Sample records for bylaws

  1. 12 CFR 552.5 - Bylaws. (United States)


    ... chapter. (iii) Bylaw provisions that adopt the language of the model or optional bylaws in OTS's... Corporation law; or The Model Business Corporation Act, provided that such procedures may be elected to the... body or bodies of law selected for its corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of...

  2. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  3. Updating Board Bylaws: A Guide for Colleges and Universities (United States)

    O'Neil, Robert M.


    "Updating Board Bylaws: A Guide for Colleges and Universities" represents the latest thinking on good governance in higher education by providing a concise deconstruction of the essential clauses in college, university, and system bylaws. Written by Robert O'Neil, former professor of law and president of the University of Wisconsin System and the…

  4. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...


    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  6. 17 CFR 1.53 - Enforcement of contract market bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions. (United States)


    ... bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions. 1.53 Section 1.53 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....53 Enforcement of contract market bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions. Each contract market shall enforce each bylaw, rule, regulation, and resolution, made or issued by it or by the...

  7. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws. (United States)


    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  8. Between Identity and Interest: Revisiting Sharia Bylaw in Current Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Aulia Garadian


    Full Text Available The emergence of sharia bylaws in several regions in Indonesia is increasingly worrisome. In many cases, they have generated socio-religious problems within society such as preventing the establishment of a house of worship and forbidding of religious activities, especially for minority sects such as Ahmadiyya and Shi’a. Furthermore, they also produce the discrimination against women. For example, in Tangerang City, a female worker was arrested by Civil Service Police Unit (Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja, Satpol PP because she was accused of being prostitute because she returned home at night. Unfortunately, the basis of accusation is Perda Kota Tangerang No. 5, 2005.One of the prominent factors giving occasion to the emergence of those sharia bylaws is the political opportunity after the decline of Suharto’s New Order. Afterwards, the falling regime became a sign of this glitch. Ignoring the fact that they produce many problems within society, local governments still repeatedly produce sharia bylaws.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v23i2.3672

  9. The Specification of an Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Bhatti


    Full Text Available An Expert System is a computer program that simulates the human intelligence and behaviour in specific and limited domains. It is used to solve problems with tricks, shortcuts and heuristics i.e. rules of thumb. Checking a Plan (Map to verify its compliance with building bylaws is a complex task mainly due to various rules and the exceptions to those rules. Humans are prone to make errors in such situations. Due to the problems faced by Building Control Department, HDA ( Hyderabad Development Authority there is a strong need to develop a computerized system. In this research we have developed a prototype named as ESBBC (Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance for HDA that can help in their building plan checking system. The proposed solution is merging three frameworks, i.e. Java an OOP (Object Oriented Programming language, Prolog- a rule based language and MS Access- for database. The solution is fulfilling the three main requirements of the HDA, i.e. Determination of whether a particular plan is in compliance with predefined building bylaws or not. (2 Offering search facility. (3 Maintaining records of plans which are entered for compliance checking. We have checked plans of 20 properties according to HDA building regulations using ESBBC and presented their results. The results show that ESBBC has capability to identify errors made by humans.

  10. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...


    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  12. ByLaws for the Governance of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott


    The purpose of this document is to define the rules of governance for the Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association. This includes election procedures for filling vacancies on the SPD board, an all-purpose voting procedure, and definitions for the roles and responsibilities of each SPD board member. The voting procedures can also be used to amend the by-laws, as well as to create, dissolve, or consolidate vacant SPD board positions.

  13. A content analysis of media coverage of the introduction of a smoke-free bylaw in Vancouver parks and beaches. (United States)

    Moshrefzadeh, Arezu; Rice, Wendy; Pederson, Ann; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C


    The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city's parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media on public perception of the bylaw in order to inform the media advocacy work of public health interest groups. We compiled a data set of newspaper articles (n = 90) and conducted a quantitative content analysis to examine content related to the outdoor smoke-free policy, including article slant, topics related to smoking and tobacco control, and any equity-related concerns raised. Newspaper coverage in Vancouver was largely supportive of the outdoor smoke-free bylaw. However, concerns over rights were frequently discussed in letters to the editor. Such equity concerns were rarely discussed in news articles, showing a potential disconnect between the concerns expressed in the media by members of the public and the coverage provided by print media.

  14. By-law from December 12, 2005 relative to nuclear pressure systems; Arrete du 12 decembre 2005 relatif aux equipements sous pression nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This by-law deals with the specifications relative to the design, fabrication and conformability evaluations of nuclear pressure system, i.e. systems that may lead to a radioactive contamination in the case of failure. The main safety requirements of these systems are recalled in appendixes (nondestructive testing and qualification). (J.S.)

  15. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4. (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  16. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  17. By-law from June 20, 2002 relative to the boilers belonging to a new or modified facilities with a power greater than 20 MWth; Arrete du 20 juin 2002 relatif aux chaudieres presentes dans une installation nouvelle ou modifiee d'une puissance superieure a 20 MWth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This by-law defines the arrangements to be implemented for the operation of boilers with a power greater than 20 MWth. These arrangements concern: the prevention and monitoring of atmospheric and water pollutions (gaseous and liquid effluents, combustion products, by-products), the conditions of rejection in the environment, the prevention of explosion risks, the storage of pulverulent products, and the maintenance of the facility. (J.S.)

  18. By-law from July 4, 2003, relative to the technical prescriptions of design and operation for the connection of a power generating facility to the public power transportation grid; Arrete du 4 juillet 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques de conception et de fonctionnement pour le raccordement au reseau public de transport d'une installation de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This by-law fixes the constructive and organisational dispositions that must fulfill the power generating facilities in order to make their connection to the public power grid conformable with the objectives of the decree from June 27, 2003. The dispositions concern: the voltage, connection scheme, protection systems, earthing, domain of operation, frequency adjustment and quality of current, communication and remote control systems of the power generating facility. (J.S.)

  19. Circular from January 26, 2004, taken for the enforcement of the by-law from January 26, 2004, relative to the national defense secrecy protection in the domain of nuclear materials protection and control; Circulaire du 26 janvier 2004 prise pour l'application de l'arrete du 26 janvier 2004 relatif a la protection du secret de la defense nationale dans le domaine de la protection et du controle des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The by-law of January 26, 2004 gives a regulatory foundation to the classification of sensible informations relative to the security and physical protection of nuclear materials. This circular recalls, in this framework, the conditions of implementation of the regulation relative to the protection of national defense secrecies in the domain of the protection of nuclear facilities and materials. (J.S.)

  20. By-law from July 4, 2003 relative to the technical prescriptions of design and operation for the direct connection of a power consuming facility to the public power transportation grid; Arrete du 4 juillet 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques de conception et de fonctionnement pour le raccordement direct au reseau public de transport d'une installation de consommation d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This by-law fixes the constructive and organisational dispositions that must fulfill the power consuming facilities, including those having a power generation group, in order to make their direct connection to the public power grid conformable with the objectives of the decree from June 27, 2003. The dispositions concern: the power, connection scheme, protection systems, earthing, domain of operation, possible disturbances, communication and remote control systems of the power consuming facility. (J.S.)

  1. 12 CFR 615.5220 - Capitalization bylaws. (United States)


    ... retirable at the sole discretion of the board, provided minimum permanent capital adequacy standards... association's funding bank in conjunction with any agreement for a transfer of capital between the...

  2. By-law from November 6, 2003 concerning the collection of data relative to gas and electricity markets and to energy public utilities as defined in article 10 of law no. 2003-8 from January 3, 2003; Arrete du 6 novembre 2003 concernant la collecte de donnees prevue a l'article 10 de la loi no. 2003-8 du 3 janvier 2003 relative aux marches du gaz et de l'electricite et au service public de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This by-law defines the type and periodicity (monthly and annual) of the economical data the gas and electricity operators have to supply to the general direction of energy and raw materials (energy observatory - DGEMP/OE) in order to produce reliable and consistent statistical indicators. (J.S.)

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 701 - Federal Credit Union Bylaws (United States)


    ... specific instructions for the electronic election procedure, including how to access and use the system... the requisite electronic device necessary to vote on the system may vote by submitting the enclosed... union account number as they are registered in the electronic balloting system. It is the duty of...


    As Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP), I offer my sincere appreciation to the many individuals who worked on the 2000 revision of the NELAC standards. I would like to give special recognition to th...

  5. Local By-Laws on Sexual Harassment%性骚扰地方立法浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段成钢; 彭迪



  6. 24 CFR Appendix I to Subpart D of... - Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws of _______ Homebuyers Association (United States)


    ... be counted in determining the presence or absence of a quorum at any meeting. F. Agenda. An agenda... made at the completion of each fiscal year; (3) cause to be supervised all officers, agents, and... or employees having fiscal responsibilities to be bonded as the Board may deem appropriate; (6)...

  7. The 2910 by-law and the atmosphere protection plan; L`arrete 2910 et plan de protection de l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.Ph. [Ministere de l`Environnement et du cadre de vie, 92 - Neuilly (France)


    This paper gives a detailed overview of the French air pollution regulations concerning the installations of combustion and the classified installations (heating plants, turbines, engines, fossil-fuel power plants, refineries and other installations or combustion processes). Other international or European community actions for the abatement of industrial and air pollution are described and future regulations are evoked. (J.S.)

  8. Application of the 2910 by-law to coal-fired heating plants; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie (France)


    This paper analyzes the impact of the new French regulation about medium power thermal equipments on small coal-fired combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) in particular concerning the limit values of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust emissions. (J.S.)

  9. Report 59 of the AMA Board of Trustees (A-96). Physician-assisted suicide. Reference Committee on Amendments to Constitution and Bylaws. (United States)


    This Board of Trustees report calls for reaffirmation of the position of the American Medical Association (AMA) in opposition to physicians assisting their patients in committing suicide. The AMA maintains that the appropriate step for physicians is not to assist a patient in death but to provide compassion and palliative care. In providing end-of-life care, the option of allowing physicians to intentionally cause the death of patients is a line that should not be crossed. This position is based on the historical role of physicians as advocates for healing. The report discusses AMA activity to design and implement a comprehensive physician education plan on end-of-life care in response to the House of Delegates' action in adopting Board of Trustees Report 48-I-95, "Quality Care at the End of Life." This plan will further the AMA's commitment that patients should receive high quality care during every stage of life, including the end of life. The goal of this educational campaign is to advance the medical culture by making palliative treatment and care directions based on values-based advance care planning the standard of care for meeting the needs of patients at the end of life. The basis for this activity will be the acknowledgment that physicians, while unable to always provide a cure, should always be able to relieve suffering, address the psychological needs of patients at the end of life, add value to remaining life, and help patients die with dignity. The report presents information on state legislative activities and judicial actions relating to physician-assisted suicide. The report also presents a discussion on the ethical under-pinnings against physician participation in patients' suicides. This report recommends that: the AMA reaffirm current policies 140.952 and 140.966 (AMA Policy Compendium), in accordance with Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs Opinion 2.211 (opposition to physician-assisted suicide); the AMA initiate an educational campaign to make palliative treatment and care directions based on values-based advance care planning the standard of care for meeting the needs of patients at the end of life; the AMA continue to seek out opportunities to present the views of medicine on physician-assisted suicide and improving the quality of care for patients at the end of life; the AMA disseminate this report throughout the Federation with a request that it be distributed to local physicians; and the Board of Trustees present the House of Delegates with an update on these and related activities at the 1996 Interim Meeting and the 1997 Annual Meeting.

  10. 77 FR 25168 - Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC); ASC Rules of Operation; Amended (United States)


    ... Federal Housing Finance Agency. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws outlining the ASC's... amended numerous provisions in Title XI. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws...

  11. American Society of Transplantation (United States)

    ... we are Strategic Plan Annual Report Board of Directors Board Meeting Summaries Committees Staff Bylaws and Policies Bylaws Statement on Ethics 501(c)(3) and Financial Information Conflict of Interest Education Disclaimer Privacy Policy ...

  12. La anomia y su relación con el estatuto actual del sufrimiento en la sociedad // Anomia and its relationship with the present bylaw of suffering in the society


    Zulma López Arranz


    Este trabajo tiene por objetivo relacionar el exceso de goce en las patologías de la post-modernidad con la anomia en la que se sumerge nuestra sociedad, dañando el entramado social. La falta de regulación de lo simbólico es la responsable del penar en demasía. La tecnología, la globalización y el discurso capitalista convierten al sujeto de deseo en un sujeto tomado por el goce. La propuesta del psicoanálisis es despertar al sujeto de su dormidera de goce, la brújula es la ética del deseo. /...

  13. La anomia y su relación con el estatuto actual del sufrimiento en la sociedad // Anomia and its relationship with the present bylaw of suffering in the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma López Arranz


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo relacionar el exceso de goce en las patologías de la post-modernidad con la anomia en la que se sumerge nuestra sociedad, dañando el entramado social. La falta de regulación de lo simbólico es la responsable del penar en demasía. La tecnología, la globalización y el discurso capitalista convierten al sujeto de deseo en un sujeto tomado por el goce. La propuesta del psicoanálisis es despertar al sujeto de su dormidera de goce, la brújula es la ética del deseo. // The aim of this paper is to relate the excess of pleasure in post-modernity pathologies to the anomia immerse in our society, damaging the social structure. Lack of symbolic regulation is responsible for excessively suffering. The technology, the globalization, and the capitalist speech become subject of desire in a subject took for the pleasure. The psychoanalysis proposal is to wake up the subject of his/her pleasure sleepiness, the compass is the pleasure ethics.

  14. 12 CFR 303.161 - Filing procedures. (United States)


    ...; (2) Certified board resolutions relating to the conversion; (3) A business plan, including a detailed... charter and bylaws of the converted institution; (5) The bylaws and operating plans of any other entities... of any proposed management or employee stock benefit plans or employment agreements and a...

  15. 76 FR 59462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To... (United States)


    .... Registered Office Article I of the Current Bylaws designates the initial registered office of BATS Global..., including specifying that stockholders provide timely notice to BATS Global Markets, Inc. of the business... provisions contained in Article XII of the Current Bylaws requiring that, for so long as BATS Global...

  16. 76 FR 59472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To... (United States)


    .... Registered Office Article I of the Current Bylaws designates the initial registered office of BATS Global..., including specifying that stockholders provide timely notice to BATS Global Markets, Inc. of the business... provisions contained in Article XII of the Current Bylaws requiring that, for so long as BATS Global...

  17. 75 FR 9985 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... present is duly elected to the Board.\\3\\ Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the Board...(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. Currently, NASDAQ OMX By-Laws provide...

  18. 78 FR 65027 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... (United States)


    ... least one member, if possible, is required to have accounting or related financial management expertise... provisions of OCC's By-Laws. For ease of readability, those cross-references have not been repeated in this... applicable committee charter and any applicable provisions of the By-Laws. Committee assignments would...

  19. 77 FR 6335 - Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the... (United States)


    ... merchants (``FCMs'') and derivatives clearing organizations (``DCOs'') regarding the treatment of cleared... the rules or bylaws of a derivatives clearing organization require that such transactions, along with the money, securities, and other property margining, guaranteeing or securing such transactions,...

  20. 7 CFR 1209.38 - Powers. (United States)


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council... bylaws and other rules for the conduct of its business as it may deem advisable; (h) To...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6033-2 - Returns by exempt organizations (taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969) and returns by... (United States)


    ..., articles of association, constitution or similar document) or by-laws affirm that the organization shares... Register citations affecting § 1.6033-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids...

  2. 13 CFR 119.11 - What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program? (United States)


    ... incorporation, by-laws, proof of IRS tax-exempt status, financial statements, and reference contacts. (2) A.... (2) A research proposal indicating the thesis, method(s), scope, duration, and implementation...

  3. 78 FR 77181 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Concerning the... (United States)


    ... specialization, technical skills, diversity and other desired qualifications; review the Board's Charter for.../bylaws.jsp . All comments received will be posted without change; the Commission does not edit...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.1010 - Application processing. (United States)


    ... the Center is not to be an independent legal entity, provide copies of the corporate governance... Center is to be an independent corporate entity, provide copies of the corporate charter, bylaws...

  5. Smoke-free medical students' meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Colin; Rudkjøbing, Andreas


    Medical students of the world have signalled their commitment to health promotion by prohibiting smoking at the semiannual general assembly meetings of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA). Although initially adopted in 2000, the smoke-free bylaw took 5 years...... to come into force. This year finally saw compliance with the bylaw on March 1, 2005, at the IFMSA General Assembly in Antalya, Turkey, when medical students who wanted to smoke had to do so outside....

  6. What to Expect During a Colonoscopy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Update Newsletter ACG SmartBrief Constitution and Bylaws @ACG Digital Guide ACG Affinity Programs ACG Resources International Affiliate ... available for interviews upon request. Please call the Communications Team at 301-263-9000 or e-mail ...

  7. The Mobilization of the Formal Normative Rules in an Educational Institution: A Sociological Study in Portugal (United States)

    Serpa, Sandro


    The formal dimension can greatly condition the operation of an organization. The present article aims to study the mobilization of organizations' formal structures within educational institutions. To achieve this goal, I analyze the situations between 1858 and 1913 in which the bylaws and/or regulations of the "Disadvantaged Children's…

  8. 24 CFR 904.309 - Use of appendices. (United States)


    ... or (2) with approval of HUD. The By-Laws of the Homebuyers Association is provided as a guide for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of appendices. 904.309 Section 904.309 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  9. 7 CFR 1215.29 - Powers. (United States)


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Popcorn Board § 1215.29..., and to adopt such bylaws and other rules for the conduct of its business as it may deem advisable;...

  10. 77 FR 1116 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Order... (United States)


    .... Creation of Liquidating Settlement Account Rule 1104 (a)-(d) (e) For the avoidance of doubt, any margin... the avoidance of doubt, nothing in this Chapter XI or in any other provision of the By-Laws or Rules.... However, as the term ``trust'' could potentially cause uncertainty and delay in obtaining the release...

  11. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2009 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. This article is a summary of the talks and workshops of 2009, ethics adjudication, ethics education and…

  12. 75 FR 77576 - General Regulations and Derivatives Clearing Organizations (United States)


    ... policies and procedures'' to mean all policies, procedures, codes, including a code of ethics, safeguards... the transferee, including but not limited to articles of incorporation and bylaws; (5) the transferee... also would require the person to meet minimum ethical requirements, and prohibit from serving as a...

  13. 75 FR 27660 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC (United States)


    ... entitled to patronage, voting, or other shareholder rights under the FCA regulations or institution bylaws... entitled to certain ``borrower rights.'' \\6\\ Failed bank borrowers with agricultural or cooperative loans... lending authority would be subject to borrower rights and would be restructured or foreclosed,...

  14. 26 CFR 1.527-2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... normal corporate formalities as ordinarily established in bylaws or under state law. (b) Segregated fund... examples illustrate the principles of paragraph (c) of this section. The term exempt function when used in.... (viii) Example 8. Q is a political organization described in section 527(e)(2). Q finances seminars...

  15. 36 CFR 901.4 - Officers. (United States)


    ... the development area. (6) Perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors... Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE... next meeting of the Board. The Chairman shall have power to increase or decrease the salaries of...

  16. AIAW Handbook-Directory 1975-1976. (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This is the handbook/directory of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). It begins with an introduction which discusses the history, structure, and membership of the AIAW. Next are lists of executive board members, headquarters staff, and members of committees. The constitution, bylaws, and code of ethics of the AIAW are…

  17. Contesting sharia : state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huda, Yasrul


    This book explains how Sharia, commonly called Perda Sharia (Sharia by-law) in Indonesia, was legislated on the provincial, regional and municipal level in West Sumatra. This process began after the government started a decentralization policy in 2000. Although the law of local autonomy prescribes t

  18. 20 CFR 900.3 - Composition. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Composition. 900.3 Section 900.3 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.3 Composition. Pursuant to the Bylaws, the Joint Board consists of three members appointed by the Secretary of...

  19. 75 FR 17805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... (United States)


    ... Change Relating to Cash-Settled Foreign Currency Options With One-Cent Exercise Prices April 1, 2010... clear that cash-settled foreign currency options traded on national securities exchanges will be treated... XXII of its By-Laws to make clear that cash- settled foreign currency options traded on...

  20. 76 FR 4966 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... (United States)


    ... the Personnel Assessment. \\4\\ See FINRA By-Laws, Schedule A, Sec. 1(b)(2). Currently, when reporting the size of a corporate bond transaction to the Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (``TRACE''), a...), and all municipal securities subject to MSRB reporting requirements. The rules governing the TAF...

  1. 33 CFR 148.105 - What must I include in my application? (United States)


    ... certificate of formation; the partnership agreement or articles of association; the current by-laws; the...; (2) Fixed structures; (3) Aids to navigation; (4) Manifold systems; and (5) Onshore storage areas... measures and proposed vessel traffic patterns in the port area, including aids to navigation;...

  2. 7 CFR 1951.220 - General servicing actions. (United States)


    ... will post a notice on the bulletin board informing borrowers of the availability of loan summary... organization, including revisions of articles of incorporation or charter and bylaws, when: (i) The change does... loan; (iv) The borrower is notified that it is no longer eligible for any program benefits, but...

  3. 12 CFR 627.2725 - Powers and duties of the receiver. (United States)


    ... and conducts its operations for the benefit of the creditors and stockholders of the institution. (b... of the institution under law and the charter, articles, and bylaws of the institution. (2) Take any... effective as if it had been executed by the institution's officers by authority of its board of...

  4. 12 CFR 650.20 - Powers and duties of the receiver. (United States)


    ... estate and conducts its operations for the benefit of the creditors and stockholders of the Corporation... directors of the Corporation under law and the charter, articles, and bylaws of the Corporation. (2) Take... authority of its board of directors. (11) Sell for cash or otherwise any mortgage, deed of trust, chose...

  5. 17 CFR 270.31a-1 - Records to be maintained by registered investment companies, certain majority-owned subsidiaries... (United States)


    ... charters, certificates of incorporation or trust agreements, and by-laws, and minute books of stockholders... advisory board or advisory committee meetings. (5) A record of each brokerage order given by or in behalf... of services or benefits by brokers or dealers to the investment company, its investment adviser...

  6. 13 CFR 121.103 - How does SBA determine affiliation? (United States)


    ... not limited to, instances where a minority shareholder has the ability, under the concern's charter, by-laws, or shareholder's agreement, to prevent a quorum or otherwise block action by the board of... CFR 2510.3-101(d); (ii) Employee benefit or pension plans established and maintained by the...

  7. Guidelines for Protection in Evaluation. (United States)

    Mainzer, Richard W.; And Others

    The report examines due process protections and requirements in evaluation as mandated by P.O. 94-142 (The Education for All Handicapped Children Act) and Maryland special education Bylaw. A checklist guide for Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) personnel to ensure protection in evaluation is provided. Self check guidelines touch on 16…

  8. 13 CFR 108.600 - General requirement for NMVC Company to maintain and preserve records. (United States)


    ..., asset valuations, liabilities, equity, income, and expenses. (ii) Your Articles, bylaws, minute books... supporting documentation (such as vouchers, bank statements, or canceled checks) for the records listed in... requirements set forth in Circular A-110 of the Office of Management and Budget. (OMB circulars are...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5240 - Permanent capital requirements. (United States)


    ... capital requirements. (a) The capitalization bylaws shall enable the institution to meet the capital adequacy standards established under subparts H and K of this part and the total capital requirements... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital requirements....

  10. American Association of Dental Schools 1998-99 Annual Proceedings (March 6, 1998-March 10, 1999). (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999


    The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…

  11. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy (United States)

    Johnson, Norine G.


    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  12. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ...The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Juneau, Alaska, April 25, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is to orient the new appointees as to the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2008, provide operational guidelines, discuss and adopt specific bylaws for the RAC, and elect a RAC...

  13. 77 FR 31048 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... the Act in order to reduce the overall administrative burden on OCC associated with addressing the... persons. The By-Laws therefore impose additional administrative burdens on OCC that are not required under... described above, were constructed in part to comply with core principles (``Core Principles'') applicable...

  14. 76 FR 51087 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed... (United States)


    ... exposure in extreme but plausible market conditions.'' The publication further advises clearing... during extreme market conditions. Article VIII, Section 6 of OCC's By-Laws, which obligates clearing... the adaptation of the methodology underlying the formula change made to incorporate the effects...

  15. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. (United States)


    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a)...

  16. Regulation and comparative discretion of publicly and privately owned water companies in The Netherlands, England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. Schouten (Marco); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractAny water company is subject to regulation, either through bylaws, national or supra-national regulations. In this contribution we assess how these regulatory regimes affect the discretion of privately owned companies in England and Wales and publicly owned water companies in the Netherl

  17. 78 FR 28663 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend and Restate the Amended and Restated By-Laws of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 29, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  18. 36 CFR 1151.5 - Board meetings. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board meetings. 1151.5... BOARD BYLAWS § 1151.5 Board meetings. (a) Number. The Chair shall schedule five regular meetings of the.... Regular meetings of the Board and at least one Board sponsored event shall ordinarily be held on...

  19. 13 CFR 120.464 - Reports to SBA. (United States)


    ... Lender must submit to SBA two copies of an annual report including audited financial statements as... financial statements, which may be internally prepared. The SBA Supervised Lender must apply uniform...; (ii) Any change in its charter, bylaws, or its officers or directors (to be accompanied by a...

  20. 75 FR 25012 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and... (United States)


    ... (``Board''). Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the Board, however, any director in an... purpose. \\7\\ NASDAQ OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote... proposed making certain amendments to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In...

  1. 75 FR 25010 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing and... (United States)


    ... directors (``Board''). Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the Board, however, any director in... purpose. \\7\\ NASDAQ OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote... proposed making certain amendments to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In...

  2. 75 FR 38576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To... (United States)


    ... directors.'' Under the Corporation's corporate governance guidelines previously adopted by the Board of... in the Bylaws the existing policy of the Corporation aimed at ensuring better corporate governance... Board. The Board will then decide, through a process managed by the Nominating and Governance...

  3. 75 FR 23831 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... quorum is present is duly elected to the Board. Under Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the... OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote standard for... to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In SR-NASDAQ-2010-025, The NASDAQ Stock...

  4. 75 FR 23827 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... directors at which a quorum is present is duly elected to the Board. Under Corporate Governance Guidelines... OMX also amended its Corporate Governance Guidelines to reflect the majority vote standard for... proposed making certain amendments to its By-Laws to make improvements in its governance. In...

  5. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 145 - Compilation of Commission Records Available to the Public (United States)


    ... available). (1) Comment letters and CFTC summaries of comment letters. (2) Terms and conditions of proposed... become a registered entity including the transmittal letter, proposed rules, proposed bylaws, corporate... applicant's legal status and governance structure, including governance fitness information, and any...

  6. 11 CFR 100.14 - State committee, subordinate committee, district, or local committee (2 U.S.C. 431(15)). (United States)


    ... COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) General Definitions § 100.14 State committee... organization that by virtue of the bylaws of a political party or the operation of State law is part of the official party structure and is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the political party at...

  7. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2010 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics matters investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2010, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, and special projects were activities of the Ethics…

  8. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2008 (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009


    In accordance with the bylaws of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Ethics Committee reports regularly to the membership regarding the number and types of ethics complaints investigated and the major programs undertaken. In 2008, ethics adjudication, ethics education and consultation, convention programs, ethics publications,…

  9. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)


    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  10. 26 CFR 1.642(i)-2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... perpetual care fund is created pursuant to local law if: (1) The governing law of the relevant jurisdiction...) The legally enforceable bylaws or contracts of a taxable cemetery corporation require a perpetual care... local law pursuant to which the cemetery perpetual care fund is created. If the applicable local...

  11. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the...

  12. 76 FR 67523 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... (United States)


    ... Change Relating to Management of Liquidity Risk October 26, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the.../components/docs/legal/rules_and_bylaws/sr_occ_11_15.pdf . An essential element of OCC's risk management regime is sound management of liquidity risk. OCC regularly examines its liquidity risk exposure...

  13. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment. (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia


    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Uz Zaman


    Full Text Available This paper is intended to explore the extent of converting arable land for urban use andthe pace of construction activities on the residential housing schemes. In most of the schemesmore than half of the plots are inbuilt because by-laws are very flexible and owners of vacantplots have no fear of cancellation and they consider this investment a better safeguard againstinflation. Moreover, speculators invested their money in the plots because no cost / taxes areinvolved in the keeping of vacant plots. By implementing strict by-laws and imposing capitalgains tax on vacant land and converting the collected taxes from the schemes to create revolvingfunds for house building for really needy, low-middle income groups, the extent of conversionarable land into housing schemes can be reducedKeywords speculators, pace, conversion, vacant plots, density, land policy. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is intended to explore the extent of converting arable land for urban use andthe pace of construction activities on the residential housing schemes. In most of the schemesmore than half of the plots are inbuilt because by-laws are very flexible and owners of vacantplots have no fear of cancellation and they consider this investment a better safeguard againstinflation. Moreover, speculators invested their money in the plots because no cost / taxes areinvolved in the keeping of vacant plots. By implementing strict by-laws and imposing capitalgains tax on vacant land and converting the collected taxes from the schemes to create revolvingfunds for house building for really needy, low-middle income groups, the extent of conversionarable land into housing schemes can be reducedKeywords speculators, pace, conversion, vacant plots, density, land policy.

  16. An Optimization Model for Urban Readjustment and Subdivision Regulations in Turkey


    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman


    Rapid urbanization in Turkey has resulted in various problems in urban spaces such as squatter houses, substandard subdivisions, and low-quality urban environment. In order to facilitate self-motivated developments, government has enacted various laws and bylaws and made amendments in current legal frameworks. The 18th Article (Dough Rule) of the Land and Building Development Law (İmar Kanunu) has various and extensive applications in regulating and restructuring cadastral properties. One of ...

  17. Financing of networks extension since the 'urbanization and dwelling' law from July 2, 2003. Status of the participation to roads and networks financing; Le financement des extensions de reseaux depuis la loi urbanisme et habitat du 2 juillet 2003. Le point sur la participation pour le financement de la voirie et des reseaux (PVR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document aims at giving to readers a general analysis of the new system of financial participation for roads and networks construction (in particular water, sewage and energy networks). About the invoicing of extension costs for power and natural gas networks, an inter-ministry by-law must precise the general principles of the calculation of the contribution given by extension demanders to power distribution network managers when those are the project owners. (J.S.)

  18. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound


    Jung-Yoon Lee; Jong-Mun Kim


    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved condu...

  19. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 7, July 1989. (United States)


    demands of the socialist labor law and the labor rules and regulations; and properly orga- nize and mobilize workers in the grand march of...administration work in accordance with the socialist labor law , and the labor rules and regulations, and the by-laws and detailed rules relative to the...and unconditionally implement it to the finish. In addi- tion, the concrete detailed rules designed to strictly enforce the socialist labor law and

  20. 39 CFR 6.2 - Special meetings. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special meetings. 6.2 Section 6.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.2 Special meetings. Consistent with the provisions of §§ 6.6 and 7.5 of these bylaws, the...

  1. The World Bank Annual Report 2010


    World Bank


    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Boards of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

  2. The World Bank Annual Report 2016


    World Bank


    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submits the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

  3. Furnaces. The manufacturer turns to the engineering office; Les fours. Le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Selas SA, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)


    This paper describes the actions carried out by the Selas company involved in the manufacturing of industrial furnaces in order to respect the environmental regulations of the French 2910 by-law: particularity of industrial furnaces, activities of the Selas company (surface cleaning process for iron and stainless steel sheets, quenching of glass panes), reduction of dust, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and organic compound emissions from combustion systems and burners. (J.S.)

  4. The carrot, the stick, and the combo : a recipe for reducing vehicle idling in Canadian communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presented guidelines for municipal anti-idling programs. A broad cross-section of municipalities and community groups across Canada that have implemented voluntary or regulatory idle-free initiatives were identified. Detailed case studies of 10 municipalities were presented which identified success factors, best practices and costs associated with both voluntary and regulatory approaches. The roles of voluntary and regulatory approaches in changing the public's behaviour and perceptions towards vehicle engine idling were investigated. A framework was presented for the development of a municipal idle-free program which focused on 4 areas: (1) the development and maintenance of partnerships, (2) the development of a case or background on the reasons why idling is a serious issue and why a reduced-idling program is needed, (3) the generation of public support for reducing vehicle idling, and (4) the development of education and outreach programs to enable effective by-law development and implementation. The development of idling initiatives within overall environmental strategies was examined, as well as the customization of outreach approaches to meet the needs of target audiences. The importance of open and public discussion as part of idling control by-law development was emphasized. Features of the framework included linking idling to local concerns such as air quality, health and climate change; volunteerism; the initiation of a no-idling policy for municipal fleets; the establishment of an environmental coordinator; and, the recognition that education is key to support by-law development and implementation. Issues concerning the enforcement of by-laws were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD) (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.


    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  6. Primary school class teacher's assignments and how teachers are qualified for this role



    The majority of primary school teachers in their careers take a complex role of the class teacher that is defined by a number of laws and by-laws. Class teachers are required to perform pedagogical, administrative and organizational tasks for which they spend more or less time. Pupils and their parents, teaching staff and the principal expect a lot from the class teacher. For this reason, the class teacher needs help in carrying out the tasks. The role of the class teacher requires a lot of t...

  7. Corporate Governance Problems of Savings, Credit and Cooperative Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odhiambo Odera


    Full Text Available The study discusses the corporate governance problems of Savings, Credit and Cooperative Societies (SACCOs. It examines both the corporate governance theories and conflicts of governance associated with SACCOs. Problems frequently occur in SACCOs due to one or more of the following reasons; lack of clear and proper rules separating management from decision making, unqualified personnel in management, inadequate managerial competitiveness, failure of membership and boards to exercise fiduciary responsibility and the one member one vote (OMOV system. Several measures against the SACCO governance problems such as having clear rules in the SACCO bylaws and identifying who are the stakeholders dominating the SACCO should help to ensure good governance.

  8. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works; Le traitement des sites arretes aux houilleres de bassin du centre et du midi et la procedure d'arret des travaux miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, J.P. [Houilleres de Bassin du Centre et du Midi, Dir. des Sites Arretes, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)


    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  9. estatutários à USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ferreira Brand\\u00E3o


    Full Text Available This article offers a historical account of the political process behind the incorporation of today’s statutory museums into the University of São Paulo, providing support for ongoing discussions about the changes to the university’s bylaws. It describes the steps leading to the integration of the museums into USP while considering the environment in which this process took place, with a special focus on the Zoology Museum. It identifies the main obstacles that have stood in the way of their full integration into the academic life of the university.

  10. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  11. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)


    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  12. Self-governance: treatment for an unhealthy nursing culture. (United States)

    Johnson, L M


    The concept of participatory management for nurses is based on the premise that nurses' education and experience qualify them for a leading role in the decision making that affects patient care. Rose Medical Center, Denver, initiated a self-governance model in 1980. The Nursing Congress, which is recognized by the board of trustees and the medical executive committee, represents all nursing division employees who have satisfactorily completed the probation period. Its bylaws provide for four officers, three members at large, and representatives from the committees and councils on nursing standards and practice, audit/quality assurance, continuing education and research, career ladders, collaborative practice, human resources, rules and regulations, and bylaws. Since implementing the shared-governance structure, the medical center has documented an annual attrition rate of less than 12 percent, a significant 5-year retention rate, and above-average satisfaction with working conditions. Nursing administrators who seek to improve the working conditions that influence staff retention must avoid thinking that relegates nurses to second-class status and limits their decision-making capacity. This does not mean, however, ignoring the fact that organizational change can be threatening to some individuals. Participatory management models can help nurses translate existing skills into strengths, enabling them to view change as a catalyst for improved conditions. Nursing shortages themselves are not the problem but rather a symptom of the problem, an unhealthy nursing culture. Unless leaders step forward to push for change, the shortage of qualified, talented nurses will persist.

  13. Osteopathic medicine and the practice of dermatology: history and current status. An overview of the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, an affiliate specialty college of the American Osteopathic Association. (United States)

    Austin, Erik; Way, Bill V; Lustig, Chava; Green, Jason; Manlio, Christopher; Broomer, Amy; Persichetti, Greg; Akhtar, Asfa; Elias, Merrick; Favreau, Tracy; Skopit, Stanley


    As the unified training body for osteopathic physicians specializing in dermatology, the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD) sponsors 18 dermatology residency programs that integrate academic training (focusing on the core of basic medical sciences) with clinical instruction (emphasizing specialized diagnostic and laboratory techniques and the high-level performance of all dermatologic and surgical procedures) to engender the ability to provide superior, specialized dermatologic care. The board of directors of the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) recommended passage of a bylaws amendment establishing a category of osteopathic fellow for those osteopathic physicians who are certified by the American Osteopathic Board of Dermatology; however, the AAD membership failed to adopt the amendment by the required two-thirds majority. Constitutional bylaws of both societies stress the importance of the goal of unification and representation of the specialty of dermatology. Continued rapprochement appears to be in the best interest of the AAD and AOCD and may well enhance our efforts to deal with the challenges that face dermatology and medical practice in the 21st century.

  14. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies. (United States)

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris


    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology.

  15. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers. (United States)

    Repace, J; Zhang, B; Bondy, S J; Benowitz, N; Ferrence, R


    We estimated the impact of a smoke-free workplace bylaw on non-smoking bar workers' health in Ontario, Canada. We measured bar workers' urine cotinine before (n = 99) and after (n = 91) a 2004 smoke-free workplace bylaw. Using pharmacokinetic and epidemiological models, we estimated workers' fine-particle (PM2.5 ) air pollution exposure and mortality risks from workplace secondhand smoke (SHS). workers' pre-law geometric mean cotinine was 10.3 ng/ml; post-law dose declined 70% to 3.10 ng/ml and reported work hours of exposure by 90%. Pre-law, 97% of workers' doses exceeded the 90th percentile for Canadians of working age. Pre-law-estimated 8-h average workplace PM2.5 exposure from SHS was 419 μg/m(3) or 'Very Poor' air quality, while outdoor PM2.5 levels averaged 7 μg/m(3) , 'Very Good' air quality by Canadian Air Quality Standards. We estimated that the bar workers' annual mortality rate from workplace SHS exposure was 102 deaths per 100000 persons. This was 2.4 times the occupational disease fatality rate for all Ontario workers. We estimated that half to two-thirds of the 10620 Ontario bar workers were non-smokers. Accordingly, Ontario's smoke-free law saved an estimated 5-7 non-smoking bar workers' lives annually, valued at CA $50 million to $68 million (US $49 million to $66 million).

  16. Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program: focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators. (United States)

    Dwyer, John J M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Uetrecht, Connie L; Dombrow, Carol


    Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program is a standard provincial health promotion program. Public health units give an award of excellence to restaurants that meet nutrition, food safety, and non-smoking seating standards. The purpose of this study was to determine why some restaurant operators have not applied to participate in the program, and how to get them to apply. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 35 operators who didn't apply to participate. The analysis of responses yielded various themes. The participants' perceived barriers to participation were misunderstandings about how to qualify for the program, lack of time, concern about different non-smoking bylaw requirements, and potential loss of revenue. Their perceived facilitators to participation were convenience of applying to participate, franchise executives' approval to participate, a 100% non-smoking bylaw, flexibility in the assessment of restaurants, the opportunity for positive advertising, alternative payment for food handler training, and customer demand. Program staff can use the findings to develop and use strategies to encourage participation.

  17. New regulatory dispositions for public buildings; Les nouvelles dispositions reglementaires pour les ERP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Cegibat, the Gaz de France (GdF) information centre for building industry professionals, has organized in October 12, 2004, an information meeting devoted to the updates of the regulation relative to public buildings. The regulatory texts in force today are the by-law from August 2, 1977 for the residential sector, the labour code for non-public tertiary buildings and the regulation from June 25, 1980 for the public buildings. This last text has been reworked recently and several major changes have been made. The other texts are also completed by complementary dispositions concerning some specific types of buildings. This article details and explains more thoroughly these important regulatory changes. (J.S.)

  18. Health Law: Notifiable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux


    Full Text Available This work made up the ultimate Health Law, latest new law branch from older date in the whole world but recently appearance in our country. As usual in other cases, we increase one of de most relevant events: the endless number of diseases that we advise obligatory, because they have been regulated for consecutive by-laws en the codex from 1946, 1958 and 2004. Since 2012 in order of the successful transformations in the modern technology with the change of rules in our order-law, it was necessary to recall their contents and we achieve in order of the promulgation the decree number 41/12 dated in February 16. In the second chapter we analyse one of the most bothersome contents: the diseases becoming from the food habitudes (named eia´s, whatever we considered a real significance for the common of the citizens and consumers, because they prevail notoriously in the human health.

  19. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, J.H. [Osler Hoskin and Harcourt, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs.

  20. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  1. Building a Roll-Off Roof Observatory A Complete Guide for Design and Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, John


    Almost every practical astronomer who takes the pursuit to its second level aspires to a fixed, permanent housing for his telescope, permitting its rapid and comfortable use and avoiding hours of setting-up time for each observing session. A roll-off roof observatory is the simplest and by far the most popular observatory design for today’s practical astronomers. Building a Roll-off Roof Observatory will help you decide whether to embark on the venture and will certainly provoke your enthusiasm for the project. The author, both an amateur astronomer and professional landscape architect, answers many of the common questions asked around observatory construction covering the following topics: Site planning, zoning, and by-law requirements common to most states, towns and municipalities Opportunities for locating the observatory Tailoring the observatory for your particular use Tools and structural components required to build it Variations in footing design to suit your soil conditions Variations possible in ...

  2. Intelligent Chatter Bot for Regulation Search (United States)

    De Luise, María Daniela López; Pascal, Andrés; Saad, Ben; Álvarez, Claudia; Pescio, Pablo; Carrilero, Patricio; Malgor, Rafael; Díaz, Joaquín


    This communication presents a functional prototype, named PTAH, implementing a linguistic model focused on regulations in Spanish. Its global architecture, the reasoning model and short statistics are provided for the prototype. It is mainly a conversational robot linked to an Expert System by a module with many intelligent linguistic filters, implementing the reasoning model of an expert. It is focused on bylaws, regulations, jurisprudence and customized background representing entity mission, vision and profile. This Structure and model are generic enough to self-adapt to any regulatory environment, but as a first step, it was limited to an academic field. This way it is possible to limit the slang and data numbers. The foundations of the linguistic model are also outlined and the way the architecture implements the key features of the behavior.

  3. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International, Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)


    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  4. Comparative study of ceramic tiles produced in the Town of Goytacazes / RJ (Brazil); Estudo comparativo de telhas ceramicas produzidas no municipio de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Pacheco, A.T.; Carreiro, R.S; Petrucci, L.J.T., E-mail: [Fundacao de Apoio a Escola Tecnica (FAETEC), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro Vocacional Tecnologico - Ceramica


    The city of the Campos dos Goytacazes, situated in the region north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, presents characteristics place that it enter the producing greater of blocks and ceramic roofing tiles for the domestic market. This work makes a study enters four manufacturers of ceramic roofing tiles of the city of the Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, to analysis comparatively its results according to in agreement the characterization submitted to dilatometry, Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction for the physical tests the tiles were collected after burning and the tests under Bylaw NBR 15310. The results had indicated a significant variation in the values of water absorption of each manufacturer. The same ones demonstrate that the ceramic roofing tiles of Campos of the Goytacazes present a uniformity in the results, being that it needs technological accompaniment during the manufacture process, to improve its properties and its quality for adequacy to the normative parameters of the ABNT. (author)

  5. Maximizing engagement in the American Psychological Association and its affiliated professional associations: 2012 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board. (United States)


    APA Bylaws Article XI.7 requires that the Policy and Planning Board report annually by publication to the membership and review the structure and function of the Association as a whole every fifth year. This report offers a framework for how to strategically and systematically provide a range of high-value engagement opportunities across membership cohorts and activities. The first section provides a selected overview of literature related to engagement and offers some general considerations for incorporating research into evaluating and refining member engagement activities. Next, survey findings on why individuals join membership organizations are reviewed. Finally, 10 engagement domains as a framework for designing, evaluating, and monitoring the impact of engagement initiatives and activities are presented.

  6. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail I.


    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  7. Economic Criminal Acts according to Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bajram Ukaj


    Full Text Available This article analyses the criminal offences against economy in the Criminal Code of Kosovo, which are increasingly becoming an important object of study, both at national and international levels. The criminal offences against economy are in principle blanket nature offences, guiding nature, since the vast majority of such norms are further delineated in other bylaws, while the criminal code provisions provide on criminal offences, thereby guiding towards another legal or sub-legal provision. Economic and financial crimes in Kosovo are already making a remarkable increase, as proven by statistical records of state authorities. The increased rate of economic crimes is a result of many factors and circumstances present in Kosovo, which may be different from regional countries. The inefficient fight and prevention of organized crime and corruption in the period between 1999-2010 was stimulated and favoured by several specific factors that are elaborated in this article.


    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E


    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances.

  9. Modular plants with high power gas engines (1 to 30 MWe); Centrales modulaires a moteurs gaz de forte puissance (de 1 a 30 MWe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haushalter, J. [Wartsila (France)


    This paper is a series of transparencies about the high power gas engines manufactured by Waertsilae NSD Corporation company. The first par recalls the NO{sub x} and CO air pollution regulations worldwide, the German TA-Luft standards and the French 2910 by-law according to the engine type (2 and 4 stroke, dual-fuel, natural gas, LPG, others..) and to the type of pollutants (NO{sub x}, dusts, SO{sub 2}, CO, noise..). The second part presents the Waertsilae NSD Corporation concept of gas-fueled spark ignition engines (Otto cycle, emissions, performances, technology, fuel system, combustion optimization, fuel-air ratio regulation, pollution control equipment) and of the `pure energy` global concept of plants. (J.S.)

  10. Using epidemiologic tools to control an outbreak of diarrhoea in a textile factory, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Tshimanga, M; Peterson, D E; Dlodlo, R A


    Dysentery is endemic in Zimbabwe. More than 260,000 cases and a case fatality of four per thousand were reported in 1993. In late July 1994, the Health Services Department in Bulawayo was informed of two cases of Shigella dysenteriae type I at a textile factory that employs 138 workers. Workers were interviewed at the factory regarding the date of the onset of illness, symptoms, food consumed, and treatment received. Factory water supply, cooking, and sanitary facilities were inspected. Stool and water samples were obtained for analysis. A case was defined as an employee presenting with diarrhoea with onset from July 24 to August 25, 1994. Of the 99 workers on day and evening shifts, 75 (75%) were interviewed. Thirty eight workers met the case definition (Attack Rate 51%). Common symptoms were abdominal cramps (71%), and blood in stools (37%); median duration of diarrhoea was 11 days (range 5 to 32 days). Thirty seven (64%) of 58 workers who drank borehole water were ill compared to one (6%) of the 17 who did not (RR = 10.8, 95% CI = 1.6-73). No food items consumed were significantly associated with the illness. Two different shigella species (2 sonnei and 2 boydii) were isolated from five (13%) of 38 stool specimens. Water samples from the two boreholes yielded numerous faecal coliforms. Neither borehole was registered as required by the municipal bylaws, which also forbid use of borehole water for drinking. The epidemiologic and laboratory evidence implicate contaminated borehole water as the most likely cause of this outbreak. Enforcement of municipal bylaws on drilling, registration and use of boreholes is essential to avoid further outbreaks of waterborne diseases.

  11. Legal protection of victims of domestic violence in Republika Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivanka


    Full Text Available Legal protection of victims of domestic violence in Republika Srpska is analyzed in this work. With regard to the above, the author highlights that in Republika Srpska there are two forms of legal protection from domestic violence they fall within the remit of criminal law and misdemeanor law. Introduction of such protection model was intended for the protection of victims from this form of violent behavior, which is, by its characteristics a specific form of criminal behavior and as such demands special measures of lawful reaction by the state. Protection of victims of domestic violence falling within the remit of criminal law, which is very important since it attaches the same gravity to this and the other forms of criminality giving it a certain degree of criminal-political weight, has not produced expected results. For that reason was adopted a special Law on Protection from Domestic Violence defining the notion of domestic violence, persons considered to be a family members, methods of their protection, as well as the kind and purpose of misdemeanor law related norms with emphasizing the fact that all the proceedings initiated under this law are of an urgent nature. The main driving force leading to the adoption of this Law is to obtain a complete and systematic regulation of domestic violence to enable faster, more efficient and durable protection of the endangered persons. The most important thing about this Law on Protection from Domestic Violence is introduction of protective measures, which could be sentenced against the perpetrator and which, in fact, allow for the protection of victims to family violence. Method of its concrete implementation regulated is by the relevant by-laws. Adoption of law sanctioning domestic violence, either as a criminal act or as a misdemeanor, together with the adoption of by-laws for the implementation of particular protective measures, represent a step forward in combat and prevention of domestic

  12. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal


    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  13. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the legislative year 2012: minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 24-26, 2012, Washington, DC, and August 2 and 5, 2012, Orlando, Florida, and minutes of the February, June, August, October, and December 2012 meetings of the Board of Directors. (United States)

    Anton, Barry S


    These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports, some of which will be published elsewhere. Copies of these reports were distributed to Council and are on file in the Central Office. As long as the supply lasts, extra copies of many of the reports are available from the Central Office. These minutes are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. The main topical headings are I. Minutes of Meetings; II. Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; III. Ethics; IV. Board of Directors; V. Divisions and State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations; VI. Organization of the APA; VII. Publications and Communications; VIII. Convention Affairs; IX. Educational Affairs; X. Professional Affairs; XI. Scientific Affairs; XII. Public Interest; XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs; XIV. International Affairs; XV. Central Office; and XVI. Financial Affairs. Changes to the language of the American Psychological Association (APA) Bylaws, Association Rules, or motions of the items are noted as follows throughout these proceedings: Bracketed material is to be deleted; underlined material is to be added.

  14. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Lee


    Full Text Available Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  15. Investigation of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate. (United States)

    Shahriari, H; Fernandes, L; Tezel, F H


    An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By-Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to the local municipal sewage treatment plant, and thereby reducing the disposal fees. Peat moss, compost, clinoptilolite, basalt and two types of activated carbon (DSR-A and F400) were investigated to determine the adsorption capacity for contaminants from leachate. Kinetic studies were also performed. The results based on batch adsorption isotherms show that peat moss has the highest adsorption capacity for boron (B) and barium (Ba), compared with the other adsorbents. Also peat moss has good removals of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), but these are lower than the removals obtained with activated carbon. Because of its relatively low cost and higher adsorption of B and Ba, peat moss was selected as the filter media for the column studies. The treated leachate was tested for B, Ba, TKN, carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD5) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The breakthrough curves for B and Ba showed the effectiveness of peat moss in removing these contaminants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khotibul Umam


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to further see the implementation of duties and functions of the National Sharia Board and Sharia Banking Committee and its relations to the legislation of economic banking fiqh. In the development of Sharia Banking, synchronization between National Sharia Board and Sharia Banking Committee have been done by involving the National Sharia Board in the Committee Meeting to make Committee Recommendation to further be implemented as a Bank Indonesia Regulation. This research finds that the National Sharia Board has conducted its duties and functions in the field of sharia economy in compliance with the DSN-MUI Decision 1/2000 on the Basic Guideline of National Sharia Board Indonesian Council of Ulema and DSN-MUI Decision 2/2000 Bylaws of the National Sharia Board Indonesian Council of Ulema. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat implementasi tugas and fungsi Dewan Syariah Nasional dan Komite Perbankan Syariah yang berkaitan erat dengan legislasi dari fiqh perbankan. Dalam perkembangan perbankan syariah, sinkronisasi antara Dewan Syariah Nasional dalam Rapat Kerja untuk membuat suatu Rekomendasi Komite agar dapat diberlakukannya sebagai Peraturan Bank Indonesia. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pelaksanaan tugas dan fungsi DSN di bidang ekonomi syariah telah dilaksanakan dengan mendasarkan Keputusan DSN-MUI No. 1 Tahun 2000 tentang Pedoman Dasar Dewan Syari’ah Nasional Majelis Ulama Indonesia dan Keputusan DSN-MUI No: 02 Tahun 2000 tentang Pedoman Rumah Tangga Dewan Syari’ah Nasional Majelis Ulama Indonesia.

  17. Building a roll-off roof or dome observatory a complete guide for design and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, John Stephen


    Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design.  Almost every practical astronomer eventually aspires to have a fixed, permanent observatory for his or her telescope. A roll-off roof or dome observatory is the answer for the most popular home observatory design. Building a Roll-Off or Dome Observatory will help you decide whether to embark on the venture and will certainly increase your enthusiasm for the project. The author, both an amateur astronomer and a professional landscape architect, answers many of the common questions asked about observatory construction, covering the following topics: • Zoning, and by-law requirements common to most states, towns and municipalities • Where to locate the observatory • How to tailor the observatory for your particular needs • Tools and structural components required • Possible variations in de...

  18. El Uso Compartido del Conocimiento en el Contexto de los Emprendimientos Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa Godói de Sousa


    Full Text Available The organizations have been recognizing the importance of dealing with knowledge as a critical way to reach their purposes. With emphasis on the organizational learning development in Solidarity Economy Enterprises (SEE, this study intended to investigate if and how the socially produced knowledge sharing occurs in Brazilian SEE. The research was conducted through a survey in two phases: the first one considered a sample of 378 enterprises, verifying the continuity and the main SEE characteristics, and the second one considered a sample of 32 enterprises analyzing if the produced knowledge is transferred and shared. As a reference for the analysis, we used the study conducted by Souza and Schlemm (2012 on knowledge application in organizational networks. The results showed many challenges to be faced, and the SEE surveyed presented some characteristics in common: the link created with its components is spontaneous; the work they performed, singly, is significant; the prescriptions are minimum and are limited to bylaws based on the legislation; the working rules only follow a legal requirement and are not shared by all the associates, reason why there is no commitment of them to the enterprise.

  19. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy


    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nikolaevna BARSUKOVA


    Full Text Available The paper examined the story of Russian practices of lending money to farmers, first lending entities and the bylaws of their operation. The part taken by first Russian banks has been determined within the framework of an established turnover of agricultural land plots, the data has been cited on distribution of farm holding entities in Krasnodar region by incorporation and legal status, from 1996 to 2014, and land distribution by ownership as well, as on Jan.1st, 2013. The study explored the money lent behavior for the farm enterprises of the Krasnodar Re-gion for 2012-2013. The author examined the procedures of lending on a collateral against land plot and deter-mined relevance of lending for small farming enterprises of various business forms of incorporation, and the chal-lenges the businesses faced in drawing up loans. The study cited the reckoning of the lending rates up to the data submitted by JVC Ross Selkhoz Bank. The author suggested measures for rationalizing the lending proce-dure.

  1. The Provision of the Disabled Facilities in Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Yuhainis Abdul


    Full Text Available The implementation of Person with Disabilities Act 2008 has become an eye opener towards the provision of disabled facilities in all public buildings especially regarding healthcare accessibility. The aim of this research is to analyse the provision of the disabled facilities provided in a public hospital in Perak, Malaysia. To support the research, it was supporting with two objectives that are to identify the designs and requirements of disabled facilities that need to be fulfilled according to Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL and other standard regulations and to identify the level of awareness of public on disabled facilities in the public hospital. For the purpose of the research, the observation method has been done towards three (3 selected hospital in Perak and questionnaire survey have been distributed to 96 respondents among the staff and visitors of the hospitals. All the data collected from the questionnaire survey and the checklist using UBBL standard requirement, then analysed using the SPSS V.21. The outcome of the observation indicates that most of the hospitals were provided with the disabled facilities, but there are still some rooms for improvement regarding specifications and the provision itself. In a nutshell, this research helps the management of the hospital together with the public on the importance of the provision of the disabled facilities in public buildings.

  2. [History Of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar]. (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko


    This review analyses historical sources on the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar over the past two centuries. The development of these two professional fields in the context of public health was regulated through a number of bylaws, such as Normativum Sanitatum from the time of the Habsburg Monarchy. Coroner examinations were performed by physicians, surgeons, and laymen using special instructions such as the famous booklet by nobleman and county medical officer Vilim Peičić from 1914. Forensic autopsy was performed by surgeons, primary or secondary hospital physicians in case of sudden or suspicious in-hospital deaths, whereas outpatient forensic autopsies were performed by county or town medical officers and district physicians at the request of investigating authorities (police, court, or general attorney's office). This historical review should serve as the basis for further historical research into this field in Croatia so as to obtain deeper insight into the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system, two professions that have always been a vital factor in public health.

  3. Constructing and Implementing of the Administrating System of Experiment Teaching Center%实验教学中心管理体系的构建与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪芬; 郭伟良


    构建了实验教学中心管理新体系,建立健全了实验教学人员、管理人员、实验经费、仪器设备、实验教学档案、实验项目、实验室开放、环境与安全卫生等各项规章制度,采用信息化辅助管理,确保实验教学中心管理制度得到更好贯彻与执行.使实验教学中心管理科学化、制度化、规范化,为学生提供良好的实验室实践环境,为培养创新型人才奠定了扎实的基础.%A new administrating system was constructed in which the bylaws for managing experiment teacher,laboratory administrator, experiment outlay, instruments, experiment teaching files, experiment items, laboratory opening, environment and security were established and strengthen, and the computers were employed to manage the laboratory to male sure the effects, which make the administrating of experiment teaching center scientifically, institutionally and regularized, offering a good environment for experimental teaching and study,making contribute for training innovational students.

  4. A mission in evolution: the International Society of Nephrology in the past 10 years--2001-2010. (United States)

    Barsoum, Rashad S


    The International Society of Nephrology is now 50 years old! It has dedicated the year 2010 to celebrate its Gold Anniversary in many ways, including documentation of its progress during the past decade, following an earlier article addressing the period 1960-2000. The present article describes the changing mission of the Society in the direction of achieving its ultimate vision of "global elimination of kidney disease." While maintaining its leadership in the promotion of science, it became the prime driving force in capacity building for the diagnosis, prevention and management of kidney disease in the developing world. The society has recently modified its directive from addressing only the physicians providing renal care to supporting other health care providers, and sharing in community education on how to avoid kidney disease. This required the acquisition of new skills in publishing, marketing, politics and fund-raising, which could only be handled by professional management, which the Society has utilized since 2003. It also necessitated enlargement of the leadership circle to include members from all over the world, for which reason the constitution had to be amended twice during the past decade, and the bylaws re-written in 2007. The pride that International Society of Nephrology takes from its scientific and outreach achievements is the fuel that drives its machinery to endless horizons in the humanitarian arena.

  5. Measuring LEED–NC applicability in design for hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Marie Cracknell


    Full Text Available Mounting awareness of climate change in recent years has led the construction industry to initiate new approaches toward sustainable building design, yet stakeholders in hospitality development still hesitate to build green. This reluctance is due to perceived high guest expectations of comfort levels and amenity access among these properties. Research was conducted to determine precisely which green building innovations present the most significant barriers to incorporating sustainability into design for hospitality. Average LEED credit implementation rates among 28 existing LEED hotel projects were calculated and compared with average credits employed among common commercial building projects. 15 of those projects’ designers also offered survey opinions on which sustainable innovations were most commonly avoided in their approaches for hospitality. The results indicate that certain credits do experience decreased popularity among hospitality projects, yet guest comfort was not the only barrier identified. Cost of implementation and local applicability affected by climate and local bylaws were also found as major role players in the selection of credits specific to hospitality design. Conclusions are presented according to the data and recommendations made to support further growth and success in future applications of LEED sustainable design in hospitality.

  6. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit (United States)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.


    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  7. Guideline for Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) of ultrasound devices (B-Mode)--version 1.0 (July 2012): EFSUMB Technical Quality Assurance Group--US-TQA/B. (United States)

    Kollmann, C; deKorte, C; Dudley, N J; Gritzmann, N; Martin, K; Evans, D H


    The Technical Quality Assurance group was initiated by the EFSUMB Board in 2007 and met firstly in 2008 to discuss and evaluate methods and procedures published for performing technical quality assurance for diagnostic ultrasound devices. It is the aim of this group of experts to advise the EFSUMB Board of effective and efficacious methods for routine use and to make recommendations regarding the technical aspects of EFSUMB by-law 9, parts 11.6. & 11.7. The group's work focused on new developments and related European projects to establish a common guideline. There is a great need of a well established protocol and dedicated processing software for the performance testing of medical ultrasound equipment. The measurements should be user independent as much as physically possible. Only if these goals are achieved in an international (firstly European) context, the optimal quality of ultrasound imaging can be offered and maintained to the medical community. This guideline aims to offer and summarize suitable procedures and evaluation processes to lend support for an optimal Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) scheme. The content of this guideline was presented to the EFSUMB Board of Directors (delegates) and approved by the EFSUMB Executive Board (ExB) at the regular meeting during EUROSON 2012 in Madrid April 2012.

  8. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan


    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  9. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound. (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun


    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  10. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  11. Youth Concussion Laws across the Nation: Implications for the Traveling Team Physician. (United States)

    Simon, Lauren M; Mitchell, Cory N


    There are an estimated 1.6 to 3.8 million sports and recreation-related concussions annually in the United States, with an average annual increase in incidence of 15.5% from 1998 to 2007. From 2009 to 2014, all 50 states enacted youth concussion legislation. This study clarifies core elements common to state concussion legislation and State Interscholastic Athletic Association (SIAA) implementation. A concussion literature, legislative, and SIAA concussion bylaw review was performed for all 50 U.S. states. Mandated concussion education varies in the frequency of certification and method of education. Student athletes and their parents/guardians in a majority of states are required to sign annual educational information sheets. Forty-nine states specifically mandate removal from play. Return-to-play protocols vary with regard to the timeline, content, and health care professional that can provide written clearance. In conclusion, it is important for sports medicine clinicians to stay abreast of current and revised concussion legislation in the jurisdictions in which they provide care.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison


    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. The SWC is in its infancy; however, interest from the petroleum and natural gas industry has grown substantially during this reporting period. As of December 31, 2000, nineteen members have joined the consortium and several other companies have expressed interest. During the last three months, efforts were focused on the development of the necessary infrastructure and membership base to begin the consortium technology development activities. These efforts included: (1) preparing a draft constitution and bylaws, (2) developing draft membership application forms, (3) developing an intellectual property statement, (4) providing overview presentations to trade association meetings, and (5) marketing the consortium individually to potential members. These activities are discussed in further detail in this first quarterly technical progress report.

  13. Coming to consensus on policy to create supportive built environments and community design. (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Spence, John C; Neary, Neil E; Nykiforuk, Candace I J


    In April 2011, a conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice was held to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity. The gap between existing policy tools and what can promote health through community design is a major policy opportunity. This commentary represents a consensus of next actions towards creating built environments that support healthy active living. The policy environment and Canadian evidence are reviewed. Issues and challenges to policy change are discussed. Recommendations to create supportive built environments that encourage healthy active living in communities include the following: 1) empower planning authorities to change bylaws that impede healthy active living, protect and increase access to green space, introduce zoning to increase high density, mixed land use, and influence the location and distribution of food stores; 2) establish stable funding for infrastructure promoting active transportation and opportunities for recreation; 3) evaluate the effectiveness of programs to improve the built environment so that successful interventions can be identified and disseminated; 4) mandate health impact assessment of planning, development and transportation policies to ensure that legislative changes promote health and safety; 5) frame issues to dispel myths and to promote protection from obesity risk factors.

  14. Edificio para la nueva sede social de la empresa nacional de electricidad, S. A. Madrid/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Población, Eleuterio


    Full Text Available In this work, the design and execution of ENDESA building, in Madrid, is fully described. It is a compound of a twelve-storeyed and a two-storeyed buildings, separated by a garden. Being placed in a central district, a special adaptation to the bylaws was necessary concerning the volume and use conditions. Among its most remarkable characteristics it could be pointed out the subjection to a modular frame, the adequacy of the spaces for the activities that are to be developped in it and the adopted solutions for its closure.En el presente artículo se describe detalladamente el proyecto y ejecución del edificio ENDESA, en Madrid, compuesto por dos edificios de doce alturas uno, y dos el otro, unido por un espacio ajardinado. En céntrica situación ha exigido una especial adaptación a las Ordenanzas Municipales en cuanto a condiciones de volumen y uso. Entre sus características más notables pueden señalarse IQ sujeción a una red modular, la adecuación del espacio a las actividades que en él se desarrollarán y las soluciones adoptadas para su cerramiento.

  15. Estatutos Sindicales, la Fuente Olvidada: El caso de las estructuras sindicales de empleados de comercio Union Statutes, the forgotten source: The case of the structures of trade union employees

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    Paula Abal Medina


    Full Text Available Los estatutos sindicales, junto a la Ley de Asociaciones Sindicales, definen las dinámicas de funcionamiento y los métodos de participación y decisión al interior de las estructuras sindicales. Son piezas fundamentales de la organización interna. En el presente trabajo se analizan las sucesivas reformas registradas por los estatutos correspondientes al Sindicato de Empleados de Comercio de Lanús Y Avellaneda con el objeto de definir los rasgos principales de la estructura sindical de la región y sus relaciones con la federación.The union statutes, together with the Trade Unions Act, define the dynamics of functioning and the methods of participation and decision to the interior of the union structures. They are fundamental pieces of the internal organization. In the present work there are analyzed the successive reforms registered by the bylaws corresponding to the Union of Employees of Trade of Lanús And Avellaneda in order to define the principal features of the union structure of the region and his relations with the federation.

  16. Estrategias de diseño institucional, cumplimiento y virtud cívica Strategies of Institutional Design: Compliance and Civic Virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exploran estrategias de diseño institucional que promuevan el cumplimiento y generen virtud cívica. Más concretamente, se trata de identificar tipos de diseño de leyes, políticas, ordenanzas, reglamentos, etc., que orienten la conducta de los agentes hacia el bien común y que favorezcan que estos desarrollen motivaciones en ese sentido. Se exponen las propuestas de I. Ayres, J. Braithwaite y P. Pettit. El trabajo se concluye analizando algunas limitaciones y dimensiones por desarrollar de dichas propuestas.This paper explores institutional design strategies which promote compliance and civic virtue. More specifically, I try to find kinds of design of laws, policies, by-laws, etc. which direct agent's behaviour toward common good and promote the development of motivations in the same direction. I expose the proposals by I. Ayres, ]. Braithwaite and P. Pettit. Paper concludes analyzing some limitations and dimensions which need to be developed of these proposals.

  17. ANDRA, 2006 activity report; ANDRA, Rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  18. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.


    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  19. Exclusive contracts in the hospital setting: a two-edged sword: part 2: pros and cons, avoidance strategies, and negotiating tips. (United States)

    Portman, Robert M


    Hospitals routinely enter into contracts with radiology groups for the right to be the exclusive providers of radiologic services at the facilities in exchange for the groups' agreeing to provide and manage all aspects of those services within the hospitals. These exclusive contracts generally result in radiology departments and associated equipment being closed off to physicians who are not part of the contracting groups. Although exclusive contracts offer obvious benefits to the physicians who receive them and obvious disadvantages for those who are excluded, they also present pitfalls for physicians in the chosen group. Part 1 of this article discussed the legal issues raised by exclusive contracts. Part 2 weighs the practical advantages and disadvantages of exclusive contracts for physicians covered and not covered by such contracts and strategies for avoiding them, as well as provisions that can be included in medical staff bylaws to protect physicians from the automatic termination of privileges when a hospital enters into or terminates an exclusive contract. The remainder of the article provides tips on specific provisions of exclusive contracts that should be included or avoided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La Legislación vasca de cooperativas remite a la libre decisión de cada sociedad para que los estatutos puedan prever la existencia de aportaciones a capital social no exigibles, pero reembolsables por decisión de la cooperativa, permitiendo, así, contabilizar las aportaciones de los socios como recurso propio. Con la modificación de la Ley se ha pretendido únicamente adecuar el texto a la NIC 32 y no introducir las anheladas medidas para facilitar la financiación de las empresas cooperativas con fondos propios./The Basque Legislation of cooperative societies sends to the free decision of every society in order that the bylaws could foresee the existence of contributions to share capital not eligible, but refundable for decision of the cooperative society, allowing to assess, this way, the contributions of the associates as own resource. With the modification of the Law one has tried to adapt only the text to the NIC 32 and not to introduce the longed measurements to facilitate the funding of the cooperative companies with own funds.

  1. Workplace Bullying in Healthcare: Part 3. (United States)

    Lamberth, By Becky


    As many as 53.5 million American workers have experienced workplace bullying, which can cost organizations an estimated $200 billion annually in lost productivity, increased sick d ays, increased med ical claims, legal costs, and staff turnover. Bullying can occur in any profession, but for many reasons it is most prevalent in healthcare. Bullying behavior in healthcare has been reported and documented in literature for over 35 years. Although physicians are often considered to be the primary culprit of bullying, healthcare bullies can be one any one of the professionals who work in the organization including nurses, radiology technologists, pharmacists, ancillary staff personnel, administrators, or other non-physician staff members. The first installment of the series focused on defining bullying and its impact on the organization. Part 2 discussed three legal protections for the bully to include at-will laws, unions, and bylaws related to physician privileging. The final installment in this series will evaluate specific bully types and implementing processes to address inappropriate behavior.

  2. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism - A preliminary analysis based on the society proceedings. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    The Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) is an international society for the anatomical sciences and at the same time the main organising body for German anatomists. This study analyses how the AG went through the years of National Socialism. As the society does not possess archival material from that time, the analysis is mainly based on the society proceedings (Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft) published annually after each meeting from 1934 to 1939 and again in 1950. During the period of National Socialism, the AG kept its international status against demands to make it a purely German society. It did not introduce anti-Jewish regulations or the Führer principle into its bylaws. The membership directories reveal that it was at least possible for members whose career was disrupted by Nazi policies to remain on the membership lists throughout the Nazi period. However, in contrast to later assumptions that no persecuted member of the AG was ever struck from its register, 17 of 57 persecuted members left the society between 1933 and 1939. The membership of six of these members was cancelled, officially for unpaid fees. However, other members with much longer arrears were not cancelled. To date, no additional historical information is available to assess the circumstances of these cancellations. In general, it remains remarkable that, in contrast to many other societies, the AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience towards the new rulers. More archival sources need to be uncovered to elucidate the external influences and internal negotiations behind the published documents.

  3. Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB). (United States)

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse


    Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were used to optimize carbon and nutrient removal capability from leachate using 600 microm lava rock with a total porosity of 61%, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.55, 0.49, and 0.41 d. The LSCFB achieved COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 85%, 80%, and 70%, respectively at a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 and nutrients loading rates of 2.15 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.70 kg N/(m(3) d), and 0.014 kg P/(m(3) d), as compared with 60-77% COD and 70-79% nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), respectively. The LSCFB effluent characterized by by-law requirements. Remarkably low yields of 0.13, 0.15, and 0.16 g VSS/g COD were observed at long biological solids retention times (SRTs) of 31, 38 and 44 d.

  4. Los Orígenes de la Jurisdicción Arbitral en el Derecho de Aguas Chileno

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    Iván Mauricio Obando Camino


    Full Text Available Este artículo trata acerca de los orígenes de la jurisdicción arbitral en el derecho de aguas chileno. El autor sostiene que el origen de esta jurisdicción se remonta a los estatutos de la Sociedad del Canal de Maipo, dictados entre 1827 y 1831. Ella fue confirmada por la Excma. Corte Suprema en la causa «Donato Millán con Sociedad del Canal de Maipo», de 1888. El legislador se inspiró en los estatutos de dicha sociedad para dictar la L. N° 2139, de 1908, sobre Asociaciones de Canalistas, la que fue elaborada por el abogado de aquélla, don Carlos Aldunate Solar. La Excma. Corte Suprema dio su fisonomía definitiva a esa jurisdicción en la causa «Marx y otro con Asociación de Canalistas del Río Huasco», de 1945, en la que declaró que el directorio de una asociación de canalistas no podía conocer de juicios declarativos de derechos de agua.This article deals about the origins of arbitral jurisdiction in the Chilean water law. The author maintains that the origins of this jurisdiction go back to the by-laws of the Maipo Channel Society, enacted from 1827 through 1831. The judiciary confirmed this jurisdiction in the 1888 case "Donato Millán vs. Maipo Channel Society". The legislature took the Maipo Channel Society as a model to pass the 1908 Act N° 2139, on Water Channels Owners Associations, drafted by Mr. Carlos Aldunate Solar, the counselor of the society. The Chilean Supreme Court gave its definite meaning to that jurisdiction in the 1945 case "Marx and another vs. Water Channel Association of the Huasco River" wherein it stated that the association board could not adjudicate on the existence of water law rights.

  5. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical.

  6. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968). (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A


    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  7. Cross border nursing. (United States)

    Cutshall, P


    In 1989, the Canadian Nurses Association asked a professional nurse from British Columbia to help nurses in Nepal develop their association an work on nursing legislation. Nepal had about 3000 nurses, including assistant nurse-midwives, 500 of whom were members of the Trained Nurses Association of Nepal (TNAN). It wanted to expand nursing's contribution to health care in Nepal. The nurses wanted to increase the visibility of the association, to become a self-sustaining organization, to establish a licensing law, and to improve the availability of continuing education. The Canadian nurse helped the Nepalese nurses with a workshop on association management covering record keeping and meeting plans. She helped a newly formed committee with licensing law and with decision factors in pursuing self-regulation for nursing. She discussed a work plan and a lobby strategy. She helped another committee develop objectives for the next year. A follow-up visit the next year revealed that the office was operating well and the association was keeping good records. TNAN sponsored workshops on professionalism and leadership. This visit yielded further progress on a licensing law and on identifying ways to become self-sufficient. The nurses discussed the Norwegian Nurses Association's (NNA) interest in providing funds to buy a building for TNAN use and to derive income from rent. NNA eventually donated the funds. By the 1992 visit, the nurses had revised and registered their constitution and bylaws. They had sponsored workshops on HIV/AIDS and mental health. The name was now the Nursing Association of Nepal (NAN). The newly created executive council had met frequently. NAN had expanded from 6 to 11 local branches. It had created 5 committees: fund raising, research, international coordination, nurses welfare, and publications. A workshop in western Nepal centered on quality nursing care. NAN had a role in the government's progress in primary health care and mental health services.

  8. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson


    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  9. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George


    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  10. A letter from Janet Benshoof. (United States)

    Benshoof, J


    This letter to readers of "Reproductive Freedom News" criticizes the American Medical Association's (AMA) Board of Trustees for endorsing a bill in the US Senate that would ban "partial-birth" abortions and allow the imprisonment of physicians who perform the procedure. The decision of the Board of Trustees was made in total disregard to the AMA bylaws, because the decision ran counter to the recommendations of an AMA task force that concluded that the AMA should take no action on this bill but seek to preserve the ability of physicians to use their discretion in providing medical care and the viability line in abortion legislation. The proposed criminal ban fails to contain a viability line; provides no exception to protect a woman's health, medical choice, or safety; and provides no exception in cases of fetal anomaly. The action by the Board of Trustees seriously undermines the work of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and gives abortion opponents ammunition to mount a serious challenge to the Roe vs. Wade decision. The AMA endorsement goes beyond simply stating that the procedure should never be used; it endorses giving physicians who perform such abortions, for whatever reason, prison terms. This position undermines two critical principles long upheld by the AMA: 1) that physicians must be able to carry out their medical responsibilities free from government interference and 2) that women have a fundamental right to decide on the appropriate provision of abortion services within their physician-patient relationship. The damage from this endorsement can and should be undone by the AMA's House of Delegates at their meeting in June 1997.

  11. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia (United States)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena


    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  12. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa. (United States)

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare


    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  13. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf. (United States)

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard Hc; Claman, Paul


    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass.The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals.Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment.The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec's Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides.

  14. Review of the utilization of HEEPF – competitive projects for educational enhancement in the Egyptian medical sector

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    Taher Salah


    Full Text Available Abstract In Egypt, the medical sector has been facing the same problems that challenged the system of higher education in the past decades, mainly an increasing student enrollment, limited resources, and old governance and bylaws. These constraints and the escalating paucity of resources have had a major negative influence on quality of education. Consequently, thoughts of educational reform came forward in the form of competitive projects, which have attracted several institutes from the health sector to improve their educational performance. The aim of this paper is to review the share of the medical sector in the higher education enhancement project fund (HEEPF, its outcomes, sustainability, and to provide recommendations for keeping the momentum of reform pursuit in the future. The methodology included obtaining statistics pertaining to the medical sector in Egypt as regards colleges, students, and staff. We also reviewed the self-studies of the medical sector colleges, HEEPF projects reports, performance appraisal reports, and World Bank reports on HEEPF achievements in order to retrieve the required data. Results showed that medical sector had a large share of the HEEPF (28.5% of projects as compared to its size (8% of student population. The projects covered 10 areas; the frequency distribution of which ranged between 4.4% (creation of new programs to 97.8% (human resource development. In conclusion, educational enhancement in the medical sector in Egypt could be apparently achieved through the HEEPF competitive projects. A study of the long-term impact of these projects on the quality of education is recommended

  15. Review of the utilization of HEEPF--competitive projects for educational enhancement in the Egyptian medical sector. (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid Abdellah, Galal; El-Din Mohamed Fahmy Taher, Salah; Hosny, Somaya


    In Egypt, the medical sector has been facing the same problems that challenged the system of higher education in the past decades, mainly an increasing student enrollment, limited resources, and old governance and bylaws. These constraints and the escalating paucity of resources have had a major negative influence on quality of education. Consequently, thoughts of educational reform came forward in the form of competitive projects, which have attracted several institutes from the health sector to improve their educational performance. The aim of this paper is to review the share of the medical sector in the higher education enhancement project fund (HEEPF), its outcomes, sustainability, and to provide recommendations for keeping the momentum of reform pursuit in the future. The methodology included obtaining statistics pertaining to the medical sector in Egypt as regards colleges, students, and staff. We also reviewed the self-studies of the medical sector colleges, HEEPF projects reports, performance appraisal reports, and World Bank reports on HEEPF achievements in order to retrieve the required data. Results showed that medical sector had a large share of the HEEPF (28.5% of projects) as compared to its size (8% of student population). The projects covered 10 areas; the frequency distribution of which ranged between 4.4% (creation of new programs) to 97.8% (human resource development). In conclusion, educational enhancement in the medical sector in Egypt could be apparently achieved through the HEEPF competitive projects. A study of the long-term impact of these projects on the quality of education is recommended.

  16. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.


    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  17. Avaliação de ruído na região central de Maringá e Universidade Estadual de Maringá = Noise evaluation in the central region of Maringá and State University of Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Costa Dutra Sousa


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se o mapeamento acústico para salas de aulas,laboratórios e biblioteca pertencentes à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, bem como para a região central da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, realizou-se estudo e revisão bibliográfica sobre os parâmetros de interesse quando se deseja qualificar uma sala ou ambiente quanto ao seu nível de ruído, bem como o levantamento dos principais pontos a serem estudados. A segunda etapa compreendeu as medições in locu desses parâmetros, executadas conforme normas ABNT, ISO e recomendações da literatura. Por último, analisaram-se, estatisticamente, os dados para que pudessem ser comparados com os valores estipulados por leis vigentes. Após análise dos dados obtidos, pode-se perceber que a maioria dos pontos apresentou-se acima dos valores permitidos por lei, principalmente em relação à cidade de Maringá, e alguns trechos apresentaram-se com níveis de ruído bastante elevados. Com relação à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, grande parte dos pontos apresentou-se acima do permitido, mas em alguns casos apresentaramexcelente qualidade. This project intended to carry through an acoustic mapping of theclassrooms, laboratories and library pertaining to the State University of Maringá, as well as for the downtown of Maringá, Paraná State. The first stage will consisted of studying and presenting the parameters of interest to characterize a room or an environment as for its noise level, as well as the survey of the main points to be studied. The second stage included the in locu measurements of these parameters, according to ABNT and ISO norms and literature recommendations. Finally, collected data was statistically analyzed so that they could be compared to values stipulated by effective laws. After analyzing the collected data, it was possible to notice that the majority of the points were above the values allowed bylaw, especially

  18. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Parveen


    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality

  19. La apicultura sevillana afines de la Edad Media

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    Carmona Ruiz, María Antonia


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the apiculture industry in Seville in the Late Middle Ages. Due to the importance of this economic activity, "ordenanzas" (bylaws, which regulated the exploitation of the apiaries, were passed shortly after the conquest of Seville. By means of these "ordenanzas" and other documents which made reference to beekeeping, I have tried to reconstruct the map of the areas dedicated to apiculture in Seville, by indicating where the beehives were located and how they were exploited. I will deal especially with the existence of institutions relating to beekeeping, for example the "alcaldes de los colmeneros" (municipal officials who supervised and controlled the activities of the beekeepers. I will also deal with the owners of the beehives and the conflicts they had with other economic activities carried out in the same place. I will pay special attention to the problems the beekeepers had with the farmers and stockbreeders, and to the problems existing among the beekeepers themselves. These problems forced the creation of boundaries and regulated distances between the different exploitations.[fr] Cet article traite sur l'activité apicole à Seville pendant le Bas Moyen Âge. L'importance de cette activité économique entraîne la promulgation -peu de temps après la conquête de la ville- d'ordonnances sur l'exploitation des ruches. En partant de ces ordonnances et d'autres documents relatifs à la même activité, nous tentons de déterminer les espaces apicoles du territoire communal de Seville et de préciser l'emplacement et le mode d'exploitation des ruches. Nous soulignons l'existence d'institutions propres à cette activité—celle des alcaldes de los colmeneros (juges des apiculteurs, par exemple— et consacrons une partie de notre travail aux propriétaires de ruches et aux conflits surgis, soit entre eux, soit entre l'apiculture et d'autres activités économiques profitant des mêmes espaces, tout

  20. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A. [Stikeman Elliott LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    ; acquiring additional rights; and multilevel compensation schemes. It was concluded that the risk of litigation can be dealt with in part by involving expert legal advisors during the planning stages of a project. Addressing neighbour concerns over noise and environmental impacts must be addressed in advance, and it is important to develop a relationship with local authorities in order to address by-law changes. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Implementation of the rio conventions in framework of national sustainable development policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Zharova


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In the article the national regulatory and legal framework for environmental economics and various bylaws and regulations in the area of environmental protection and sustainable management of natural resources were analyzed. The analysis of laws and regulations concerning the environmental economics was aligned along the following main axes representing key activity areas, such as strategic planning, technical regulation, economic situation and macroeconomic forecasting, trade development, financial policy, cooperation between Ukraine and European Union. Grounded, that a major strength in the technical and financial regulation area is the presence of a suite of regulations concerning the nature reserves and protected areas and natural resource cadastres that can be adapted to meet modern needs, as well as legislated sanctions that are in place to prosecute environmental law offenders. The strengths and opportunities for enhancing the capacity for implementing the Rio Conventions were summarized. The results of the analysis. The analysis of gaps allowed to mark out gaps threatening the implementation process; gaps undermining the efficiency of sectoral policy; options to overcome these obstacles; progress achieved to address the identified gaps. Authors grounded that Ukraine has an extensive suite of environmental laws and regulations and at the same time, the level of implementation of the Rio Conventions can be described as insufficient due to objective and subjective factors, which detailed described in the paper. The researchers underlined that legislative reform should involve systemic changes in the legislation including general and specialized measures. General measures are those that aim to change the system of environmental legislation in general, while specialized measures focus on the improvement of specific laws and regulations that form part of this system. Conclusions concerned the range of general measures

  2. Governança corporativa: um novo nome para antigas práticas?

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    Álvaro Ricardino


    Full Text Available Em 1754, para tentar reverter a grave crise econômica que se abatia sobre o Estado do Grão-Pará e Maranhão, situado no noroeste do Brasil, o então Governador Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado solicita ao seu irmão, o Marquês de Pombal, Primeiro Ministro de Portugal, que faça esforços junto ao rei para a aprovação de uma companhia de comércio destinada a transportar escravos negros para serem comercializados naquele Estado, como forma de substituir a mão-de-obra indígena, pouco acostumada ao trabalho. Objetivando adiantar o processo e contando apenas com sua memória e experiência, o Governador redigiu e encaminhou ao irmão a minuta dos estatutos daquele empreendimento. Seus vinte e sete parágrafos podem ser considerados avançados para a época e possuem diversos conceitos que hoje são práticas recomendáveis de Governança Corporativa. Considerando-se que mais de duzentos anos separam a iniciativa de Mendonça Furtado dos estudos sobre Governança Corporativa, vale perguntar: Governança Corporativa é um novo nome para antigas práticas?In 1754, in an attempt to revert the serious economic crisis that hit the State of Grão Pará and Maranhão, located in the Northeast of Brazil, the Governor at that time, Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado, asked his brother, the Marquis of Pombal, Prime Minister of Portugal, to make his best effort at the royal palace to approve a trading company aimed at transporting black slaves to be traded in that state, in order to substitute for indigenous workforce, which was little accustomed to this work. With a view to fastening the process, on the mere basis of his memory and experience, the Governor wrote and sent his brother the minutes of that company's bylaws. His twenty-seven paragraphs can be considered ahead of their time and contain various concepts recommended as Corporate Governance practices nowadays. Considering that there are more than two hundred years between Mendon

  3. Models of governance in multihospital systems. Implications for hospital and system-level decision-making. (United States)

    Morlock, L L; Alexander, J A


    This study utilizes data from a national survey of 159 multihospital systems in order to describe the types of governance structures currently being utilized, and to compare the policy making process for various types of decisions in systems with different approaches to governance. Survey results indicate that multihospital systems most often use one of three governance models. Forty-one percent of the systems (including 33% of system hospitals) use a parent holding company model in which there is a system-wide corporate governing board and separate governing boards for each member hospital. Twenty-two percent of systems in the sample (but 47% of all system hospitals) utilize what we have termed a modified parent holding company model in which there is one system-wide governing board, but advisory boards are substituted for governing boards at the local hospital level. Twenty-three percent of the sampled systems (including 11% of system hospitals) use a corporate model in which there is one system-wide governing board but no other governing or advisory boards at either the divisional, regional or local hospital levels. A comparison of systems using these three governance approaches found significant variation in terms of system size, ownership and the geographic proximity of member hospitals. In order to examine the relationship between alternative approaches to governance and patterns of decision-making, the three model types were compared with respect to the percentages of systems reporting that local boards, corporate management and/or system-wide corporate boards have responsibility for decision-making in a number of specific issue areas. Study results indicate that, regardless of model type, corporate boards are most likely to have responsibility for decisions regarding the transfer, pledging and sale of assets; the formation of new companies; purchase of assets greater than $100,000; changes in hospital bylaws; and the appointment of local board members. In

  4. National legal system in relation to vulnerable population groups

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    Sjeničić Marta


    Full Text Available Vulnerable social groups can be recognized in everyday life, and local legal regulations identify them as well. Strategies and laws clearly identify the increased needs of vulnerable groups. Local legislation, for example, observes comparative law trends and attempts to prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities, emphasizes their human rights and creates the legal framework for taking these persons out of the institutional form of protection and including them into the community. In Serbia however, strategies and laws, as well as by-laws, are written in sectors, and not in cross-sectors manner. Proper caring for persons with disabilities, including persons with mental disabilities, requires an integral approach, namely a mutual approach of the social, health, educational and other sectors. True enough, local regulations stress the need for an intersectional approach, but such an approach is scantily applied in practice, so the comprehensive care that would satisfy the multiple needs of persons with mental disabilities often turns out to be less than expected in the community. Pursuant to national laws and basic ethic principals, all citizens of the Republic of Serbia have the right to health protection without discrimination. Therefore, methods for using health protection, easier than the existing ones, should be found for certain vulnerable groups, depending on their characteristics, and so for the Roma as well, and bearing in mind that systemic health regulations in Serbia open the door to special treatment of these groups. The inaccessible approach to health care of the Roma population persists primarily due to insufficient basic health documentation and basic personal documentation. Personal documents are linked with the registered place of residence, which the Roma, largely do not have. The problem is thus on a wider scale and is not only focused on the health sector. As such, it requires a wider, intersectional approach and a

  5. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)


    - will Dunkerque city consume its own power generation?; an electric power syndicate with a decentralized power production strategy. Workshop 10 - the power transportation grid and the decentralized production; decentralized production and coordinated approach of networks management. Workshop 11 - an example of district heating network which simultaneously valorizes wastes, biomass and cogeneration; district heating networks: advantages and drawbacks. Workshop 12 - the access to energy in the rural areas of developing countries; the intervention procedures of a cooperation program. Workshop 13 - simulation of power demand in Grenoble city; an example of mastery of power demand/decentralized power production in a rural territory: the Saint Nicolas island of Glenan archipelago (Brittany); the 'mastery of power demand and renewable energy sources development' project in the eastern area of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Workshop 14 - how to evaluate the economical advantage of distributed power production: the contradictory opinion of the producer and of the power company; the tariffs of power purchase; the example of a local power and heat distribution company: UEM. Workshop 15 - value of the heat produced from renewable energy sources, insertion in the energy market; simultaneous power and heat production from wood: impact of the biomass tariff by-law from April 2002; integration of external costs in energy choices. Workshop 16 - decentralized power production: to answer which development needs?; a society responsibility for a vital product; the wind power to supply the basic needs of the population. (J.S.)

  6. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo


    presented 28 papers. The last one, in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais had 3000 participants with 66 conferences and keynotes and more than 4000 papers presented. The next will happen in August 2013 in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina and is also limited to 3000 participants. Beside the national soil science meetings, in its 65 years, the Society also promoted 26 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Management and Conservation of Soil and Water, 23 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, 6 editions of the Brazilian Meeting of Fertility and Soil Biology and six editions the Brazilian Simposium on Soil Education, and co-sponsored the ten editions of the Soil Classification and Correlation Meeting. In the last years it is also increasing the number of regional meetings organized by the regional nuclei. In 2011, during the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science, a new Board of Directors (known as the Council) was elected. Since then the Society is setting up a modernization process in its structures and external relations through a renewed statute and new by-laws. The Council, composed by 20 members, is developing an agenda and strategic planning for the next years that reinforces that the Society should aim to: (a) become more influent in Brazilian environmental public policies, (b) reach leadership in public soil awareness in a continental-sized country like Brazil and (c) interact more actively with other scientific societies due to the transdisciplinary nature of Soil Science, and work hard to go out of the agronomical box. At present, the society is busy with the organization of the 21st World Congress of Soil Science to happen in 2018, for the first time in Brazil. Preceding it the Society is organizing a wide range of activities and events to celebrate and call public attention to Soils, in special on the occasion of the International Year of Soils, in 2017.


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    the European Cooperative (SCE, following its precedent and model, the Regulation 2157/2001 on the European Company, has incorporated the possibility that the SCE, by means of its by-laws, can choose between two models of management: the two-tier system (virtually unknown in our national cooperative law or the one-tier system. Indeed, while the one-tier system is well known and has been subject to multiple and meritorious work by our doctrine, we considered suitable to focus our efforts on the so-called “monitoring body”, which is the true "distinguishing mark" of this two-tier system. However, addressing all the monitoring body’s legal regime would exceed by far the objective of this conference. Thus, we shall confine ourselves, in essence, to make an analytical and, sometimes, critical approach to the functions of this body with the other body of this two-tier system, in charge of the effective administration of society (the so-called "management body" or simply "Management". Not a few difficulties we will have to face on this task, almost all of them related to interpretation and adaptation problems that will arise when implementing the European Regulation within the existing Spanish rules on cooperatives, through the articulation of those specific provisions which are needed to adapt our legislation to the new legal type and, more specifically, the new two-tier system of management.

  8. 86(th) Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report. (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy


    The 86(th) annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 13-14, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12(th)) and post-conference (April 14(th)) Executive Board meetings. As Georgia's leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (1929-1936); during World War II (1941-1943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this year's conference. These included a "move and groove" physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health. Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy, Georgia's response to the

  9. Retrospective investigation of use of antibiotics by hospitalized patients and management interventions%住院患者抗菌药物使用回顾性调查及管理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建伟; 杨志彩


    目的 了解住院患者抗菌药物使用情况,为制定管理干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采样回顾性调查的方法,对2011年第一季度住院患者抗菌药物使用进行调查.结果 1612例住院患者中有1067例使用过抗菌药物,抗菌药物使用率为66.19%,其中单一用药占49.67%,二联用药占40.49%,≥三联占9.84%;治疗用药占43.39%,预防用药占50.42%,治疗加预防占6.19%;抗菌药物使用率与患者付费方式有关(x2=6.313,P=0.013);不合理应用主要表现在用药无指征或预防用药指征过宽,不适当的联合用药,病原学送检率低等.结论 针对抗菌药物使用现状,采取加强组织管理、完善规章制度、开展知识培训、严格检查考核等有效干预措施,以提高临床合理用药水平.%OBJECTIVE To explore the application of antibioucs, in order to provide bases for formulating scientific management interventions. METHODS A retrospective survey of the application of antibiotics was conducted for the hospitalized patients from Jan to Mar 2012. RESULTS There were 1067 among 1612 cases applying antibiotics with the application rate of 66. 19% , including the single antibiotics treatment in 49. 67% , two kinds of antibiotics in 40. 49% and three or more in 9. 84%. Among those who had received antibiotics, 43. 39% were used for therapeutic purposes while 50. 42% for prophylaxis, and 6. 19% for both therapy and prophylaxis. There was statistical difference among the inpatients with different payment (x2 =6. 313, P = 0. 013). The irrational application of drugs mainly showed in lack of application indications or unreasonable expansion of indications for prophylactic antibiotics, irrauonal combination usage, and low examination rate of etiology. CONCLUSION According to the status of antibiotics usage, the interventions available such as enhancing organization management, perfecting bylaw, developing the training of the professional knowledge, strengthening

  10. Una contribución al estudio de la nueva inmigración africana subsahariana en la Argentina Uma contribuição ão estudo da nova imigração desde Africa Subsahariana à Argentina A contribution to study the immigration from Sub Saharan Africa to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Maffia


    , melhor se podem superar as limitações.Even though in Argentina we have immigrants from Sub Saharan Africa arriving at the end of the Nineteenth Century and beginning of the Twentieth Century such as those from South Africa and Cape Verde, this new immigration from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, among other countries, during the last decade of the Twentieth Century and first decade of the Twenty-first Century appears in a different historical and political context. This new migration is facing legal regimes and increasingly restrictive administrative by-laws, framed in the growing economic globalization. This work is part of the first results of a research on this migration from an anthropological perspective. This study, which began in 2009, takes into account contributions made by history, political sciences, demography, among other disciplines, making use of articles written by African and Non-African social scientists. We are convinced that in this exchange of views our limitations may be overcome.

  11. Organization of central database for implementation of ionizing radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, D.; Svilicic, N. [Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)


    The paper is intended to give an overview of the situation in the Republic of Croatia resulting from passing of the new ionizing radiation protection law. Data collecting organization and records keeping structure will be highlighted in particular, as well as data exchange between individual services involved in ionizing radiation protection. The Radiation Protection Act has been prepared in compliance with the international standards and Croatian regulations governing the ionizing radiation protection field. Its enforcement shall probably commence in October 1999, when the necessary bylaws regulating in detail numerous specific and technical issues of particular importance for ionizing radiation protection implementation are expected to be adopted. Within the Croatian Government, the Ministry of Health is charge of ionizing radiation protection. Such competence is traditional in our country and common throughout the world. This Ministry has authorized three institutions to carry out technical tasks related to the radiation protection, such as radiation sources inspections and personal dosimetry. Such distribution of work demands coordination of all involved institutions, control of their work and records keeping. The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute has been entrusted to coordinate work of these institutions, control their activities, and set up the central national registry of radiation sources and workers, as well as doses received by the staff during their work. Since the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute is a newly established institution, we could freely determine our operational framework. Due to its publicly accessible source code and wide base of users and developers, the best prospective for stability and long-term accessibility is offered by the Linux operating system. For the database development, Oracle RDBMS was used, partly because it is a leading manufacturer of database management systems, and partly because our staff is very familiar

  12. A Study of Experience Credit for Professional Engineering Licensure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a study of experience credit for professional engineering licensure for the Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. One of the study's goals was to determine how state licensure boards grant experience credit for engineering licensure, particularly in regards to IAC experience and experience prior to graduation. Another goal involved passing IAC information to state licensure boards to allow the boards to become familiar with the program and determine if they would grant credit to IAC graduates. The National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors (NCEES) has adopted a document, the ''Model Law''. This document empowers states to create state engineering boards and oversee engineering licensure. The board can also interpret and adopt rules and regulations. The Model Law also gives a general ''process'' for engineering licensure, the ''Model Law Engineer''. The Model Law Engineer requires that an applicant for professional licensure, or professional engineering (PE) licensure, obtain a combination of formal education and professional experience and successfully complete the fundamentals of engineering (FE) and PE exams. The Model Law states that a PE applicant must obtain four years of ''acceptable'' engineering experience after graduation to be allowed to sit for the PE exam. Although the Model Law defines ''acceptable experience,'' it is somewhat open to interpretation, and state boards decide whether applicants have accumulated the necessary amount of experience. The Model Law also allows applicants one year of credit for postgraduate degrees as well as experience credit for teaching courses in engineering. The Model Law grants states the power to adopt and amend the bylaws and rules of the Model Law licensure process. It allows state boards the freedom to modify the experience

  13. Areva - Press release from the Supervisory Board; Areva - Communique de presse du Conseil de Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du


    During its meeting held on December 12, 2011, devoted in particular to the examination of the 2011 closing estimates, the AREVA Executive Board indicated that it expected to book a provision of 1.46 billion euros (2.025 billion US dollars) in the company's accounts for fiscal year 2011 for impairment of assets for the reporting entity UraMin, a mining company acquired by AREVA in 2007, which, given the provision booked in 2010 (426 million euros), brings the value of these assets on the AREVA balance sheet down to 410 million euros. Given the size of these provisions, the Supervisory Board decided to make three of its members, meeting as an ad hoc committee, in charge of analyzing the terms of acquisition of this company, as well as the key decisions made in this reporting entity up to 2011 and, based on the outcome of these analyses, to recommend to it any appropriate measures in AREVA's interest. This committee reported on its work during the Supervisory Board meeting held on February 14, 2012. In light of this report, the Supervisory Board found that the fairness and reliability of the financial statements of previous years were not in question. Nevertheless, considering the malfunctions raised, the Board considers it appropriate to thoroughly review AREVA's governance in order to ensure that decisions concerning large acquisitions or investments be reviewed and validated in the future under conditions ensuring better legal and financial security and enabling a more transparent dialogue between management and the Supervisory Board. It thus asked the Executive Board to recommend, at the next General Meeting of Shareholders, that the by-laws of the company be modified to make the Supervisory Board's prior approval of investments, stake acquisitions and acquisitions mandatory above a threshold of 20 million euros. It also decided to set up a business ethics committee within the Supervisory Board responsible for ensuring that rules of conduct are

  14. Zone Restrictions Orders in Canadian Courts and the Reproduction of Socio-Economic Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Sylvestre


    Full Text Available While State and local governments have long turned to legal norms, such as vagrancy ordinances and anti-panhandling by-laws, and relied on displacement strategies ranging from orders to disperse and forced removals to control disorderly behavior in public spaces, the ways in which courts and legal actors working within the criminal justice system contribute to the monitoring of public spaces have almost completely gone unnoticed. This paper focuses on one court-imposed spatial tactic, namely zone restriction or "no go" orders. We suggest that despite the fact that these court orders rely on preventative discourses and pursue rehabilitative objectives, they may ultimately have punitive effects on the public poor and political demonstrators and contribute to creating and reproducing socio-economic inequality by creating obstacles for their reintegration, encouraging recidivism, putting the safety of individuals at risk and by neutralizing those who challenge the social and political order in various ways. Ultimately, these orders raise some concerns with respect to the rule of law since they are rarely challenged and generally appear to be shielded from review. Mientras que estados y gobiernos locales han vuelto a normas legales como la ley de vagos y maleantes, y basan sus estrategias en el desplazamiento, mediante órdenes de dispersión y traslados forzosos para controlar el comportamiento desordenado en los espacios públicos, ha pasado prácticamente desapercibida la forma en la que tribunales y agentes jurídicos trabajan dentro del sistema de justicia penal para contribuir a la vigilancia de los espacios públicos. Este artículo se centra en una táctica espacial impuesta por un tribunal, concretamente la restricción de zona o pedidos "intangibles". Se sugiere que, a pesar de que estas órdenes judiciales se basan en discursos preventivos y persiguen objetivos de rehabilitación, en última instancia pueden tener efectos punitivos sobre

  15. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison


    s enactment, only two states and one territory out of 35 Indian states and union territories formally adopted ECBC and six additional states are in the legislative process of approving ECBC. There are several barriers that slow down the process. First, stakeholders, such as architects, developers, and state and local governments, lack awareness of building energy efficiency, and do not have enough capacity and resources to implement ECBC. Second, institution for implementing ECBC is not set up yet; ECBC is not included in local building by-laws or incorporated into the building permit process. Third, there is not a systematic approach to measuring and verifying compliance and energy savings, and thus the market does not have enough confidence in ECBC. Energy codes achieve energy savings only when projects comply with codes, yet only few countries measure compliance consistently and periodic checks often indicate poor compliance in many jurisdictions. China and the U.S. appear to be two countries with comprehensive systems in code enforcement and compliance The United States recently developed methodologies measuring compliance with building energy codes at the state level. China has an annual survey investigating code compliance rate at the design and construction stages in major cities. Like many developing countries, India has only recently begun implementing an energy code and would benefit from international experience on code compliance. In this paper, we examine lessons learned from the U.S. and China on compliance assessment and how India can apply these lessons to develop its own compliance evaluation approach. This paper also provides policy suggestions to national, state, and local governments to improve compliance and speed up ECBC implementation.

  16. Vaciado de edificios conservando la fachada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Rodríguez, Santiago


    Full Text Available This study, which is presented under the heading «The gutting of buildings while maintaining the facade», takes up not only the technical aspect of restructuring buildings, but also the legal aspects concerning rehabilitation and its problems. Following a brief commentary on prevailing legislation, it goes into rehabilitation in search of solutions which might lend more effectiveness to administrative work oriented towards the aim of keeping up artistic and cultural heritage. Urban standards of protection and the Municipal Bylaws for the Control of Rehabilitation Assistance are analyzed, in which one begins to see good intentions on the part of the Madrid City Council and an awareness of the problem, raising grants and financial aid, though still somewhat timidly, for the upkeep of urban patrimony. It is important to stress the distinction which is made between normal or 'ordinary* upkeep of a building and outstanding or 'extraordinary* upkeep in as much as it affects the obligations pertaining to property, as long as it does not exceed the limit of the obligation of maintenance which corresponds to it, as well as affecting the Government with respect to the obligation incumbent on it to provide the necessary assistance. Regarding the technical aspect, without trying to be rigorous, a simple and practical method is expounded for the temporary maintenance of facades while going ahead with the substitution of the interior of the building. Besides the recommendations on the precautions that should be taken and the description of the shoring-up system, the criteria for calculating the tubular metallic structure, the regulations to be applied and the approximate costs per square meter are provided.Bajo el título « Vaciado de edificios conservando la fachada», se presenta este trabajo que recoge» no sólo el aspecto técnico de la reestructuración de edificios, sino también aspectos legales sobre la rehabilitación en general y su problem

  17. On Administrative Coercion Behavior in Administrative Investigation%论行政调查中之行政强制行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The administrative investigation includes various material gathering activities done by the administrative body for particular administrative purposes. Such behaviors are empowered by the ‘investigation powers doctrine’ instead of the parties’ application to carry out the responsibility of investigating the fact. Only when difficulties occur, the parties are required to assist according to related laws, nevertheless, the responsibility of declaring the event should still be carried out by the administrative body. Except for any specific rules of the law, otherwise the parties should not be compelled if they do not assist. Arbitrary investigation behaviors should not be applied to the administrative enforcement law to punish while indirect coercion investigation behaviors should. Those who break such obligations should be subject to a fine. But besides this, there is no more need to assist. Direct coercion investigation behaviors belong to fact behaviors but the prior behaviors informing the parties to assist should be applied to the administrative enforcement law to punish. There is no dispute about the idea of direct coercion investigation behaviors at the legal reservation level, but the proportionality principle and legal procedures should be complied with during the investigation. When carrying out the administrative investigation, except for clear empowerment bylaws, the administrative body should not enter the room compulsorily. After getting related warrant, the administrative body can make investigation search, except for those reserved by laws. Before temporary entry, the informing procedure should be carried out. Only for major public interest and under the consideration of not achieving the purpose for prior informing, the administrative body can make temporary entry with out carrying out the informing procedure. If the parties refuse to release, the circumstances should be considered. If there is related rules defining the behaviors as direct

  18. 論我國現行科技法制對公立大學技術移轉之影響初探 Impacts of ‘Science and Technology Basic Act’ on National Universities in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許舜喨 Shun-Liang Hsu


    government of Taiwan has laid much emphasis on the development of science and technology. Although there are relevant Articles addressing this issue in Constitution, it seems that the regulatory framework is still abstract. To follow the footstep of ‘Bayh-Dole Act’ in the United States, Taiwan promulgate ‘Science and Technology Basic Act’ in 1999. Subsequent amendments were done in 2003 and 2005 respectively. In 2011, the law has gone through another major modification, which obliges the government to raise annual budget for science and technology development, to provide substantial supports in human resources as well as infrastructure improvement, and to waive the research results from national property regulation. In addition, the establishment of an ad hoc research fund for Academia Sinica was consented. All these relaxations in law help create room for more research and development freedom. Nonetheless, detailed bylaws making does not catch up accordingly. As a re-sult, either public servants in national research organizations or national university teachers are still subject to the old restraints. Moreover, relaxations in law also attract the attentions of patent trolls as an easy access for them to try to take advantage of the research results for generating profits. This paper proposes both shortterm and long-term solutions to better the current regulatory framework. Detailed implementation rules with legally binding forces are needed to further define ‘march-in rights’ in terms of scope and procedures. Long-term solution is also suggested to make a new law to regulate research activities between academia and the industrial sector.

  19. Fıtrat Hadisi’nin Osmanlı'nın Devşirme Sisteminde Hayata Aksedişi 'The Hadith of Fitrah’ And How It Is Reflected On Life Ottoman’s Devshirme System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa IŞIK


    Full Text Available The hadith, ‘Every child is born to Fitrah; then parents converthis/her to Judaism, Christianity or Zoroastrianism’, is in basic Islamicscience called ‘The hadith of Fitrah’. In Islamic literature, it has beenrevealed a lot of opinion about this hadith from past to present. Thepoint of view about the ‘The hadith of Fitrah’ in the classic sources ofhadith literature and hadith imams are more emphasized on thefollowing question ‘When the dead child what will happen the religiousand judicial position of his/her’. But, hadith scientists and someinterdisciplinary Islam scientists believe that Fitrah is ‘common basicreligious foundation of mankind’. Depending on this opinion; we thinkthat ‘The hadith of Fitrah’ is coinciding with devshirme enforcement inOttoman Empire. In this research, we want to evaluate the devshirmesystem as a historic event practiced in Ottoman Empire. Wehypothesize that, Ottoman Empire take into consideration of religiousaspects of this event before put it on a system based on law, bylaw andregulations; they may be moved based on fact of Fitrah, owing to thestrong muscles and hardworking brain of devshirme persons. Thispractice specifically served for governance, and served mankind ingeneral. We showed that, although there is a procedure differences,there are some parallelism between Ottoman Empire, which is a worldstate in the past, and USA, which is a world state in today's conditions.The similarity in practice and reaching common point between two bigcivilizations, they took place different centuries, different geographiesand there is no resemblance to each other, the truth is that theeducation is main determiner. The aim of this article is not only tomention a historic phenomenon but also meaning of Fitrah and its’validity to repeat based on this historic event. In this article, wediscussed Fitrah expression, namely regarding to the unchangingnature of human beings, and the effect of education


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wes Pue


    Full Text Available Major events ranging from sporting events to major international conferences too often result in disorder, deployment of riot squads, and mass arrests. Events surrounding a meeting of the G20 in Toronto and those at Vancouver’s Winter Olympics provide insight into the ways in which things can go wrong and the ways in which they can go well at major events. This article employs a “thick history” of events in order to explore gaps in Canadian law, including gaps between “law in the books” and “law in action.”      The legal frameworks governing large-scale events affect the likelihood of success measured in public safety, minimization of disorder, and protection of basic liberties. Surprisingly, large events often proceed without the benefit of a developed legal framework, leading to confusion among federal police, local police, and civil authority. We assess past reliance on the common law, a Vancouver City bylaw, Ontario’s Public Works Protection Act [PWPA], and the policing and security provisions of the federal Foreign Missions and International Organizations Act (Foreign Missions Act in order to determine which sorts of legal arrangements are most conducive to successful event management. Since major events in Canada are most often developed in law’s penumbra, without the benefit of clear legal authority or statutory direction governing the measures that are required, both effective management and ordinary liberties are compromised. A “worst of both worlds” outcome destabilizes police–citizen relationships and leaves individuals uncertain as to the durability of their rights of property, speech, assembly, movement, and personal integrity. Equally, police forces are left insecure as to the lawful means by which they should perform their duties. A comparison of the two events provides the pathology and a prescription, illustrating the need for legislation to govern the management of major events.   Trop souvent, la

  1. News and Announcements (United States)


    the innovations and integration of technology in the world of science education. The lectures, discussions, and workshops that formed the conference involved Ontario public and private schools and took place at Appleby College, Oakville, Ontario, in February 1999. Speakers were chosen to compliment the specific theme of technology in the classroom. STEP provided the opportunity for all the schools in Ontario to become one large community working toward a better future in teaching methods. Although the conference is over for this year, communication is still strong. A bigger and better STEP is planned for Friday, February 4, 2000. For more details please contact B. O'Leary, Head, Science and Technology Department, Appleby College, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3P1, Canada; ACS Division of Chemical Education: 1999 Election of Officers Candidates for the 1999 annual election of Division officers for 2000 are listed below. Ballots will be mailed for arrival in late August or early September. Ballots must be received by the Secretary by October 1, 1999. Both ACS and affiliate members of the Division may vote for the offices of Chair-Elect and Treasurer in this election as a result of a recent change in the bylaws, approved in the 1997 election. Only ACS members may vote for Councilor/Alternate Councilor, since this is an ACS as well as a DivCHED office. For Chair-Elect (Chair in 2001) Arlene Russell, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA Conrad Stanitski, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AR Treasurer Frank Torre, Springfield College, Springfield, MA Anna Wilson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Councilor/Alternate Councilor Craig Bowen, Clemson University, Clemson, SC Mark Freilich, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN Marcy Towns, Ball State University, Muncie, IN Carol White, Athens Area Technical Institute, Athens, GA

  2. Obituary: Frank Culver Jones, 1932-2007 (United States)

    Ormes, Johnathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.


    Frank had an astonishing memory. Don said he used to visit with Frank after lunch to discuss progress on his dissertation and get advice. He would think that Frank was dozing off and not listening to his report. However, he would find that many weeks or even months later Frank would remember the conversation and quote it back to him long after he had forgotten the encounter. Frank's colleagues were also the beneficiaries of this recall ability in informal settings. An avid fan of vintage movies, Frank could recall a scene from movies released long ago to draw an analogy or encapsulate a pertinent idea for any point of discussion that happened to be on the table. Frank was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1974 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, being cited for "theoretical investigations of propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium." Frank took his turn at public service duties. He was elected by his peers to a three-year term on the Executive Committee of the Cosmic Physics Division (now the Astrophysics Division) of the American Physical Society (APS) in 1980. He served the APS as Council Member from 1994 until 1997, as a member and chair of the Committee on Constitution and Bylaws 1996-1998, and as its Chair in 1997. Frank chaired the Publications Committee responsible for the volumes of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference in La Jolla, California, in 1985, as well as serving on the conference steering committee. In 1987, when COSNEWS, the Newsletter of the Cosmic Ray Commission of the IUPAP, needed a new Editor and Publisher, Frank volunteered and served until 2002. Frank loved computer technology and was highly regarded in the laboratory as a helpful expert on this new technology as it grew and personal computers came to be found in every office. These sometimes incomprehensible new devices were well understood by Frank. He was always providing helpful advice to