research, it was supporting with two objectives that are to identify the designs and requirements of disabled facilities that need to be fulfilled according to Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL and other standard regulations and to identify the level of awareness of public on disabled facilities in the public hospital. For the purpose of the research, the observation method has been done towards three (3 selected hospital in Perak and questionnaire survey have been distributed to 96 respondents among the staff and visitors of the hospitals. All the data collected from the questionnaire survey and the checklist using UBBL standard requirement, then analysed using the SPSS V.21. The outcome of the observation indicates that most of the hospitals were provided with the disabled facilities, but there are still some rooms for improvement regarding specifications and the provision itself. In a nutshell, this research helps the management of the hospital together with the public on the importance of the provision of the disabled facilities in public buildings.

  7. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  8. Serving on Organizational Boards: What Nurses Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M; Arms, Deborah

    2016-02-26

    If you have ever thought about serving on a board or being actively involved in meetings aimed at making policy decisions, but are not sure you have the knowledge, skills or abilities to serve competently, this article is for you! In this article, the authors describe six competencies needed by nurses who are serving on boards and/or policy committees so as to contribute in a productive manner. These competencies include a professional commitment to serving on a governing board; knowledge about board types, bylaws, and job descriptions; an understanding of standard business protocols, board member roles, and voting processes; a willingness to use principles for managing and leading effective and efficient board meetings; an appreciation for the ethical and legal processes for conducting meetings; and the ability to employ strategies for maintaining control during intense/uncivil situations. They also discuss strategies for demonstrating these competencies and describe personal responsibilities of board members. The authors conclude that a knowledge of these rules and standards is essential in order for nurses to assume leadership roles that will enhance the health of today’s and tomorrow’s societies.

  9. Means of escape provisions and evacuation simulation of public building in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew

    2017-10-01

    The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.

  10. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

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    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  11. The SmartOR: a distributed sensor network to improve operating room efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Albert Y; Joerger, Guillaume; Fikfak, Vid; Salmon, Remi; Dunkin, Brian J; Bass, Barbara L; Garbey, Marc

    2017-02-24

    Despite the significant expense of OR time, best practice achieves only 70% efficiency. Compounding this problem is a lack of real-time data. Most current OR utilization programs require manual data entry. Automated systems require installation and maintenance of expensive tracking hardware throughout the institution. This study developed an inexpensive, automated OR utilization system and analyzed data from multiple operating rooms. OR activity was deconstructed into four room states. A sensor network was then developed to automatically capture these states using only three sensors, a local wireless network, and a data capture computer. Two systems were then installed into two ORs, recordings captured 24/7. The SmartOR recorded the following events: any room activity, patient entry/exit time, anesthesia time, laparoscopy time, room turnover time, and time of preoperative patient identification by the surgeon. From November 2014 to December 2015, data on 1003 cases were collected. The mean turnover time was 36 min, and 38% of cases met the institutional goal of ≤30 min. Data analysis also identified outlier cases (>1 SD from mean) in the domains of time from patient entry into the OR to intubation (11% of cases) and time from extubation to patient exiting the OR (11% of cases). Time from surgeon identification of patient to scheduled procedure start time was 11 min (institution bylaws require 20 min before scheduled start time), yet OR teams required 22 min on average to bring a patient into the room after surgeon identification. The SmartOR automatically and reliably captures data on OR room state and, in real time, identifies outlier cases that may be examined closer to improve efficiency. As no manual entry is required, the data are indisputable and allow OR teams to maintain a patient-centric focus.

  12. The revised APTA code of ethics for the physical therapist and standards of ethical conduct for the physical therapist assistant: theory, purpose, process, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Laura Lee; Hiller, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    In June 2009, the House of Delegates (HOD) of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) passed a major revision of the APTA Code of Ethics for physical therapists and the Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. The revised documents will be effective July 1, 2010. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a historical, professional, and theoretical context for this important revision; (2) to describe the 4-year revision process; (3) to examine major features of the documents; and (4) to discuss the significance of the revisions from the perspective of the maturation of physical therapy as a doctoring profession. PROCESS OF REVISION: The process for revision is delineated within the context of history and the Bylaws of APTA. FORMAT, STRUCTURE, AND CONTENT OF REVISED CORE ETHICS DOCUMENTS: The revised documents represent a significant change in format, level of detail, and scope of application. Previous APTA Codes of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant have delineated very broad general principles, with specific obligations spelled out in the Ethics and Judicial Committee's Guide for Professional Conduct and Guide for Conduct of the Physical Therapist Assistant. In contrast to the current documents, the revised documents address all 5 roles of the physical therapist, delineate ethical obligations in organizational and business contexts, and align with the tenets of Vision 2020. The significance of this revision is discussed within historical parameters, the implications for physical therapists and physical therapist assistants, the maturation of the profession, societal accountability and moral community, potential regulatory implications, and the inclusive and deliberative process of moral dialogue by which changes were developed, revised, and approved.

  13. Enabling the sustainable Faecal Sludge Management service delivery chain-A case study of dense settlements in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akumuntu, Jean Baptiste; Wehn, Uta; Mulenga, Martin; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2017-08-01

    The lack of access to basic sanitation is a global concern and alarmingly prevalent in low- and middle- income countries. In the densely populated settlements of these countries, on-site sanitation systems are usually the only feasible option because dwellers there have no sewers in place to connect to. Using on-site sanitation facilities results in an accumulation of faecal sludge which needs to be properly managed to ensure the well-being of the users as well as the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, often the conditions for faecal sludge management (FSM) within dense settlements are adverse and thus hamper sustainable FSM. We use the normative framework of the FSM enabling environment to gather empirical evidence from densely populated settlements of Kigali city in Rwanda to examine current FSM practices and the extent to which these are being influenced and affected by the setting within which they are taking place. The analysis of the study findings confirms that the existing conditions for FSM in these settlements are inadequate. The specific constraints that hinder the achievement of sustainable FSM include limited government focus on the sanitation sector, high turnover of staff in relevant government institutions, pit sludge management is not placed on the sanitation projects agenda, the existing relevant bylaws are not pro-poor oriented, a lack of clear responsibilities, a lack of relevant local professional training opportunities, unaffordability of FSM services and an inhibition to discuss FSM. Drawing on the involved stakeholders' own perceptions and suggestions, we identify possible approaches to overcome the identified constraints and to allow all actors in the FSM chain to contribute effectively to the management of faecal sludge in densely populated low-income urban settlements. Finally, our study also presents a contribution to the theoretical conceptualisation of the enabling environment for sustainable FSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Gmb

  14. Veedors, marquejadors, maestros: el valor de la experiencia en la carpintería medieval. El ejemplo valenciano

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    Izquierdo Aranda, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the carpenter’s guild of Valencia in the Middle Ages, experience and skill were two notions captured in the more comprehensive idea of expertise. The appreciation of this added value made the expert an indispensable figure inside the guild. He was present in the different positions of control and inspection established by by-laws, which ensured the quality of goods manufactured, the proper level of teaching, and the accreditation of new masters. This figure also acted as an expert assessor, estimating the work of a colleague of even assessing the value of his interventions. In this article we examine the notion of expert in medieval carpentry and the infl uence of his practical application in the daily routine of woodworkers.En la carpintería medieval valenciana, la experiencia y la destreza eran dos nociones complementarias de la idea más amplia de pericia. La apreciación de este valor añadido hacía del experto una figura imprescindible en la corporación de oficios, a través de los diversos encargos de control e inspección arbitrados por los estatutos para asegurar la calidad en la factura y en la enseñanza desarrollada por cada maestro, así como en los exámenes de magisterio. El experto también estaba presente en las tasaciones periciales, en las que su juicio servía para certificar la aptitud de la obra realizada por un colega o incluso valorar su intervención. En este artículo examinaremos la noción de experto en l’art de la fusteria o carpintería medieval valenciana y en qué medida su aplicación práctica afectaba al trabajo cotidiano de un maestro carpintero en los siglos XIV al XVI.

  15. Application of game theory and new institutional economics in establishing a National Voluntary Organisation for Professional Evaluation in Nigeria

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    Denis Jobin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, there is a plethora of evaluators found in the over 90 universities, specialised educational institutions and private research organisations. However, there is limited or no opportunity for networking among the evaluators from similar and different programmatic specialisations. After applying the determinant framework to assess the evaluation capacity development situation in Nigeria, we agree on the importance of supporting the establishment of a National Voluntary Organisation for Professional Evaluation (VOPE.Objectives: Several leaders in evaluation were competing recently for occupying the national space reserved for a National VOPE. The main objective was to encourage partnership.Methods: We used a powerful theoretical framework provided by game theory and new institutional economics. We analysed the situation and identified the challenge they are facing as a Nash Equilibrium-of-a-Game View of Institutions: each player knows the equilibrium strategies of the other players and no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy. This explains why Nigerian evaluation leaders were not able to cooperate for the last two decades.Results and conclusion: To break this barrier, we proposed a new deal to the leaders that had the advantages of reshaping the ‘rules of the game’. We proposed a federation of associations, akin to a coalition in game theory. The result was that all leaders came together under this umbrella organisation, to celebrate the evaluation year in 2015 and committed under the Abuja Declaration on Evaluation to register and establish an association, with an elected board, a written constitution and election bylaws. The association is governed by a Board of Trustees, which is chaired by the former Minister of Planning. Elections are planned for the end of 2017.

  16. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with employees' tobacco consumption prevalence 35–39% (72.2% increase; p < 0.05) and hospitals that had recently implemented smoke-free policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549

  18. Política local y abastecimiento urbano: el pescado en guadalajara en la baja Edad Media

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    José Miguel LÓPEZ VILLALBA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El pescado fue uno de los pilares de la dieta medieval castellana. En las ciudades del interior, la lejanía del mar impedía un comercio fluido de sus productos, lo que propició su sustitución por los peces procedentes de los ríos cercanos. De este modo se creó un mercado piscícola que permitía el abastecimiento permanente de estos núcleos urbanos. El ejemplo de Guadalajara, ciudad interior, resulta significativo para el conocimiento del suministro y posterior ingesta de estos alimentos y, por lo tanto, de la dieta en las ciudades castellanas de la meseta. Tanto más cuando su estudio se hace comparativamente con las cercanas localidades de Madrid y Toledo. La necesidad de regular el abasto en todas sus fases dio lugar a una serie de disposiciones, principalmente actas y ordenanzas, que son las fuentes primarias de este trabajo. Palabras clave: Abastecimiento. Pescado. Baja Edad Media. Concejo. Documentos. Dieta.ABSTRACT: One of the mainstays of the medieval diet in Castile was fish. In the inland cities the distance from the sea made almost impossible a fluent trade of sea products, which propitiated its replacement by fish from nearby rivers. Thus a fishing market was created to supply these cities. Guadalajara, as in inner city, is a good example of the supply and consumption of such food and also gives an idea of the diet in the Castilian cities, especially if the study is made comparing Guadalajara with other cities near to Madrid and Toledo. The need to regulate the supply in each stage, originated a number of provisions, basically minutes and by-laws, which are the basil sources of the present research.

  19. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  20. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Biorepository for Pediatric Cancer with Minimal Resources: Meeting the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rania M; Mostafa, Mahmoud M; Alfaar, Ahmad S; Yehia, Doaa; Alaa, Maram; Elzayat, Mariam G; Adel, Mohamed; Ezzat, Sameera; Abo El-Naga, Sherif

    2016-02-01

    Conducting high throughput -omics research requires high quality, data-rich biospecimens to unravel factors underlying childhood cancers; this is an extra burden in a limited resources country. For this purpose, Children's Cancer Hospital (CCHE), the largest pediatric cancer hospital worldwide, established a cutting-edge Biorepository and Biospecimen Research Facility (CCHE-BBR). To present a step-by-step guide to establishing a hospital-based biorepository with limited resources, and working in collaboration with different hospital facilities to supply the research community with high quality data-rich biospecimens fit for a wide range of research purposes. This approach will foster research in the era of personalized precision medicine. CCHE-IRB approved the collection and storage of biospecimens from patients and parents for future research. We focused on staff training, recruiting qualified scientists, and establishing the infrastructure. The CCHE Biorepository developed strict standardized procedures for sample acquisition, processing, annotation, storage, and distribution based on ISBER Best Practices and CAP-accreditation guidelines. We collect samples at different clinical time points (e.g., at remission and/or relapse) as well as parents' samples for genetic studies. Using CaTissue®, an electronic storage management system, allowed sample annotation and full integration with clinical data and the cancer registry. In 2 years, we succeeded in establishing a well-designed biorepository within our regulations, bylaws, and SOPs, and with a minimal budget. We store high quality blood derivatives, CSF, and malignant/normal tissue samples. Building a high quality biorepository with minimal-resources to encourage research is possible. Having the suitable infrastructure with a significant number of clinically annotated samples can play a major role in international research projects, sharing samples and/or data with other groups.

  2. Clinical and pathomorphological diagnostics of mycotoxicosis in parent poultry flock caused by T-2 trychotecene

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    Kapetanov Miloš C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most relevant mycotoxin from the trychotecene group, T-2, causes prominent citotoxic effects. The toxin is a secondary product of fungi from the genus Fusarium that contaminates feed. Oraly intaken, T-2 is absorbed fast in the upper digestive system and within only 3 to 4 hours later reaches liver, kidneys and muscle tissue. Clinical and pathological changes are sometimes not obvious. The case of mycotoxicosis in a breeder flock of chickens, here presented, is aimed to underline the significance of clinical and pathological diagnosis supported with laboratory analysis that gave an objective causative diagnosis. On the farm, the disease occurred suddenly and with total cessation of feed consumption. First cases were recorded in the flock at the age of 42 weeks. Grouping, intensive breathing and lying with overstretched legs and extended neck were symptoms observed in birds. Evident necrosis of beak tips and painful multi-focal necrosis in oral cavity were recorded during the clinical examination. On section, dark unclothed blood was first observed. Other postmortem findings included: filled gizzard with mucosal erosions and easy-removable cuticle, enlarged congested liver with multi-focal necrosis and subcapsulary bleeding. The mortality rate increased by 4%, and the drop of laying rate was by about 18%. The fertility rate decreased by 22%. There was the increased number of rejected hatching eggs, 12%. Culture of the complete diet resulted in approximately 150000 colonies per 1g of Fusarium. T-2 was detected by using ELISA in concentration of 480 μg/kg, which corresponded to the upper limit of maximum permitted concentrations for chickens, according to national legislations. This bylaw interpretation of “tolerable” concentrations of mycotoxins provokes controversy among experts and public. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31071

  3. Contribution to the development of the methodological approach of landscape planning in the Republic of Serbia on the example of the National Park Đerdap

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    Crnčević Tijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and its entry into force after adoption of the Law on Ratification of the European Landscape Convention in 2011. created in the Republic of Serbia the conditions for further development of landscape planning and management. Taking into account new circumstances, the main aim of this paper is to determine the place and coverage of the Study which will take into consideration landscape planning and, as well formulate recommendations for the development of a methodological approach for landscape planning with special reference to spatial planning. As a result of the analysis of the existing legal and planning framework, the paper stress potentials and as well limitations and points out the necessity for creating the Action Plan for the implementation of ELC which should, above all, clear up misunderstandings and establish a framework - methodological and procedural, for inclusion of landscape planning in the process of urban and spatial planning in the Republic of Serbia. The development of the information base with a parallel development of institutional framework and capacity building are emphasized as next steps. As a contribution to the development of the methodological approach within spatial planning, the work points out the importance of preparing Study on landscape and, as an example present the Spatial Plan of the Area of the Special Purposes of the National Park Đerdap. For further development of landscape planning, as priority activities aiming the implementation of the provisions of the ELC, are stressed the following: the development of strategic documents, updating and harmonization of the legal framework, the creation of bylaws, manuals, establishing a framework and institutional framework and education.

  4. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism - A preliminary analysis based on the society proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    The Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) is an international society for the anatomical sciences and at the same time the main organising body for German anatomists. This study analyses how the AG went through the years of National Socialism. As the society does not possess archival material from that time, the analysis is mainly based on the society proceedings (Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft) published annually after each meeting from 1934 to 1939 and again in 1950. During the period of National Socialism, the AG kept its international status against demands to make it a purely German society. It did not introduce anti-Jewish regulations or the Führer principle into its bylaws. The membership directories reveal that it was at least possible for members whose career was disrupted by Nazi policies to remain on the membership lists throughout the Nazi period. However, in contrast to later assumptions that no persecuted member of the AG was ever struck from its register, 17 of 57 persecuted members left the society between 1933 and 1939. The membership of six of these members was cancelled, officially for unpaid fees. However, other members with much longer arrears were not cancelled. To date, no additional historical information is available to assess the circumstances of these cancellations. In general, it remains remarkable that, in contrast to many other societies, the AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience towards the new rulers. More archival sources need to be uncovered to elucidate the external influences and internal negotiations behind the published documents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Los Orígenes de la Jurisdicción Arbitral en el Derecho de Aguas Chileno

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    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata acerca de los orígenes de la jurisdicción arbitral en el derecho de aguas chileno. El autor sostiene que el origen de esta jurisdicción se remonta a los estatutos de la Sociedad del Canal de Maipo, dictados entre 1827 y 1831. Ella fue confirmada por la Excma. Corte Suprema en la causa «Donato Millán con Sociedad del Canal de Maipo», de 1888. El legislador se inspiró en los estatutos de dicha sociedad para dictar la L. N° 2139, de 1908, sobre Asociaciones de Canalistas, la que fue elaborada por el abogado de aquélla, don Carlos Aldunate Solar. La Excma. Corte Suprema dio su fisonomía definitiva a esa jurisdicción en la causa «Marx y otro con Asociación de Canalistas del Río Huasco», de 1945, en la que declaró que el directorio de una asociación de canalistas no podía conocer de juicios declarativos de derechos de agua.This article deals about the origins of arbitral jurisdiction in the Chilean water law. The author maintains that the origins of this jurisdiction go back to the by-laws of the Maipo Channel Society, enacted from 1827 through 1831. The judiciary confirmed this jurisdiction in the 1888 case "Donato Millán vs. Maipo Channel Society". The legislature took the Maipo Channel Society as a model to pass the 1908 Act N° 2139, on Water Channels Owners Associations, drafted by Mr. Carlos Aldunate Solar, the counselor of the society. The Chilean Supreme Court gave its definite meaning to that jurisdiction in the 1945 case "Marx and another vs. Water Channel Association of the Huasco River" wherein it stated that the association board could not adjudicate on the existence of water law rights.

  6. Health effects of exposure to second- and third-hand marijuana smoke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holitzki, Hannah; Dowsett, Laura E; Spackman, Eldon; Noseworthy, Tom; Clement, Fiona

    2017-11-24

    Recreational marijuana has been legalized in 11 jurisdictions; Canada will legalize marijuana by July 2018. With this changing landscape, there is a need to understand the public health risks associated with marijuana to support patient-care provider conversations, harm-reduction measures and evidence-informed policy. The objective of this work was to summarize the health effects of exposure to second- and third-hand marijuana smoke. In this systematic review, we searched 6 databases from inception to October 2017. Abstract and full-text review was conducted in duplicate. Studies were included if they were human, in vivo or in vitro studies with more than 1 case reported in English or French, and reported original, quantitative data. Three outcomes were extracted: 1) cannabinoids and cannabinoid metabolites in bodily fluids, 2) self-reported psychoactive effects and 3) eye irritation and discomfort. Of the 1701 abstracts identified, 60 proceeded to full-text review; the final data set contained 15 articles. All of the included studies were of good to poor quality as assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. There is evidence of a direct relation between the tetrahydrocannabinol content of marijuana and effects on those passively exposed. This relation is mediated by several environmental factors including the amount of smoke, ventilation, air volume, number of marijuana cigarettes lit and number of smokers present. No evidence was identified assessing exposure to third-hand marijuana smoke or the health effects of long-term exposure. Exposure to second-hand marijuana smoke leads to cannabinoid metabolites in bodily fluids, and people experience psychoactive effects after such exposure. Alignment of tobacco and marijuana smoking bylaws may result in the most effective public policies. More research is required to understand the impact of exposure to third-hand smoke and the health effects of long-term exposure to second-hand smoke. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or

  7. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

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    Abida Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality

  8. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  9. La apicultura sevillana afines de la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona Ruiz, María Antonia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the apiculture industry in Seville in the Late Middle Ages. Due to the importance of this economic activity, "ordenanzas" (bylaws, which regulated the exploitation of the apiaries, were passed shortly after the conquest of Seville. By means of these "ordenanzas" and other documents which made reference to beekeeping, I have tried to reconstruct the map of the areas dedicated to apiculture in Seville, by indicating where the beehives were located and how they were exploited. I will deal especially with the existence of institutions relating to beekeeping, for example the "alcaldes de los colmeneros" (municipal officials who supervised and controlled the activities of the beekeepers. I will also deal with the owners of the beehives and the conflicts they had with other economic activities carried out in the same place. I will pay special attention to the problems the beekeepers had with the farmers and stockbreeders, and to the problems existing among the beekeepers themselves. These problems forced the creation of boundaries and regulated distances between the different exploitations.[fr] Cet article traite sur l'activité apicole à Seville pendant le Bas Moyen Âge. L'importance de cette activité économique entraîne la promulgation -peu de temps après la conquête de la ville- d'ordonnances sur l'exploitation des ruches. En partant de ces ordonnances et d'autres documents relatifs à la même activité, nous tentons de déterminer les espaces apicoles du territoire communal de Seville et de préciser l'emplacement et le mode d'exploitation des ruches. Nous soulignons l'existence d'institutions propres à cette activité—celle des alcaldes de los colmeneros (juges des apiculteurs, par exemple— et consacrons une partie de notre travail aux propriétaires de ruches et aux conflits surgis, soit entre eux, soit entre l'apiculture et d'autres activités économiques profitant des mêmes espaces, tout

  10. Spatio-temporal landscape modeling of urban growth patterns in Dhanbad Urban Agglomeration, India using geoinformatics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanhaiya Lal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the quantification of urban sprawl and land transformation of Dhanbad Urban Agglomeration (DUA using geoinformatics and gradient modeling during last four decades (1972–2011. Various multi-temporal satellite images viz., MSS (1972, ETM+ (1999, 2011 and digital elevation model (CARTOSAT I, 2006 were used to analyse the urban expansion, land transformation, growth directions, and spatial segregations within the urban landscape to develop an understanding the nature of built-up growth in DUA. The urban area increased from 10.33 km2 to 46.70 km2 (352.08% along with high rate of population growth (160.07% during 1972–2011 exhibiting population densification in DUA. The study reveals that coal mining based city faced significant land use transformation converting vegetation (−41.33% into built-up land (352.08% exhibiting loss of productive lands for the expansion of impervious surface. The per year urban growth exhibited increasing urban growth from 0.4 km2/year to 1.51 km2/year during 1972–1999 and 1999–2011 periods with overall growth of 332.73%. The built-up growth on varied elevation zones exhibits that the elevation zones 150–200 m is the most preferred (79.01% for urban development with high growth (541.74%. The gradient modeling represents that the percentage of land (built-up gradually increased from 3.48% to 15.74% during 1972–2011. The result exhibited that the major growth took place in south-west direction followed by south direction in haphazard manner during 1971–99 period, whereas predominant built-up development was observed in north, south and south-west direction during 1999–2011 period, majorly within the municipal limits. The study provides an analytical method to evaluate the built-up growth patterns of an urban milieu combining geoinformatics and landscape matrix. The built-up growth in DUA indicates urgent imposition of building bylaws along with zoning (land use, height and density

  11. The treatment of sands polluted by the wreck of Erika; Le traitement des sables pollues par le naufrage de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedou, C. [Brezillon, Projets-Developpement, 60 - Noyon (France)

    2004-04-01

    December 12, 1999, the tanker 'Erika' sunk near the Atlantic Coast, discharging more than 20 000 tons of fuel. As this oil slick arrive to the shore, the coast has been soiled, creating a mass of around 270 000 tons of waste. Chosen during an international tender between more than 100 firms and groups of firm, BREZILLON propose a process able to treat heterogeneous material (sand to sludge passing by grass and others wastes getting caught in lime in a viscous fuel) at high rate of production. It is a physico-chemical washing installation able to clean and screen these materials at a rhythm of 100 tons per hour, whatever their relatives' proportions are. The concept is entirely turned to valorization and, more generally, to the environmental evaluation of the operation (see under). It is the first time that wastes consecutive to a maritime disaster will be definitely eliminate, contrary to earlier disasters where the wastes are still present and far to be totally treated. An Perfect Environmental Evaluation - Valorization of 100% of the treated material. - No dumping in the natural environment. - Low water consumption. - Low energy consumption (electricity: 5,2 kW per ton treated) - No industrial and pollution risk. - No neighbourhood problem (industrial environment). 100% of these materials are valorized, with more than 96% in material valorization and 4%, which are energetically valorized. The result obtained is passing the objectives of the specifications: a cleaning going pass the limits fixed by the by-law and permitting to produce today materials with specifications conform to the stricter reuse requirements. 20 to 40 controls are made each day by an independent laboratory on site and external independent laboratories to validate our daily work. Today, the workplace is over and 272 000 tons have been treated with success. The size of this workplace, his technical constraints and his innovating aspects are making of him a real challenge for

  12. UPAYA HUKUM YANG DILAKUKAN KORBAN KEJAHATAN DIKAJI DARI PERSPEKTIF SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA DALAM PUTUSAN MAHKAMAH AGUNG RI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mulyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ketentuan Hukum Positif Indonesia memberikan perlindungan terhadap korbankejahatan yang bersifat tidak langsung baik dalam KUHP, KUHAP, maupun di luarKUHP dan KUHAP. Kemudian dalam kebijakan formulatif yaitu KUHAP dan KUHPuntuk pengertian korban dipergunakan terminologis berbeda-beda yaitu sebagai pelapor,pengadu, saksi korban, pihak ketiga yang berkepentingan, dan pihak yang dirugikan. Padaprakteknya permohonan PK dilakukan oleh pemohon dengan kualitas sebagai saksikorban, pihak ketiga yang berkepentingan, Penasihat Hukum maupun oleh Jaksa PenuntutUmum dan ternyata hanya upaya hukum peninjauan kembali yang dilakukan olehPenuntut Umum dan Pihak Ketiga yang berkepentingan (Putusan PK Nomor: 4PK/PID/2000 tanggal 28 November 2001 yang dikabulkan oleh Mahkamah Agungsedangkan untuk permohonan Peninjauan Kembali yang diajukan pemohon saksi korban(Putusan PK Nomor: 11 PK/PID/2003 tanggal 6 Agustus 2003, atau saksi pelapor olehMahkamah Agung dinyatakan tidak diterima oleh karena pemohon bukan berkualitasmelakukan permohonan Peninjauan Kembali. Dari dimensi teoretis ternyata MahkamahAgung melakukan penafsiran berbeda sebagaimana ditentukan Psl. 263 ayat (1 KUHAPyaitu dengan dikabulkannya pemohon Peninjauan Kembali yang dilakukan oleh PenuntutUmum dan Pihak Ketiga yang berkepentingan di satu sisi sedangkan di sisi lainnyapermohonan dari pemohon Peninjauan Kembali yang berkualitas saksi korban atau saksipelapor dinyatakan tidak dapat diterima.   Positive Legal Indonesia provides protection against crime victims who are not directly in the Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, as well as outside the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code. Later in the Code of Criminal Procedure formulatif policies and bylaws to understanding the victim used different terminology, namely the complainant, the complainant, witnesses, interested third parties and the injured party. In practice, the request made by the applicant with the PK as the quality of the witnesses

  13. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A. [Stikeman Elliott LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    ; acquiring additional rights; and multilevel compensation schemes. It was concluded that the risk of litigation can be dealt with in part by involving expert legal advisors during the planning stages of a project. Addressing neighbour concerns over noise and environmental impacts must be addressed in advance, and it is important to develop a relationship with local authorities in order to address by-law changes. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Financial Management Of Student Organizations In The University Of Eastern Philippines

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    Jade Ballado Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student organizations manage their own funds and are given the autonomy and responsibility to spend these funds as the organization sees fit within the confines of university policies. A healthy financial structure is an important factor in student organization success and sustainability. Solid fiscal management creates a framework that allows organizations to work proactively to accomplish their goals and serve their communities with financially sustainable events and program. This study aimed at identifying the profile of the student organizations in terms of type registration and functions and designations of officers and advisers also identify the financial practices of student organizations in terms of managing their finances as well the problems encountered by student organizations in terms of financial management and eventually come up with a student organization financial manual. A descriptive survey research design was used and with the aid of the questionnaire data were gathered through purposive sampling technique from the 47 student leaders and advisers of the different organizations of the University of Eastern Philippines. Data gathered were analyzed through frequency mean and percentages. Findings of this study showed that almost all of the organizations have existing constitution and by-laws however in terms of the functions of officers and advisers the results revealed that some functions were not done by the officers who are suppose to do it. Generally the financial practices of the organizations were considered to be excellent especially budgeting and cash receipts but there are still important aspects that needs improvement and emphasis for a better financial management system. It was also revealed that the major concern of the organizations is the lack or absence of internal control policy manual and lack of proper turn-over of financial documents from the previous set of officers. The researchers conclude that the absence

  15. BUILDING LEADERSHIP CAPACITY OF AN EMERGING GOAT INDUSTRY

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    Larry A. Nye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leadership development has been a primary objective of Extension educators directing Ohio Meat Goat Task Force efforts. Producer members have been instrumental in the formation of the Ohio Meat Goat Marketing Alliance. This group has developed by-laws and articles of incorporation for the purpose of promoting and marketing commercial meat goat producers in Ohio. Nationwide market centers have been accessed through the establishment of graded pool sales. Cooperation between producer networks, industry, and the Department of Agriculture were responsible for establishing a certified livestock grader position. Producers have enhanced the effectiveness of their efforts by partnering with agencies such as the Ohio Cooperative Development Center, Somalia and East African Organization, Jewish Family Services and Institute for Social and Economic Development. Extension educators have developed the Ohio Meat Goat Production and Budgeting Fact Sheet as a guide for establishing this value added enterprise. Extension has designed and conducted regional workshops, seminars, and on-farm tours to transfer knowledge to over 2100 participants. Education, production, and marketing topics are discussed in the Buckeye Meat Goat Newsletter. The website http://www.ohiomarketgoat.com has been developed to enhance the exchange of production and marketing information. The task force has received $63,000 in Research and Extension grants to conduct on going feasibility studies of ethnic markets, Ohio’s processing infrastructure, and development of farmer/consumer cooperatives. On-farm meat goat research encompasses breed comparisons, forage utilization, and developing benchmark data. Progress continues in the ability to market fresh and safe chevon products directly to emerging ethnic and faith based consumer populations to capture the most value. This task force is taking a unique approach to building industry infrastructure by utilizing a social approach

  16. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  17. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  18. Qualitative analysis of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever within the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Michel; Ouma, Emily; Opio, Felix; Kawuma, Brian; Pezo, Danilo

    2016-12-01

    A study was undertaken between September 2014 and December 2014 to assess the perceptions of smallholder pig value chain actors of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever (ASF) disease within the pig value chains. Data was collected from 136 value chain actors and 36 key informants through 17 group discussions and two key informant interview (KII) sessions respectively using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. Results from this study revealed that according to value chain actors and stakeholders, the transporting, slaughtering, and collecting/bulking nodes represent the highest risk, followed by the inputs and services (feeds and drugs) supply nodes. The processing, whole sale and consumption nodes represented the lowest risk. Value chain actors are aware of the disease and its consequences to the pig industry, however biosecurity measures are poorly implemented at all nodes. As for the causes, value chain actors pointed to several factors, such as inadequate knowledge of mechanisms for the spread of the disease, poor enforcement of regulations on disease control, and low capacities of actors to implement biosecurity measures, amongst others. Although traders, butchers and veterinary practitioners accepted that they played an important role in the spread of the virus, they did not perceive themselves as key actors in the control of the disease; instead, they believed that only farmers should adopt biosecurity measures on their farms because they keep the pigs for a longer period. Most of the recommendations given by the value chain actors for controlling and preventing ASF disease were short term, and targeted mainly pig producers. These recommendations included: the establishment of live pig collection centres so that traders and brokers do not have to directly access pig farms, capacity building of value chain actors on application of biosecurity, enactment and enforcement of by-laws on live pig movements and establishment

  19. Implementing the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario: the Champlain region as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Contant, Jocelyne; Barton, Gwen; Klinger, Christopher

    2016-07-26

    Regionalization promotes planning and coordination of services across settings and providers to meet population needs. Despite the potential advantages of regionalization, no regional hospice palliative care program existed in Ontario, Canada, as of 2010. This paper describes the process and early results of the development of the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario. The various activities and processes undertaken and the formal agreements, policies and documents are described. A participative approach, started in April 2009, was used. It brought together over 26 health service providers, including residential hospices, a palliative care unit, community and hospital specialist consultation teams, hospitals, community health and social service agencies (including nursing), individual health professionals, volunteers, patients and families. An extensive stakeholder and community vetting process was undertaken that included work groups (to explore key areas such as home care, the hospital sector, hospice and palliative care unit beds, provision of care in rural settings, e-health and education), a steering committee and input from over 320 individuals via e-mail and town-halls. A Transitional Leadership Group was elected to steer the implementation of the Regional Program over the summer of 2010. This group established the by-laws and details regarding the governance structure of the Regional Program, including its role, responsibilities, reporting structures and initial performance indicators that the Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) approved. The Regional Program was formally established in November 2010 with a competency-based Board of 14 elected members to oversee the program. Early work involved establishing standards and performance indicators for the different sectors and settings in the region, and identifying key clinical needs such as the establishment of more residential hospice capacity in Ottawa and a rural framework to ensure

  20. National legal system in relation to vulnerable population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjeničić Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable social groups can be recognized in everyday life, and local legal regulations identify them as well. Strategies and laws clearly identify the increased needs of vulnerable groups. Local legislation, for example, observes comparative law trends and attempts to prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities, emphasizes their human rights and creates the legal framework for taking these persons out of the institutional form of protection and including them into the community. In Serbia however, strategies and laws, as well as by-laws, are written in sectors, and not in cross-sectors manner. Proper caring for persons with disabilities, including persons with mental disabilities, requires an integral approach, namely a mutual approach of the social, health, educational and other sectors. True enough, local regulations stress the need for an intersectional approach, but such an approach is scantily applied in practice, so the comprehensive care that would satisfy the multiple needs of persons with mental disabilities often turns out to be less than expected in the community. Pursuant to national laws and basic ethic principals, all citizens of the Republic of Serbia have the right to health protection without discrimination. Therefore, methods for using health protection, easier than the existing ones, should be found for certain vulnerable groups, depending on their characteristics, and so for the Roma as well, and bearing in mind that systemic health regulations in Serbia open the door to special treatment of these groups. The inaccessible approach to health care of the Roma population persists primarily due to insufficient basic health documentation and basic personal documentation. Personal documents are linked with the registered place of residence, which the Roma, largely do not have. The problem is thus on a wider scale and is not only focused on the health sector. As such, it requires a wider, intersectional approach and a

  1. Osman Turan'ın Siyasetçi Kimliği ve Yassıada'da Yargılanması (1954-1961 Political Identity Of Osman Turan And His Trial In Yassıada (1954-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra ARSLAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Osman Turan entered politics as the parliamentarian of Trabzonfrom Democrat Party after the elections held on 2nd of May 1954. Hecontinued his service until 1960 coup d’etat. During his service, heexpressed that he did not approve some of the enforcements ofDemocrat Party, to which he was a member, such as making Kırşehir adistrict, arrangements at universities and cautions against theopposition during the speeches he gave in Grand National Assembly ofTurkey and party group. In the post-1960 coup d’etat period (27th ofMay, a Grand Jury was constituted which led the accusations madetowards DP members after the coup d’etat and some laws grantingextraordinary authorities were enacted. Osman Turan was not presentin the Assembly due to health problems which prevented him fromrating either favorably or unfavorably. His name was mentioned withthose of oppositions since he sometimes contradicted Menderes. Therewere even rumors that he would be expelled. However, Osman Turanpreferred to keep his battle within DP. He was arrested after coup d’etatand he gave his testimony on 30th of June in 1960 for the first time. Hewas put on trial within the scope of articles no. 141 and 146 fromTurkish Penal Code in the bylaw prepared by prosecution. The onlyaccusation made in the name of Osman Turan in the bylaw was theclaim that he received a certain amount of foreign currency. As a resultof evidence he provided in addition to his defense and investigation, itwas proven that the claims against him were unreal. He experiencedsome health problems during his arrest which lasted for 16.5 months.He could not attend all of the trials for he was being treated in thehospital located in garrison. Osman Turan was one of the 45 defendantswho were arrested due to violation of constitutional law on 15th ofSeptember 1961 and acquitted later on. 2 Mayıs 1954 seçimleri ile Demokrat Parti Trabzon Milletvekili olarak aktif siyasete atılan Osman Turan, 27 Mayıs 1960

  2. Zone Restrictions Orders in Canadian Courts and the Reproduction of Socio-Economic Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Sylvestre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While State and local governments have long turned to legal norms, such as vagrancy ordinances and anti-panhandling by-laws, and relied on displacement strategies ranging from orders to disperse and forced removals to control disorderly behavior in public spaces, the ways in which courts and legal actors working within the criminal justice system contribute to the monitoring of public spaces have almost completely gone unnoticed. This paper focuses on one court-imposed spatial tactic, namely zone restriction or "no go" orders. We suggest that despite the fact that these court orders rely on preventative discourses and pursue rehabilitative objectives, they may ultimately have punitive effects on the public poor and political demonstrators and contribute to creating and reproducing socio-economic inequality by creating obstacles for their reintegration, encouraging recidivism, putting the safety of individuals at risk and by neutralizing those who challenge the social and political order in various ways. Ultimately, these orders raise some concerns with respect to the rule of law since they are rarely challenged and generally appear to be shielded from review. Mientras que estados y gobiernos locales han vuelto a normas legales como la ley de vagos y maleantes, y basan sus estrategias en el desplazamiento, mediante órdenes de dispersión y traslados forzosos para controlar el comportamiento desordenado en los espacios públicos, ha pasado prácticamente desapercibida la forma en la que tribunales y agentes jurídicos trabajan dentro del sistema de justicia penal para contribuir a la vigilancia de los espacios públicos. Este artículo se centra en una táctica espacial impuesta por un tribunal, concretamente la restricción de zona o pedidos "intangibles". Se sugiere que, a pesar de que estas órdenes judiciales se basan en discursos preventivos y persiguen objetivos de rehabilitación, en última instancia pueden tener efectos punitivos sobre

  3. A Study of Experience Credit for Professional Engineering Licensure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2003-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a study of experience credit for professional engineering licensure for the Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. One of the study's goals was to determine how state licensure boards grant experience credit for engineering licensure, particularly in regards to IAC experience and experience prior to graduation. Another goal involved passing IAC information to state licensure boards to allow the boards to become familiar with the program and determine if they would grant credit to IAC graduates. The National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors (NCEES) has adopted a document, the ''Model Law''. This document empowers states to create state engineering boards and oversee engineering licensure. The board can also interpret and adopt rules and regulations. The Model Law also gives a general ''process'' for engineering licensure, the ''Model Law Engineer''. The Model Law Engineer requires that an applicant for professional licensure, or professional engineering (PE) licensure, obtain a combination of formal education and professional experience and successfully complete the fundamentals of engineering (FE) and PE exams. The Model Law states that a PE applicant must obtain four years of ''acceptable'' engineering experience after graduation to be allowed to sit for the PE exam. Although the Model Law defines ''acceptable experience,'' it is somewhat open to interpretation, and state boards decide whether applicants have accumulated the necessary amount of experience. The Model Law also allows applicants one year of credit for postgraduate degrees as well as experience credit for teaching courses in engineering. The Model Law grants states the power to adopt and amend the bylaws and rules of the Model Law licensure process. It allows state boards the freedom to modify the experience

  4. Agents of Change - Frauenaktivistinnen in Aceh [Agents of Change - Women Activists in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Großmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aceh befindet sich seit der Dezentralisierungspolitik Indonesiens Ende der 1990er Jahre, der Tsunamikatastrophe 2004 und der Unterzeichnung des Memorandum of Understanding (MoU 2005in einer politischen, kulturellen und gesellschaftlichen Transformation. Die Situation der Frauen in Aceh ist geprägt durch Repressionen aufgrund der Einführung der Scharia, durch Einflussnahmevon internationalen Hilfsorganisationen nach dem Tsunami und durch die Neuordnung der Region Acehs seit den Autonomieverhandlungen. Der Transformationsprozess bringt große Herausforderungen für die Frauen in Aceh mit sich und beinhaltet zugleich die Chance zur Mitgestaltung. So entwerfen Frauenaktivistinnen innerhalb des Spannungsfeldes islamische Religiosität, traditionell-kulturelleStrukturen und westliche Wertevorstellungen, Positionen und Strategien, um ihren Wunsch nach Geschlechtergerechtigkeit durchzusetzen. Mein Artikel beleuchtet die Frage, welche Rolle Frauenaktivistinnen innerhalb des Transformationsprozesses einnehmen und welche Chancen, Möglichkeiten und Hindernisse es gibt, um Einfluss auf politische und gesellschaftliche Prozesse zunehmen. ----- Aceh, Indonesia’s westernmost province is in a process of political, social and cultural transformation, which is caused by three main factors. First, the process of decentralisation, launched by the government of Indonesia starting from the end of the 1990s and as a consequence of the implementation of sharia bylaws since 2001, second, the tsunami calamity 2004 and third, the peace process starting with the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU 2005 between representatives of the Government of Indonesia and the Acehnese freedom movement GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka. Today’s situation of women in Aceh is infl uenced by repressions due to a conservative interpretation of Islam, by the impact of international aid organisations, which entered Aceh after the tsunami andby the political, social and cultural

  5. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    - will Dunkerque city consume its own power generation?; an electric power syndicate with a decentralized power production strategy. Workshop 10 - the power transportation grid and the decentralized production; decentralized production and coordinated approach of networks management. Workshop 11 - an example of district heating network which simultaneously valorizes wastes, biomass and cogeneration; district heating networks: advantages and drawbacks. Workshop 12 - the access to energy in the rural areas of developing countries; the intervention procedures of a cooperation program. Workshop 13 - simulation of power demand in Grenoble city; an example of mastery of power demand/decentralized power production in a rural territory: the Saint Nicolas island of Glenan archipelago (Brittany); the 'mastery of power demand and renewable energy sources development' project in the eastern area of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Workshop 14 - how to evaluate the economical advantage of distributed power production: the contradictory opinion of the producer and of the power company; the tariffs of power purchase; the example of a local power and heat distribution company: UEM. Workshop 15 - value of the heat produced from renewable energy sources, insertion in the energy market; simultaneous power and heat production from wood: impact of the biomass tariff by-law from April 2002; integration of external costs in energy choices. Workshop 16 - decentralized power production: to answer which development needs?; a society responsibility for a vital product; the wind power to supply the basic needs of the population. (J.S.)

  6. Una contribución al estudio de la nueva inmigración africana subsahariana en la Argentina Uma contribuição ão estudo da nova imigração desde Africa Subsahariana à Argentina A contribution to study the immigration from Sub Saharan Africa to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Maffia

    2010-07-01

    , melhor se podem superar as limitações.Even though in Argentina we have immigrants from Sub Saharan Africa arriving at the end of the Nineteenth Century and beginning of the Twentieth Century such as those from South Africa and Cape Verde, this new immigration from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, among other countries, during the last decade of the Twentieth Century and first decade of the Twenty-first Century appears in a different historical and political context. This new migration is facing legal regimes and increasingly restrictive administrative by-laws, framed in the growing economic globalization. This work is part of the first results of a research on this migration from an anthropological perspective. This study, which began in 2009, takes into account contributions made by history, political sciences, demography, among other disciplines, making use of articles written by African and Non-African social scientists. We are convinced that in this exchange of views our limitations may be overcome.

  7. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    presented 28 papers. The last one, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais had 3000 participants with 66 conferences and keynotes and more than 4000 papers presented. The next will happen in August 2013 in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina and is also limited to 3000 participants. Beside the national soil science meetings, in its 65 years, the Society also promoted 26 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Management and Conservation of Soil and Water, 23 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, 6 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Fertility and Soil Biology and six editions the Brazilian Simposium on Soil Education, and co-sponsored the ten editions of the Soil Classification and Correlation Meeting. In the last years it is also increasing the number of regional meetings organized by the regional nuclei. In 2011, during the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science, a new Board of Directors (known as the Council) was elected. Since then the Society is setting up a modernization process in its structures and external relations through a renewed statute and new by-laws. The Council, composed by 20 members, is developing an agenda and strategic planning for the next years that reinforces that the Society should aim to: (a) become more influent in Brazilian environmental public policies, (b) reach leadership in public soil awareness in a continental-sized country like Brazil and (c) interact more actively with other scientific societies due to the transdisciplinary nature of Soil Science, and work hard to go out of the agronomical box. At present, the society is busy with the organization of the 21st World Congress of Soil Science to happen in 2018, for the first time in Brazil. Preceding it the Society is organizing a wide range of activities and events to celebrate and call public attention to Soils, in special on the occasion of the International Year of Soils, in 2017.

  8. Areva - Press release from the Supervisory Board; Areva - Communique de presse du Conseil de Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2012-02-14

    During its meeting held on December 12, 2011, devoted in particular to the examination of the 2011 closing estimates, the AREVA Executive Board indicated that it expected to book a provision of 1.46 billion euros (2.025 billion US dollars) in the company's accounts for fiscal year 2011 for impairment of assets for the reporting entity UraMin, a mining company acquired by AREVA in 2007, which, given the provision booked in 2010 (426 million euros), brings the value of these assets on the AREVA balance sheet down to 410 million euros. Given the size of these provisions, the Supervisory Board decided to make three of its members, meeting as an ad hoc committee, in charge of analyzing the terms of acquisition of this company, as well as the key decisions made in this reporting entity up to 2011 and, based on the outcome of these analyses, to recommend to it any appropriate measures in AREVA's interest. This committee reported on its work during the Supervisory Board meeting held on February 14, 2012. In light of this report, the Supervisory Board found that the fairness and reliability of the financial statements of previous years were not in question. Nevertheless, considering the malfunctions raised, the Board considers it appropriate to thoroughly review AREVA's governance in order to ensure that decisions concerning large acquisitions or investments be reviewed and validated in the future under conditions ensuring better legal and financial security and enabling a more transparent dialogue between management and the Supervisory Board. It thus asked the Executive Board to recommend, at the next General Meeting of Shareholders, that the by-laws of the company be modified to make the Supervisory Board's prior approval of investments, stake acquisitions and acquisitions mandatory above a threshold of 20 million euros. It also decided to set up a business ethics committee within the Supervisory Board responsible for ensuring that rules of conduct are

  9. Evolution of the system of environmental taxes and charges in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shuvalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the development of the system of taxes and fees on natural resources in the Russian Federation from 1991 to 2017. The authors note that within the period under review, the system of natural resource taxation has undergone significant changes related to the political and economic transformational processes in the Russian Federation. The last few years of modernization of the domestic economy have required a review of the attitude towards rental income, nature management and the environment as a whole. The last fact is confirmed by the fact that the current year is declared the year of ecology in our country. The aim of the study is to summarize information on the structural elements of the system of environmental taxes, fees and payments in the Russian Federation. The main focus of the authors’ attention is directed to mechanisms for regulating the consumption of natural resources by both natural and legal persons, as well as the need to restore natural potential after consumption within the framework of financial and production activities of economic entities in the Russian Federation. The main analytical materials of the study were the Russian legal framework and accompanying regulatory by-laws in the field of taxation, official explanations of the relevant authorities, accompanying analytical and statistical materials, publications of scientific and periodicals. In order to increase the objectivity of the conclusions, the following methods were used: the method of scientific abstraction, analysis, synthesis, comparison, modeling, grouping of data. In addition, an analysis of the scientific literature, the legal framework was applied. The result of the study was the identification of two basic categories of payments. Environmental taxes (mineral extraction tax, water tax, land tax, transport tax and environmental charges (collection for use of wildlife and aquatic biological resources. One-time and regular

  10. Vaciado de edificios conservando la fachada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, Santiago

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is presented under the heading «The gutting of buildings while maintaining the facade», takes up not only the technical aspect of restructuring buildings, but also the legal aspects concerning rehabilitation and its problems. Following a brief commentary on prevailing legislation, it goes into rehabilitation in search of solutions which might lend more effectiveness to administrative work oriented towards the aim of keeping up artistic and cultural heritage. Urban standards of protection and the Municipal Bylaws for the Control of Rehabilitation Assistance are analyzed, in which one begins to see good intentions on the part of the Madrid City Council and an awareness of the problem, raising grants and financial aid, though still somewhat timidly, for the upkeep of urban patrimony. It is important to stress the distinction which is made between normal or 'ordinary* upkeep of a building and outstanding or 'extraordinary* upkeep in as much as it affects the obligations pertaining to property, as long as it does not exceed the limit of the obligation of maintenance which corresponds to it, as well as affecting the Government with respect to the obligation incumbent on it to provide the necessary assistance. Regarding the technical aspect, without trying to be rigorous, a simple and practical method is expounded for the temporary maintenance of facades while going ahead with the substitution of the interior of the building. Besides the recommendations on the precautions that should be taken and the description of the shoring-up system, the criteria for calculating the tubular metallic structure, the regulations to be applied and the approximate costs per square meter are provided.Bajo el título « Vaciado de edificios conservando la fachada», se presenta este trabajo que recoge» no sólo el aspecto técnico de la reestructuración de edificios, sino también aspectos legales sobre la rehabilitación en general y su problem

  11. On the legitimacy of the Constitutional Courts and institutionalization of the right to resistance, with reference to the legitimacy of church authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of legitimacy has a dual meaning: it is both the form of supreme power of the state and the justification of that power. Max Weber distinguishes three types of legitimate authority: traditional authority, charismatic authority, and the rational-legal authority. The prevailing form of power in the modern world is the third type of legitimate authority, which is reflected in the concept of 'the legal state' or 'the rule of law rather than the rule of people'. In that regard, the rational-legal authority is based on Jean-Jacques Rousseau's idea on law as the expression of the 'general will'. This idea was introduced into the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789: 'Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate, personally or through his representatives, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes...' Consequently, except for the entire body of citizens (referendum legislation and their representatives (parliamentary legislation, all other state authorities emerge as the holders of the particular will. In this original article, the author lays down the theoretical standpoint that 'the general will' is in fact a totality of (normative legal principles. Today, the institution of a constitutional court (or some other equivalent institution is recognized in almost all legislations of the European-Continental legal tradition falling into the Roman-Germanic-Slavic legal family. There is no dispute on whether such an institution may examine the compliance of by-laws with the Constitution and the applicable law because, in that case, the holder of one particular will controls the holder of another particular will. However, it is disputable whether the constitutional court, as the holder of particular will (and the only administrative authority whose members are selected by the legislature, may invalidate the laws which it considers to be

  12. LA FUNCIÓN DEL ÓRGANO DE CONTROL DE UNA SOCIEDAD COOPERATIVA EUROPEA DOMICILIADA EN ESPAÑA/THE ROLE OF THE AUTHORITY OF CONTROL OF A EUROPEAN COOPERATIVE SOCIETY HOME IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica FUENTES NAHARRO

    2009-01-01

    the European Cooperative (SCE, following its precedent and model, the Regulation 2157/2001 on the European Company, has incorporated the possibility that the SCE, by means of its by-laws, can choose between two models of management: the two-tier system (virtually unknown in our national cooperative law or the one-tier system. Indeed, while the one-tier system is well known and has been subject to multiple and meritorious work by our doctrine, we considered suitable to focus our efforts on the so-called “monitoring body”, which is the true "distinguishing mark" of this two-tier system. However, addressing all the monitoring body’s legal regime would exceed by far the objective of this conference. Thus, we shall confine ourselves, in essence, to make an analytical and, sometimes, critical approach to the functions of this body with the other body of this two-tier system, in charge of the effective administration of society (the so-called "management body" or simply "Management". Not a few difficulties we will have to face on this task, almost all of them related to interpretation and adaptation problems that will arise when implementing the European Regulation within the existing Spanish rules on cooperatives, through the articulation of those specific provisions which are needed to adapt our legislation to the new legal type and, more specifically, the new two-tier system of management.

  13. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    s enactment, only two states and one territory out of 35 Indian states and union territories formally adopted ECBC and six additional states are in the legislative process of approving ECBC. There are several barriers that slow down the process. First, stakeholders, such as architects, developers, and state and local governments, lack awareness of building energy efficiency, and do not have enough capacity and resources to implement ECBC. Second, institution for implementing ECBC is not set up yet; ECBC is not included in local building by-laws or incorporated into the building permit process. Third, there is not a systematic approach to measuring and verifying compliance and energy savings, and thus the market does not have enough confidence in ECBC. Energy codes achieve energy savings only when projects comply with codes, yet only few countries measure compliance consistently and periodic checks often indicate poor compliance in many jurisdictions. China and the U.S. appear to be two countries with comprehensive systems in code enforcement and compliance The United States recently developed methodologies measuring compliance with building energy codes at the state level. China has an annual survey investigating code compliance rate at the design and construction stages in major cities. Like many developing countries, India has only recently begun implementing an energy code and would benefit from international experience on code compliance. In this paper, we examine lessons learned from the U.S. and China on compliance assessment and how India can apply these lessons to develop its own compliance evaluation approach. This paper also provides policy suggestions to national, state, and local governments to improve compliance and speed up ECBC implementation.

  14. REMUNERATION FOR THE AUTHOR FOR THE CREATION AND USE OF THE SERVICE RESULT OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY: HISTORIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Vilmova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the civil legislation in the field of regulation of legal relations between the author-worker and the employer concerning the creation and use of the service results of intellectual activity (RIA, there are a number of unresolved issues. One of them concerns the size, the procedure for determining and paying remuneration to the author of the work. Despite the availability to date of a sufficient number of legal and by-laws (which refer to each other, but do not provide answers to the questions posed, the question of the legal nature of remuneration remains unresolved, as a material benefit paid to the author. As a result, employers or third parties often abuse legislative gaps in order to obtain an object of creative work without payment to the employee for the fairness of the due goods. After the creation of the official RIA, the question arises of the payment or non-payment of remuneration to the employee. After all, it will be profitable for the employer to recognize an object created by a thoughtful way, performed by an employee in the framework of a labor activity or a specific job of the employer. At what, such task should not go beyond the scope of the job description. As compensation, as a rule, will be small. And what if the object is created outside the scope of the labor function? What will be the fair and lawful amount of remuneration? Therefore, it is precisely such concepts as «labor duty» and «specific task of the employer» that become a stumbling block in practice. And when solving the questions posed, the authors often begin to search for answers from the philosophical origins of the origin of remuneration for creative work, using methods of comparative analysis, historical legal methods and even the philosophical teachings of ancient thinkers. Let’s demonstrate this on this topic. The purpose of the scientific article is to solve the problem when collecting the author’s performance results of intellectual activity

  15. Fıtrat Hadisi’nin Osmanlı'nın Devşirme Sisteminde Hayata Aksedişi 'The Hadith of Fitrah’ And How It Is Reflected On Life Ottoman’s Devshirme System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa IŞIK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hadith, ‘Every child is born to Fitrah; then parents converthis/her to Judaism, Christianity or Zoroastrianism’, is in basic Islamicscience called ‘The hadith of Fitrah’. In Islamic literature, it has beenrevealed a lot of opinion about this hadith from past to present. Thepoint of view about the ‘The hadith of Fitrah’ in the classic sources ofhadith literature and hadith imams are more emphasized on thefollowing question ‘When the dead child what will happen the religiousand judicial position of his/her’. But, hadith scientists and someinterdisciplinary Islam scientists believe that Fitrah is ‘common basicreligious foundation of mankind’. Depending on this opinion; we thinkthat ‘The hadith of Fitrah’ is coinciding with devshirme enforcement inOttoman Empire. In this research, we want to evaluate the devshirmesystem as a historic event practiced in Ottoman Empire. Wehypothesize that, Ottoman Empire take into consideration of religiousaspects of this event before put it on a system based on law, bylaw andregulations; they may be moved based on fact of Fitrah, owing to thestrong muscles and hardworking brain of devshirme persons. Thispractice specifically served for governance, and served mankind ingeneral. We showed that, although there is a procedure differences,there are some parallelism between Ottoman Empire, which is a worldstate in the past, and USA, which is a world state in today's conditions.The similarity in practice and reaching common point between two bigcivilizations, they took place different centuries, different geographiesand there is no resemblance to each other, the truth is that theeducation is main determiner. The aim of this article is not only tomention a historic phenomenon but also meaning of Fitrah and its’validity to repeat based on this historic event. In this article, wediscussed Fitrah expression, namely regarding to the unchangingnature of human beings, and the effect of education

  16. THE POLICING OF MAJOR EVENTS IN CANADA: LESSONS FROM TORONTO’S G20 AND VANCOUVER’S OLYMPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wes Pue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Major events ranging from sporting events to major international conferences too often result in disorder, deployment of riot squads, and mass arrests. Events surrounding a meeting of the G20 in Toronto and those at Vancouver’s Winter Olympics provide insight into the ways in which things can go wrong and the ways in which they can go well at major events. This article employs a “thick history” of events in order to explore gaps in Canadian law, including gaps between “law in the books” and “law in action.”      The legal frameworks governing large-scale events affect the likelihood of success measured in public safety, minimization of disorder, and protection of basic liberties. Surprisingly, large events often proceed without the benefit of a developed legal framework, leading to confusion among federal police, local police, and civil authority. We assess past reliance on the common law, a Vancouver City bylaw, Ontario’s Public Works Protection Act [PWPA], and the policing and security provisions of the federal Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Foreign Missions Act in order to determine which sorts of legal arrangements are most conducive to successful event management. Since major events in Canada are most often developed in law’s penumbra, without the benefit of clear legal authority or statutory direction governing the measures that are required, both effective management and ordinary liberties are compromised. A “worst of both worlds” outcome destabilizes police–citizen relationships and leaves individuals uncertain as to the durability of their rights of property, speech, assembly, movement, and personal integrity. Equally, police forces are left insecure as to the lawful means by which they should perform their duties. A comparison of the two events provides the pathology and a prescription, illustrating the need for legislation to govern the management of major events.   Trop souvent, la

  17. News and Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    the innovations and integration of technology in the world of science education. The lectures, discussions, and workshops that formed the conference involved Ontario public and private schools and took place at Appleby College, Oakville, Ontario, in February 1999. Speakers were chosen to compliment the specific theme of technology in the classroom. STEP provided the opportunity for all the schools in Ontario to become one large community working toward a better future in teaching methods. Although the conference is over for this year, communication is still strong. A bigger and better STEP is planned for Friday, February 4, 2000. For more details please contact B. O'Leary, Head, Science and Technology Department, Appleby College, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3P1, Canada; boleary@appleby.on.ca. ACS Division of Chemical Education: 1999 Election of Officers Candidates for the 1999 annual election of Division officers for 2000 are listed below. Ballots will be mailed for arrival in late August or early September. Ballots must be received by the Secretary by October 1, 1999. Both ACS and affiliate members of the Division may vote for the offices of Chair-Elect and Treasurer in this election as a result of a recent change in the bylaws, approved in the 1997 election. Only ACS members may vote for Councilor/Alternate Councilor, since this is an ACS as well as a DivCHED office. For Chair-Elect (Chair in 2001) Arlene Russell, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA Conrad Stanitski, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AR Treasurer Frank Torre, Springfield College, Springfield, MA Anna Wilson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Councilor/Alternate Councilor Craig Bowen, Clemson University, Clemson, SC Mark Freilich, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN Marcy Towns, Ball State University, Muncie, IN Carol White, Athens Area Technical Institute, Athens, GA

  18. Obituary: Frank Culver Jones, 1932-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormes, Johnathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2007-12-01

    Frank had an astonishing memory. Don said he used to visit with Frank after lunch to discuss progress on his dissertation and get advice. He would think that Frank was dozing off and not listening to his report. However, he would find that many weeks or even months later Frank would remember the conversation and quote it back to him long after he had forgotten the encounter. Frank's colleagues were also the beneficiaries of this recall ability in informal settings. An avid fan of vintage movies, Frank could recall a scene from movies released long ago to draw an analogy or encapsulate a pertinent idea for any point of discussion that happened to be on the table. Frank was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1974 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, being cited for "theoretical investigations of propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium." Frank took his turn at public service duties. He was elected by his peers to a three-year term on the Executive Committee of the Cosmic Physics Division (now the Astrophysics Division) of the American Physical Society (APS) in 1980. He served the APS as Council Member from 1994 until 1997, as a member and chair of the Committee on Constitution and Bylaws 1996-1998, and as its Chair in 1997. Frank chaired the Publications Committee responsible for the volumes of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference in La Jolla, California, in 1985, as well as serving on the conference steering committee. In 1987, when COSNEWS, the Newsletter of the Cosmic Ray Commission of the IUPAP, needed a new Editor and Publisher, Frank volunteered and served until 2002. Frank loved computer technology and was highly regarded in the laboratory as a helpful expert on this new technology as it grew and personal computers came to be found in every office. These sometimes incomprehensible new devices were well understood by Frank. He was always providing helpful advice to